WorldWideScience

Sample records for belted tires

  1. Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of size 34x9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rated aircraft tires of bias ply, bias belted, and radial belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Washington, D. C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of aircraft tires of bias ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of: (1)static and rolling tests, (2)a statistical analysis which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection, and (3) a semi-empirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during a steady-state braking. The results of this investigation indicate that the bias-belted tire has the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions and the radial-belted tire has the smallest spring constant value.

  2. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5 - 14.5, type 8 aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical properties of a 30 x 11.5 to 14.5, Type 8, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tire. The properties measured were the spring rate and damping characteristics of each tire from vertical- and lateral-loading hysteresis loops. Mass moment of inertia tests were also conducted. The results of the study are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of tire.

  3. Fore-and-aft stiffness and damping characteristics of 30 x 11.5-14.5, Type VIII, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes C.; Davis, Pamela A.; Yeaton, Robert B.; Vogler, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of footprint geometrical properties and fore and aft stiffness and damping characteristics were obtained on 30 x 11.5-14.5 bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires. Significant differences in stiffness and damping characteristics were found between the two design types. The results show that footprint aspect ratio effects may interfere with the improved hydroplaning potential associated with the radial-belted tire operating at higher inflation pressures.

  4. Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., May 1973; [static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type VII, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility; statistical techniques which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection; and a semiempirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during steady-state braking. The bias-belted tire developed the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions; the radial-belted tire, the smallest. The elastic response of the tire free periphery to static braking included both tread stretch and carcass torsional wind-up about the axle for the bias-ply and bias-belted tires and carcass wind-up alone for the radial-belted tire.

  5. Static mechanical properties of 30 x 11.5-14.5, type VII, aircraft tires of bias-ply and radial-belted design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Lopez, Mercedes C.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the static mechanical characteristics of 30 x 115-14.5 bias-ply and radial aircraft tires. The tires were subjected to vertical and lateral loads and mass moment of inertia tests were conducted. Static load deflection curves, spring rates, hysteresis losses, and inertia data are presented along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of one tire over the other.

  6. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  7. STATICAL EXPERIMENTS OF TIRE AS COMPLEX LONG-FIBRE COMPOSITE FOR OBTAINING MATERIAL PARAMETERS AND DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  8. Statical Experiments of Tire as Complex Long-Fibre Composite for Obtaining Material Parameters and Deformation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krmela

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the statical experiments of tires for obtaining material parameters and deformation characteristics by tensile testing machine and also special statical testing tire machine. The tires consist of polymer matrix – rubber and long-filament reinforcement – cords, hence the tires are fall within as very complex long-fibre composite with specific deformation characteristics. These tire deformation characteristics have given geometry shape of tire and material parameters of component parts of tire-casing. Nowadays the computational modeling is used for tire solutions and experiments are subsidiary only. But the combination of computational modeling with experimental approach is necessary to use for prediction real states of tires. For computational modeling of tires the material parameters of each component part of tire-casing are necessary as material input data for computational models. These material parameters can be obtained by tensile test by statical testing machine. The geometry parameters of multi-layer test specimens of steel-cord belt with conditions of tensile tests are designed. The data from statical deformation characteristics are necessary for comparison of computational outputs with experimental data. The special testing tire machine called statical adhesor is used to obtain deformation characteristics and information about contact patches with pressure distribution in contact patches. The experimental results of chosen radial tire 245/40 R18 for passenger car are presented in this article. In this paper a new formula for calculating of value of radial stiffness is designed too.

  9. Continental Tire to Build New Tire Plant in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Ye

    2012-01-01

    According to Tire Comments of USA, Continental Tire earlier announced that in order to meet the increasing market demand on replacement tires of USA, German Tire Company had negotiated and reached an agreement on production capacity expansion with the South Carolina Government.

  10. Tire/runway friction interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  11. Tire Road Friction Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; DO, MT; M'SIRDI, NK

    2005-01-01

    Two main approaches for tire road friction estimation : the "cause based" and the "effect based" are generally dealt with in the literature. The slip-based method seems to be the most promising and is, consequently, a very popular current subject. LCPC, a french research body in civil engineering has been working for several years on the relationship between road texture parameters and road surface condition (dry, damp, wet) and tire friction performance. In this framework, the two methods ha...

  12. History and development of the technology and automobiles; Tire no shinpo to kuruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, H. [Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Junior College of Automobile Industry

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes automotive tires. Radial-ply tire production in Japan in 1990 has accounted for 83% of the entire tire production for new passenger cars, indicating rapid conversion from bias-ply tires to radial-ply tires. The latter tire has such features as worse riding comfort, better fuel consumption, less friction and better steering performance than in the former tire. The inferior riding comfort is caused from poor envelope characteristics and from generation of resonant vibration with the belt, but great improvement has been made by using rubber bushing in the suspension. To prevent standing wave that occurs in bias-ply tires at high speed driving, raising the internal pressure is recommended. The phenomenon that tires become to slide more easily due to dynamic pressure of water on a road is referred to as hydroplaning. To prevent accidents, speed of 80 km/h is recommended on a highway during rain. A unified theory was announced in 1969 that braking, driving and lateral forces are regarded as a function of slip ratio and slip angle. This is an indispensable theory for the automatic control theory. (NEDO)

  13. Tire Maker’s Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Integrity and quality are vital for Kumho Tires to regain the Chinese market Kumho Tires Co.—one of China’s largest tire suppliers—used to enjoy a high profile in marketing, but it turned publicity-shy on the 14th Shanghai International Automobile

  14. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  15. Ring Model for Pneumatic Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危银涛; 范成建; 管迪华

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the ring modeling method for tires, emphasizing the differences among the various tire ring models. A general tire ring model was then developed including all the nonlinear terms in the ring strain and the initial stresses induced by the internal pressure and rotation. The general equations of motion were derived from the Hamilton principle whth the geometric parameters for the model directly obtained from the tire design. The physical parameters were calculated from experimental mode parameters. A numerical example is given for a 195/70 R14-type tire. The analysis shows that the predicted natural frequencies and the tire mode shape agree well with experimental results.

  16. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  17. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  18. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  19. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  20. Feel the Tire - Tire Influence on Driver’s Handling Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Monsma, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    A key question in the development of a tire is "How can this tire improve vehicle handling?" Good handling tires contribute not only to active safety of vehicles, but also to the pleasure of driving. Handling performance is largely determined by the driver. Therefore, the final and most important handling assessment of tires is done by professional test drivers driving on a handling circuit and giving their subjective opinion. This provides the tire manufacturer with the important tire handli...

  1. Modeling tire deformation for power loss calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, D.; Rohde, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A combined thermo-mechanical model for calculating tire power loss has been developed at GMR. This paper presents the techniques for developing the realistic finite element models needed in both the thermal and deformation portions of the combined model. It also describes the techniques used in calculating deformed tire shapes. First, procedures are outlined for automatically generating a finite element discretization of a tire. Then, this discretization, together with information about the properties of tire materials, is used to develop a finite element model of the tire. This model is used in MSC NASTRAN to calculate compliances, i.e., the response of the tire to inflation and to unit loads applied at points on the tire surface. These compliances are then used in an algorithm which calculates the deformed shape of a tire loaded against the pavement surface. Sample results are presented to show the agreement between calculated and measured tire deformation.

  2. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  3. 77 FR 10615 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... FR 28502). No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log onto the... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Grant of Petition for.... ACTION: Grant of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper) \\1\\, has determined...

  4. 76 FR 28502 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ..., (65 FR 19477-78). The petition, supporting materials, and all comments received before the close of... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance Cooper Tire & Rubber Tire Company, (Cooper),\\1\\ has...

  5. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  6. Construction of Tire Shreds Test Embankment

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Rodrigo; Yoon, Sungmin; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia

    2003-01-01

    According to recent research, it is estimated that there are more than 500 million tires stockpiled across the United States, and 270 million more are generated each year. A significant number of tires are left in empty yards and even dumped illegally. Tires have characteristics that make them not easy to dispose, and potentially combustible. For these reasons, there is a strong need to find beneficial ways to recycle or reuse tires. Civil engineering applications constitute one of biggest ma...

  7. 49 CFR 393.75 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119, S5.1(b)). (h) Tire inflation pressure. (1) No motor vehicle shall... is exposed. (b) Any tire on the front wheels of a bus, truck, or truck tractor shall have a tread... pounds) shall not be used on the front wheels of any truck or truck tractor. (f) Tire...

  8. Numerical prediction of car tire wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Cheli, F.; Braghin, F.; Gelosa, E.; Keckman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their many economic and ecological implications, the possibility to predict tire wear is of major importance to tire manufacturers, fleet owners and governments. Based on these observations, in 2000, a three-year project named TROWS (Tire and Road Wear and Slip assessment was started. One of

  9. Rubber tire leachates in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J J

    1997-01-01

    Tires have a deleterious effect on the environment. This review discusses the background of scrap tires discarded in the environment, including tire composition, adverse environmental effects, threats to public health and safety, and solid waste management. Despite the widespread use of scrap tires in environmental applications, both land-based and aquatic, data on the indicators of environmental degradation are extremely scarce. Indicators of environmental degradation include analysis of chemicals within the water and sediment, analysis of contaminants within organisms, and analysis of the biological effects of these compounds on plants, animals, microbes, and organelles. Although these indicators are most useful when used in parallel, a review of the available information on chemical characterization of tire leachate from tire storage facilities, manufacturing, usage in recycling applications, and toxicity exposure studies, of vegetation surveys from waste tire areas and reviews of mammalian tire product toxicity, and of toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of tire exposure in experimental aquatic animals, microbes, and organelles is presented. The major characteristics of these studies are discussed in specific sections. The "Discussion and Conclusions" section discusses and summarizes the biological effects and chemical characterization of tire leachates. A global environmental perspective is included to improve our understanding of the deficiency of the current knowledge of tire leachate toxicity from various sources and to encourage interdisciplinary studies to establish the pattern of pollution associated with waste tire management. PMID:9216257

  10. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  11. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  12. Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhiti, M.; H. Trouzine; Asroun, A.

    2014-01-01

    Scrap tires are abundant and alarming waste. The aggregates resulting from the crushing of the waste tires are more and more used in the field of civil engineering (geotechnical, hydraulic works, light concretes, asphaltic concretes, etc.). Depending on the type of the used tires, dimensions and possible separations and treatment, the physical and mechanical characteristics of these aggregates might change. Some physical, chemical and direct shear tests were performed on three gradation class...

  13. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  14. TIre/road friction estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; VANDANJON, PO

    2006-01-01

    In board tire/road friction estimation is of current interest in two different framework : - optimization of driver assistance systems efficiency : antilock braking system, electronic stability program, adaptive cruise control, lane departure control, advanced automatic driving, etc., - driver instantaneous warning about the available friction and limits for his possible driving actions. This subject has been the objective of many research programs throughout the world. Four main methods have...

  15. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  16. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  17. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  18. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  19. Properties of Waste Tire Rubber Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bekhiti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are abundant and alarming waste. The aggregates resulting from the crushing of the waste tires are more and more used in the field of civil engineering (geotechnical, hydraulic works, light concretes, asphaltic concretes, etc.. Depending on the type of the used tires, dimensions and possible separations and treatment, the physical and mechanical characteristics of these aggregates might change. Some physical, chemical and direct shear tests were performed on three gradation classes of waste tire rubber powder. The tests results were combined with data from previous studies to generate empirical relationships between cohesion, friction angle and particle size of waste tire powder rubber. A cubic (third order regression model seems to be more appropriate compared to linear and quadratic models.

  20. ANSYS tools in modeling tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ashraf; Lovell, Michael

    1995-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the capabilities in the ANSYS program that relate to the computational modeling of tires. The power and the difficulties associated with modeling nearly incompressible rubber-like materials using hyperelastic constitutive relationships are highlighted from a developer's point of view. The topics covered include a hyperelastic material constitutive model for rubber-like materials, a general overview of contact-friction capabilities, and the acoustic fluid-structure interaction problem for noise prediction. Brief theoretical development and example problems are presented for each topic.

  1. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  2. Effect of Friction Model and Tire Maneuvering on Tire-Pavement Contact Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to simulate the effects of different friction models on tire braking. A truck radial tire (295/80R22.5 was modeled and the model was validated with tire deflection. An exponential decay friction model that considers the effect of sliding velocity on friction coefficients was adopted for analyzing braking performance. The result shows that the exponential decay friction model used for evaluating braking ability meets design requirements of antilock braking system (ABS. The tire-pavement contact stress characteristics at various driving conditions (static, free rolling, braking, camber, and cornering were analyzed. It is found that the change of driving conditions has direct influence on tire-pavement contact stress distribution. The results provide the guidance for tire braking performance evaluation.

  3. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  4. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  5. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  6. Avaliação do contato pneu-solo em três modelos de pneus agrícolas Evaluation of foot print for three agricultural tire types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Mazetto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as áreas de contato, as deformações elásticas dos pneus, a resistência do solo à penetração e os perfis do recalque no solo de três modelos de rodados pneumáticos. O ensaio seguiu um delineamento experimental casualizado, constituído por 12 tratamentos e quatro repetições, nos quais se avaliaram os modelos de pneus de carcaça diagonal, radial e o terceiro de configuração mista, denominado BPAF, inflados com as pressões ideais e submetidos a cargas radiais de 5; 10; 15 e 20 kN, simulando o que ocorre no campo. O ensaio dos pneus agrícolas foi realizado no Núcleo de Ensaio de Máquinas e Pneus Agrícolas - NEMPA, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Câmpus de Botucatu - SP, em uma prensa hidráulica sobre um tanque de solo. Os resultados relativos às áreas de contato e deformações elásticas mostraram valores maiores para o pneu BPAF. Os recalques do pneu BPAF no solo foram menores comparados aos outros rodados, e com os pneus radial e BPAF houve menores resistências do solo à penetração.The aim of this study was to evaluate the tire/ground contact areas, tire elastic deformation, cone index and foot printed on the ground of tire models. The experiment was done in 12 treatments and four repetitions with three tire models: bias ply, radial and bias belt. The tires were inflated with right inflation pressures and four radial loads were applied on the wheels: 5; 10; 15 and 20 kN, simulating what happens in the field. The agricultural tire tests were carried out at Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu - SP, Brazil, using a hydraulic press over the soil bin. The contact area and elastic deformation results showed highest values for bias belt tire. The soil sinkage of bias belt tire was smaller than other pneumatic tires. The radial and bias belt tires exercised smaller cone index than bias ply tire.

  7. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  8. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Napida Hinchiranan; Prasert Reubroycharoen; Phakakrong Trongkaew; Thanes Utistham

    2011-01-01

    Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 , Degussa P-25) to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen co...

  9. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Adriana Trezza; Alberto Néstor Scian

    2009-01-01

    Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker th...

  10. Use of Recycled Tire Rubber in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    More than 250 million scrap tires weighing more than 3 million tons are generated each year in the United States. This is considered as one of the major environmental challenges facing municipalities around the world because waste rubber is not easily biodegradable even after a long period of landfill treatment. One of the solutions suggested is the use of tire rubber particles as additives in cement-based materials. Experiments under the laboratory environments commonly presented that the us...

  11. Nonlinear Analysis and Modeling of Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop efficient modeling techniques and computational strategies for: (1) predicting the nonlinear response of tires subjected to inflation pressure, mechanical and thermal loads; (2) determining the footprint region, and analyzing the tire pavement contact problem, including the effect of friction; and (3) determining the sensitivity of the tire response (displacements, stresses, strain energy, contact pressures and contact area) to variations in the different material and geometric parameters. Two computational strategies were developed. In the first strategy the tire was modeled by using either a two-dimensional shear flexible mixed shell finite elements or a quasi-three-dimensional solid model. The contact conditions were incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach. A number of model reduction techniques were applied to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom used in describing the response outside the contact region. The second strategy exploited the axial symmetry of the undeformed tire, and uses cylindrical coordinates in the development of three-dimensional elements for modeling each of the different parts of the tire cross section. Model reduction techniques are also used with this strategy.

  12. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de Andre

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire ma

  13. 49 CFR 579.26 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements for manufacturers of tires. For each reporting period, a manufacturer (including a brand name... tires, tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less, or are not passenger car tires, light... relevant tire lines, tire type codes, SKU numbers, brand names, and brand name owners....

  14. Materials Approach to Fuel Efficient Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votruba-Drzal, Peter [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States); Kornish, Brian [PPG Industries, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objective of this project was to design, develop, and demonstrate fuel efficient and safety regulation compliant tire filler and barrier coating technologies that will improve overall fuel efficiency by at least 2%. The program developed and validated two complementary approaches to improving fuel efficiency through tire improvements. The first technology was a modified silica-based product that is 15% lower in cost and/or enables a 10% improvement in tread wear while maintaining the already demonstrated minimum of 2% improvement in average fuel efficiency. The second technology was a barrier coating with reduced oxygen transmission rate compared to the state-of-the-art halobutyl rubber inner liners that will provide extended placarded tire pressure retention at significantly reduced material usage. A lower-permeance, thinner inner liner coating which retains tire pressure was expected to deliver the additional 2% reduction in fleet fuel consumption. From the 2006 Transportation Research Board Report1, a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance can reduce consumer fuel expenditures by 1 to 2 percent for typical vehicles. This savings is equivalent to 6 to 12 gallons per year. A 1 psi drop in inflation pressure increases the tire's rolling resistance by about 1.4 percent.

  15. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  16. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo; Antonio Carlos Luz Lisbôa; Manoel Orlando Alvarez Méndez; Aparecido dos Reis Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  17. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  18. 16 CFR 1512.10 - Requirements for tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... tire shall remain intact on the rim, including while being tested under a load of 2,000 N (450 lbf) in accordance with the rim test, § 1512.18(j). Tubular sew-up tires, nonpneumatic tires, and nonmolded...

  19. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and could not foresee... Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer... 575 RIN 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway...

  20. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  1. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  2. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because

  3. How Do Tubeless Tires Support an Auto?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, John; Jones, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Provides an explanation of how tubeless tires support the weight of an automobile with reference to the use of free body diagrams in physics. Presents a second activity in which an inexpensive laser pointer is used to obtain diffraction photographs. Offers project ideas for students. (ZWH)

  4. With Faith,Never Say Tired

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳慧; AlisonTrahan

    2005-01-01

    When I was still a pupil, one day, I asked my father, “Dad, why don't you say that you are tired after working for a whole day in thefield?” He just smiled and said, “You will understand soon.”

  5. The First Color Tire of Doublestar-Dongfeng Tape-out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On November 16, the first color tire produced by Dou- blestar-Dongfeng Tire Co., Ltd. was taped out into the market, and military camouflage tires, color high-grade passenger car tires, color truck radial tires, color off-road tires and color per-sonality fashion tires were also taped out in the meantime, which have broken through the only market of black tires. Besides, the first color all steel tire of Double Star also made a successful test run experiment that traveled different kinds of roads and tens of thousands of kilometers.

  6. 49 CFR 575.106 - Tire fuel efficiency consumer information program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... program. (a) Scope. This section requires tire manufacturers, tire brand name owners, and tire retailers to provide information indicating the relative performance of replacement passenger car tires in the... consumers in making better educated choices in the purchase of passenger car tires. (c) Application....

  7. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  8. Tribology of tire and safety in rainy weather; Tire no tribology to utenjino soko anzensei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, S. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    The paper described a method to estimate friction coefficients between tire and road surface according to the road situation and a system to alarm hydroplaning generated in traveling. In the dynamic calculation on tire having been made so far, all should have been known including the length and width of tire ground, characteristics of tread rubber, and characteristics of side wall. Moreover, various characteristics of these change due to ware of tire, and there was a problem in real-time theoretical calculation of friction coefficients. Noticing that braking stiffness includes various characteristics of tire, the author and others found out that various characteristics needed for the calculation are sought from the force before/after the micro-braking/disturbance state and the slip ratio, and the problem was solved. The hydroplaning generated in driving the car can be noticed by measuring braking stiffness at the time of micro-accelerating/decelerating in traveling. It is expected to possibly express 'the degree of risk' and tell driver about it by the size of the braking stiffness. (NEDO)

  9. A new use for old tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.

  10. Effects of Different Tire Configurations on Tractor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Sarp Korkut

    2005-01-01

    The effects of tire ply constructions (radial and bias) and tire arrangements (singles and duals on rear the axle) on tractor performance were evaluated for 2 gear levels on 2 different fields covered with wheat stubble and having different soil types, clay and sandy-loam. For this purpose, the tractor's overall efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and slip values were determined using parameters measured in the study. The results showed that the use of radial tires provided some advan...

  11. Characterization of the factors involved in the tire production process

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Vasco Moisés Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica This dissertation has the purpose of describing the tire production methods, production variations, quality issue, specification details and the how the tire will behave. It is noted that due to the nature of the internship in the Continental Group several details cannot be described in full detail to avoid publication of trade secret details. Tires are one of the most important components in the composition of an automob...

  12. Revitalization of Russian Auto Tire Market in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ding

    2012-01-01

    With sharp increase of the sales volume of auto, Russian economy is gradually recovering on the whole. The delayed rigid demand has been released again, which completely made its domestic tire market better and exceed the pre-crisis level. In 2011, the total sales volume of tires in Russian market was 55.50 million units, which increased by 30% than 2010. Besides, the tire import increased fast. Russia's accession to the WTO in 2012 will change the structure of the tire market substantively.

  13. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall height, and tire filling material. Simplified calculation model with spring-damper is derived from radial repeated compression test of used tire, which improves the calculation efficiency. Test and numerical simulation show that application of used tire cushion layer in rock shed can cushion rockfall impact and effectively reduce peak acceleration and the maximum impact force. Filling sand and gravel in tire can improve tire stiffness and energy absorption capacity but will decrease cushion effect due to its large density. With the same impact energy, light rockfall is more destructive than weight rockfall for used tire cushion layer.

  14. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sellaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria. Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unloading tests, modified Proctor and CBR tests are performed on the two soils and their mixtures with different scrap tire rubber (10, 20, 25 and 50%. The results show that liquid limits and plastic indexes decrease with the scrap tire rubber content and that the decrease is more significant for soil with high plasticity. Cohesion also decreases with scrap tire rubber content when the internal friction angle is vacillating. Compression and recompression indexes increase gradually with the scrap tire rubber content and the variation for compression index is more significant for the two soils. Compaction characteristics and CBR values decrease with scrap tire rubber content. The CBR values for W=3% are important compared to those with W=5% excepted for mixture with (75% tuff and 25% scrap tire rubber. The results show that the scrap tire rubber can be used as a reinforcement material for dredged soil, but with a content that should not highly affect the compressibility.

  15. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  16. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  17. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. PMID:25712610

  18. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  19. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE TIRE-COVER PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdniakova, O.; Statilko, M.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using tire-cover pyrolysis products as a fuel has been investigated. The technical operation factors of pyrolysis products have been determined. The comparative analysis of tire-cover utilization products and traditional fuels has been carried out.

  20. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influence of bypass on tire noise and offer the tire designer a better approach to improve tire comfort ability. By virtual of numerical simulation method, the influence of bypass structure parameters, such as the width of junction pipe, the volume of resonance cavity, on tire noise were analyzed in this study. The result shows that the circumferential grooves with bypass not only bring down pipe resonance noise of circumferential grooves but also decrease far-field radiated noise of tire. Besides, with a certain resonant cavity, the width of junction pipeline between the circumferential grooves and the resonance cavity plays an important role in the improvement of tire noise. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  1. Final Scientific Report - "Improved Fuel Efficiency from Nanocomposite Tire Tread"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Andrew Myers

    2005-12-30

    Rolling resistance, a measure of the energy lost as a tire rotates while moving, is a significant source of power and fuel loss. Recently, low rolling resistant tires have been formulated by adding silica to tire tread. These "Green Tires" (so named from the environmental advantages of lower emissions and improved fuel economy) have seen some commercial success in Europe, where high fuel prices and performance drive tire selection. Unfortunately, the higher costs of the silica and a more complicated manufacturing process have prevented significant commercialization - and the resulting fuel savings - in the U.S. In this project, TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) prepared an inexpensive alternative to silica that leads to tire components with lower rolling resistance. These new tire composite materials were processed with traditional rubber processing equipment. We prepared specially designed nanoparticle additives, based on a high purity, inorganic mineral whose surface can be easily modified for compatibility with tire tread formulations. Our nanocomposites decreased energy losses to hysteresis, the loss of energy from the compression and relaxation of an elastic material, by nearly 20% compared to a blank SBR sample. We also demonstrated better performance than a leading silica product, with easier production of our final rubber nanocomposite.

  2. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  3. 49 CFR 574.5 - Tire identification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable, except that the DOT symbol on tires for use on motor vehicles other than passenger cars may... use with that non-pneumatic tire in S4.4 of Standard No. 129 (49 CFR 571.129). (a) First grouping. The... is manufactured for a brand name owner, one of the functions of the third grouping shall be...

  4. 75 FR 11806 - Notice of Public Meeting; Tire Fuel Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposing a new consumer information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542). The new consumer information program responded to a... union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register at 65 FR...

  5. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 74 FR 29542 (June 22, 2009); Docket No. NHTSA-2008... Efficiency Consumer Information Program, 75 FR 15894 (Mar. 30, 2010); Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0036- 001. \\4... after the sale of a new vehicle at no cost to the consumer. According to Bridgestone, these tires...

  6. Prompt non-tire rubber recycling : final report for phases 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. G.; Daniels, E. J.

    1999-06-25

    This report summarizes an assessment conducted by Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., under a subcontract to Argonne National Laboratory. The project was conducted in two phases. An assessment of alternative technologies for recycling of prompt non-tire rubber was conducted in the first phase, and an experimental program focusing on a new technology called the catalytic Regeneration Process offered the greatest opportunity for recovery of high-value recyclable rubber material. An experimental and large-scale test program was undertaken to further delineate the economic potential as an essential step leading to commercial deployment and to determine the course of continued development of the technology by the private sector. The experimental program defined process-operating conditions for the technology and verified the degree of devulcanisation achievable for two rubber compounds: ethylene-propylene-nonconjugated-diene monomer (EPDM) and neoprene. To determine product acceptance, samples of devulcanized EPDM and neoprene were prepared and used in factory trials for the production of automotive moldings (EPDM) and fiber-filled belting (neoprene). The factory trials indicated that the physical properties of the products were acceptable in both cases. The appearance of molded and calendared surface finishes was acceptable, while that of extruded finishes was unsatisfactory. The fiber-filled neoprene belting application offers the greatest economic potential. Process costs were estimated at $0.34/lb for neoprene waste rubber relative to a value of $0.57/lb. The results of the experimental program led to the decision to continue development of this technology is being planned, subject to the availability of about $3 million in financing from private-sector investors. The ability to recycle non-tire rubber scrap could conserve as much as 90,000 Btu/lb, thus yielding an estimated energy savings potential of about 0.25 quad/yr.

  7. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  8. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  9. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  10. WTO UpholdsU.S.Tariffs on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lesley Cui

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization on September 5released the ruling of its Appellate Body,upholding President Obama's decision to impose three-year punitive tariffs on Chinese passenger and light truck tires.The Obama administration in September 2009placed a 35 percent safeguard duty on tires for cars and light trucks that Chinese manufacturers exported to the US,after the United Steelworkers (USW) complained that surging imports hurt home producers.Chinese tire imports were shown to have surged to record levels in the five years prior to the filing of the petition,causing significant market disruption.According to the USW,Chinese tire imports by volume grew 215%from 2004 until 2008,reaching a volume of 46 million tires.

  11. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

  12. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... car tires to meet safety criteria similar to those for new pneumatic passenger car tires. S3... 1948. S4. Definitions. S4.1Casing means a used tire to which additional tread may be attached for...

  13. 29 CFR 779.366 - Recapping or retreading tires for sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automotive Tire Establishments § 779.366 Recapping or retreading tires for sale. (a) Some automotive tire establishments engage in recapping and retreading work on tires which the...

  14. Discarded tires: energy conservation through alternative uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1979-12-01

    Scrap tires that are not recycled through retreading constitute a serious solid-waste problem, but also offer energy-conservation opportunities through their use as: (1) solid fuel (displaced energy = 15,000 Btu/lb or 35 kJ/g); (2) derived fuel and chemical feedstock (11,000 to 23,000 Btu/lb or 25 to 53.5 kJ/g); (3) virgin rubber compound substitute in traditional rubber products (34,000 to 40,000 Btu/lb or 79 to 93 kJ/g); and (4) asphalt additive for paving applications (90,000 Btu/lb or 210 kJ/g). Both the energy of the displaced fuel and material and the energy consumed preparing the tires for the above uses have been included, where possible, in these estimates. Also provided is a summary of the available data on the cost and requisite scale of operation for the various end use processes.

  15. Extraction of tire size code using local phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; He, Jin; Huang, Zhanhua

    2009-11-01

    Tire size code (TSC) specifies the dimensions of the tire, and some of its key limitations, such as load-bearing ability and maximum speed. The key challenge of vision based TSC identification is the low contrast of TSC to tire background. In order to extract TSC from low-contrast tire images, this paper proposed to consider the contours of TSC as the symmetry axes of the neighbor pixels along the contours. The symmetry axes were detected using local phase information which is robust to image brightness and contrast. Firstly, the ring shaped tire region was segmented and then expanded to a rectangular region, where all characters were upright. Due to the intensity values of the neighbor pixels along the contours of TSC were symmetric, the contours in low-contrast tire image were enhanced using local phase information, which is computed by Log-Gabor wavelets. Finally, the thin contours were extracted by non-maxima suppression and thresholding with hysteresis. Experiments on real tire images showed that, in comparison with intensity based algorithms, the proposed algorithm were robust to uneven illumination and low-contrast.

  16. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data. PMID:11376883

  17. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  18. No immediate relief for large mining tire shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    Inventories are low and they will not get better anytime soon, but mine operators do have a few options. The three main manufacturers supplying tires to the US mining industry, Bridgestone Firestone Off Road Tire Company, Goodyear and Michelin are struggling to keep up with demand, but are unlikely to restore inventories to manageable levels by 2009. Meanwhile Yokohama and Global Tyres have stepped in to help. The article reports plans for expansions to plant in Japan. In the meantime, mine operators need to plan accordingly and pay increased attention to tire maintenance. The larger the tyre, the less available it is. 3 photos.

  19. Use of shredded tire chips and tire crumbs as packing media in trickling filter systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, B; Warith, M A

    2008-08-01

    Scrap tire stockpiles are breeding grounds for pests, mosquitoes and west Nile viruses and, thereby, become a potential health risk. This experimental study was carried out in six stages to determine the suitability of shredded tire materials in a trickling filter system to treat landfill leachate. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3-N removals were obtained in the range of 81 to 96%, 76 to 90% and 15 to 68%, respectively. The removal of organics appears to be largely related to total dissolved solids reduction in leachate. A sudden increase, from time to time, in organic content of effluent could be attributed to biomass sloughing and clogging in the trickling filters. However, tire crumbs exhibited more consistent organics removal throughout the experimental program. Due to the high surface area of shredded tire chips and crumbs, a layer of biomass, 1-2 mm thick, was attached to them and was sloughed off at an interval of 21 days. Apart from that, as shredded tires are comparatively cheaper than any other usable packing material, tire chips and tire crumbs appeared to be quite promising as packing media in trickling filters for landfill leachate treatment. PMID:18724637

  20. Belt-up!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1999-07-01

    Advanced control systems, improved materials and new dust control systems have turned the humble conveyor belt into a sophisticated method for transporting materials. RJB Mining has improved productivity at the Price of Wales colliery in Yorkshire, UK, with the installation of Alstom`s VDM drive system; Qualter Hall`s upgraded conveyor system at the Rugely Power Station in the UK is proving its ability to minimise coal spillage. The article highlights advances by several manufacturers in conveyor technology. 5 photos.

  1. 49 CFR 569.9 - Labeling of regroovable tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling of regroovable tires. 569.9 Section 569.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... by the rim flange....

  2. Sailun to Invest the Project of Giant OTR Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoTian

    2011-01-01

    To further improve the product structure and boost the profitability and market competitive power, upon resolution, Sailun Co., Ltd. has recently planned to make investment to build the project of giant OTR radial tires.

  3. Any Chance Left for China's Large Engineering Tire Producers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The service the large engineering tire producers offer is to satisfy the lowest transport cost, moving the maximum volume of minerals at the lowest environmental costs and in the shortest period of time.

  4. Time domain BEM for sound radiation of tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Lothar; Gimperlein, Heiko; Nezhi, Zouhair; Stephan, Ernst P.

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates a time domain boundary element method for the acoustic wave equation in an exterior domain in the half-space mathbb {R}^3_+. The Neumann problem is formulated as a boundary integral equation of the second kind, and the convergence and stability of conforming Galerkin approximations is studied in the complex geometry of a car or truck tire above a street. After a validation experiment, numerical results are presented in time or frequency domain for realistic benchmarks in traffic noise: the sound emission of vibrating tires, noise amplification in the horn-like geometry between the tire and the road, as well as the Doppler effect of a moving tire. The results are compared with calculations in frequency domain.

  5. Test method to measure resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viman, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the Nordic countries most cars are equipped with studded tires during the winter. The studs increase the wear on the road surfaces and a special test method has been developed to measure the aggregates' resistance towards fragmentation by studded tires. The method has proven to correlate very well with the actual wear on the road surfaces. The Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland have agreed to propose this method as a European Standard test method. One reason is to be able to set requirements on aggregates to be used in countries where studded tires are allowed. A cross-testing project regarding this Nordic abrasion test for studded tires was set up in order to determine the repeatability and the reproducibility of the methods to become European Standard.

  6. Influence of different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires in embankment construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinçliler, Ayşe; Baykal, Gökhan; Saygili, Altug

    2010-06-01

    Use of the processed used tires in embankment construction is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires due to shortages of natural mineral resources and increasing waste disposal costs. Using these used tires in construction requires an awareness of the properties and the limitations associated with their use. The main objective of this paper is to assess the different processing techniques on the mechanical properties of used tires-sand mixtures to improve the engineering properties of the available soil. In the first part, a literature study on the mechanical properties of the processed used tires such as tire shreds, tire chips, tire buffings and their mixtures with sand are summarized. In the second part, large-scale direct shear tests are performed to evaluate shear strength of tire crumb-sand mixtures where information is not readily available in the literature. The test results with tire crumb were compared with the other processed used tire-sand mixtures. Sand-used tire mixtures have higher shear strength than that of the sand alone and the shear strength parameters depend on the processing conditions of used tires. Three factors are found to significantly affect the mechanical properties: normal stress, processing techniques, and the used tire content. PMID:20060280

  7. Influence of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hazardous oily wastes generated from ships was converted to useful fuel. • Fuel characteristic of oil derived scrap tire was improved. • Co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes showed an environmental alternative to direct combustion. - Abstract: The co-pyrolysis of scrap tires with oily wastes from ships (bilge water oil and oily sludge) was studied to investigate the effect of oily wastes on the pyrolysis of scrap tire. Co-pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor in the absence and the presence of catalyst at 500 °C. The catalysts used in the pyrolysis were a commercial refinery catalyst and an industrial by-product containing iron. The fuel characteristics and chemical compositions of pyrolysis products were characterized by means of chromatographic, spectroscopic and standard ASTM methods. Although, the oily wastes did not affect the product yields from the pyrolysis of scrap tire, they improved the fuel characteristics of scrap tire derived oils. The fuel characteristics of co-pyrolysis oils (except flash point and sulfur content) had similar fuel characteristic with the commercial diesel. It was also found that the amounts of metal impurities in all pyrolytic oils were smaller than 0.3 ppm, which was a significantly low amount compared with those in the original oily wastes. Gross calorific values of pyrolysis gases were found to be in the range of 20.4–26.4 MJ Nm−3. It was concluded that co-pyrolysis of scrap tire with oily wastes could be an environmentally friendly way for the conversion of disposable and hazardous wastes such as scrap tires, bilge water oil and oily sludge into fuels

  8. Simulation and Analysis of the bypass Influences on Tire Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Jian Yang; Shizhou Ying

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-known scientific fact that circumferential groove exists great influence on tire noise. Increasing the void can help the rubber blocks to penetrate faster into the underlying water film and improve anti-skid performance, but which gives way to an increased air pumping noise. Therefore, the structure parameters of circumferential grooves play large influence on tire performance. The goal of this present study is using the bypass to change the grooves design and analysis the influe...

  9. Geotechnical Properties of Rubber Tires and Sediments Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaf, H.; H. Trouzine; M. Hamhami; Asroun, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental work was undertaken to study the effect of rubber tires on the geotechnical properties of a dredged sediment, using a mixing ratio of large size. For comparison, two types of soil were studied (dredged sediment from Fergoug dam and Tizi Tuff from the north west of Algeria). Taking into account the high compressibility and the low water absorption of the rubber tires, grain size analysis, density, Atterberg limits analysis, chemical composition, direct shear tests, loading-unlo...

  10. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  11. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  12. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrodný, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  13. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  14. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  15. An evaluation of some unbraked tire cornering force characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, T. J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to determine the effects of pavement surface condition on the cornering forces developed by a group of 6.50x13 automobile tires of different tread design was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The tests were made at fixed yaw angles of 3,4.5, and 6 deg at forward speeds up to 80 knots on two concrete surfaces of different texture under dry, damp, and flooded conditions. The results showed that the cornering forces were extremely sensitive to tread pattern and runway surface texture under all conditions and that under flooded conditions tire hydroplaning and complete loss of cornering force occurred at a forward velocity predicted from an existing formula based on tire inflation pressure. Futher, tests on the damp concrete with a smooth tire and a four-groove tire showed higher cornering forces at a yaw angle of 3 deg than at 4.5 deg; this indicated that maximum cornering forces are developed at extremely small steering angles under these conditions.

  16. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  17. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  18. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. PMID:24238304

  19. Implications of non-carcinogenic pah-free extender oils in natural rubber based tire compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Petchkaew, Anida

    2015-01-01

    The oils are generally added in the rubber compounds to improve processing properties, low temperature properties, dispersion of fillers, and to reduce cost. The conventionally widely used oils in tire compounds are Distillate Aromatic Extract (DAE) oils, which contain a high concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs that can be released from tires by tire wear are harmful to health and environment, so safe process oils are needed to replace aromatic oil in tire compounds...

  20. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... less than 90° to the centerline of the tread. Carcass means the tire structure, except tread and... following organizations: The Tire and Rim Association The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation Japan... Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation, the Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers' Association, Inc.,...

  1. Aulice to Build 1,200,000 Units/Y All- steel Tires Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zao

    2012-01-01

    To adapt to the rapid development of automobile industry and to meet the market demand on high- performance tires, upon investigation, Hubei Aulice Tire Co., Ltd. intends to build all-steel radial tire production project with the output of 1,200,000 units per year.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4071-4 - Original equipment tires on imported articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... imported articles. The tax imposed by section 4071(a) applies with respect to tires and inner tubes (other than bicycle tires and inner tubes) that are original equipment for an imported article upon which no... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Original equipment tires on imported...

  3. Co-gasification of tire and biomass for enhancement of tire-char reactivity in CO2 gasification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahijani, Pooya; Zainal, Zainal Alimuddin; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Mohammadi, Maedeh

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation, palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and almond shell (AS) were implemented as two natural catalysts rich in alkali metals, especially potassium, to enhance the reactivity of tire-char through co-gasification process. Co-gasification experiments were conducted at several blending ratios using isothermal Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under CO2. The pronounced effect of inherent alkali content of biomass-chars on promoting the reactivity of tire-char was proven when acid-treated biomass-chars did not exert any catalytic effect on improving the reactivity of tire-char in co-gasification experiments. In kinetic studies of the co-gasified samples in chemically-controlled regime, modified random pore model (M-RPM) was adopted to describe the reactive behavior of the tire-char/biomass-char blends. By virtue of the catalytic effect of biomass, the activation energy for tire-char gasification was lowered from 250 kJ/mol in pure form 203 to 187 kJ/mol for AS-char and EFB-char co-gasified samples, respectively.

  4. Longitudinal tire force estimation based on sliding mode observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hadri, A.; Cadiou, J.C.; M' Sirdi, N.K. [Versailles Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Robotique; Beurier, G.; Delanne, Y. [Lab. Central des Ponts, Centre de Nantes (France)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an estimation method for vehicle longitudinal dynamics, particularly the tractive/braking force. The estimation can be used to detect a critical driving situation to improve security. It can be used also in several vehicle control systems. The main characteristics of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics were taken into account in the model used to design an observer and computer simulations. The state variables are the angular wheel velocity, vehicle velocity and the longitudinal tire force. The proposed differential equation of the tractive/braking force is derived using the concept of relaxation length. The observer designed is based on the sliding mode approach using only the angular wheel velocity measurement. The proposed method of estimation is verified through a one-wheel simulation model with a ''Magic formula'' tire model. Simulations results show an excellent reconstruction of the tire force. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility of Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotte, Christopher

    While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is minuscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

  6. Scrap tire process turns waste into fuel. [USA - New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesla, M.R. (New York State Electric and Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States). Alternate Fuels Development)

    1994-05-01

    New York State Electric Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has in the last three years burned more than 1.3 million tyres to generate power, saving more than 16,000 tons of coal. The article describes how at the 73 MW Jennison power station scrap tires are chopped into 2x2 in. chips prior to mixing with coal near the coal pile (in a 20.80 tire chip to coal ratio) and combustion in stoker boilers with travelling chain grates. NYSEG has also test burned other alternative fuels such as creosote-treated wood and coal tar soils. 6 photos.

  7. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  8. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  9. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato Ortega, Belén

    2011-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550 °C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C5–C24 compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼43 MJ kg−1) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuel...

  10. Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time%Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Augu'st 28, "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Market Conference was held by Double Coin Group (Anhui) Warrior Tires Co., Ltd. in Shanghai with a subject of " Wonderful Combination to Start the Fu- ture". Warrior tires came into the market, which changed the pattern of the Chinese medium and high-end passenger car tire market dominated by foreign brands, mark- ing the beginning of the national brand to stand on the international medium and high-end passenger car tire market.

  11. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data. PMID:26569246

  12. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  13. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  14. Measurements of tire contact condition and water flow during hydroplaning; Hydroplaning hasseiji no tire no secchi jotai to suiryu no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Kagami, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    To improve hydroplaning performance, it is important to understand the contact condition and the state of flow around the tire while it is running on a water film. In this paper, two kinds of visualization methods were applied using a high-speed video camera. Firstly, the contact condition of the tire was visualized by colored water. Next, the state of flow around the tire contact area was visualized by particle tracing. From these results, the outline of flow around the tire became evident. (author)

  15. Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year%Russian Tire Market: Another Good News in the First Half Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanDing; Yan Ding

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Russian JSC Cordiant published an analysis report on Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012. In this report, the gross sales volume of all kinds of tires in Russian tire market in the first half year of 2012 were 30.6 million u- nits calculated by substance and RUB 130.9 billion calculated by currency, which increased by 19% and 21% compared with that of the same period of last year respectively. See Table 1 and Table 2 for the gross sales volume changes in Russian auto tire market calculated by substance and currency re- spectively.

  16. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  17. 49 CFR 229.75 - Wheels and tire defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229... in width. (c) A broken rim, if the tread, measured from the flange at a point five-eighths inch above... crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, or hub. (l) A loose wheel or tire. (m) Fusion...

  18. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www.dot.gov/privacy.html . Confidential Business... 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999) and concluded that no additional consultation with States, local... Tire Quality Grading Standards AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  19. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  20. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  1. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental and organic carbon emissions from tire-wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatmeeyata; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-09-15

    Tire-wear is an important source of PAHs, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). The emissions of these pollutants have been studied in an experimental set-up, simulating a realistic road-tire interaction (summer tire-concrete road). The large particle non-exhaust emissions (LPNE; diameter greater than 10 microm) have been evaluated over 14,500 km run of the tire. An increasing linear trend with cumulative km run was observed for emissions of PAHs and carbon. Amongst PAHs in LPNE, pyrene has been observed to be the highest (30+/-4 mg kg(-1)) followed by benzo[ghi]perylene (17+/-2 mg kg(-1)). Different fractions of EC-OC for tire-wear have been analyzed, and unlike exhaust emissions, EC1 was observed to be 99% of EC whereas more than 70% of the OC was the high temperature carbon (OC3 and OC4). The overall emission factors (mass tire(-1) km(-1)) for PAHs, EC and OC from tire-wear are 378 ng tire(-1) km(-1), 1.46 mg tire(-1) km(-1) and 2.37 mg tire(-1) km(-1) for small cars. PMID:20624631

  3. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  4. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction. PMID:16343890

  5. Silica-filled tire tread compounds: an investigation into the viscoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and their relation to tire performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maghami, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    With increasing the global concern for fossil fuel consumption, automotive industry moves toward more efficient vehicles. Tires are of great importance in this respect, as the tire compound material in contact with the road surface and under the cyclic deformation dissipates energy due to its viscoe

  6. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J

    2010-01-01

    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  7. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  8. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  9. Trucks tires resource controlling by control of process of their wearing-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KRAVCHENKO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensity and form of wear of tire′s tread depends on the technical state of assemblies of car suspension. The database according to the information of control of the height of the protector picture is forming. On its basis on the developed system of maintenance of tires setting of norms, prognostication and optimization of resource of tires is made, necessary repair influences of tires and assemblies of suspension are appointed.

  10. RE-USE OF WASTE TIRES RUBBER AS FINE AGGREGATE REPLACEMENT IN CONCRETE MIX APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Falak O. Abas; Enass A. Abdul Ghafoor; Mohammed U.Abass

    2015-01-01

    Discarded waste tires are one of the important parts of solid waste which had historically been disposed of in to landfills also causing a serious environmental problem. Then this study explores the possibility of reusing discarded waste tires in concrete engineering applications through enhancing the properties of concrete mix as partial replacement with fine aggregate to produce ideal concrete mix. The percent of discarded waste tires substituted in to the concrete mix by weight...

  11. Analysis of modernization of tire recycling machine for improvement of environmental sustainability and feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Samarskiy, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The main idea of this thesis is twofold: first of all to develop utilization processes for used tires and, second, to study and explain the serious ecological problems in the tire recycling and waste utilization sector in Russia. This thesis was commissioned by a recycling firm called Istra Ecologia Company. The thesis presents improvements in a tire recycling machine owned by this company. The owner of the plant has developed a modernized version of the system, and seems to have solved som...

  12. Using Pyrolized Carbon Black (PCB) from Waste Tires in Asphalt Pavement (Part 2, Asphalt Binder)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yongdong; Lovell, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    Scrap tires derived from automobiles have become a large environmental problem in the United States. In this study, research is carried out to investigate the potential use of tire-derived pyrolyzed carbon black from scrap tires as an asphalt cement modifier. The asphalt cements used in this research were AC10 and AC20. Penetration and softening point tests were performed to obtain the consistency of the asphalt cements. The pyrolyzed carbon black, as provided by Wolf Industries, was comb...

  13. Polymer concrete reinforced with recycled-tire fibers: Mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, E.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-López, M.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer Concrete was reinforced with recycled-tire fibers in order to improve the compressive and flexural strength. Polymer concrete specimens were prepared with 70% of silicious sand, 30% of polyester resin and various fiber concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 vol%). The results show increment of 50% in average of the compressive and flexural strength as well as on the deformation when adding 1.2 vol% of recycled-fibers.

  14. CCOIC Rejects US Special Protective Case on Chinese Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Zhang Wei,vice president of China Chamber of International Commerce (CCOIC) pointed out that the effect of the US special security case on Chinese tire was profound and has gone far beyond acceptable bilateral economic and trade relationship.The US move constitutes a challenge to the principles of free trade and is not conducive to unite all countries in confronting the financial crisis.

  15. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ShaoPu; LI ShaoHua; LU YongJie

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi-cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin's and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  16. Efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin applications to prevent Aedes breeding in tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, William J; Whelan, Peter I; McDonnell, Joseph; Jacups, Susan P

    2010-12-01

    The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (Cyperthor) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand) to prevent mosquito larval colonization of water-containing receptacles was investigated using 2 differing applications in disused car tires in Darwin, Australia. Insecticide treatments were applied uniformly to the inside surfaces of 2 categories of tires: 1) dry tires that were partially filled with water 24 h after spraying and 2) wet tires partially filled with water prior to spraying. All mosquito larvae, pupae, and dead adults were collected from the treatment and control tires weekly over the 24-wk study period and were later identified to species in the laboratory. Control tires were colonized by Aedes notoscriptus in wk 2 and by Culex quinquefasciatus in wk 4. Aedes notoscriptus failed to colonize any alpha-cypermethrin-treated tires until wk 22 and did not colonize any lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires during the 24-wk trial. Culex quinquefasciatus colonized alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated tires from wk 11 and wk 15, respectively. These results indicate both insecticides using either application method can prevent colonization of Ae. notoscriptus for at least 20 wk and demonstrate great potential for the prevention of breeding in receptacles for other receptacle-breeding Aedes species, such as the dengue vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

  17. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  18. Dynamics of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a revised flexible roller contact tire model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A revised flexible roller contact tire model (RFRC tire model) is proposed, which considers not only the geometric and flexible filtering effect, but also tire damping and pavement displacement. A vehi- cle-pavement coupled system is modeled as a two DOF oscillator moving along a simply supported beam on a linear viscoelastic foundation. By using the Galerkin’s and Direct Integral method, dynamical responses of the vehicle-pavement coupled system are obtained based on the RFRC tire model and the traditional single point contact tire model (SPC tire model). The simulation results are compared with test data and the validity of the proposed RFRC tire model is verified. Differences between the two models are also investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors for both models agree with each other quite well when road surface roughness is a long harmonic wave. On the other hand, they are different under short harmonic wave or impulse road excitation. Thus the RFRC tire model should be used to compute the tire force and investigate dynamical responses of vehicle and pavement.

  19. A procedure for multi-objective optimization of tire design parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Korunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of optimal tire design parameters for satisfying different requirements, i.e. tire performance characteristics, plays an essential role in tire design. In order to improve tire performance characteristics, formulation and solving of multi-objective optimization problem must be performed. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization procedure for determination of optimal tire design parameters for simultaneous minimization of strain energy density at two distinctive zones inside the tire. It consists of four main stages: pre-analysis, design of experiment, mathematical modeling and multi-objective optimization. Advantage of the proposed procedure is reflected in the fact that multi-objective optimization is based on the Pareto concept, which enables design engineers to obtain a complete set of optimization solutions and choose a suitable tire design. Furthermore, modeling of the relationships between tire design parameters and objective functions based on multiple regression analysis minimizes computational and modeling effort. The adequacy of the proposed tire design multi-objective optimization procedure has been validated by performing experimental trials based on finite element method.

  20. Performance indicators, practices and maintenance costs in tires management of a transport company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are three operational costs that are more expressive for PSL: vehicle maintenance, tires and fuel. In studies of maintenance has been little researched the concept of tire management, technical maintenance and performance together. In this context, this study aims at identifying the practices and performance indicators in the area of maintenance and tire management also analyze the influence of costs applied to the tires on the total cost of maintenance. We conducted a case study of exploratory and descriptive. The main instruments of data collection were on-site observation, unstructured interviews, document analysis and reports results indicators. Data were analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple regression. It was revealed that among the performance indicators in the management of tire maintenance costs applied to the tires have a higher correlation with the total cost of maintenance. The ANOVA indicated that tire maintenance costs influence in 54% of the variations in the total cost of maintenance. We clarified the concepts of maintenance techniques specific tire management, and identify performance indicators in the area of tire managent.

  1. Numerical analysis of tire/contact pressure using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Hidayat, Royan; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between the road surface and vehicle's tire may significantly determine the stability of a vehicle. We could study the tire contact-pressure to road surfaces through a numerical simulation in this present study. In particular, the main purpose of the study was to present an illustration of the effect of the varied loads to the tire, which would affect the contact pressure on the road surface sand stress distribution on the tire by employing a commercial ABAQUS software, based on the finite element method. To make the process of data analysis easier, the tire was assumed to be made from natural rubber which composition consisted of 2 layers of the inner tire and 1 layer of carcass. In pre-conditions, the tire was given air pressure as much as 17 psi, and loads as much as 2 KN, 6 KN, and 10 KN; then, the air pressure was increased to be 30 psi; consequently, the simulation results of stress distribution and deformation on each of loads condition would be acquired. The simulation results indicated that the loads carried by the tire on the vehicle were an important factor to determine the tire-stress profile.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties.

  3. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  4. EFFECTOF ISOLATION WALL USING SCRAP TIRE ON GROUND VIBRATION REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, Takahiko; Kashimoto, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Hiroaki

    Some countermeasure methods against the environmental ground vibration caused by some traffic vibrations have been proposed so far. The authors have developed a new type ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire, and evaluated its effectiveness on the ground vibration reduction by full scale field tests. In this paper, the authors discussed and examined the effectiveness of the developed countermeasure method by two field tests. The one concerns on the effect of scrap tire as soft material of vibration isolation wall, and the other on the effect of the developed countermeasure method practically applied in a residential area close to monorail traffic. As the results, it was elucidated that the ground vibration of 2-3 dB was reduced in case of two times volume of the soft material, the conversion ratio of the vibration energy of the soft material to the kinetic energy was higher than that of the core material of PHC pile, the vibration acceleration of 0.19 - 1.26 gal was reduced by the developed countermeasure method in case of the monorail traffic, and the vibration reduction measured behind the isolation wall agreed well with the proposed theoretical value, together with confirming the effectiveness of the ground vibration isolation wall using scrap tire as the countermeasure method against the environmental ground vibration.

  5. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  6. Vehicle Ride Height Change Due To Radial Expansion Of Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čavoj Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, tire deformations caused by wheel rotation are not taken into account when developing vehicle aerodynamics. On the road the tires radially expand as speed increases, which affects the actual ride height of a vehicle. In turn this often increases the real aerodynamic drag compared to values obtained using CFD or a wind tunnel as the mass flow across the relatively rough underbody increases with ground clearance. In this study, on-road ride heights were measured while running a vehicle in a straight line with fixed velocity whilst the aerodynamic lift of the vehicle was determined in a wind tunnel. Subsequently, the relationships between ride height and axle load were obtained by loading the vehicle at standstill with ballast. By comparing the ride heights at high and very low velocities with expected vertical displacement caused purely by aerodynamic lift force as computed according to the ride height - axle load equations, the ride height change due to tire radial expansion was determined.

  7. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  8. Study of thermal conditions at belt slippage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.; Pampel, W.; Pfleger, P.

    1987-04-01

    Conveyor belt slippage experiments are carried out on the Chrudim (Czechoslovakia) industrial sized test stand for belt widths up to 1 m and driving drum forces up to 400 kW. The stand is operated jointly by TAKRAF (GDR) and VITKOVICE VUTZ, Prague. From 1972 to 1981, 7 belt conveyor fires occurred in GDR brown coal surface mines due to belt slippage. One of these cases led to a belt fire after only 15 s at 100% belt slippage. Aim of the study was to determine accurate permissible slippage values. Design of the test stand is explained as well as test procedures with belt slippage at the driving drum varying between 10 and 100%. Belt driving parameters were measured along with temperature of the drum surface. The heat penetration parameter b (in kJ/m/sup 2/) was calculated. Maximum temperatures up to 150 C were measured on the drum during partial slippage and 370 C at 100% belt slippage. The ignition temperature of rubber abrasion fines was also analyzed and found to vary between 40 and 318 C, i.e. substantially lower than belt and drum layer ignition temperatures. Graphs and diagram of slippage measurement results are calculated. Values for permissible maximum slippage time for operating belt slippage monitoring devices are shown. These devices are required to be installed in the GDR at heavy mine belt conveyors with driving forces exceeding 500 kW. 8 refs.

  9. T.R.I.C.K.-Tire/Road Interaction Characterization & Knowledge - A tool for the evaluation of tire and vehicle performances in outdoor test sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Flavio

    2016-05-01

    The most powerful engine, the most sophisticated aerodynamic devices or the most complex control systems will not improve vehicle performances if the forces exchanged with the road are not optimized by proper employment and knowledge of tires. The vehicle interface with the ground is constituted by the sum of small surfaces, wide about as one of our palms, in which tire/road interaction forces are exchanged. From this it is clear to see how the optimization of tire behavior represents a key-factor in the definition of the best setup of the whole vehicle. Nowadays, people and companies playing a role in automotive sector are looking for the optimal solution to model and understand tire's behavior both in experimental and simulation environments. The studies carried out and the tool developed herein demonstrate a new approach in tire characterization and in vehicle simulation procedures. This enables the reproduction of the dynamic response of a tire through the use of specific track sessions, carried out with the aim to employ the vehicle as a moving lab. The final product, named TRICK tool (Tire/Road Interaction Characterization and Knowledge), comprises of a vehicle model which processes experimental signals acquired from vehicle CAN bus and from sideslip angle estimation additional instrumentation. The output of the tool is several extra "virtual telemetry" channels, based on the time history of the acquired signals and containing force and slip estimations, useful to provide tire interaction characteristics. TRICK results can be integrated with the physical models developed by the Vehicle Dynamics UniNa research group, providing a multitude of working solutions and constituting an ideal instrument for the prediction and the simulation of the real tire dynamics.

  10. OAO Sibur-Russian Tires Taking New Measures to Be Listed in Top 15 En- terprises in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently, OAO Sibur-Russian Tires formally renamed to JSC "Cordiant". The new company takes some new key measures to further expand the market shares and occupy the top place in Russian tire enterprises.

  11. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, David, E-mail: prochazka.d@fme.vutbr.cz [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Physical Engineering, Technická 2, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bilík, Martin [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prochazková, Petra [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Novotný, Karel [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Brno University of Technology, Central European Institute of Technology, Technická 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ticová, Barbora [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kamenice 735/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek [Brno University of Technology, Institute of Forensic Engineering, Údolní 244/53, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined.

  12. Detection of tire tread particles using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is a study of the potential of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for detection of tire tread particles. Tire tread particles may represent pollutants; simultaneously, it is potentially possible to exploit detection of tire tread particles for identification of optically imperceptible braking tracks at locations of road accidents. The paper describes the general composition of tire treads and selection of an element suitable for detection using the LIBS method. Subsequently, the applicable spectral line is selected considering interferences with lines of elements that might be present together with the detected particles, and optimization of measurement parameters such as incident laser energy, gate delay and gate width is performed. In order to eliminate the matrix effect, measurements were performed using 4 types of tires manufactured by 3 different producers. An adhesive tape was used as a sample carrier. The most suitable adhesive tape was selected from 5 commonly available tapes, on the basis of their respective LIBS spectra. Calibration standards, i.e. an adhesive tape with different area content of tire tread particles, were prepared for the selected tire. A calibration line was created on the basis of the aforementioned calibration standards. The linear section of this line was used for determination of the detection limit value applicable to the selected tire. Considering the insignificant influence of matrix of various types of tires, it is possible to make a simple recalculation of the detection limit value on the basis of zinc content in a specific tire. - Highlights: • LIBS experimental measurement parameters for tire tread particles were optimize. • Calibration curve was prepared. • Limit of detection was determined

  13. Laboratory Study on the Use of Tire Shreds and Rubber-Sand in Backfilled and Reinforced Soil Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Andres; Lovell, C. W.; Salgado, Rodrigo

    1996-01-01

    Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rats and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling examines the feasibility of incorporating tire s...

  14. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Tires From the People's Republic of China Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China Memorandum for the Secretary of Commerce the Secretary... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into...

  15. Understanding the Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the silica reinforcement of styrene–butadiene rubber compounds for passenger car tire treads, with the objective of gaining greater insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins. The major tire performance factors predicted are rolling resistance and (wet) skid resista

  16. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet) S

  17. 78 FR 9775 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000, (65 FR 19477-78). The... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Receipt of Petition for.... ACTION: Receipt of Petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper),\\1\\ has determined...

  18. 78 FR 47050 - Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... (78 FR 9775.) No comments were received. To view the petition and all supporting documents log onto... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, Grant of Petition for Decision...: Grant of petition. SUMMARY: Cooper Tire & Rubber Company (Cooper) \\1\\ has determined that certain...

  19. 75 FR 68855 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... inspection of mold branding at the plant that produced the subject tires. Pirelli then examined related... are ultra high performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought by... shoulder blocks for increased safety and dry handling performance; and inner shoulders designed to...

  20. 78 FR 27476 - Pirelli Tire LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... published, with a 30- day public comment period, on November 9, 2010, in the Federal Register (75 FR 68855..., during an inspection of mold branding at the plant that produced the subject tires. Pirelli then examined... are ultra high performance tires; their asymmetric tread design is one of the main features sought...

  1. Seismic behavior of tire waste-sand mixtures for transportation infrastructure in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aye Edinliler; Ozgur Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Tire wastes have many properties that are valuable from a geotechnical engineering perspective, such as low density, high strength, thermal insulation, energy absorption capacity, permeability, durability, compressibility, resilience, and high frictional strength. Thus, tire wastes offer good thermal characteristics in resisting frost penetration and have good drainage characteristics, being as permeable as coarse granular soil for fill materials. The many advantages of tire wastes make the material suitable for transportation infrastructure construction in cold regions. Also, tire wastes with high damping prop-erty make them a preferable admixture with sand for transportation infrastructures in seismic regions. This study aimed to determine the seismic performance of certain tire waste-sand mixtures in cold regions. A 70% sand-30% tire crumb mixture by weight (TC30) with a very high damping property was selected for analysis as an engineering material for transportation infrastructure. Small-scale shake-table tests were conducted on this material as well as on a sand-only sample under two different temperatures, 0 °C and 20 °C, to simulate cold-region and moderate-temperature performance, respectively. The 1999İzmit Earthquake Excitation (EW) (Mw=7.4) was taken as the input motion. Test results showed that the tire waste-sand mixture at 0 °C showed better seismic performance than that at room temperature, suggesting that a tire waste-sand mixture in cold regions may reduce seismic hazards to infrastructure.

  2. An algorithm for the kinetics of tire pyrolysis under different heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Augustine; Balasubramanian, Rajashekhar

    2009-07-15

    Tires exhibit different kinetic behaviors when pyrolyzed under different heating rates. A new algorithm has been developed to investigate pyrolysis behavior of scrap tires. The algorithm includes heat and mass transfer equations to account for the different extents of thermal lag as the tire is heated at different heating rates. The algorithm uses an iterative approach to fit model equations to experimental data to obtain quantitative values of kinetic parameters. These parameters describe the pyrolysis process well, with good agreement (r(2)>0.96) between the model and experimental data when the model is applied to three different brands of automobile tires heated under five different heating rates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. The model agrees with other researchers' results that frequencies factors increased and time constants decreased with increasing heating rates. The model also shows the change in the behavior of individual tire components when the heating rates are increased above 30 K min(-1). This result indicates that heating rates, rather than temperature, can significantly affect pyrolysis reactions. This algorithm is simple in structure and yet accurate in describing tire pyrolysis under a wide range of heating rates (10-50 K min(-1)). It improves our understanding of the tire pyrolysis process by showing the relationship between the heating rate and the many components in a tire that depolymerize as parallel reactions. PMID:19111984

  3. Bridgestone to Establish Pas-senger Car Tire Plant in Viet- nam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    On November 11, Japan Bridge- stone Corporation announced that it de- cided to establish a tire plant in Haiphong Industrial Zone, Vietnam to adapt to the steadily increasing global demand of the passenger car radial tire, upon comprehensive demonstration on all aspects such as the infrastructure, lay- out, labor force and cost.

  4. Wide-base Tire of Double Coin Group Passed SmartWay Certification Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuBo

    2011-01-01

    On November 1,2011, China Man- ufacturers Association (CMA) declared that a kind of wide-base tire product (FT125) developed by Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. was certified as low rolling resistance tire by EPA. As shown by the detection results of "SmartWay Certification" by the EPA,

  5. A systematic experimental investigation of significant parameters affecting model tire hydroplaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, G. A.; Ehrlich, I. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive parametric study of model and small pneumatic tires operating on a wet surface are presented. Hydroplaning inception (spin down) and rolling restoration (spin up) are discussed. Conclusions indicate that hydroplaning inception occurs at a speed significantly higher than the rolling restoration speed. Hydroplaning speed increases considerably with tread depth, surface roughness and tire inflation pressure of footprint pressure, and only moderately with increased load. Water film thickness affects spin down speed only slightly. Spin down speed varies inversely as approximately the one-sixth power of film thickness. Empirical equations relating tire inflation pressure, normal load, tire diameter and water film thickness have been generated for various tire tread and surface configurations.

  6. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF PNEUMA-TIC RADIAL TIRES VIA PIECEWISE RAYLEIGH-RITZ TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Sanders thin shell theory and Reddy's higher order shell theory, a general refined shell theory is developed for the analysis of stresses and deformations of pneumatic radial tires of composite construction.For easy and efficient simulation of the tire a piecewise Rayleigh-Ritz technique is proposed and applied to get a numerical solution to the nonlinear structural problem.Bezier polynomials are used to approximate both the geometry of the surface of reference and displacement fields of the tires.Stress distributions and deformations of the tires subjected to uniform inflation pressure are computed and discussed in details.From comparison of the present results with the numerical predictions by 3D finite element method, it has been shown that the present solution procedure is accurate and applicable to much complicated time-consuming nonlinear analysis for the high quality tire.

  7. Design of 195/60R15 88H Passenger Car Radial Tire%195/60R1588H轿车子午线轮胎的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世军; 邬素华

    2014-01-01

    介绍195/60R1588H轿车子午线轮胎的设计。结构设计:轮胎外直径614 mm,断面宽度212 mm,行驶面宽度160 mm,胎圈着合直径379 mm,胎圈着合宽度178 mm,断面水平轴位置(H1/H2)1.03,胎面采用4条纵向花纹主沟,花纹饱和度63.4%。施工设计:胎面采用三方四块结构,胎体采用1层1670dtex/2尺寸稳定型聚酯帘布,带束层采用2层2+2×0.25HT钢丝帘布和1层930dtex/2锦纶66帘布。采用二次法成型机成型,B型硫化机硫化。成品轮胎强度性能和脱圈阻力达到国家标准要求,耐久性能和高速性能达到企业标准要求。%The design of 195/60R15 88H passenger car radial tire is presented in this paper. In the structural design, the parameters are as follows: tire overall diameter 614 mm, cross sectional width 212 mm, width of running surface 160 mm, bead diameter at rim seat 379 mm, bead width at rim seat 178 mm, maximum width position of cross section﹙H1/H2) 1.03, 4 longitudinal main groove pattern, and pattern block ratio 63.4%. In the construction design, three formula and four piece tread is applied, one layer of 1670dtex/2 dimensionally stable polyester cord is used in carcass ply, and two layers of 2+2×0.25HT steel cord and one layer of 930dtex/2 nylon 66 cord are applied in the belt layer. The tire is built by using two stage tire building machine and cured on B-type vulcanizing machine. The experimental test results on the ifnished tire show that the strength performance of the tire and the bead unseating resistance meet the requirements of national standards, and the durability and high-speed performance meet the requirements of enterprise standards.

  8. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  9. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  10. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  11. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  12. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  13. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF VISCOELATIC TRANSMISSION BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic responses of viscoelastic axially transmission belts are investigated and the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive model is employed to characterize the material property of belts. The generalized equation of motion is obtained for a viscoelatic axially transmission belts with geometric nonlinearity first, and then is reduced to be a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. Finally, the effects of viscosity parameter and elastic parameter and the moving velocity of the belts on the transient responses are investigated by the research of digital simulation.

  14. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions.

  15. Automobile tires--a potential source of highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-03-20

    Eight tires were analyzed for 15 high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using pressurized fluid extraction. The variability of the PAH concentrations determined between different tires was large; a factor of 22.6 between the lowest and the highest. The relative abundance of the analytes was quite similar regardless of tire. Almost all (92.3%) of the total extractable PAH content was attributed to five PAHs: benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The difference in the measured PAH content between summer and winter tires varied substantially across manufacturers, making estimates of total vehicle fleet emissions very uncertain. However, when comparing different types of tires from the same manufacturer they had significantly (p = 0.05) different PAH content. Previously, there have been no data available for carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers in automobile tires. In this study, the four dibenzopyrene isomers dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene constituted automobile tires may be a potential previously unknown source of carcinogenic dibenzopyrenes to the environment.

  16. X-ray characterization of tire derived particles resulting from different solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, R.C.; Smithhart, C.B.; Quin, J.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Currently, 200 million scrap tires are being annually stockpiled, landfilled, or illegally dumped, with ca. 50 million scrap tires being recycled in a variety of ways. The current disposal methods are causing numerous short-term environmental problems. Whole tires occupy large amounts of space and may {open_quotes}float{close_quotes} or rise to the top of landfills, causing puncturing of the landfill cover. In an attempt to prevent floating, many landfills require that the scrap tires be shredded, a process which is energy intensive and wasteful. Scrap tire stock piles produce large health risks by providing a place for rodents and mosquitos to breed -- aiding in the spread of diseases. Large stockpile fires have also broken out in major cities in Florida, Texas, Virginia, and Washington. These fires are long lasting and produce unwanted smoke into the environment. For many reasons, the recycling of scrap tires is desirable. This paper describes the processing of scrap tires by several liquids and acids.

  17. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process for decentralized wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Lynn, Thomas J; Banihani, Qais; Bartacek, Jan; Jenicek, Pavel; Ergas, Sarina J

    2014-09-15

    Nitrogen discharges from decentralized wastewater treatment (DWT) systems contribute to surface and groundwater contamination. However, the high variability in loading rates, long idle periods and lack of regular maintenance presents a challenge for biological nitrogen removal in DWT. A Tire-Sulfur Hybrid Adsorption Denitrification (T-SHAD) process was developed that combines nitrate (NO3(-)) adsorption to scrap tire chips with sulfur-oxidizing denitrification. This allows the tire chips to adsorb NO3(-) when the influent loading exceeds the denitrification capacity of the biofilm and release it when NO3(-) loading rates are low (e.g. at night). Three waste products, scrap tire chips, elemental sulfur pellets and crushed oyster shells, were used as a medium in adsorption, leaching, microcosm and up-flow packed bed bioreactor studies of NO3(-) removal from synthetic nitrified DWT wastewater. Adsorption isotherms showed that scrap tire chips have an adsorption capacity of 0.66 g NO3(-)-N kg(-1) of scrap tires. Leaching and microcosm studies showed that scrap tires leach bioavailable organic carbon that can support mixotrophic metabolism, resulting in lower effluent SO4(2-) concentrations than sulfur oxidizing denitrification alone. In column studies, the T-SHAD process achieved high NO3(-)-N removal efficiencies under steady state (90%), variable flow (89%) and variable concentration (94%) conditions. PMID:24922353

  18. Mitigating nutrient leaching with a sub-surface drainage layer of granulated tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, R D; Park, J K; Stier, J C

    2004-01-01

    Markets for scrap tires have expanded since the early 1990s with the development of value-added applications such as tire-derived fuel and crumb-rubber-amended asphalt. Granulated tires have also displayed the ability to adsorb volatile organic compounds, indicating that the rubber material can be a useful filter media. Sand-based root zones, typically used for golf course putting green and athletic field construction, lack sufficient cation exchange capacity to restrict nitrogen and phosphorus migration through the root zone and into sub-surface drainage systems. Therefore, the adsorptive properties of tire rubber for retaining nitrogen and phosphorus were studied when applied as a distinct sub-surface drainage or intermediate layer in golf course putting greens. A statistically significant reduction in the concentration of nitrate in leachate was achieved by replacing traditional pea gravel with equally sized granulated tires for the drainage layer media, although the mechanism of nitrate mitigation remains unclear. The results indicate that using granulated tires as a drainage layer or fill material beneath sand-based root zones does not compromise the function of the profile or quality of the vegetation while creating an environmentally beneficial and value-added option for scrap tire reuse. PMID:15381235

  19. Stress investigation on the rolling tires across the speed bump using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Royan; Pranoto, Sarwo Edy; Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between road surface and tire on a vehicle may strongly determine the vehicle's stability. This study was conducted to find out the stress distribution as a result of pressure on the tires rolling across the speed bumps. This study used Abaqus software to simulate the movement of the tire, which rolls across the speed bump to determine the stress distribution that may occur. The tire component material used was a full path rubber on a speed bump. For the boundary conditions of the study, it was assumed that the tires had load variations as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN, as well as pressure variations as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi. The tires were then rolled 8 km/h crossing the speed bump. Modeling speed bumps also varied i.e. the first variation of speed bumps that have a height of 50 mm with a width of 250 mm, the second variation of height 75 mm with a width of 300 mm, and a third variation of height 100 mm with a width of 400 mm. The simulation was done by giving the tire pressures as much as 17 Psi, 30 Psi, 40 Psi and loads as much as 2 kN, 6 kN, 10 kN. Further, the tires were rolled three times. It was rolled crossing the first speed bump, the second, and the third, respectively. Results showed stress distribution's fig and graphs. From the analysis results and simulation, it was shown that the greater the load received by the tires, the higher stress they produced.

  20. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  1. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used

  2. Scrap Tires in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso: Ranking the Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Palma, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    According to conventional wisdom, rapidly growing stocks of scrap tires on the U.S.–Mexico border pose a variety of health and environmental risks. This article assesses these risks in Paso del Norte, the border’s second-largest metropolis comprised principally of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, and El Paso, Texas. We find that air pollution from tire pile fires poses the greatest threat. Scrap tires in Paso del Norte do not contribute significantly to the propagation of mosquito-borne diseases or ...

  3. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  4. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  5. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  6. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  7. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Gungor, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr; Kocaman, Suheyla, E-mail: ahmetli@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  8. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired.

  9. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  10. Are you tired? Overcoming leadership styles that create leader fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2013-01-01

    Part of the culture of nursing is convincing everyone you are perpetually overworked and overwhelmed. The leadership style the leader chooses will determine whether he or she will be energized or overwhelmed. When the leader is unable and unwilling to surround him or herself with people who are more knowledgeable and astute, the level of stress and worry becomes unbearable. Relationships thrive when a structure is present. Your staff will be energized and empowered, and will reach incredible levels of productivity and the highest level of achievement possible. Doing "nothing" allows your staff to grow as people and as a team, and you will be free to do the work of the leader, and not be tired. PMID:23923244

  11. Ride comfort characteristics with different tire pressure of passenger vehicle featuring MR damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents ride comfort characteristics of a quarter-vehicle magneto-rheological (MR) suspension system with respect to different tire pressure. As a first step, controllable MR damper is designed and manufactured based on the optimized damping force levels and mechanical dimensions required for a commercial mid-sized passenger vehicle. After experimentally evaluating dynamic characteristics of the manufactured MR damper, the quarter-vehicle suspension system consisting of sprung mass, spring, tire and the MR damper is constructed in order to investigate the ride comfort. After deriving the equations of the motion for the proposed quarter-vehicle MR suspension system, vertical tire stiffness with respect to different tire pressure is experimentally identified. The skyhook controller is then implemented for the realization of quarter-vehicle MR suspension system. Ride comfort characteristics such as vertical acceleration RMS of sprung mass are evaluated under bump road condition and presented in time domain.

  12. Retreaded Tire of Hangzhou Zhongce Company Regarded as Resources Comprehensive Utilization Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Hangzhou Economic and Information Commission issued an announcement that the retreaded tire produced by Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Cycle Technology Co., Ltd. was certified to be the resources comprehensive utilization product.

  13. Tire Dumps, washoe county sheriff's office data, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tire Dumps dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county sheriff's office data'. Data by...

  14. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  15. Computation of rolling resistance caused by rubber hysteresis of truck radial tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Gai-ling; XU Hong; CUI Wen-yong

    2007-01-01

    Applying the results of stress and strain calculated by 3D finite element model of truck radial tire 11.00R20, a MATLAB program used to compute rolling resistance of the tire caused by hysteresis rolling resistance (HRR) is worked out. The HRR distribution on different part of tire section, and the effects of speed, load, internal pressure and the width of the rim on HRR are analyzed. The analysis results showed that energy loss produced by tread rubber contributes the most part to HRR of the whole tire, and that to decrease the HRR, the hysteresis factor of the tread rubber should be reduced, and the distribution of the stress and strain on the section be optimized.

  16. The Gould's Belt distance survey

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, L; Torres, R M; Dzib, S; Rodriguez, L F; Boden, A F

    2011-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can provide the position of compact radio sources with an accuracy of order 50 micro-arcseconds. This is sufficient to measure the trigonometric parallax and proper motions of any object within 500 pc of the Sun to better than a few percent. Because they are magnetically active, young stars are often associated with compact radio emission detectable using VLBI techniques. Here we will show how VLBI observations have already constrained the distance to the most often studied nearby regions of star-formation (Taurus, Ophiuchus, Orion, etc.) and have started to provide information on their internal structure and kinematics. We will then briefly describe a large project (called The Gould's Belt Distance Survey) designed to provide a detailed view of star-formation in the Solar neighborhood using VLBI observations.

  17. Binaries in the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, K S; Chiang, E I; Margot, J L; Kern, S D; Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, William M.; Chiang, Eugene I.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Kern, Susan D.

    2007-01-01

    Binaries have played a crucial role many times in the history of modern astronomy and are doing so again in the rapidly evolving exploration of the Kuiper Belt. The large fraction of transneptunian objects that are binary or multiple, 48 such systems are now known, has been an unanticipated windfall. Separations and relative magnitudes measured in discovery images give important information on the statistical properties of the binary population that can be related to competing models of binary formation. Orbits, derived for 13 systems, provide a determination of the system mass. Masses can be used to derive densities and albedos when an independent size measurement is available. Angular momenta and relative sizes of the majority of binaries are consistent with formation by dynamical capture. The small satellites of the largest transneptunian objects, in contrast, are more likely formed from collisions. Correlations of the fraction of binaries with different dynamical populations or with other physical variabl...

  18. Tractor tire aspect ratio effects on soil bulk density and cone index

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 580/70R38 tractor drive tire with an aspect ratio of 0.756 and a 650/75R32 tire with an aspect ratio of 0.804 were operated at two dynamic loads and two inflation pressures on a sandy loam and a clay loam with loose soil above a hardpan. Soil bulk density and cone index were measured just above t...

  19. A comparison of aircraft tire skid with initial wheel rotational speed using ANSYS transient simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alroqi, Abdurrhman A; Wang, Weiji

    2016-01-01

    Based on heavy aircraft main landing gear tires touchdown skidding process, patents have been registered since the 1940s to improve tire safety, decrease the substantial wear and smoke that results from every landing by spinning the rear wheels before touchdown. A single wheel has been modeled as a mass-spring-damper system using ANSYS mechanical transient simulation to analyze static and pre-rotating wheels behavior during a short period between touchdown and skidding, to spin-up to reach th...

  20. Mechanical characterization of a tire derived material and its application in vibration reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Montella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Tire Derived Materials (TDMs) deserve special interest as the reuse of tires is one of the most important topics in recycling and Environmental Engineering. This thesis describes the mechanical characterization of a new TDM based on appropriate experimental tests. Moreover a novel strain energy function is presented, based on the Hencky-logarithmic strain tensor, to model the response for moderately large deformations. Finally a Finite element program is used to solve an optimization problem ...

  1. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer (ST) tires are permitted to be installed on new trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 4,536 kg (10,000 lbs.) or less. It also proposes to exclude these trailers from a vehicle testing requirement that a tire must be retained on its rim when subjected to a......

  2. Compressive behaviour of a tire recycled steel and textil fiber concrete subjected to fire

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of rubber aggregates, steel and textile fibres recycled from tires in concrete is a solution that it is being studied by several authors around the world. A few works have been carried out at room temperature but very scarce at high temperatures. This paper presents the results of a research with the aim to evaluate the behaviour at high temperatures of a concrete made with different amounts of recycled textile and steel fibres from tires. The study considered five conc...

  3. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Carlos F; Bond J; Muñoz José; Valle Javier; Chirino Nelva; Williams Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ...

  4. Computational Methods for Frictional Contact With Applications to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Nose-Gear Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the solution of frictional contact problems for aircraft tires. A Space Shuttle nose-gear tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory which includes the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse-shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities. Contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with both contact and friction conditions. The contact-friction algorithm is based on a modified Coulomb friction law. A modified two-field, mixed-variational principle is used to obtain elemental arrays. This modification consists of augmenting the functional of that principle by two terms: the Lagrange multiplier vector associated with normal and tangential node contact-load intensities and a regularization term that is quadratic in the Lagrange multiplier vector. These capabilities and computational features are incorporated into an in-house computer code. Experimental measurements were taken to define the response of the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire to inflation-pressure loads and to inflation-pressure loads combined with normal static loads against a rigid flat plate. These experimental results describe the meridional growth of the tire cross section caused by inflation loading, the static load-deflection characteristics of the tire, the geometry of the tire footprint under static loading conditions, and the normal and tangential load-intensity distributions in the tire footprint for the various static vertical loading conditions. Numerical results were obtained for the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire subjected to inflation pressure loads and combined inflation pressure and contact loads against a rigid flat plate. The experimental measurements and the numerical results are compared.

  5. Influence of oligomeric resins on traction and rolling resistance of silica tire treads

    OpenAIRE

    Vleugels, N.; Pille-Wolf, W.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns the silica-reinforcement of synthetic rubber compounds for passenger tire treads with the objective to gain insight into the beneficial effects of oligomeric resins, derived from natural and synthetic monomers, on the major tire performance factors: Rolling Resistance and (Wet) Skid Resistance. This manuscript highlights the relationship between the performances of various oligomeric resins in different concentrations: 2, 4 and 6 phr, on the dynamic mechanical behavior of ...

  6. Geometric descriptors of road surface texture in relation to tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    ANFOSSO, Fabienne; Do, Minh Tan

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the determination of geometric parameters in order to study the relationship between the tire/road noise and the texture of road surfaces. The approach was found to be an alternative to the classical spectral analyses and the numerical simulations of the tire/road contact. Texture parameters were derived from previous works in LCPC related to the influence of the microtexture of road surfaces on the skid resistance. Use of these parameters was justified by the considerati...

  7. Use of tire rubber to improve fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Thives, L. P.; Trichês, Glicério; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    The accelerated failure of pavements is one of the main problems in Brazilian roads resulting from fatigue cracking due to the repeated application of traffic induced stresses. The incorporation of crumb rubber from waste tires in asphalt, named asphalt rubber, is a method which has been used in several countries to improve the properties of asphalt pavement mixtures and, at the same time, has been a ecologically alternative to deal with the proper disposal of waste tires. This...

  8. Prediction of properties of polymer concrete composite with tire rubber using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Rodica-Mariana, E-mail: rodicamdiaconescu@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, B-dul Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron 73, Iasi 700050 (Romania); Barbuta, Marinela, E-mail: barbuta31bmc@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Services, B-dul Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron 1, Iasi 700050 (Romania); Harja, Maria, E-mail: maria_harja06@yahoo.com [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, B-dul Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron 73, Iasi 700050 (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: ► Using waste a new composite material was obtained with specific characteristics. ► The objective was to maximize tire powder content with the minimum resin content. ► By direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for 30% tire powder. ► Inverse neural modeling was used for obtaining maximum values of strengths. -- Abstract: The neural network method was used to investigate the influence of filler and resin content on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete with powdered tire waste. The mechanical strengths of 10 experimentally determined combinations using mixed epoxy resin, aggregates and tire powder as filler were optimized using direct neural modeling and inverse neural modeling, by imposing a minimum cost (content in resin). Direct neural modeling gave the optimum composition for obtaining maximum values for compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Inverse neural modeling analyzed the possibility of obtaining maximum values of mechanical properties by variations in the dosages of the epoxy resin and tire powder. Neural network modeling generated the mixes with the lowest cost and maximum strength. The modeling method has shown that two mechanical properties can be simultaneously optimized in the investigation domain. From direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for a composition with 0.215 (fraction weight) epoxy resin and 0.3 (fraction weight) tire powder. Maximum flexural strength was obtained for experimental values of 0.23 epoxy resin and 0.17 tire powder with a severe reduction noted for smaller resin dosages. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained for a resin dosage of 0.24 and tire powder dosage of 0.17.

  9. Prediction of properties of polymer concrete composite with tire rubber using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Using waste a new composite material was obtained with specific characteristics. ► The objective was to maximize tire powder content with the minimum resin content. ► By direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for 30% tire powder. ► Inverse neural modeling was used for obtaining maximum values of strengths. -- Abstract: The neural network method was used to investigate the influence of filler and resin content on the mechanical properties of polymer concrete with powdered tire waste. The mechanical strengths of 10 experimentally determined combinations using mixed epoxy resin, aggregates and tire powder as filler were optimized using direct neural modeling and inverse neural modeling, by imposing a minimum cost (content in resin). Direct neural modeling gave the optimum composition for obtaining maximum values for compressive strength, flexural strength and split tensile strength. Inverse neural modeling analyzed the possibility of obtaining maximum values of mechanical properties by variations in the dosages of the epoxy resin and tire powder. Neural network modeling generated the mixes with the lowest cost and maximum strength. The modeling method has shown that two mechanical properties can be simultaneously optimized in the investigation domain. From direct modeling, the maximum compressive strength was obtained for a composition with 0.215 (fraction weight) epoxy resin and 0.3 (fraction weight) tire powder. Maximum flexural strength was obtained for experimental values of 0.23 epoxy resin and 0.17 tire powder with a severe reduction noted for smaller resin dosages. The maximum split tensile strength was obtained for a resin dosage of 0.24 and tire powder dosage of 0.17

  10. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    OpenAIRE

    Behrouz Gordan; Azlan Adnan

    2015-01-01

    In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA) are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasi...

  11. The exponentiated Hencky strain energy in modelling tire derived material for moderately large deformations

    OpenAIRE

    Montella, G; Govindjee, S.; Neff, P.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a hyper-viscoelastic model based on the Hencky-logarithmic strain tensor to model the response of a Tire Derived Material (TDM) undergoing moderately large deformations. TDM is a composite made by cold forging a mix of rubber fibers and grains, obtained by grinding scrap tires, and polyurethane binder. The mechanical properties are highly influenced by the presence of voids associated with the granular composition and low tensile strength due to the weak connection at the g...

  12. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    OpenAIRE

    Haichao Zhou; Guolin Wang; Yangmin Ding; Jian Yang; Huihui Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS) reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SST k − ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtu...

  13. Prediction of bead area contact load at the tire-wheel interface using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical prediction of the bead area contact load at the tire wheel interface using NASTRAN is reported. The application of the linear code to a basically nonlinear problem results in excessive deformation of the structure and the tire-wheel contact conditions become impossible to achieve. A psuedo-nonlinear approach was adopted in which the moduli of the cord reinforced composite are increased so that the computed key deformations matched that of the experiment. Numerical results presented are discussed.

  14. Strategy for replacing conveyor belts in complex haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, L.; Jurdziak, L.; Masella, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses service life and reliability of conveyor belts used for mine haulage in brown coal surface mining and a method for optimizing belt service life. Based on analysis of operation of 900-1,200 m long belt conveyors in the Konin surface mine, failure rates and factors that influence belt reliability were determined. Effects of joints, length of belt sections and service life of each belt section were analyzed. Formulae for determining the optimum time interval for replacing belt sections on a long belt conveyor were derived. The formulae consider cost of new belt sections, replacement cost and haulage losses associated with possible belt failure caused by excessive belt service life. The optimization procedure has been successfully tested at the Turow surface mine and power plant. 4 refs.

  15. Influence of Tire Dynamics on Slip Ratio Estimation of Independent Driving Wheel System Influence of Tire Dynamics on Slip Ratio Estimation of Independent Driving Wheel System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiu; SONG Ziyou; WEI Yintao; OUYANG Minggao

    2014-01-01

    The independent driving wheel system, which is composed of in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor(I-PMSM) and tire, is more convenient to estimate the slip ratio because the rotary speed of the rotor can be accurately measured. However, the ring speed of the tire ring doesn’t equal to the rotor speed considering the tire deformation. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled by using Matlab/Simulink. Moreover, the tire/road contact interface(a slippery road) is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and the Magic Formula pragmatic model. Based on the relatively accurate model, the error of slip ratio estimated by the rotor rotary speed is analyzed in both time and frequency domains when a quarter car is started by the I-PMSM with a definite target torque input curve. In addition, the natural frequencies(NFs) of the driving wheel system with variable parameters are illustrated to present the relationship between the slip ratio estimation error and the NF. According to this relationship, a low-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency corresponds to the NF, is proposed to eliminate the error in the estimated slip ratio. The analysis, concerning the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation, shows that the peak estimation error can be reduced up to 75% when the LPF is adopted. The robustness and effectiveness of the LPF are therefore validated. This paper builds up the deformable tire model and the detailed I-PMSM models, and analyzes the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation.

  16. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications. PMID:19110410

  17. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  18. Development of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for implementing wireless sensors on the tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study is focused on a stable energy source independent of vehicle speed. • It is ascertained that the use of a strain field is suitable for this purpose. • A piezo patch generates 380.2 μJ per revolution under 500 kgf load and 60 km/h. • A self-powered wireless sensor system is manufactured for application and tested during vehicle driving. • The system is applicable to intelligent tire sensor systems. - Abstract: The need for energy harvesting technology is steadily growing in the field of self-powered wireless sensor systems for intelligent tires. The purpose of this study is to mount an energy harvester inside the tire. In order to achieve this, we focus on a stable energy source almost independent of vehicle speed. It is ascertained that the use of a strain field is suitable for this purpose. In order to develop the energy harvester for the tire, modeling of tire behavior has been performed and verified through comparing with experimental results. From the results, a piezoelectric energy harvester generates 380.2 μJ per revolution under 500 kgf load and 60 km/h. A self-powered wireless sensor system is manufactured for application and tested during vehicle driving. The result of this study presents 1.37 μW/mm3 of power generation from the performance of the energy harvester. This study concludes that the system is applicable to wireless tire sensor systems after making minor improvements

  19. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time. PMID:25102598

  20. Steel Slag and Shredded Tires as Media for Blind Inlets to Improve Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Smith, D. R.; Livingston, S.

    2015-12-01

    Off-site transport of contaminants through surface runoff affects water quality. Blind inlets are proven conservation practices for reducing surface runoff, and consequently reducing nutrient loadings from small agricultural closed depressions to water bodies. Gravel is the most widely used blind inlet media to reduce flow, but not to sorb contaminants from the water. Readily available byproducts, such as steel slag and shredded tires, could be used as alternative media in blind inlets to sorb nutrients and pesticides from surface runoff. Sorption isotherms were performed to investigate the sorption capabilities of steel slag and shredded tires for phosphate and atrazine in electrolyte background solutions containing either 10 mM CaCl2 or KCl. Results of this research demonstrated that phosphate and atrazine were irreversibly sorbed by the steel slag and shredded tires. The steel slag increased the pH solution increased about 4 pH units after the sorption step; while the pH of the solution with shredded tires remained the same. Desorption of the phosphate and atrazine was low from the steel slag and shredded tires, respectively. Thus, the above results suggest that the steel slag and shredded tires can potentially be used as media to sorb phosphate and atrazine, respectively.

  1. Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) to Expand the Production Ca- pacity of Radial Tires%Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) to Expand the Production Ca- pacity of Radial Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoTian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the completion and putting into production of the 1 st phase radial tire project with the output of 3 million units, Cheng Shin Rubber (Chongqing) Co., Ltd. decides to in- crease investment to expand the radial tire production line with the annual out- put of 4 million units to reach the radial tire production scale of annual output of 7 million units designed at first as soon as possible.

  2. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  3. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF VISCOELASTIC AXIALLY MOVING BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 高庆; 蹇开林; 殷学纲

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive law and the motion equation of the axially moving belt, the nonlinear dynamic model of the viscoelastic axial moving belt was established. And then it was reduced to be a linear differential system which the analytical solutions with a constant transport velocity and with a harmonically varying transport velocity were obtained by applying Lie group transformations. According to the nonlinear dynamic model, the effects of material parameters and the steady-state velocity and the perturbed axial velocity of the belt on the dynamic responses of the belts were investigated by the research of digital simulation. The result shows: 1 ) The nonlinear vibration frequency of the belt will become small when the relocity of the belt increases. 2 ) Increasing the value of viscosity or decreasing the value of elasticity leads to a deceasing in vibration frequencies. 3 ) The most effects of the transverse amplitudes come from the frequency of the perturbed velocity when the belt moves with harmonic velocity.

  4. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  5. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives: influence of tensioner and belt characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis

    2007-01-01

    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  6. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  7. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  8. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  9. Two Discrete UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts in the Central Orogenic Belt, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhang Li; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to confirm the existence of the two discrete UHP and HP metamorphic belts in the central orogenic belt in China. Detailed geological mapping and structural and petrological analyses of the Kanfenggou (看丰沟) and Xiangfanggou ( 香坊沟 ) slices exposed in the eastern Qinling (秦岭) orogen indicate that they experienced ultrahigh pressure and high pressure metamorphism, respectively. The former, situated in northern Qinling, contains a large volume of fine-grained coesite and quartz pseudomorphs after coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses, whereas the latter, located in southern Qinling, preserves the relicts of a high pressure metamorphic mineral assemblage. Based on extensive fieldwork together with compilations at the scale of the orogenic belt, and a comparison of Pb isotopic compositions between the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou slice and the Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, we propose that there are at least two discrete ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belts with different ages and tectonic evolution within the central orogenic belt in China. The first is the South Altun-North Qaidam-North Qinling ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt of Early Paleozoic age (~ 500-400 Ma). The Kanfenggou ultrahigh pressure slab is located at its eastern segment. The second is the well constrained Dabie ( 大别 )-Sulu ( 苏鲁 ) ultrahigh/ high pressure metamorphic belt of Triassic age (~250-220 Ma). The Xiangfanggou high pressure metamorphic slab is a westward extension of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh/high pressure metamorphic belt. The Pb isotopic compositions of the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou UHP fragment in East Qinling are different from those of the UHP rocks in Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, but are consistent with those of the rocks from the Qinling rock group and Erlangping (二郎坪) rock group. The East Qinling UHP metamorphic belt does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt. These two ultrahigh

  10. Constitutive model development for lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Wa Yeung

    2005-11-01

    Rubber-soil (lightly cemented scrap rubber tire chips) is a promising solution for the global scrap tire problem. It is also a promising material for various geotechnical engineering applications because of its advantageous properties such as lightweight, high permeability, high ductility and ease to cast. Intensive laboratory studies, mostly under triaxial testing, are conducted and a constitutive model is proposed. Firstly, the effective stress principle is proven applicable for Rubber-soil under normal engineering stress level although the inter-particle contact area is large. Secondly, because of the gravel-sized surface voids on the testing samples, membrane penetration is serious so an integrated remedy method is proposed, where the surface voids are patched up first and then a lubricated reinforced membrane is dressed on. It is found that the volumetric deformation of Rubber-soil is very recoverable even after 20% volume contraction but the over consolidation results illustrate a decreasing stiffness, which is believed due to volumetric damage. Shearing on the sample gives typical results as sands where clear phase transformation is observed, but the strains involved are higher and more recoverable. Besides, shear stiffness is observed decreasing with deformation, which is believed due to shear damage. There are other observations such as the difference in the curvatures of unloading and reloading curves in CD tests, which might be a frictional phenomenon. Based on the laboratory observations and on the analogy of a continuum spring-block system, a constitutive model termed as Analogical Model is proposed. Fifteen model parameters are involved but most of them are typical soil parameters. The remaining ones have clear physical meanings and can be easily calibrated. It is found that the model can satisfactorily capture many features observed from the experiments, such as hardening, softening, apparent permanent deformations, stiffness decay due to damage

  11. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXV, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM D-8 AND 824 MODELS, II--TIRES AND TIRE HARDWARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTION OF HEAVY TIRES AND WHEELS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THEORY OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) MAINTENANCE TIPS (COOLING SYSTEM), (4)…

  13. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  14. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R., E-mail: ramon.diazdeleon@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 40, Col. San Jose de los Cerritos, 25293 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  15. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated. PMID:18838261

  16. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  17. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haichao; Wang, Guolin; Ding, Yangmin; Yang, Jian; Zhai, Huihui

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS) reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SST k - ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(4(5)), the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  18. Investigation of the Effect of Dimple Bionic Nonsmooth Surface on Tire Antihydroplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the idea that bionic nonsmooth surfaces (BNSS reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, the effect of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure arranged in tire circumferential grooves surface on antihydroplaning performance was investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The physical model of the object (model of dimple bionic nonsmooth surface distribution, hydroplaning model and SST k-ω turbulence model are established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. By virtue of the orthogonal table L16(45, the parameters of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment was obtained. The simulation results show that dimple bionic nonsmooth structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, optimal type of dimple bionic nonsmooth structure is arranged on the bottom of tire circumferential grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that the dimple bionic nonsmooth structure effectively decreases the tread hydrodynamic pressure when driving on water film and increases the tire hydroplaning velocity, thus improving tire antihydroplaning performance.

  19. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-04-19

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at http://www.tiredb.org.

  20. Investigation on the potential generation of ultrafine particles from the tire-road interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathissen, Marcel; Scheer, Volker; Vogt, Rainer; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    There has been some discussion in the literature on the generation of ultrafine particles from tire abrasion of studded and non-studded tires tested in the laboratory environment. In the present study, the potential generation of ultrafine particles from the tire road interface was investigated during real driving. An instrumented Sport Utility Vehicle equipped with summer tires was used to measure particle concentrations with high temporal resolution inside the wheel housing while driving on a regular asphalt road. Different driving conditions, i.e., straight driving, acceleration, braking, and cornering were applied. For normal driving conditions no enhanced particle number concentration in the size range 6-562 nm was found. Unusual maneuvers associated with significant tire slip resulted in measurable particle concentrations. The maximum of the size distribution was between 30 and 60 nm. An exponential increase of the particle concentration with velocity was measured directly at the disc brakes for full stop brakings. A tracer gas experiment was carried out to estimate the upper limit of the emission factor during normal straight driving.

  1. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete. PMID:15219914

  2. The Use of Deconstructed Tires as Elastic Elements in Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sol-Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements such as rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats are railway components that allow for a reduction in track deterioration and vibrations. And they are furthermore commonly used to obtain an optimal vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. However, the use of elastomeric materials can increase construction costs and the consumption of raw materials. Thus, the utilization of used tire layers offers an alternative to reuse an abundant waste reducing the cost of elastic elements. In addition, an innovator technique allows deconstructing tire layers without grinding up the material, reducing production costs at the same time that tire properties are remained. This research is focused on the study of the viability of developing elastic components from used tire layers by evaluating the influence of thickness, the resistance capacity of the elements and their behavior in a ballast box. Results indicate the ability of tire pads to manufacture elastic elements (rail pads, under sleeper pads and under ballast mats to be used in railway tracks.

  3. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  4. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. The effect of chine tires on nose gear water-spray characteristics of a twin engine airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.; Stubbs, S. M.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of nose gear chine tires in eliminating or minimizing the engine spray ingestion problem encountered on several occasions by the Merlin 4, a twin-engine propjet airplane. A study of the photographic and television coverage indicated that under similar test conditions the spray from the chine tires presented less of a potential engine spray ingestion problem than the conventional tires. Neither tire configuration appeared to pose any ingestion problem at aircraft speeds in excess of the hydroplaning speed for each tire, however, significant differences were noted in the spray patterns of the two sets of tires at sub-hydroplaning speeds. At sub-hydroplaning speeds, the conventional tires produced substantial spray above the wing which approached the general area of the engine air inlet at lower test speeds. The chine tires produced two distinct spray plumes at sub-hydroplaning speeds: one low-level plume which presented no apparent threat of ingestion, and one which at most test speeds was observed to be below the wing leading edge and thus displaced from the intakes on the engine nacelle.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4071-3 - Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to manufacturer's retail outlet. 48.4071-3 Section 48.4071-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 48.4071-3 Imposition of tax on tires and tubes delivered to manufacturer's retail outlet. (a) General... a retail outlet of the manufacturer, the manufacturer is liable for tax in respect of the tire...

  7. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  8. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  9. Award-winning cooperation: Missouri's waste tire to energy program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, E.; Fester, D.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperation and planning among two state agencies and the University of Missouri produced benefits for all and gained national recognition for innovation. Abandoned waste Tire facilities in Missouri Pose a significant health threat to nearby residents. In addition to being mosquito breeding grounds, facilities have been set on fire. These fires have released enormous quantities of air toxics and particulate matter to the surrounding communities. Three Missouri institutions have created a unique partnership to begin cleaning up these facilities. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Missouri Department of Correction, and the University of Missouri- Columbia have transformed a waste stream into an emission reducing fuel stream. An air emission test at the university's coal fired power plant demonstrate that tire derived fuel (TDF) reduces emissions. Data presented will demonstrate a new method of reducing emission at coal-fired power plants while removing abandoned tires from the environment.

  10. Study of vehicle accident reconstruction based on the information of the tire marks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The tire mark is the important legacy in formation left at the accident scene. Based on the vehicle collision dynamics model, this study provided an optimized algorithm with vehicle final location and other related information for the tire marks. When the tire marks simulation results fit the real one well. The state of vehicle can be understood as the real state in the accident. Based on above. The vehicle velocity and direction are decided. According to the velocity and direction of the vehicle, the complete accident process can be simulated. With the help of the Pc-Crash software. The method has been applied in typical collision accident cases analysis. The reconstruction results will provide the scientific and numerical References for vehicle collision accidents analyzing and appraising.

  11. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    of industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns....... Investigated temperatures varied from 700 to 1000 °C, and oxygen concentrations varied from 5% v/v O2 to 21% v/v O2. The devolatilization time of tire rubber and pine wood were found to mainly depend on temperature and particle size and were within 40 to 170 s. Rate limiting parameters for char oxidation...... of tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial...

  12. Influence of tire dynamics on slip ratio estimation of independent driving wheel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiu; Song, Ziyou; Wei, Yintao; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-11-01

    The independent driving wheel system, which is composed of in-wheel permanent magnet synchronous motor(I-PMSM) and tire, is more convenient to estimate the slip ratio because the rotary speed of the rotor can be accurately measured. However, the ring speed of the tire ring doesn't equal to the rotor speed considering the tire deformation. For this reason, a deformable tire and a detailed I-PMSM are modeled by using Matlab/Simulink. Moreover, the tire/road contact interface(a slippery road) is accurately described by the non-linear relaxation length-based model and the Magic Formula pragmatic model. Based on the relatively accurate model, the error of slip ratio estimated by the rotor rotary speed is analyzed in both time and frequency domains when a quarter car is started by the I-PMSM with a definite target torque input curve. In addition, the natural frequencies(NFs) of the driving wheel system with variable parameters are illustrated to present the relationship between the slip ratio estimation error and the NF. According to this relationship, a low-pass filter, whose cut-off frequency corresponds to the NF, is proposed to eliminate the error in the estimated slip ratio. The analysis, concerning the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation, shows that the peak estimation error can be reduced up to 75% when the LPF is adopted. The robustness and effectiveness of the LPF are therefore validated. This paper builds up the deformable tire model and the detailed I-PMSM models, and analyzes the effect of the driving wheel parameters and road conditions on slip ratio estimation.

  13. Job stress in the staff of a tire factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marzieh torshizi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is a major problem in industrial societies. Its relationship with various diseases is increasing ,but it probably has vast socio-economic consequences manifested in the form of absenteeism, labour turnover, loss of productivity and disability pension costs. The present study aimed at determining stress in the staff of a tyre factory.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 196 members of staff from various sections of a tire factory in 2008 through proportional classification and randomized sampling .Data was collected by means of Coudron two questionnaires "demographic" and "standardized job stress" . The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software (v: 11.5, chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient (P ≤ 0.05.   Results: It was found that 49.5% of the staff had severe job stress .Severe job stress was 55.8% in the production unit (No. =53, 50% in the administrative unit (No. =16 and 40.6% supporting the backing unit (No=28.   There was a significant relationship between variables income and adequate sleep on one hand and level of job stress on the other (P < 0.001.However, no significant relationship was observed between job stress and age, marital status, education, working record ,and exercise.   Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study, more than half of the employees suffered from job stress. Compared with employees in other industrialized countries, Iranian employees appeared to have much higher prevalence of stress. Therefore, more studies are required in order to reduce the amount of stress and its consequences.

  14. Commentary: legal minimum tread depth for passenger car tires in the U.S.A.--a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, William; Seguin, Debra E

    2006-06-01

    Available tire traction is a significant highway safety issue, particularly on wet roads. Tire-roadway friction on dry, clean roads is essentially independent of tread depth, and depends primarily on roadway surface texture. However, tire-wet-roadway friction, both for longitudinal braking and lateral cornering forces, depends on several variables, most importantly on water depth, speed and tire tread depth, and the roadway surface texture. The car owner-operator has control over speed and tire condition, but not on water depth or road surface texture. Minimum tire tread depth is legislated throughout most of the United States and Europe. Speed reduction for wet road conditions is not.A survey of state requirements for legal minimum tread depth for passenger vehicle tires in the United States is presented. Most states require a minimum of 2/32 of an inch (approximately 1.6 mm) of tread, but two require less, some have no requirements, and some defer to the federal criterion for commercial vehicle safety inspections. The requirement of 2/32 of an inch is consistent with the height of the tread-wear bars built in to passenger car tires sold in the United States, but the rationale for that requirement, or other existing requirements, is not clear. Recent research indicates that a minimum tread depth of 2/32 of an inch does not prevent significant loss of friction at highway speeds, even for minimally wet roadways. The research suggests that tires with less than 4/32 of an inch tread depth may lose approximately 50 percent of available friction in those circumstances, even before hydroplaning occurs. It is concluded that the present requirements for minimum passenger car tire tread depth are not based upon rational safety considerations, and that an increase in the minimum tread depth requirements would have a beneficial effect on highway safety.

  15. Using Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires to Reduce Road Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of sound pressure levels on an experimental road section (road pavement with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires in Mala Ida village (Kosice region, Slovakia and on a road with stone mastic asphalt in Haniska village (Presov region, Slovakia are presented in the paper. The results obtained using statistical pass-by methods were compared and they confirmed that road surface with addition of crumb rubber from waste tires produced quieter pavement than stone mastic asphalt road pavement alone.

  16. Further extension of the range of the rock pool mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, via tire breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, S J; Craig, G B

    1989-03-01

    In the past, Aedes atropalpus was limited to those areas of the eastern U.S. and Canada that had rivers or shorelines with large rocks containing rock pools. In the last 10 years, many new records of larval breeding in scrap tires have accumulated. We present records of larval breeding in non-rock pool containers for 54 counties; most are far from the original range. The species has not only found a new habitat but has greatly extended its range via commercial transport of scrap tires. PMID:2708986

  17. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Miguel Roston; Andréia de Barros Collaço

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm), while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tir...

  18. The Compositions of Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Objects in the Kuiper belt are small and far away thus difficult to study in detail even with the best telescopes available at earth. For much of the early history of the Kuiper belt, studies of the compositions of these objects were relegated to collections of moderate quality spectral and photometric data that remained difficult to interpret. Much early effort was put into simple correlations of surface colors and identifications of spectral features, but it was difficult to connect the observations to a larger understanding of the region. The last decade, however, has seen a blossoming in our understanding of the compositions of objects in the Kuiper belt. This blossoming is a product of the discoveries of larger -- and thus easier to study -- objects, continued dedication to the collection of a now quite large collection of high quality photometric and spectroscopic observations, and continued work at the laboratory and theoretical level. Today we now know of many processes which affect the surface compos...

  19. Perceptual findings on the broadway belt voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo LeBorgne, Wendy; Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C; Bush, Heather

    2010-11-01

    The present study required raters (casting directors) to evaluate the belt voice quality of 20 musical theater majors who were proficient in the singing style referred to as belting. Two specified vocalizes and six short excerpts from the belting repertoire were used for rating purposes. The raters were asked to judge the belters on a set of seven perceptual parameters (loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, nasality, and registration breaks), and then report an overall score for these student belters. The four highest and lowest average scores were used to establish the elite and average student belters. A correlation analysis and linear regression analysis provided insight regarding which perceptual judgments correlated most highly with the elite and average scores. The present study found the perceptual ratings of vibrato and ring to be most highly correlated to the elite student belter. In addition, vibrato and ring were found to highly correlate with perceived loudness. PMID:19900789

  20. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  1. 工程子午胎用钢帘线芯股冒出原因分析与解决措施%Cause analysis and solution of OTR radial tire steel cord core & strand outshot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付双杰; 丁文旭; 王庭良; 曹秀岭

    2013-01-01

    钢帘线生产过程如果控制不当,会产生轮胎使用过程带束层帘线芯线(或芯股)冒出的缺陷,严重影响轮胎的安全使用.通过对钢帘线的生产工艺分析与试验,以及对芯线刺出的轮胎解剖分析认为,是钢帘线芯线丝径控制不当、股线低负荷伸长率不合理以及钢帘线捻制工艺不合理,致使钢帘线芯股冒出.以7×7 ×0.25 +0.15HT钢帘线生产为例,采取严格控制芯线丝径,科学设定股线低负荷伸长率,同时合理控制管绞机捻制工艺等措施,有效避免了钢帘线芯股冒出,保证了轮胎在使用过程中的安全性能.%Defects of steel cord core with belt outshot occurred in tire use if it was controlled improperly in steel cord production process,which affect safety use of tire seriously.The production process of steel cord is analyzed and tested,and tire of core wire outshot is anatomical analyzed,the reason of steel cord core outshot is incorrect steel cord core diameter control and irrational cord low load elongation and unreasonable steel cord laying process.To take 7 × 7 × 0.25 + 0.15HT steel cord production as an example,measures are adopted such as control core diameter strictly,set strand low load elongation scientifically,control tubular strander cabling process,steel cord core outshot can be avoided effectively,and the safety performance of tire during use is guaranteed.

  2. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  3. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  4. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Tires. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, management, economic analysis, and environmental impacts of reclamation and recycling of scrap tires. The design and evaluation of recycling processes are examined. Recycled products for use in construction materials, embankment fills, fuel supplements, and material substitutions are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. 75 FR 7586 - Baled Natural Rubber in Tires; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Agency Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles. Environmental Science Technology. 1999. 33:4159-4168... manufacture of tires, wherein said rubber fails to satisfy The American Society for Testing Materials method... Society for Testing Materials method ASTM D1076-06 (Category 5),'' because ``Implementation of an...

  6. 49 CFR 571.129 - Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .../Wheel Center Member Matching Information. For purposes of this standard, S8 of 49 CFR 571.110 and S10 of 49 CFR 571.120, each manufacturer of a non-pneumatic tire that is not an integral part of a...

  7. Use of shredded tires as support medium for subsurface flow constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Miguel Roston

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated shredded tires as a medium for constructed wetlands, treating domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted utilizing effluent of a small Sewage Treatment Plant. Two tanks with 10 m2 each, with dimensions of 2 m wide, 5 m long and 1 m height were built above soil level using cement bricks. One of the tanks was filled out entirely with crushed stone (diameter 55 to 90 mm, while in the other tank the medium was shredded tires reaching the height of 0.80 m. Above the tires, a 0.10 m gravel layer to complete the total height (1 m and avoid floating. The aquatic macrophytes utilized were from Typha species distributed uniformly over the beds. The following parameters were monitored: suspended solids, pH, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen. The results were submitted to a statistical analysis in order to verify if significant difference existed (to 1 % and 5% of significance between the two treatments. The results demonstrate no significant difference for the parameter NH3-N, while for suspended solids and pH, were found significant differences to 1% and 5% of significance. For COD was found significant difference to 5% of significance. The results indicated a potential use of shredded tires to substitute the conventional media utilized for subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  8. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Environmental Health and Safety Risks'' (62 FR 19855, April 23, 1997), applies to any rule that: (1) Is... FR 12869, 12870 (March 7, 1977). b. Physical Dimensions Test The purpose of the physical dimensions... indicates that there could be a safety risk from that tire's not matching well with its rim, or not...

  9. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... period corresponding to S7.1 filed pursuant to 49 CFR 585.66. The vehicles are counted in fulfillment of... those vehicles with dual wheels on an axle, according to the phase-in schedule specified in S7 of this....1General. To the extent provided in S7, each vehicle must be equipped with a tire pressure...

  10. Recovery and Modification of Waste Tire Particles and Their Use as Reinforcements of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by solid wastes is increasing in the last decades; one of these is referred to automotive tires, which are recycled by different methods, including mechanical grinding. One of the most recurrent applications is to use recycled particles as fillers in building materials, as hydraulic concrete. Nevertheless, detrimental values on the mechanical properties are obtained when they are added. For solving these problems, in this work, a novel proposal is to modify the physicochemical properties of the waste automotive tire particles, previously obtained by grinding process, by using gamma irradiation in order to use them as reinforcements of hydraulic concrete. The results show that improvements on the mechanical properties depend of gamma irradiation as well as concentration and size of waste tire particles. Moreover, SEM images are related to mechanical properties; for instance, rough surface of the tire particles changes when applying irradiation; more smooth surfaces are created, due to the cross-linking of polymer chains. Nevertheless, for higher doses, cracks are observed which are produced by scission of the polymer chains.

  11. Implications of non-carcinogenic pah-free extender oils in natural rubber based tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petchkaew, Anida

    2015-01-01

    The oils are generally added in the rubber compounds to improve processing properties, low temperature properties, dispersion of fillers, and to reduce cost. The conventionally widely used oils in tire compounds are Distillate Aromatic Extract (DAE) oils, which contain a high concentration of Polycy

  12. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  13. Structure and parameterization of MF-swift, a magic formula-based rigid ring tire model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Versteden, W.D.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle dynamic simulations require accurate, fast, reliable, and easy-to- parameterize tire models. For this purpose, TNO developed MF-Swift in close cooperation with the technical universities of Delft and Eindhoven. MF-Swift is based on the well-known magic formula model of Pacejka but extending

  14. Manufacture of Partially Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on PLA-Tires Powder: Process and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rolando Rios-Soberanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work focuses on the processability and mechanical characterization of blends of polylactic acid (PLA and tire (elastomeric part. Wasted tires used as filler in the PLA matrix were reduced by two different processes (thermal shock and pyrolysis in order to acquire the solid residuals in powder to be characterized and compared. Elastomeric solids obtained from scraped tires were used as filler in the PLA matrix and mixed in a Brabender 60 cc mixer at different concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% of filler volume fraction. The blend was laminated, and then samples were obtained in order to undertake mechanical properties at tension and Izod impact tests. A fully detailed analysis on the solid powders by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared analysis (IR, and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM identified them as a rich source of carbon. Blends were characterized thermally and mechanically showing a direct effect due to the tire nature (thermoset rubber and concentration. Fracture mechanisms were also identified.

  15. Impact of Vehicle Class and Tire Pressure on Pavement Performance in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. E. Attia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG design and analysis procedures defines the exact traffic loading by defining the specific number of each vehicle class and the use of axle load distribution factors instead of the equivalent single axle load (ESAL. The number of traffic inputs (parameters in MEPDG was found to be 17024. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted flexible pavement distress to vehicle class and tire pressure in MEPDG. To evaluate the impact of vehicle (truck class on pavement sections, different cases of loading were analyzed. For each case, the MEPDG Ver. 1.1 was used to evaluate the effect of tire pressure by solving each case for a tire pressure of 120 and 140 psi. The effect of the traffic parameters on asphalt pavement (AC rutting, base rutting, subgrade rutting, international roughness index (IRI, longitudinal cracking and fatigue (alligator cracking were investigated. It was found that vehicle class distribution (VCD would cause clear impact (comparable to the effect of AADTT level only if the major traffic is of specific class (very light or very heavy. If this is not the case, the vehicle class distribution will not be a significant factor that affects the final design because most of the trucks had similar impact on flexible pavement distresses. The impact of tire pressure is clear on longitudinal cracking, fatigue cracking and AC rutting, and have no significant impact on both base and subgrade rutting.

  16. Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, Jielun

    1998-01-01

    There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

  17. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open burning of scrap tires. Fixed combustion gas, volatile and semi-volatile organic, particulate, and airborne metals data were collecte...

  19. Composite indices applied to vibration data in rolling tires to detect bead area damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. J.; Adams, D. E.

    2007-07-01

    The primary objective of this research was to identify an online indicator of tire bead area separation for use in tire durability testing. The dynamics of tires with asymmetric bead area damage and the transmission of vibrations to an axle housing were studied. Experimental results from online data collected on a 67-in diameter roadwheel and a 120-in diameter roadwheel are presented. Statistical measures, trends in frequency content and transient wavelet maps, and composite damage indices were all evaluated as online damage detection features. Trends in statistical measures and frequency content were both indicative of damage progression, but were also sensitive to changes in test conditions. Wavelet maps were indicative of damage progression and showed potential for locating damage circumferentially on a tire. Wavelet analysis of data from both roadwheels indicated that damage increased the amount of higher frequency content in the response signals measured at the spindle arm and axle housing. The increase in broadband content was thought to come from transient vibrations generated when the damaged bead area passed through the contact patch. Composite damage indices that combined frequency and spatial data provided very clear indicators of potential damage initiation events, even predicting the number of ruptures, by drawing out the relevant information in the signals from the ambient vibration. The most effective composite indices multiplied several data signals such that only when all data signals indicated a change would the composite indices also indicate that damage had occurred.

  20. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  1. Influence of silica-polymer bond microstructure on tire-performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichomski, E.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.; Blume, A.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the coupling agent structure in a silica-silane filler system lead to alterations of the microstructure of the silica-polymer interface and determine the dynamic properties, thus wet skid resistance (WSR) and rolling resistance (RR) of a tire tread. Silanes with one ethoxy-group instead o

  2. Residual toxicity of four insecticides to Aedes triseriatus in scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, J W; Quick, T C; DeFoliart, G R

    1991-03-01

    Four insecticides were tested for residual activity to Aedes triseriatus in scrap tires. Abate (temephos) granules applied at 10 ppm (AI) resulted in 100% mortality of 4th instar larvae for more than one year. The other insecticides caused no mortality within 4 wk after application. PMID:2045803

  3. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  4. Road load simulation using the MF-Swift tire and OpenCRG road model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Versteden, W.D.; Eguchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    On one hand automotive manufacturers are trying to reduce product development times, while on the other hand they are aiming to bring more products to the market. Since safely and reliability must always be guaranteed, they use CAE to achieve this. For calculating road loads accurately, the tire and

  5. 49 CFR 571.139 - Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) for trailers in highway service, tires for use on farm implements (FI) in agricultural service with... reference of this material in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. A copy of ASTM F-1805-00... automotive wheel, provides the traction and contains the gas or fluid that sustains the load. Radial ply...

  6. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-10-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  7. Investigation of the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by techniques of thermal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Gisbert, Antonio V.

    In this work is investigated the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by thermal compression. The production of recycled products is carried out starting from the powder, of elastomeric nature, coming from the grinding of used tires denominated GTR (Ground Tire Rubber) of different grain size, although the fundamental objective is the recycling of powder of 0,2mm grain size. The process of forming used for obtaining the recycled product is thermal compression, due to its simplicity and low cost. The composition of the powder has been analyzed and also the influence, on the elastomeric characteristics of the recycled product, of different parameters: Grain size, compact pressure, temperature, time, thickness of the recycled product and combination of sizes. At last we give an hypothesis that justifies the mechanism that gives cohesion to the powder GTR and allows their recycling. We also have carried out an analysis of the investigation lines, at the present, on the recycling of tires in general and an economic study of the viability of the recycled product in front of present products in the market, agglomerated with polyurethane, that have their application in using it in different types of floors.

  8. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  9. Cleaner alternative liquid fuels derived from the hydrodesulfurization of waste tire pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) could be applied for waste tire pyrolysis oil (WTPO). • HDS of WTPO catalyzed by NiMo catalyst reached a sulfur removal of 87.8%. • High catalyst content, H2 pressure, temperature and time increased level of HDS. • HDS improved color and slightly increased heating value and saturation of WTPO. - Abstract: Waste tires are attractive sources for alternative energy due to their long hydrocarbon chains with a high heating value. However, the condensed (volatile portion) pyrolysis oil derived from waste tires contains a relatively large level of sulfur compounds (1.15 wt%), which is not appropriate for use in combustion engines. Therefore, this research aimed to improve the waste tire pyrolysis oil (WTPO) via hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyzed by molybdenum (Mo), nickel–Mo (NiMo) or cobalt–Mo supported on alumina (γ-Al2O3). The maximum % sulfur removal (87.8%) was achieved when the reaction was performed at 250 °C for 30 min using a 2 wt% NiMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst loading based on the WTPO content and 20 bar initial hydrogen pressure. The amount of sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil was determined using gas chromatography spectroscopy equipped with a flame photometric detector (GC–FPD). The HDS of the WTPO was effective to reduce the sulfurous compounds, especially thiophene and its derivatives. The results from the simulated distillation gas chromatography (GC–SIMDIS) showed that the hydrodesulfurized WTPO (HDS-WTPO) was mainly composed of a light naphtha fraction (ca. 69%). The heating value of the HDS-WTPO (44 MJ/kg) was similar to those for commercial diesel (45 MJ/kg) and gasoline (gasohol) fuels (47 MJ/kg)

  10. Optimization of fuel recovery through the stepwise co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The co-pyrolysis of palm shell and scrap tire was studied. • The effect of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature was investigated. • Co-pyrolysis successfully improved the quantity and quality of product yields. • Stepwise co-pyrolysis slightly increased oil and gas, and decreased char. • The co-pyrolysis of 50% biomass and 50% scrap tire is recommended. - Abstract: This study optimized the use of biomass waste to generate fuel through co-pyrolysis. In this paper, the effects of stepwise co-pyrolysis temperature and different ratios between palm shells and scrap tires in feedstock were studied to observe any improvements in the quantity and quality of the liquid yield and its byproduct. The ratio of palm shells and scrap tires varied at 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The experiment was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The study was divided into two scenarios. The first scenario was performed at the optimum temperature of 500 °C with a reaction time of 60 min. In the second scenario, the temperature was set at 500 °C for 60 min before the temperature was increased to 800 °C with a high heating rate. After the temperature reached 800 °C, the condition was maintained for approximately 45 min. Results showed that an increase in the liquid and gas yields was achieved when the temperature increased after optimum conditions. Increased yield was also obtained when the proportion of scrap tire was increased in the feedstock. Several other important findings are discussed in this paper, including the phases of pyrolysis oil, features of the liquid product, and characteristics of the byproducts. All products from both scenarios were analyzed by various methods to understand their fuel characteristics

  11. Tissue repair genes: the TiRe database and its implication for skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Budovsky, Arie; Tacutu, Robi; Barzilay, Thomer; Abramovich, Amir; Ziesche, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-04-19

    Wound healing is an inherent feature of any multicellular organism and recent years have brought about a huge amount of data regarding regular and abnormal tissue repair. Despite the accumulated knowledge, modulation of wound healing is still a major biomedical challenge, especially in advanced ages. In order to collect and systematically organize what we know about the key players in wound healing, we created the TiRe (Tissue Repair) database, an online collection of genes and proteins that were shown to directly affect skin wound healing. To date, TiRe contains 397 entries for four organisms: Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Sus domesticus, and Homo sapiens. Analysis of the TiRe dataset of skin wound healing-associated genes showed that skin wound healing genes are (i) over-conserved among vertebrates, but are under-conserved in invertebrates; (ii) enriched in extracellular and immuno-inflammatory genes; and display (iii) high interconnectivity and connectivity to other proteins. The latter may provide potential therapeutic targets. In addition, a slower or faster skin wound healing is indicative of an aging or longevity phenotype only when assessed in advanced ages, but not in the young. In the long run, we aim for TiRe to be a one-station resource that provides researchers and clinicians with the essential data needed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of wound healing, designing new experiments, and the development of new therapeutic strategies. TiRe is freely available online at http://www.tiredb.org. PMID:27049721

  12. Gaseous contaminant emissions as affected by burning scrap tires in cement manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, F; Bredin, N; Heitz, M

    2002-01-01

    We studied the environmental impact (gaseous emissions) of using scrap tires as a fuel substitute at a cement plant that produces one million tons of cement per year. Using a combination of tires and coal as opposed to only coal caused variations in the pollutant emission rate. The study recorded a 37% increase in the rate of emission for CO, a 24% increase for SO2, an 11% decrease for NOx, and a 48% increase for HCl when tires were included. The rate of emission for metals increased 61% for Fe, 33% for Al, 487% for Zn, 127% for Pb, 339% for Cr, 100% for Mn, and 74% for Cu, and decreased 22% for Hg. On the other hand, the emission rate of organic compounds dropped by 14% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 8% in naphthalene, 37% in chlorobenzene, and 45% in dioxins and furans. We used a Gaussian model of atmospheric dispersion to calculate the average pollutant concentration (1-h, 24-h, and annual concentrations) in the ambient air at ground level with the help of the ISC-ST2 software program developed by the USEPA. When tires were used, we observed (i) a 12 to 24% increase in particulate matter, this range considering the concentration variation depending on the average used (1-h, 24-h, and annual basis), 31 to 52% in CO, 22 to 34% in SO2, 39 to 52% in HCl, 12 to 27% in Fe, -3 to 8% in Al, 30 to 37% in Zn, and 270 to 885% in Pb; (ii) a decrease of 8 to 13% in NOx, 9 to 13% in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 to 7% in naphthalene, 32 to 39% in chlorobenzene, and 32 to 45% in dioxins and furans. The results obtained showed that the maximum ground-level concentrations were well within the environmental standards (for operation with only coal as well as for operation with a combination of coal and tires). PMID:12371165

  13. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  14. Detecting Extrasolar Asteroid Belts Through Their Microlensing Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Ethan; Dong, Subo

    2016-01-01

    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called "pseudo-caustics", regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive microlensing light curves across a wide region of belt parameter space and possess remarkably large lensing cross-sections. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys (e.g., WFIRST) may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of $0.1 M_{\\oplus}$.

  15. Cornering characteristics of a 40 by 14-16 type 7 aircraft tire and a comparison with characteristics of a C40 by 14-21 cantilever aircraft tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Dreher, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to determine the cornering characteristics of a 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire. These characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained for the tire operating on dry, damp and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 20 deg and at ground speeds from 5 to 100 knots, both with and without braking. The results of this investigation indicated that the cornering capability of the 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire is degraded by high ground speeds, thin-film lubrication and tire hydroplaning effects on the wet surfaces, and brake torque. The cornering capability is greatly diminished when locked-wheel skids are encountered.

  16. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  17. LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON DRUMS OF DOUBLE DRIVE BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利

    1999-01-01

    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  18. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  19. Application of adsorption process by activated carbon derived from scrap tires for Pb+2 removal from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Hoseinzadeh; Ali Reza Rahmani; Ghorban Asgari; Mohamad Taghi Samadi; Ghodratollah Roshanaei; Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Heavy metals have been recognized as very poisonous elements and their discharge into water sources can cause damaging effects on human and environmental health. The present study aimed at producing activated carbon from scrap tires and using it in removing Pb+2 from synthetic aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, activated carbon powder was derived from scrap tires under laboratory conditions. The effect of Pb (II) ions wi...

  20. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  1. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation of effect of bionic V-riblet non-smooth surface on tire anti-hydroplaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海超; 王国林; 杨建; 薛开鑫

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the idea that bionic non-smooth surfaces (BNSS) can reduce fluid adhesion and resistance, and the effect of bionic V-riblet non-smooth structure arranged in tire tread pattern grooves surface on anti-hydroplaning performance was investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The physical model of the object (model of V-riblet surface distribution, hydroplaning model) and SSTk−ω turbulence model were established for numerical analysis of tire hydroplaning. With the help of a orthogonal table L16(45), the parameters of V-riblet structure design compared to the smooth structure were analyzed, and obtained the priority level of the experimental factors as well as the best combination within the scope of the experiment. The simulation results show that V-riblet structure can reduce water flow resistance by disturbing the eddy movement in boundary layers. Then, the preferred type of V-riblet non-smooth structure was arranged on the bottom of tire grooves for hydroplaning performance analysis. The results show that bionic V-riblet non-smooth structure can effectively increase hydroplaning velocity and improve tire anti-hydroplaning performance. Bionic design of tire tread pattern grooves is a good way to promote anti-hydroplaning performance without increasing additional groove space, so that tire grip performance and roll noise are avoided due to grooves space enlargement.

  3. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  4. An efficient design tool based on FEM for evaluating effects of components properties and operating conditions on interaction of tire with rigid road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moslem Namjoo; Hossein Golbakhshi

    2015-01-01

    It is noted that any variation in operating conditions has a considerable effect on the tire/road interaction. Furthermore, choosing a range of proper values for carcass stiffness is very essential for both tire safety and effective driving action. In this work, an elaborated 3D model fully compliant with the geometrical size of radial tire 185/60 R15 is worked up, for evaluating the effects of components properties and working conditions on deformation and stress/strain fields created inside the tire. For the simulation, the tire structure is assumed to be composed of tread, carcass ply, and bead. The mechanical behavior of rubber as main component of tire is described by Mooney−Rivlin material model. The comparison of the obtained results and laboratory tests demonstrates the validity and high accuracy of analysis.

  5. Experimental investigation of the cornering of a C40 x 14-21 cantilever aircraft tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to define the cornering characteristics of a size C40 x14-21 aircraft tire of cantilever design. These characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained for the tire operating on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 20 deg and at ground speeds of 5 to 100 knots, both with and without braking. The results of this investigation show that the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque were influenced by the yaw angle, ground speed, brake torque, surface wetness, and the locked-wheel condition.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Tire Tread Block Friction Characteristics Based on a New Test Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new device was developed for tire tread block slip friction tests. Then the friction characteristics were investigated under different loads and contact roads. Based on this, a friction model for contact between tire tread block and different road surfaces was developed. A finite element slip friction model of rubber block was developed for studying the tread contact stress, stiffness under different pattern slope angles, and ditch radius. Results indicate that friction coefficient between tread and ice road increases when the temperature decreases; different tread patterns have a certain influence on the friction coefficient; its average difference was less than 10%. Different roads impact the coefficient of friction more significantly; the greater the pattern slope, the greater the radial stiffness.

  7. Systematic Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Activation of Waste Tire by Factorial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.M. Fung; W.H-Cheung; G. McKay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, waste tire was used as raw material for the production of activated carbons through pyrolysis. 'Fire char was first produced by carbomzation at 550℃ under nitrogen. A two tactortal design was used to optimize the production of activated carbon from tire char. The effects of several factors controlling the activation process, such as temperature (.830-930℃), time (2-6h) and percentage ot carbon dioxide (70%-100%) were investigated. The production was described mathematically as a function of these three factors. First order modeling equations were developed for surface area, yield and mesopore volume. It was concluded that the yield, BET surface area and mesopore volume of activated carbon were most sensitive to activation temperature and time while percentage of carbon dioxide in the activation gas was a less significant factor.

  8. On the 3D normal tire/off-road vibro-contact problem with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Brişan, Cornel; Dumitriu, Dan; Sireteanu, Tudor; Petre, Simona

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a virtual experiment concerning driving on off-roads is investigated via 3D normal vibro-contact problem with friction. The dynamic road concept is introduced in order to characterize a particular stretch of road by total longitudinal, lateral, and normal forces and their geometric distributions in the contact patches. The off-road profiles are built by image sonification technique. The cross-sectional curves of off-roads before and after deformation, the contact between the tire and the road, the distribution of contact and friction forces in the contact domain, the natural frequencies and modes when the tire is in ground contact, are estimated. The approach is exercised on two particular problems and results compare favorably to existing analytical and numerical solutions. The feasibility of image sonification technique is useful to build a low-cost virtual reality environment with an increased degree of realism for driving simulators and higher user flexibility.

  9. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  10. Using simulation-based optimization to improve performance at a tire manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Darayi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulation optimization-based decision support tool has been developed to study the capacity enhancement scenarios in a tire manufacturing company located in Iran. This company is experiencing challenges in synchronizing production output with customer demand causing an unbalanced work-in-process (WIP inventory distribution throughout the tire manufacturing process. However, a new opportunity to increase the supplying of raw materials by fifty percent and increase the expected growth in market demand, necessitate this study of the current company situation. This research supported by the company, is to analyze whether the ongoing production logistics system can respond to the increased market demand, considering the raw material expansion. Implementation of a proposed hybrid push/pull production control strategy, together with the facility capacity enhancement options in bottleneck stations and/or heterogeneous lines within the plant, are investigated by the proposed simulation optimization methodology.

  11. Immune biosensors based on the SPR and TIRE: efficiency of their application for bacteria determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, N. F.; Ogorodniichuk, J.; Lebedeva, T.; Shpylovyy, P.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have designed high-specific biosensors for Salmonella typhimurium detection based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). It has been demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity of analysis. As a registering part for our experiments the Spreeta (USA) and "Plasmonotest" (Ukraine) with flowing cell have been applied among of SPR device. Previous researches confirmed an efficiency of SPR biosensors using for detecting of specific antigen-antibody interactions therefore this type of reactions with some previous preparations of surface binding layer was used as reactive part. It has been defined that in case with Spreeta sensitivity was on the level 103 - 107 cells/ml. Another biosensor based on the SPR has shown the sensitivity within 101 - 106 cells/ml. Maximal sensitivity was on the level of several cells in 10 ml (up to the fact that less than 5 cells) which has been obtained using the biosensor based on TIRE.

  12. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics. PMID:21179969

  13. Improvement in electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon from scrap tires by nitric acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Dong, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Cui; Liu, Shuang-Xi

    2014-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char is treated by concentrated nitric acid (AC-HNO3) and then used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Surface properties and electrochemical capacitances of AC and ACHNO3 are studied. It is found that the morphology and the porous texture for AC and AC-HNO3 have little difference, while the oxygen content increases and functional groups change after the acid treatment. Electrochemical results demonstrate that the AC-HNO3 electrode displays higher specific capacitance, better stability and cycling performance, and lower equivalent series resistance, indicating that AC obtained from the industrial pyrolytic tire char treated by concentrated nitric acid is applicable for supercapacitors.

  14. Strategic Analysis on the Development and Industrialization of Fuel Efficient Tires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qi

    2011-01-01

    I. Industrial Background Environmental Protection Tire for Energy-Saving Development With the background of global warming and environmental protection concern, the low-carbon economy based on low ener- gy consumption, low emission and low pollution is gradually be- coming the hot spot of the global economic development. In or- der to develop low-carbon economy, the European and Ameri- can developed countries have set out laws or regulations (for in- stance, EU Tire Labeling System) to promote the "low-carbon revolution" with energy conservation, environmental protection and emission reduction as the core, focus on the development of "low-carbon technology", make significant policy adjustment in industry, energy, technology and trade, and have seized the com- manding height of emerging industries of strategic importance and obtained the advantages in the market demands of the devel- oped countries.

  15. Tire Müzesinden Hellenistik ve Roma Dönemi mezar stelleri

    OpenAIRE

    Çekilmez, Murat

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, İzmir ilinin Tire ilçesindeki Arkeoloji Müzesinde korunan, Tire'nin çeşitli bölgelerinden gelen ve Hellenistik - Roma İmparatorluk Dönemine tarihlediğimiz mezar stelleri toplu olarak ele alınmıştır. Mezar stelleri, stel tipleri, figür tipleri şeklinde alt başlıklar şeklinde incelenmiştir. Ölü yemeği sahneli stellerin sayıca fazla olması nedeniyle ayrıca ölü yemeği sahnesinin ikonografisine değinilmiştir. İkinci bölümde, daha önce yapılan çalışmalardan yararlanılarak, ölü yemeği ...

  16. Tire Changes, Fresh Air, and Yellow Flags: Challenges in Predictive Analytics for Professional Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulabandhula, Theja; Rudin, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    Our goal is to design a prediction and decision system for real-time use during a professional car race. In designing a knowledge discovery process for racing, we faced several challenges that were overcome only when domain knowledge of racing was carefully infused within statistical modeling techniques. In this article, we describe how we leveraged expert knowledge of the domain to produce a real-time decision system for tire changes within a race. Our forecasts have the potential to impact how racing teams can optimize strategy by making tire-change decisions to benefit their rank position. Our work significantly expands previous research on sports analytics, as it is the only work on analytical methods for within-race prediction and decision making for professional car racing.

  17. Producing Activated Carbon from Scrap Tires by Thermo-Chemical Method and Evaluation its Efficiency at Removal Racid Black1 Dye

    OpenAIRE

    A.R Rahmani; E Hoseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The disposal of waste tires has become an increasingly important issue worldwide in recent years. Tires not only take up large amounts of valuable landfill space, but also create fire hazards and provide a refuge for disease- carrying creatures. The goal of this study was to produce activated carbon from scrap tires .Adsorption of Acid Black1 (AB1) in aqueous solution as a pollutant by the activated carbon was also investigated.Materials and Methods: Activated carbo...

  18. Fixed-bed adsorption study of methylene blue onto pyrolytic tire char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrigianni, Vassiliki; Giannakas, Aris; Papadaki, Maria; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the adsorption efficiency of acid treated pyrolytic tire char to cationic methylene blue (MB) dye adsorption from aqueous solutions was investigated by fixed-bed adsorption column experiments. The effects of the initial dye concentration (10 - 40 mg L-1) and feed flow rate (50 - 150 mL min -1) with a fixed bed height (15 cm) were studied in order to determine the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson and Thomas model were applied to the adsorption of MB onto char at different operational conditions to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column. The results showed that the maximum adsorbed quantities decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial MB concentration. Breakthrough time and exhaustion time increased with decreasing inlet dye concentration and flow rate. In contrast with Adams-Bohart model, Yoon-Nelson model followed by Thomas model were found more suitable to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of methylene blue by char. The correlation coefficient values R2 for both models at different operating conditions are higher than 0.9 and the low average relative error values provided very good fittings of experimental data at different operating conditions. Higher adsorption capacity of 3.85 mg g -1 was obtained at 15 cm of adsorbent bed height, flow rate of 100 mL min -1and initial MB concentration of 40 mg L-1. Although that activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities in the literature, acid-treated pyrolytic tire char was found to be considerably efficient adsorbent for the removal of MB dye column taking into account the advantages of the simpler production process compared to activated carbons, as well as, the availability of waste tire feedstock and concurrent waste tire management.

  19. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  20. Characterization of pyrolytic oil obtained from pyrolysis of TDF (Tire Derived Fuel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We pyrolyzed Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at different heating rates and temperatures. ► We determine convenient pyrolysis temperature for pyrolytic oil. ► The product can be used as fuel for combustion system in industry. ► TDF pyrolysis is advisable recycling system because of low hazardous constituents. - Abstract: In recent years, waste utilization before disposing to the land is the most important point about waste management. Due to the increasing emphasis on recycling, related to the two European Commission Directives (EC End of Life Vehicle Directive, EC Waste Landfill Directive) affecting the management of waste tires, there is interest in the development of alternative technologies for recycling waste tires. One of them is pyrolysis. For this purpose, a fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolysis of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) at the temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C with the heating rates of 5 and 35 °C/min. The maximum pyrolytic oil yield (38.8 wt.%) was obtained at 400 °C with 5 °C/min heating rate. The yield of pyrolytic oil decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures whereas the yield of gases increased. The fuel properties of the pyrolytic oil including higher heating value (HHV), elemental composition, flash point, viscosity, distillation and density were determined. Pyrolytic oil was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) techniques and also, the amount of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and congener distribution characteristics were studied for determination of environmental effects. It was seen that the pyrolytic oils have similar fuel properties with the diesel. It was also found that pyrolytic oil contained 0.00118 I-TEQs/g at very low level. Finally, the pyrolytic oil can be evaluated for energy recovery according to Regulation on

  1. Evaluating Tire Pressure Monitoring System for Traffic Management Purposes – Simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Nemanja; Junghans, Marek; Krstic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate Tire Pressure Monitor- ing System (TPMS) for traffic management purposes. It has been shown that up to 60 % of the vehicles can be detected in urban traffic environments, which makes it suitable for deriving: routes, travel times and the traffic state. In particular, the theoretical background and basic concepts are given. Furthermore, we present a simple simulation model of TPMS based on empirical investigations. A simulation platform, based ...

  2. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvem...

  3. STUDY ON CONTACTING MELTING AND ANTI-SKID TECHNOLOGY FOR A TIRE TRACTION ON ICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of the mechanisms of melting film formation are performed. The results show that frictional heating is the dominant mechanism because temperature behaves in the manner predicted by the theory of frictional heating. A study of the active technology for anti-skid is also made. Conclusions indicate that adjusting tire pneumatic pressure can improve the control stability and the travelling safety of an ice-automobile.

  4. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg-1), particle number (3.5 × 1016 kg-1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg-1), EC (2.37 g kg-1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg-1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  5. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Haiping Zhou; Sri Holikatti; Peter Vacura

    2014-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA). Both the wet (field blend) and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans in...

  6. Correlation between Composition and Properties of Composite Material Based on Scrap Tires

    OpenAIRE

    Mālers, L; Plēsuma, R; Ločmele, L; Kalniņš, M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present work is to investigate mechanical and insulation properties of the composite material based on scrap tires and polyurethane-type binder in correlation with composition of composite material. The studies of material’s hardness must be considered as an express-method for estimation of the selected mechanical properties (E and ccompressive stress) of the composite material without direct experimental testing of given parameters. It was shown that composite material must be r...

  7. Recovery and Modification of Waste Tire Particles and Their Use as Reinforcements of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa; Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera; Carlos Barrera-Díaz; Epifanio Cruz-Zaragoza; Fernando Ureña-Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution caused by solid wastes is increasing in the last decades; one of these is referred to automotive tires, which are recycled by different methods, including mechanical grinding. One of the most recurrent applications is to use recycled particles as fillers in building materials, as hydraulic concrete. Nevertheless, detrimental values on the mechanical properties are obtained when they are added. For solving these problems, in this work, a novel proposal is to modify the ...

  8. Preparation of Activated Carbon from Waste Tires and its application in Gasoline Removal from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour; Babak jahed; Gholam Hossein Joshani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Increasing waste tiers production has made the recycling of this solid waste a critical issue in the world. On the other hand, it seems contamination of groundwater to the petroleum pollutant like gasoline is a great threat to the health of societies in developing countries. The main objective of this study was gasoline removal from aquatic environment by waste tire derived activated carbon. Materials and Methods: In this study for preparation of activated carbon...

  9. Development and Verification of the Tire/Road Friction Estimation Algorithm for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road friction information is very important for vehicle active braking control systems such as ABS, ASR, or ESP. It is not easy to estimate the tire/road friction forces and coefficient accurately because of the nonlinear system, parameters uncertainties, and signal noises. In this paper, a robust and effective tire/road friction estimation algorithm for ABS is proposed, and its performance is further discussed by simulation and experiment. The tire forces were observed by the discrete Kalman filter, and the road friction coefficient was estimated by the recursive least square method consequently. Then, the proposed algorithm was analysed and verified by simulation and road test. A sliding mode based ABS with smooth wheel slip ratio control and a threshold based ABS by pulse pressure control with significant fluctuations were used for the simulation. Finally, road tests were carried out in both winter and summer by the car equipped with the same threshold based ABS, and the algorithm was evaluated on different road surfaces. The results show that the proposed algorithm can identify the variation of road conditions with considerable accuracy and response speed.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Quality Tools in Tire Retreading Industry: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmankhah Behnam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this paper is to describe the application of quality tools in an uncommon industrial environment - tire retreading. The specific goals are to better understand the root causes of the main quality problems that result from the production process, to rank those causes taking into account the importance oftheir occurrence, to identify the critical step of the production process in view of the main problem identified, and to explore the potential causes of problems in that step. The methodology used combined basic and new quality tools in order to identify, classify and analyse the main problems according to their priority (weight of importance. The tools used were Pareto Chart, Brainstorming,Fishbone Diagram and Matrix diagram. The company where the study was carried out was the Ken Tire Industrial Complex, which is one of the biggest Tire Retreading Companies in Middle East. The data was collected during all the year of 2009 from quality and production records. The main problems were classified according the cost of defects that happen during the production process and the use of appropriate improvement quality tools is proposed in order to minimize the impact of defect causes in final products and semi-products.

  11. Waste Tire Particles and Gamma Radiation as Modifiers of the Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sadot Herrera-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In polymer reinforced concrete, the Young’s modulus of both polymers and cement matrix is responsible for the detrimental properties of the concrete, including compressive and tensile strength, as well as stiffness. A novel methodology for solving such problems is based on use of ionizing radiation, which has proven to be a good tool for improvement on physical and chemical properties of several materials including polymers, ceramics, and composites. In this work, particles of 0.85 mm and 2.80 mm obtained from waste tire were submitted at 250 kGy of gamma radiation in order to modify their physicochemical properties and then used as reinforcement in Portland cement concrete for improving mechanical properties. The results show diminution on mechanical properties in both kinds of concrete without (or with irradiated tire particles with respect to plain concrete. Nevertheless such diminutions (from 2 to 16% are compensated with the use of high concentration of waste tire particles (30%, which ensures that the concrete will not significantly increase the cost.

  12. Braking Distance Prediction by Hydroplaning Analysis of 3-D Patterned Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Rae; Choi, Joo-Hyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Woo, Jong-Shik; Yoo, Wan-Suk

    In this paper, we present a wet-road braking distance estimate for the vehicles equipped with ABS (Anti-lock Brake System). In order to effectively compute the interval-wise braking times and the resulting total braking distance, we divide the entire speed interval at braking into finite number of uniform sub-intervals and apply the energy conservation law to individual sub-intervals. The proposed method is based on a numerical-analytical approach such that the frictional energy loss of the patterned tire is computed by 3-D hydroplaning analysis while the other at the disc pad is analytically derived. The hydroplaning simulation is performed by generally coupling an Eulerian finite volume method and an explicit Lagrangian finite element method. The operation of ABS is numerically implemented by controlling the tire angular velocity such that the preset tire slip ratio on the wet road is maintained. Numerical results are presented to illustrative and verify the the proposed numerical estimate.

  13. Clustering Web Documents based on Efficient Multi-Tire Hashing Algorithm for Mining Frequent Termsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Negm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Document Clustering is one of the main themes in text mining. It refers to the process of grouping documents with similar contents or topics into clusters to improve both availability and reliability of text mining applications. Some of the recent algorithms address the problem of high dimensionality of the text by using frequent termsets for clustering. Although the drawbacks of the Apriori algorithm, it still the basic algorithm for mining frequent termsets. This paper presents an approach for Clustering Web Documents based on Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (CWDHFT. It introduces an efficient Multi-Tire Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (MTHFT instead of Apriori algorithm. The algorithm uses new methodology for generating frequent termsets by building the multi-tire hash table during the scanning process of documents only one time. To avoid hash collision, Multi Tire technique is utilized in this proposed hashing algorithm. Based on the generated frequent termset the documents are partitioned and the clustering occurs by grouping the partitions through the descriptive keywords. By using MTHFT algorithm, the scanning cost and computational cost is improved moreover the performance is considerably increased and increase up the clustering process. The CWDHFT approach improved accuracy, scalability and efficiency when compared with existing clustering algorithms like Bisecting K-means and FIHC.

  14. Study on Dynamics of Polygonal Wear of Automotive Tire Caused by Self-Excited Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the underlying reason of tire polygonal wear, a unified mechanical tire model is developed to analyze the different vibration properties between the driving wheel and follower wheel. And the LuGre dynamic friction model is applied to determine the frictional forces between the wheel with a slip angel and the road. Through the stability analysis with Lyapunov theory, it is found that tread self-excited vibration is periodic oscillation caused by Hopf bifurcation. The analysis of the lateral vibration of driving wheel shows that the tread vibration system loses its stability and self-excited vibration occurs when the wheel is rolling at a high speed, is over-loaded, is having a large toe-in angle, or is under a low tire pressure. On this basis, the dynamic behaviors of the driving and follower wheels are distinguished with different slip rates by the numerical simulation. Compared with the dynamic behaviors of the follower wheel under the same condition, the self-excited vibration occurs on the driving wheel with more limited parameter scope, lower oscillation energy, and lower occurrence, which explains why the polygonal wear is less likely to occur on the driving wheel.

  15. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from co-pyrolysis of biomass and tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qing; Jin, Li' e [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Bao, Weiren; Lv, Yongkang [Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and waste tire with such catalysts as SBA-15, MCM-41 and HZSM-5 was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the mixture composition on liquid yield and characteristics of the oil were investigated. The properties of the oil were determined by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), elemental analyzer (EA), thermal analyzer (TA), densimeter, ubbelohde viscosimeter and compared with that of diesel oil 0. The contents of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the oils were also determined by gas chromatograph (GC). The result shows that co-pyrolysis is in favor of inhibiting the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from tire. There exist a hydrogen transfer and a synthetic effect during co-pyrolysis of the biomass and tire. They improve the quality of the oil. SBA-15 as a catalyst is more significant than MCM-41 or HZSM-5 for reducing the density and viscosity of the oil and it can effectively decompose some large molecular compounds into small ones. (author)

  16. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  17. Investigation of environmental problems caused by studded tires of automobiles using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susumu, Amemiya; Yukio, Tsurita; Toshio, Masuda; Akira, Asawa; Kohki, Tanaka; Toshio, Katoh; Mamoru, Mohri; Toshiro, Yamashina

    1984-04-01

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to investigate the environmental problems caused by the studded tire of automobiles. The dust samples were collected on stacked filters in Sapporo and some other cities in Japan and Europe. PIXE measurements were performed using a 2 MeV proton beam. The results were compared with those of different cities. The main components of dust particulates were Al, Si, Ca, Fe and so on. The vertical distribution of dust concentration in the city of Sapporo was determined by PIXE in April and June. The concentration in April decreases exponentially with height from the ground. The effect of dust particulates due to studded tires is observed up to an altitude 60 m. On the other hand in June, the concentration on the ground is one-tenth of that in April, and it is almost unchanged with the distance in the vertical direction. The concentration of Ca in the dust particulates in the area where the studded tires are used increases by a factor of 2 to 4 in comparison with that in the ordinary soil.

  18. Effects of studded tires on roadside airborne dust pollution in Niigata, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzaki, Norio; Yanaka, Takaaki; Urushiyama, Yoshio

    Two series of dust samples, collected by Andersen impactors (denoted by AN) and low-volume air samplers (denoted by LV), were investigated with respect to roadside airborne dusts collected in two different periods in 1983. These were the periods (i) with studded tires (February and March) and (ii) without studded tires (October). Multi-element determinations of these samples were made by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The total concentration of AN in roadside air for period (i) was about three times higher than for the period without studded tires. The lithophilic elements such as Na, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Th, and component-metal elements of stud tip, W and Ta, produced a significant increase in atmospheric concentration in winter. The contribution of pavement material, one of the most interesting components of airborne particles in this study, was related to total AN and LV by the chemical element balance method. It made up only 16 percent (9.1 μgm -3) of AN in October, compared with 46 percent (70.2 μgm -3) in February. It was also observed that the atmospheric concentrations of pavement debris to total LV decreased with the distance from the road to each sampling site.

  19. Devising a model brand loyalty in tires industry: the adjustment role of customer perceived value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Feiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, brand discussion is highly considered by companies and market agents. Different factors such as customers’ loyalty to brand impact on brand and the increase in sale and profit. Present paper aims at studying the impact of brand experience, trust and satisfaction on brand loyalty to Barez Tire Company in the city of Kerman as well as providing a model for this case. Research population consists of all Barez Tire consumers in Kerman. The volume of the sample was 171 for which simple random sampling was used. Data collection tool was a standard questionnaire and for measuring its reliability, Chronbach’s alpha was used. Present research is an applied one in terms of purpose and it is a descriptive and correlative one in terms of acquiring needed data. To analyze data, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation model (SEM in SPSS and LISREL software were used. The findings indicate that brand experience, brand trust, and brand satisfaction impact on brand loyalty to Barez Tire Brand in the city of Kerman significantly. Noteworthy, the impact of these factors is higher when considering the role of the perceived value moderator.

  20. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    OpenAIRE

    Yimei Mao; Zuoying Huang; Guiyun Tian; Hui Zhao; Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of ...

  1. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun

    2008-01-01

    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  2. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  3. CHAOTIC BELT PHENOMENA IN NONLINEAR ELASTIC BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通

    2003-01-01

    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.

  4. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  5. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  6. Mechanistic understanding of tetracycline sorption on waste tire powder and its chars as affected by Cu2+ and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption characteristics of tetracycline (TC) by waste tire powder and its chars were investigated to explore the potential of using waste tires as effective sorbents for removal of TC from aqueous solution. Naphthalene (NAPH), a typical hydrophobic organic compound, was selected as asorbate for comparison. TC displayed much lower sorption affinity to tire powder than NAPH. However, it exhibited similar adsorption affinity as NAPH on the pyrolyzed tire chars, which was mainly attributed to π-π electron-donor–acceptor interactions of TC with the graphite surface of chars. TC and Cu2+ could mutually facilitate the sorption of each other on both tire powder and pyrolyzed chars in a wide pH range. This could be explained by the metallic complexation and/or surface-bridging mechanisms (i.e., Cu- or TC-bridging). However, Cu2+ and NAPH depressed the sorption of each other on tire powder and displayed negligible impact to each other on the highly pyrolyzed chars. -- Graphical abstract: Conceptual illustration of the effects of Cu2+ on the sorption of tetracycline (TC) and naphthalene (NAPH) on tire powder (TP) and pyrolytic char (C800). Highlights: •Tire chars could be effective sorbents for tetracycline wastewater treatment. •Tetracycline and Cu2+ facilitate sorption of each other on tire sorbents in a wide pHs. •Naphthalene and Cu2+ depressed the sorption of each other on tire powder. •Naphthalene and Cu2+ displayed negligible effect to each other on carbonized chars. -- Cu2+ exhibits opposite impacts on the sorption of tetracycline on waste tire powder and its chars

  7. Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm

  8. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  9. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E

    2015-01-01

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  10. Experimental investigation of the cornering characteristics of 18 by 5.5, type 7, aircraft tires with different tread patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 12 deg and at ground speeds from approximately 5 to 90 knots. The results indicate that a tread pattern with pinholes in the ribs reduces the tire cornering capability at high yaw angles on a damp surface but improves cornering on a dry surface. A tread pattern which has transverse grooves across the entire width of the tread improves the tire cornering performance slightly at high speeds on the flooded runway surface. The cornering capability of all the tires is degraded at high ground speeds by thin film lubrication and/or tire hydroplaning effects. Alterations to the conventional tread pattern provide only marginal improvements in the tire cornering capability which suggests that runway surface treatments may be a more effective way of improving aircraft ground performance during wet operations.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall...

  12. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  13. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  14. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  15. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  16. Landscape distribution characteristics of northern foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains are about 280 km long and 60 km wide, and the study area extends from Kuitun city to Fukang city. They are transitional belts between mountains and plains, appearing in three rows of folds with different morphologies and their age becoming younger from south to north. Based on GIS and RS methods, and materials of the previous researchers, this paper deals with the genetics of the foothill belts and their landscape features resulting from folding by neotectonic movements, and also describes their length, width and slope by remote sensing image interpretation. The characteristics of the foothill belts are found to be very important for the surrounding environment by preventing groundwater from flowing into plains, changing groundwater, increasing flow of surface runoff, in addition to their roles in protecting the surrounding environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of the foothill belts and influence on its surrounding environment.

  17. a Wave Model for a Pneumatic Tyre Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINNINGTON, R. J.; BRISCOE, A. R.

    2002-06-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation of an infinite flattened tyre belt is generated. The belt vibration is controlled by bending, tension, shear and the sidewall stiffness. The dispersion relations for two waves in the belt are calculated and used to find both the input impedance and attenuation on a tyre belt of infinite extent. Tension and the sidewall controls the deformation and stiffness below 100Hz. Waves propagate around the belt above this frequency. The wave speeds due to bending and shear were predicted and measured. The model presented here should be valid for the prediction of tyre response above about 400 Hz when for a car tyre the modal behaviour is observed to cease. In this high-frequency region, the tyre at the input appears to be of infinite extent.

  18. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  19. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  20. 16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES... Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure Observation angle (degrees) Entrance angle (degrees)...

  1. Alliances as a way to expand the collection of waste tires; Aliancas como forma de ampliar a coleta de pneus inserviveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Lauro Oliveira [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This job search to answer to the question: the alliances contribute with the process of reverse logistics of Tires? For development of the theme it is necessary discourse about tires, reverse logistics and strategic alliances. The hypothesis that orientates the job is that the alliances enlarge the potential of collect of useless tires. The job aims at to identify like the partnerships influence in the process of reverse logistics of useless tires, and specifically: to indicate the potential generated by the alliances for the process of reverse logistics of useless tires. In this exploratory work, the bibliography turns on tires and reverse logistics, while the collection of information through on interviews structured with entrepreneurs of the branch of tires and the public service of collection of residues seeks to perfect the understanding of the business alliances on the logistics process. The results indicate that the hypothesis is confirmed amid the great number of useless tires collected by the public service, less among resellers and transporters that establish partnerships. (author)

  2. Effect of Inflation Pressure Loss Rates on Tire Rolling Resistance,Vehicle Fuel Economy, and CO2 Emissions of Asia-Pacific and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Walter H. Waddell

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Based on the low permeability to small-molecule diffusants as a result of efficient intermolecular packing, butyl rubber has contributed significantly to the improvement in the performance and safety of tires. Halogenated butyl rubbers provide higher vulcanization rates and improve the compatibility with unsatu-rated rubbers, enabling the production of tubeless tires.

  3. A Study on the Vibration of the Charging Belt in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up in this paper to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency of the is generally around several Hz.

  4. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  5. Experimental investigation of the braking and cornering characteristics of 30 x 11.5-14.5, type 8, aircraft tires with different tread patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering characteristics, including the drag-force and cornering-force friction coefficients, of 30 by 11.5-14.5, type VIII aircraft tires with five different tread patterns. Test data were obtained on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 12 deg at ground speeds from 5 knots to 100 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that a tread pattern consisting of transverse cuts across the entire width of the tread slightly improved the tire traction performance on wet surfaces. The braking and cornering capability of the tires was degraded by thin-film lubrication and tire hydroplaning effects on the wet runway surfaces. The braking capability of the tires decreased when the yaw angle was increased.

  6. 中国巨型工程轮胎的现状与前景展望%Status and Prospects of Chinese Giant Tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月琴; 李锋

    2012-01-01

    This paper described the concept of the giant tire, mega tire production status, sales and application of the market, the position in the tire industry, and then the giant engineering tire development as well as his outlook, come to trends and focus of giant project of tires.%本文主要阐述了巨型工程轮胎的概念、巨型工程胎的生产现状、销售和应用情况、市场、在轮胎产业中的地位、进而说明巨型工程胎的发展现状以及他的前景展望,得出中国巨型工程轮胎的发展趋势和重点.

  7. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  8. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  9. Precipitation and Solid Solution of Titanium Carbonitride Inclusions in Hypereutectoid Tire Cord Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-fan YU; Zheng-liang XUE; Wu-tao JIN

    2016-01-01

    The properties of titanium carbonitride Ti(Cx N1-x )inclusions precipitated during solidification of tire cord steels and the thermodynamic conditions for their decomposition and solid solution during billet heating were investigated using a thermodynamics method.The solid solution of Ti(Cx N1 -x )inclusions during high-temperature heating was also studied experimentally.The results revealed that:(1)the higher the content of carbon in the tire cord steel is, the greater the value of x in the Ti(Cx N1 -x )inclusions is;(2)the higher the content of carbon in the tire cord steel is,the earlier the Ti(Cx N1 -x )inclusions precipitated during the solidification process and the lower the solidification front temperature is during precipitation;(3)when an 82A steel sample was heated to 1 087 ℃,the Ti(Cx N1 -x )in-clusions possess the thermodynamic conditions of decomposition and solid solution;and (4)when 82A samples were heated to 1 1 50 and 1 250 ℃,the total number of Ti(Cx N1 -x )inclusions larger than 5 μm in diameter decreased by 55.0% and 70.3%,respectively.In addition,although smaller inclusions with diameter less than 2 μm continued to decompose when the sample was heated at 1 250 ℃ for 2 h and then cooled to 1 000 ℃ in the furnace,the number of inclusions larger than 5 μm in diameter increased.

  10. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  11. STUDY ON STYRENE-BUTADIENE BLOCK COPOLYMER FOR THE MODIFICATION OF TIRE TREAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CHEN Weijie; MU Ruifeng; WANG Yongwei; YU Fengnian; LIU Qing

    1996-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the design and synthesis of a novel styrene-butadiene block copolymer. When this copolymer is used in the tread portion of tyres, it can improve wet skid resistance and reduce rolling resistance without sacrificing its general physicalmechanical properties. The visco-elastic curve of tire tread using the novel copolymer as its rubber portion was showed. Reactivity ratios for two monomers in the polymerizing system were calculated. The diagrams of differential, integral and finite difference calculi throughout the whole molecular chain were presented. The influence of the micro- and macro-structure of the copolymer chain on wet skid resistance and rolling resistance was discussed.

  12. Compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire textile and steel fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Cristina Calmeiro; Rodrigues João Paulo C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research work on the evaluation of the compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire steel and textile fibers. It was considered five different concrete compositions, with a water/cement ratio (W/C = 0.43), differ only in the type and amount of fibers. The compositions with smaller amounts of textile fibers were those that gave better results. The compositions with steel fibers showed a less explosive rupture showing the e...

  13. Road Friction Coefficient Real-Time Identification Based on the Tire Dynamic Friction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-bin; DENG Pan; JIANG Yu; FAN Bing-xu

    2013-01-01

    Road friction coefficient real-time estimation methods is an important issue and problem in automotive active safety con-trol system development. First a fixed feedback gain sliding mode observer of road adhesion coefficient is designed through the es-tablishment of tire/road dynamic friction model in this article. The simulation results shows that the observer can well real-time iden-tify the current road adhesion characteristics. And more importantly, the observer only need wheel speed signal and the braking torque (brake pressure) signal, so the system is low cost, and its adaptability is good. There is no doubt this estimation method has a good application prospect.

  14. Visualization of the tire-soil interaction area by means of ObjectARX programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W.; Gruszczyński, M.; Raba, B.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.

    2014-04-01

    The process of data visualization, important for their analysis, becomes problematic when large data sets generated via computer simulations are available. This problem concerns, among others, the models that describe the geometry of tire-soil interaction. For the purpose of a graphical representation of this area and implementation of various geometric calculations the authors have developed a plug-in application for AutoCAD, based on the latest technologies, including ObjectARX, LINQ and the use of Visual Studio platform. Selected programming tools offer a wide variety of IT structures that enable data visualization and data analysis and are important e.g. in model verification.

  15. Development of a Refined Rollover Model That Recognizes the Effects of Suspension and Tire Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle rollover represents one of the most dangerous traffic accidents in the world. To improve the antirollover capability of a vehicle, we established an improved rollover model with a particular focus on the effects of independent suspensions and the lateral deformation of the tire. Based on this model, we further developed a new method to mitigate the rollover occurrence by adjusting the stiffness of the spring and the damping coefficient of the damper. Through simulation tests with a brand of SUV, we demonstrated that these adjustments improved the mitigation control as evidenced by better confined steady value and decreased overshoot of the roll angle.

  16. Management of used tires, accomplishments in the world, and situation in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević Dušan D.; Rajković Miloš B.; Tošković Dragan V.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that all over the world there are more than 550 million road vehicles in everyday use. Annually, 1.3 billion used tyres are dismantled from these vehicles due to safety reasons. A small number of these tyres end up reused as second-hand tyres or, after being retreated, as new ones. The rest are end of life tyres which are recycled or used as tire derived fuels under controlled combustion conditions. Modern vehicle tyres are a high-technological product containing, on the...

  17. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST), of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh), because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the ...

  18. Compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire textile and steel fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina Calmeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research work on the evaluation of the compressive strength at high temperatures of a concrete made with recycled tire steel and textile fibers. It was considered five different concrete compositions, with a water/cement ratio (W/C = 0.43, differ only in the type and amount of fibers. The compositions with smaller amounts of textile fibers were those that gave better results. The compositions with steel fibers showed a less explosive rupture showing the effectiveness of this type of fibers in the spalling and cracking control.

  19. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  20. Floating Bodies of Equilibrium in 2D, the Tire Track Problem and Electrons in a Parabolic Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Wegner, Franz J.

    2007-01-01

    Explicit solutions of the two-dimensional floating body problem (bodies that can float in all positions) for relative density different from 1/2 and of the tire track problem (tire tracks of a bicycle, which do not allow to determine, which way the bicycle went) are given, which differ from circles. Starting point is the differential equation given by the author in archive physics/0205059 and Studies in Appl. Math. 111 (2003) 167-183. The curves are also trajectories of charges in a perpendic...

  1. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Analysis of tire-road contact area in a control oriented test bed for dynamic friction models

    OpenAIRE

    J. Aguilar-Martínez; Alvarez-Icaza, L.

    2015-01-01

    The longitudinal and transversal forces distributed over the tire-road contact area are experimentally analyzed to validate the use of the lumped parameters LuGre dynamic friction model for traction-braking control purposes. To perform the analysis, a test bed based on a scaled quarter vehicle model that consists of a roller, a wheel and a servomotor was designed and built. In this device, the roller represents the road and the vehicle mass, and the tire is directly coupled to the shaft of th...

  3. Geometry, kinematics and evolution of the Tongbai orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoying; XU Bei; WANG Changqiu; ZHAN Sheng; DENG Rongjing

    2006-01-01

    The Tongbai orogenic belt (TOB) is composed of six tectonic units. From south to north these units are: Tongbai gneiss rise (TGR); Hongyihe-Luozhuang eclogite belt (HLE); Maopo-Hujiazhai igneous rock belt (MHI); Zhoujiawan flysch belt (ZFB); Yangzhuang greenschist belt (YGB); and Dongjiazhuang marble belt (DMB).The geometry and kinematic images of the TOB include: the antiformal structures caused by a later uplift process, the top-to-north ductile shear structure that related to a process that the ultrahigh pressure rocks are brought to surface, the top-to-south ductile shear thrust and the sinistrial shear structures related to a south-north direction compression, and the east-west direction fold structures in the upper crust. In the view of the multistage subduction-collision orogenic belt, according to the characters of petrology and its distribution, geometry, kinematics and structural chronology in these tectonic units, tectonic evolution of the TOB can be divided into four stages: oceanic crust subduction during 400-300 Ma, continental collision during 270-250 Ma, continental deep subduction and uplift during 250-205 Ma and doming deformation during 200-185 Ma.

  4. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  5. Detection of Small Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, R

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the Kuiper Belt is currently limited to those objects that can be detected directly. Objects with diameters less than $\\sim$10km reflect too little light to be detected. These smaller bodies could contain most of the mass in the Kuiper Belt while the abundance of these bodies may constrain the distribution of mass. The overall size distribution of bodies within the Kuiper Belt can also be inferred from the relative abundances of sub-km and larger bodies. Stellar occultations are ...

  6. 385/65R22.520PR无内胎宽基全钢载重子午线轮胎的设计%Design of 385/65R22.5 20PR Wide Base Tubeless TBR Tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂阳; 孙文文; 李心尚; 蒋林

    2015-01-01

    介绍385/65R22.520PR无内胎宽基全钢载重子午线轮胎的设计。结构设计:外直径1068 mm,断面宽度390 mm,行驶面宽度286 mm,行驶面弧度高10.2 mm,胎圈着合直径569.5 mm,胎圈着合宽度324 mm,断面水平轴位置0.8566,胎面花纹采用纵向主沟与横向细沟结合及变节距结构,花纹饱和度72.6%。施工设计:胎冠采用两方两块结构,胎侧采用三复合结构,胎体采用0.25+6+12×0.225HT钢丝帘线,1#与2#带束层均采用3+8×0.33HT钢丝帘线,3#和0°带束层分别采用3×4×0.22HE和3+9×0.22+0.15HT钢丝帘线,钢丝圈采用斜六角形结构;采用一次法成型机成型,双模硫化机氮气硫化。成品轮胎外缘尺寸、强度性能和耐久性能均符合相应设计和国家标准要求。%This paper introduces a design of 385/65R22.5 20PR wide base tubeless TBR tire. In the structure design, the following parameters were taken: overall diameter 1068 mm, cross-sectional width 390 mm, width of running surface 286 mm, arc height of running surface 10.2 mm, bead diameter at rim seat 569.5 mm, bead width at rim seat 324 mm, maximum width position of cross section 0.8566, tread pattern with main longitudinal grooves and small transverse grooves, variable pitch design, and block/total ratio 72.6. In the construction design, two formula and two piece structure was applied for tire crown, tri-layer composite structure was selected for the sidewall, 0.25+6+12×0.225HT steel cord was adopted in the carcass ply, 3+8×0.33HT steel cord was used in 1# and 2# belt layers, 3×4×0.22HE and 3+9×0.22+0.15HT steel cord were applied in the 3# and 0 ° belt layers, respectively, and hexagonal bead wire structure was used in the tire bead. The tire was built on single stage building machine and then cured on curing press under nitrogen. It was conifrmed by the test of the ifnished tires that the inlfated peripheral dimension, strength performance and endurance performance

  7. Study of coagulant development and the characteristics for the treatment of tire remanufacturing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, E.S.; Yoon, I.M. [School of Natural Sciences, Honam Univ., Gwangju (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to test the performance of various combinations of coagulants for effective wastewater treatment of the tire recycling industry. From the jar-test results, two kinds of coagulants, namely AlSi-1 and PASi-1, were found to be effective in decreasing BOD and COD{sub Cr} values from the polluted wastewater among various combinations of coagulants. In comparison to Al-based or Si-based singular salts, the Si-Al combined salts (PASi-1) exhibited a higher removal efficiency of 90% turbidity, 93% SS, 70 {proportional_to} 85% BOD{sub 5} and 85 {proportional_to} 91% COD{sub Cr} at 15 {+-} 2 C, pH7.5 {proportional_to} 9.5 and 2.0 mM of coagulant dosage. At 30 {+-} 2 C of tire recycling effluents, the combination effect was clearly shown in the removal of COD{sub Cr} over a wider range of pH. The reaction mechanisms of AlSi-1 and PASi-1 were also schematically studied. (orig.)

  8. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  9. A novel neonatal Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome with craniosynostosis and gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Akalin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder and characterized clinically well defined multiple ring shaped skin creases. Our patient was born to onconsanguineous healthy parents as the third child of the family at 40 weeks of uneventful gestation with distinctive skin creases and gigantism. He was 4,950 g in weight (>90 percentile, 57.5 cm in length (>90 percentile, and had a head circumferences of 39.5 cm (>90 percentile at birth. The physical examination showed a rough face, brachicephaly and craniosynostosis. His vital and laboratory findings were within normal limits at birth. Cranial and renal ultrasonograms, Xray graphics and cytogenetic analyses were normal. Echocardiography revealed small patent ductus arteriosis and patent foramen ovale. In this report, we present a new case of Michelin Tire Baby Syndrome who is the first neonate associated with severe gigantism and craniosynostosis, in the literature. A review of the related literature has also been presented.

  10. Waste Tire Derived Carbon-Polymer Composite Paper as Pseudocapacitive Electrode with Long Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, Amit K; Li, Yunchao; Akato, Kokouvi; Gogotsi, Y

    2015-11-01

    Recycling hazardous wastes to produce value-added products is becoming essential for the sustainable progress of our society. Herein, highly porous carbon (1625 m(2)  g(-1)) is synthesized using waste tires as the precursor and used as a supercapacitor electrode material. The narrow pore-size distribution and high surface area led to good charge storage capacity, especially when used as a three-dimensional nanoscaffold to polymerize polyaniline (PANI). The composite paper was highly flexible, conductive, and exhibited a capacitance of 480 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) with excellent capacitance retention of up to 98% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. The high capacitance and long cycle life were ascribed to the short diffusional paths, uniform PANI coating, and tight confinement of the PANI in the inner pores of the tire-derived carbon through π-π interactions, which minimized the degradation of the PANI upon cycling. We anticipate that the same strategy can be applied to deposit other pseudocapacitive materials to achieve even higher electrochemical performance and longer cycle life-a key challenge for redox active polymers. PMID:26404735

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF MARKS ON TIRES USING ARTIFICIAL VISION FOR QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Dias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tire inspection is presently done by workers who have as their main problems, besides identifying the defects, the time available for defect identification and the inherent costs. Companies can become more sustainable by adopting automated methods to perform such type of processes, such as artificial vision, with advantages both in the processing time and in the incurred costs. This paper addresses the development of an artificial vision system that aims to be an asset in the field of tyre inspection, having as main characteristics its execution speed and its reliability. The conjugation of these criteria is a prerequisite for this system to be able to be integrated in inspection machines. The paper focusses on the study of three image processing methods to be used in the identification of marks (red dots on tires. In this work was used the free Open Computer Vision artificial vision library to process the images acquired by a Basler matrix camera. Two different techniques, namely Background Subtraction and Hough Transform, were tested to implement the solution. After developing the artificial vision inspection application, tests were made to measure the performance of both methods and the results were promising: processing time was low and, simultaneous, the achieved accuracy is high.

  12. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasing flexibility from laterite soil is the main goal of this study. For this purpose, tropical laterite soil was mixed using TDA and micro silica (MS. As a research method, unconfined tests were carried for thirteen samples based on different percentage of the additives. As a result, the significant reduction for elasticity modulus and strength was observed when soil mixed just using TDA. In addition, the rate of strain at the peak of the curve was dramatically increased. The best performance was found using 6% additives when the ratio was 3% MS and 3% TDA. In fact, the effect of MS was more to increase strength. To recommend, the seepage controlling will investigate at next.

  13. The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.

    2016-02-01

    The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.

  14. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical failure or depolarization, especially at elevated temperatures. In this work, three kinds of ceramic–polymer composite piezoelectric materials were evaluated and compared against state-of-the-art piezoelectric materials. The new composites are unstructured and structured composites containing granular lead zirconate titanate (PZT) particles or PZT fibers in a polyurethane matrix. The composites were used to build energy harvesting patches which were attached to a tire and tested under simulated rolling conditions. The energy density of the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composite materials is initially not as high as that of the reference materials (a macro-fiber composite and a polyvinylidene fluoride polymer). However, the area normalized power output of the composites after temperature and strain cycling is comparable to that of the reference devices because the piezoelectric ceramic–polymer composites did not degrade during operation. (paper)

  15. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  16. Low-energy and chemical-free activation of pyrolytic tire char and its adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Augustine; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2009-06-01

    It is generally known that the solid char obtained from pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires can be used as an adsorbent for several applications such as wastewater treatment. In this study, scrap tires were first pyrolyzed under nitrogen (N2) or carbon dioxide (CO2) gas under various temperatures to produce char. The char was activated in situ by post-pyrolysis oxygenation (PPO) at different temperature ranges as soon as the pyrolysis process was completed. Elemental and spectroscopic analyses showed significant zinc content in the char after PPO. Batch-mode removal of aqueous copper (Cu) using the chars revealed that, for N2 and CO2, the optimum condition for pyrolysis was at 550 degrees C and for activation was from 550 to 250 degrees C. Although CO2-pyrolyzed char had lower Cu and lead (Pb) removal than N2-pyrolyzed char, it had higher char yields. For both N2- and CO2-pyrolyzed char, activation with PPO improved their heavy metal removal efficiencies significantly compared with unactivated char. PPO chars had much faster removal rates and higher Cu removal compared with both pyrolyzed, unactivated char and commercial activated carbons. PMID:19603742

  17. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  18. 轮胎泵气噪声有限元仿真分析%A FE Simulation of Tire Air Pumping Noise from Tread Groove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠禹

    2012-01-01

    轮胎花纹槽泵气噪声是轮胎噪声的主要部分之一。在假设轮胎胎面结构与空气完全耦合的条件下建立轮胎横向花纹槽噪声的有限元模型,在施加与速度相关的强制位移条件下对空气中花纹槽泵气噪声进行仿真仿真,验证轮胎花纹槽泵气噪声的机理,同时通过线性迭加轮胎周向单个横向花纹槽的方法,给出轮胎花纹槽整体噪声的频域曲线。%Tire air pumping noise from tread groove plays an important role in tire noise.A finite element model of tire air pumping noise from tread groove is established based on tire surface structure and air completely coupling.A finite element simulation analysis of tire air pumping from tread groove,in the condition that a force displacement speed related is taken on,is presented in order to test the mechanism of tire air pumping;meanwhile,a frequency domain curve of tire air pumping noise from tread groove is presented through a method of linear superposition.

  19. 4 National Standards for Rubber Belt Products Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 20, National General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and National Standardization Administration approved to issue 4 national standards for rubber belt products, which come into effect from October 1.

  20. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160032.html Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  1. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  2. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  3. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness. PMID:20391006

  4. 5m Main Belt Asteroid Population Estimation Using Vesta Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Michael; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    The Main Belt is the largest source of Near-Earth asteroids, but objects 2 pixels in diameter that were counted in a 33km 2 region to give a crater density. By knowing the crater density and making some reasonable assumptions about the orbital distribution of asteroids and the age of Vesta's surface, an estimate of the population of small asteroids in the inner main belt was made. It was found that the inner region of the main asteroid belt contains approximately 20 billion asteroids larger than 5 m. These results agree well with the measured inner Main Belt Size distribution derived by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE (Masiero et al. 2011).

  5. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE CENOZOIC THRUST FOLD BELT IN JINPING, SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu

    2003-01-01

    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  6. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  7. Potential of activated carbon from waste rubber tire for the adsorption of phenolics: effect of pre-treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Nayak, Arunima; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tyagi, Inderjeet

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tire activated carbon modification (RTACMC) and rubber tire activated carbon (RTAC) were prepared from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical treatment and physical heating respectively. A greater improvement in porosity and total pore volume was achieved in RTACMC as compared to that of RTAC. But both have a predominantly mesoporous structure. Under identical operating conditions, an irradiation time of 10 min, chemical impregnation ratio of 1.50 and a microwave power of 600 W resulted in maximizing the efficiency of RTACMC for p-cresol (250 mg/g) at a contact time of 90 min while RTAC showed a 71.43 mg/g adsorption capacity at 150 min. Phenol, due to its higher solubility was adsorbed to a lesser extent by both adsorbents. Physical nature of interactions, pore diffusion mechanism and exothermicity of the adsorption process was operative in both adsorbents. The outcomes support the feasibility of preparing high quality activated carbon from waste rubber tire by microwave assisted chemical activation.

  8. 49 CFR 571.120 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567. Except in the case of a vehicle... specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567. If the certification label shows...-pneumatic tire identification code, with which the vehicle is equipped. S10. Each motor home and...

  9. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine. Maximum loaded vehicle weight means the... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... limitations of S4.3.4. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's...

  10. The development of a CPX measurement set-up capable of measuring tire-road noise effectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the Directive 2001/43 limits are put on the maximum noise level of a pass-by noise measurement on an ISO 10844 surface. This prescribed measurement set-up only gives an LAmax level of the total passage of a whole vehicle equipped with four tires and does not provide enough information for a probl

  11. Experimental and Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Frictional Contact between an Aircraft Tire Rubber and a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Rosu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of an aircraft tire in contact with a rough surface using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and contact pressure. A sliding facility was used in order to evaluate this dependence of the friction coefficient. The temperature diffusion throughout the tire cross-section was measured by means of thermocouples. Both frictional heating and temperature diffusion were compared to numerical two- and three- dimensional simulations. An adequate temperature prediction could be obtained. In future simulations, wear should be taken into account in order to have a more accurate simulation especially in the case of high pressures and slipping velocities. A 3D finite element model for a rolling tire at a velocity of 37.79 knots (19.44 m/s and in a cornering phase was investigated using a variable friction coefficient dependent on temperature and pressure. The numerical simulation tended to predict the temperature of the tire tread after a few seconds of rolling in skidding position, the temperature of the contact zone increases to 140 °C. Further investigations must be carried out in order to obtain the evolution of the temperature observed experimentally. The authors would like to point out that for confidentiality reasons, certain numerical data could not be revealed.

  12. Research Progress on the Pyrolysis of Scrap Tire%废轮胎热裂解研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英俊; 乔慧君; 杜爱华

    2015-01-01

    Scrap tire, considered as"black pollution"after"white pollution", is a major pollution. Many countries around the world are trying to ifnd scientiifc ways to deal with scrap tire in recent years. Pyrolysis of scrap tires has been paid much attention. This paper introduced the advantages of the pyrolysis of scrap tire, the pyrolysis technology and processes, characterization, modiifcation and applications of pyrolysis products, as well as the potential development of pyrolysis technology in the future.%废轮胎是继“白色污染”后的又一大污染——“黑色污染”,世界各国都在积极寻求科学的方法处理废轮胎。近年来,废轮胎的热裂解受到了广泛的关注。介绍了废轮胎裂解处理的优势,热裂解技术和工艺,裂解产物的表征、改性和应用,以及裂解技术今后的发展前景。

  13. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM COMBUSTION OF TIRE-DERIVED FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in a 73kW (250,000 Btu/hr) rotary kiln incinerator simulator to examine and characterize emissions from incineration of scrap tire material. The purposes of this project are to: (1) generate a profile of target analytes for full-scale stack sampling eff...

  14. The tires and their effect in fuel consumption; Los neumaticos y su efecto en el consumo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjau Peralta, Emilio; Fernandez Ramirez, Adrian; Maldonado Susano, Armando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper are presented some of the impacts that the tire has in the fuel consumption in the light vehicles as well as in the heavy ones; emphasis is made in the measures that can be taken to diminish this effect and some of the results of the investigations or experiences obtained in other countries are also presented. Also mention is made of the most frequent faults of the tires and the cause of the same ones. This affects not so much the life of the tire as the operation cost, but also it involves energy costs when having to invest energy in the manufacture of new tires. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan algunas de los impactos que tienen el neumatico en el consumo de combustible en los vehiculos tanto ligeros como pesados, se hace enfasis en las medidas que pueden ser tomadas para disminuir este efecto y se muestran algunos resultados de las investigaciones o experiencias obtenidas en otros paises. Tambien se hace mencion de las fallas mas frecuentes en los neumaticos y la causa de las mismas. Esto afecta tanto la vida del neumatico como el costo de operacion, pero tambien involucra costos energeticos al tener que invertir energia en la fabricacion de neumaticos nuevos.

  15. 75 FR 60036 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... original standard applied to tires used on vehicles other than passenger cars, which included pickup trucks..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments..., 114 Stat. 1800. \\2\\ 68 FR 38116; June 26, 2003, Docket NHTSA-03-15400; response to petitions...

  16. 78 FR 33341 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Surrogate Value Memo''). ] Revised the indirect selling expense ratio to include additional indirect selling... expense ratio Issue 4: Whether to continue to deny scrap tire and steel wire offsets BILLING CODE 3510-DS... Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review; 2011-2012, 78 FR...

  17. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  18. Tribological Properties of Metal V-Belt Type CVT Lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    Keiichi Narita

    2012-01-01

    The priority for lubricant performance for metal V-belt-type CVT (B-CVTFs) should be the improvement of transmittable torque capacity between the belt and pulley plus excellent antishudder properties for lockup clutch used in B-CVTs. This study intends to investigate the effect of lubricant additives for improving these performances of B-CVTs. In addition, surface analysis techniques were utilized to gain a novel insight into the chemical composites and morphology of the tribofilms. As a resu...

  19. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  20. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  1. Occultation Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha; Farmer, Alison J.

    2003-01-01

    The occultation of background stellar sources by foreground Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) can be used to survey physical properties of the KBO population. We discuss statistics related to a KBO occultation survey, such as the event duration distribution, and suggest that occultation searches can be effectively used to probe the KBO size distribution below 10 km. In particular, we suggest that occultation surveys may be best suited to search for a turnover radius in the KBO size distribution due to collisions between small-size objects. For occultation surveys that monitor stellar sources near the ecliptic over a few square degrees, with time sampling intervals of order 0.1 sec and sensitivity to flux variations of a few percent or more, a turnover radius between 0.1 and 1.0 km can be probed. While occultation surveys will probe the low-radius limit and imaging surveys will detect KBOs of size 100 km or more, statistics of objects with sizes in the intermediate range of around 1 km to 100 km will likely remain un...

  2. Orion revisited III. The Orion Belt population

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, K; Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Ascenso, J; Burkert, A; Forbrich, J; Großschedl, J; Hacar, A; Hasenberger, B; Lombardi, M; Meingast, S; Köhler, R; Teixeira, P S

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the $\\epsilon$ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0\\,Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (\\textit{XMM-Newton}) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2\\,000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5\\, Myr and likely $\\sim10$\\,Myr and estimate a total of about 2\\,500 mem...

  3. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  4. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  5. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  6. The effects of studded tires on fatal crashes with passenger cars and the benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) in Swedish winter driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Olai, Maria; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2012-03-01

    This study set out to examine the effects of studded tires on fatal crashes on roads covered with ice or snow in Sweden and also to investigate the extra benefits of electronic stability control (ESC) during the winter months. Two different studies are presented in this paper. Both studies used an induced exposure approach. In the main study, 369 in-depth studies of fatal crashes with passenger cars were analyzed to determine whether loss-of-control (LOC) had been a major component or not. Only crashes involving cars without ESC and equipped with approved studded or non-studded winter tires were analyzed. The additional study used police-reported crashes that occurred during the winter seasons 2003-2010, involving passenger cars with and without ESC. While police records in Sweden do not include any tire information, it was assumed that most cars involved in crashes during the winter period would be equipped with studded tires. Findings in the main study showed that in 64% of the fatal crashes on roads covered with ice or snow LOC had been a major component. Furthermore, in 82% of LOC crashes, the passenger car over-steered prior to collision. Studded tires were found to have a statistically significant effect of 42% in terms of fatal crash reduction on roads covered with ice or snow, compared to non-studded winter tires. The effect on dry or wet roads in the winter was negative, although statistically non-significant. In the additional study, it was found that ESC further reduced crashes with injuries by 29%. The benefits on severe and fatal crashes were slightly greater (32%), although the lower 95% confidence limit was lower. Although studded tires were shown to reduce the risk of fatal crash involvement, compared to non-studded winter tires, the proportion of LOC and over-steering among cars with studded tires was large (59% and 49%, respectively). It was therefore concluded that studded tires do not prevent all LOC crashes, while ESC has benefits in those

  7. Use of ionizing radiation in the recycling of unserviceable tires of automotive and its adequate environmental disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to use ionizing radiation in the recycling of scrap tires of automotive. Samples of rubber unserviceable tires were irradiated with radiation doses 200, 400 and 600kGy in an electron accelerator. Subsequently, they were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength mechanical test, spectrophotometry Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By thermogravimetry was possible to observe the effects of radiation in the mass loss of material. In the DSC curves were observed exothermic decomposition peaks and associated values of enthalpy variation (ΔH). The mechanical properties of the elastomeric matrix with unserviceable tires powder were studied and its behavior to ionizing radiation was analyzed. FTIR spectra were obtained in the 4000 - 650cm-1 region. It was observed that there was no change in the peaks due irradiation. For SEM the micrographs were enlarged from 32 times up to 1000 times and observed in sizes from 1mm up to 20μm. It was observed at doses of 200 and 400kGy, roughness corresponding to breaks or ruptures possibly caused by radiation. In 600kGy radiation dose was observed cavities caused by radiation. It was observed that at all doses occurred degradation. For samples without powder and with 10, 30 and 50% of unserviceable tires powder it was obtained micrographs of 100μm and 200μm amplification. Also it was possible to observe the incorporation of unserviceable tires powder of automotive in the elastomeric matrix of non-irradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  8. THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Grischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the

  9. Delivery of meteorites from the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael Craig

    The process of the delivery of meteorites to the surface of the Earth from plausible source regions such as the asteroid belt is currently understood in general terms, but important uncertainties and conflicts remain to be resolved. Stochastic effects of the rare disruptions of large asteroids on the population of meteorite-sized Earth-crossing asteroids can change the flux and the proportions of compositional types in the infalling meteorite population. These changes can be significant in magnitude over timescales of 108 years. Changes of the order of 1 percent can be expected on timescales of 105-106 y, consistent with small differences between the Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. The magnitude of changes depends strongly on poorly-understood details of collisions. Asteroids 961 Gaspra and 243 Ida were recently imaged by the Galileo spacecraft. I use a numerical hydrocode model to examine the outcomes of various sire impacts into targets the sizes of these asteroids. A shock wave fractures the asteroid in advance of crater excavation flow; thus, for impactors larger than 100 m, impacting at 5.3 km s-1, tensile strength is unimportant in these bodies, whether they are initially intact or are 'rubble piles'. Because of the shock-induced fracture, impact results are controlled by gravity. Therefore these asteroids are much more resistant to catastrophic disruption than predicted by previous estimates, which had assumed that strength was controlling these processes for rock targets. Fracture of km-size asteroids is different from fracture in terrestrial experiments using few-cm targets. The composition distribution of delivered meteorites depends on the outcomes of such asteroid impacts.

  10. Activating main belt comets by collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindl, T. I.; Haghighipour, N.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.

    2016-02-01

    Since their identification as a new class of bodies by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006 active asteroids (or Main Belt Comets, MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest. Given that sublimation of volatile material (presumably water-ice) drives MBC activity, these bodies are probable candidates for delivering a significant amount of Earth's water. Dynamical studies suggest in-situ formation of MBCs as the remnants of the break-up of large icy asteroids. Also, collisions between MBCs and small objects might have exposed sub-surface water-ice triggering the cometary activity of these bodies. In order to advance the effort of understanding the nature of MBC activation, we have investigated these collision processes by simulating the impacts in detail using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that includes material strength and fracture models. Our simulations cover a range of impact velocities (between 0.5 km/s and 5.3 km/s) and angles, allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to expose volatiles and trigger its activation. We also varied the material strength of the active asteroid's surface to study its influence on crater depths and shapes. As expected, depending on the impact energy, impact angle, and MBC's material strength we observe different crater depths. Across all scenarios however, our results show that the crater depths do not exceed a few meters. This implies that if the activity of MBCs is due to sublimating water-ice, ice has to exist in no deeper than a few meters from the surface.

  11. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  12. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  13. Simulation of a Novel Bridge MEMS-PZT Energy Harvester for Tire Pressure System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-powering is becoming an important issue for autonomous sensor systems. By having an on-the-go power source the life span increases in comparison to a limited battery source. In this paper, simulation of an innovative design for a piezoelectric energy harvester for Tire Pressure Measurement System (TPMS) is presented. The MEMS-based thin-film PZT harvester structure is in the form of a bridge with a big central seismic mass and multiple electrodes. This design takes the advantage of the S-profile bending and a short beam length to concentrate the piezoelectric effect in a small segment along the beam and maximize the power output for a given displacement. From simulation in Comsol Multiphysics, the 9mm × 5mm bridge, seismic mass of 8.7mg and resonance frequency of 615Hz, generates 1 μW by mechanical pulses excitation equivalent to driving at 60 km/h (roughly 180G)

  14. The effects of porosity in friction performance of brake pad using waste tire dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Mutlu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is focused on the effect of porosity on the friction-wear properties of automotive brake pads. Waste Tire Dust (WTD was used as a new friction material in brake pads. Newly formulated brake pad materials with five different components have been produced by conventional techniques. In the experimental studies, the change of the friction coefficient, the temperature of the friction surface, the specific wear rate, and the hardness, density and porosity were measured. In addition, the micro-structural characterizations of brake pads are determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The mean coefficient of friction, porosity and specific wear are increased due to a WTD rate increases, on the other hand, hardness and density are decreased. As a result, WTD can be considered as an alternative to revalorize this kind of waste products in the brake pads and the amount of porosity of the brake pad affected the friction coefficient and wear behavior of the pad.

  15. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  16. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone. PMID:27010486

  17. A Tire Model for Off-Highway Vehicle Simulation on Short Wave Irregular Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Kristensen, Lars B; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.;

    2010-01-01

    requirements that prescribe the maximum limit on the vibration exposure on the operator which is a measure for ride comfort. The second is the importance of knowing the dynamic loading of the structural parts. In order to use the wide variety of computer-aided design tools to size and optimize mechanical......Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged in several ways concerning dynamic loads. Considering off-highway dump trucks that travel through high amplitude short wave irregular terrain with considerable speed two aspects concerning dynamics are important. The first is the legal...... joints, spring-damper elements and the welded structures it is crucial to have information on the time history of the loads. For trucks carrying payloads the most important load contribution is undoubtedly the reaction forces between terrain and tires. By use of virtual prototypes it is possible...

  18. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Joardder, M U H; Hasan, S M; Takai, K; Haniu, H

    2011-01-01

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  19. Properties of Concrete with Tire Derived Aggregate Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Siringi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tire derived aggregate (TDA has been proposed as a possible lightweight replacement for mineral aggregate in concrete. The role played by the amount of TDA replacing coarse aggregate as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties is examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, splitting tensile strength based on ASTM C496, modulus of rupture (flexural strength based on ASTM C78, and bond stress based on ASTM C234. Results indicate that while replacement of coarse aggregates with TDA results in reduction in strength, it may be mitigated with addition of silica fume to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product while utilizing recycled TDA.

  20. Combustion Ratio of Waste Tire Particle, PC and Mixture at Blast Temperature of BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-liang; REN Shan; SU Bu-xin; LIN Yin-he; LONG Shi-gang

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the combustion characteristics of waste tire particle (WTP), pulverized coal (PC) and their mixture, the contents of CO, CO2 and O2 of off-gas during the combustion of WTP, PC and mixture under the condition of rich oxygen by 0--4% in blast and at 1 250℃ were measured simultaneously using synthetically infrared analyzer, and then the corresponding combustion ratio was calculated and compared. The results showed that the burning rate of WTP reached approximately 57%, which is much higher than that of PC (only about 18%) in the in- itial 650 s in fresh air, and then the increase of combustion rate of PC is faster than that of WTP; the combustion rate of PC improved remarkably with the addition of WTP. Meanwhile, the combustion rates of all these materials improved with the increase of oxygen content.

  1. Cardiopulmonary responses of intratracheally instilled tire particles and constituent metal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipolu, R.R.; Landa, E.R.; Schladweiler, M.C.; McGee, J.K.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Richards, J.H.; Wallenborn, G.J.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2008-01-01

    Tire and brake wear particles contain transition metals, and contribute to near-road PM. We hypothesized that acute cardiopulmonary injury from respirable tire particles (TP) will depend on the amount of soluble metals. Respirable fractions of two types of TP (TP1 and TP2) were analyzed for water and acid-leachable metals using ICP-AES. Both TP types contained a variety of transition metals, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminum, and iron. Zn and Cu were detected at high levels in water-soluble fractions (TP2 > TP1). Male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-14 wk) were intratracheally instilled, in the first study, with saline, TP1 or TP2 (5 mg/kg), and in the second study, with soluble Zn, Cu (0.5 ??mol/kg), or both. Pulmonary toxicity and cardiac mitochondrial enzymes were analyzed 1 d, 1 wk, or 4 wk later for TP and 4 or 24 h later for metals. Increases in lavage fluid markers of inflammation and injury were observed at d 1 (TP2 > TP1), but these changes reversed by wk 1. No effects on cardiac enzymes were noted with either TP. Exposure of rats to soluble Zn and Cu caused marked pulmonary inflammation and injury but temporal differences were apparent (Cu effects peaked at 4 h and Zn at 24 h). Instillation of Zn, Cu, and Zn+ Cu decreased the activity of cardiac aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome-c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase suggesting mitochondrial oxidative stress. The observed acute pulmonary toxicity of TP could be due to the presence of water soluble Zn and Cu. At high concentrations these metals may induce cardiac oxidative stress. Copyright ?? Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  2. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  3. Tire Processing Facilities, Location of motor vehicle inspection sites within Louisiana, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tire Processing Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Location of motor vehicle inspection sites within...

  4. Digital Spectra and Analysis of Altitudinal Belts in Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baiping; MO Shenguo; WU Hongzhi; XIAO Fei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the framework of the geo-info spectra of montane altitudinal belts, this paper firstly reviews six classification systems for the spectra of mountain altitudinal belts in China and considers that detailed regional study of altitudinal belts is the key for reaching standardization and systemization of mountain altitudinal belts. Only can this furtheridentify and resolve problems with the study of altitudinal belts. The factors forming the spectra of altitudinal belts are analyzed in the Tianshan Mountains of China, and a digital altitudinal belt system is constructed for the northern flank, Southern flank, the heartland, and Ilivalley in the west. The characteristics of each belt are revealed with a summarization of the pattern of areal differentiation of altitudinal belts.

  5. State of the art for tire dynamical model research%轮胎动态模型研究的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危银涛; 冯希金; 冯启章; 刘源; 何园

    2014-01-01

    轮胎是汽车唯一接地部件,它提供汽车运动需要的所有驱动、转向和制动力。轮胎力学是汽车动力学的基础。汽车动力学及其控制技术的进一步发展有赖于精确的轮胎动态模型技术。该文综述了轮胎动态模型发展历史与现状,这包括:汽车操稳仿真模型、汽车舒适性仿真模型和汽车疲劳载荷仿真模型。从建模方法的角度,即基于物理的、基于实验的和基于结构的三类方法,对轮胎动态模型的优缺点进行了梳理。可以预计:轮胎动态模型的未来发展将以基于结构的先进轮胎模型为主,与汽车动力学仿真、汽车主动安全系统开发深度融合,并最终走向汽车—轮胎—道路相互作用定量化理论。%Tire is the only link between tire and road, which provides al force and moments for vehicle motion including driving, steering and braking. Tire mechanics is the base for vehicle dynamics, which progress depends on to a large extent the precise tire dynamical model. This paper reviews the state of the art for tire dynamical models, including handing tire model, ride comfort model, and durability load simulation model. The advantages and disadvantages for three tire modeling approaches, i.e. simple physics based, empirical based and structure based, are compared. It can be concluded that the fufure of the tire model lies in the so caled advanced tire model, i.e. structure based model wil gain more advances and interest in both academics and industries, the tire dynamical model wil be integrated with vehicle dynamics simulation and vehicle active safety system development. The vehicle-tire-road indication theory wil be ultimate goal of the research.

  6. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.

    2012-04-01

    Radiation belts causes irreversible damages on on-board instruments materials. That's why for two decades, ONERA proposes studies about radiation belts of magnetized planets. First, in the 90's, the development of a physical model, named Salammbô, carried out a model of the radiation belts of the Earth. Then, for few years, analysis of the magnetosphere of Jupiter and in-situ data (Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo) allow to build a physical model of the radiation belts of Jupiter. Enrolling on the Cassini age and thanks to all information collected, this study permits to adapt Salammbô jovian radiation belts model to the case of Saturn environment. Indeed, some physical processes present in the kronian magnetosphere are similar to those present in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (radial diffusion; interaction of energetic electrons with rings, moons, atmosphere; synchrotron emission). However, some physical processes have to be added to the kronian model (compared to the jovian model) because of the particularity of the magnetosphere of Saturn: interaction of energetic electrons with neutral particles from Enceladus, and wave-particle interaction. This last physical process has been studied in details with the analysis of CASSINI/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Waves Science) data. The major importance of the wave particles interaction is now well known in the case of the radiation belts of the Earth but it is important to investigate on its role in the case of Saturn. So, importance of each physical process has been studied and analysis of Cassini MIMI-LEMMS and CAPS data allows to build a model boundary condition (at L = 6). Finally, results of this study lead to a kronian electrons radiation belts model including radial diffusion, interactions of energetic electrons with rings, moons and neutrals particles and wave-particle interaction (interactions of electrons with atmosphere particles and synchrotron emission are too weak to be taken into account in this model). Then, to

  7. Computational methods for frictional contact with applications to the Space Shuttle orbiter nose-gear tire: Comparisons of experimental measurements and analytical predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A computational procedure is presented for the solution of frictional contact problems for aircraft tires. A Space Shuttle nose-gear tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory which includes the effects of variations in material and geometric parameters, transverse-shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities. Contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with both contact and friction conditions. The contact-friction algorithm is based on a modified Coulomb friction law. A modified two-field, mixed-variational principle is used to obtain elemental arrays. This modification consists of augmenting the functional of that principle by two terms: the Lagrange multiplier vector associated with normal and tangential node contact-load intensities and a regularization term that is quadratic in the Lagrange multiplier vector. These capabilities and computational features are incorporated into an in-house computer code. Experimental measurements were taken to define the response of the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire to inflation-pressure loads and to inflation-pressure loads combined with normal static loads against a rigid flat plate. These experimental results describe the meridional growth of the tire cross section caused by inflation loading, the static load-deflection characteristics of the tire, the geometry of the tire footprint under static loading conditions, and the normal and tangential load-intensity distributions in the tire footprint for the various static vertical-loading conditions. Numerical results were obtained for the Space Shuttle nose-gear tire subjected to inflation pressure loads and combined inflation pressure and contact loads against a rigid flat plate. The experimental measurements and the numerical results are compared.

  8. Influence of physical and chemical polymer-filler bonds on wet skid resistance and related properties of passenger car tire treads

    OpenAIRE

    Cichomski, E.M.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.; Tolpekina, T.V.; Schultz, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the influence of rubber – filler interactions on the wet skid behavior of tire treads is insufficient, in order to quickly develop new compounds with improved wet skid performance. The rubber compound used for a tire tread is in fact a composite material of which the dynamic properties can be adjusted over a relatively broad range by modification of the polymer – filler interaction. In case of silica reinforced rubber, due to silanol-groups present on its surface, it posesses ...

  9. Development and characterization of post-consumer rubber tire powder, high density polyethylene and ethylene-octene-1copolymer ternary mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Cristina de Castro; Adriane Bassani Sowek; Luís Antonio Pinheiro; Luiz Antonio Pessan; Sebastião Vicente Canevarolo

    2014-01-01

    Scrap tires are considered a type of waste that litters landfills and the environment in general. Due to its chemically cross-linked structure, this material cannot be recycled by conventional processes because it does not melt. This work examined the production of polymeric composites using high density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with rubber tire powder (RTP). Ethylene-octene-1 copolymer (C2C8), an elastomeric material, was also added to improve the mechanical properties. Morphological analy...

  10. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the southern margin of the Sausar Mobile Belt of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Ramachandra; Abhinaba Roy

    2001-12-01

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190 km long, detached narrow, linear, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, comprising a medium to coarse grained two-pyroxene granulite body that is of gabbroic composition and preserves relic igneous fabric. The main part of the belt in Arjuni-Balaghat section includes metasedimentary (quartzite, BIF, Al- and Mg-Al metapelites) and metaigneous (metaultramafic, amphibolite and two-pyroxene granulite) protoliths interbanded with charnockite and charnockitic gneiss. These rocks, occurring as small bands and enclaves within migmatitic and granitic gneisses, show polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Geochemically, basic compositions show tholeiitic trend without Fe-enrichment, non-komatitic nature, continental affinity and show evolved nature. Mineral parageneses and reaction textures in different rock compositions indicate early prograde, dehydration melt forming reactions followed by orthopyroxene stability with or without melt. Coronitic and symplectitic garnets have formed over earlier minerals indicating onset of retrograde IBC path. Evidences for high temperature ductile shearing are preserved at places. Retrogressive hydration events clearly post-date the above paths. The present study has shown that the BBG belt may form a part of the Bastar Craton and does not represent exhumed oceanic crust of the Bundelkhand Craton. It is further shown that rocks of the BBG belt have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672 ± 54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a post-peak granulite metamorphism at 1416 ± 59 Ma (Sm-Nd age, 1380 ± 28 Ma Rb-Sr age). These events were followed by deposition of the Sausar supracrustals and Neoproterozoic Sausar orogeny between 973 ± 63 Ma and 800 ± 16 Ma (Rb-Sr ages).

  11. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt. PMID:24646996

  12. JOVIAN EARLY BOMBARDMENT: PLANETESIMAL EROSION IN THE INNER ASTEROID BELT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrini, D.; Coradini, A.; Magni, G., E-mail: diego.turrini@ifsi-roma.inaf.it [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Rome (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    The asteroid belt is an open window on the history of the solar system, as it preserves records of both its formation process and its secular evolution. The progenitors of the present-day asteroids formed in the Solar Nebula almost contemporary to the giant planets. The actual process producing the first generation of asteroids is uncertain, strongly depending on the physical characteristics of the Solar Nebula, and the different scenarios produce very diverse initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs). In this work, we investigate the implications of the formation of Jupiter, plausibly the first giant planet to form, on the evolution of the primordial asteroid belt. The formation of Jupiter triggered a short but intense period of primordial bombardment, previously unaccounted for, which caused an early phase of enhanced collisional evolution in the asteroid belt. Our results indicate that this Jovian Early Bombardment caused the erosion or the disruption of bodies smaller than a threshold size, which strongly depends on the SFD of the primordial planetesimals. If the asteroid belt was dominated by planetesimals less than 100 km in diameter, the primordial bombardment would have caused the erosion of bodies smaller than 200 km in diameter. If the asteroid belt was instead dominated by larger planetesimals, the bombardment would have resulted in the destruction of bodies as big as 500 km.

  13. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  14. Relationships among the contact patch length and width, the tire deflection and the rolling resistance of a free-running wheel in a soil bin facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Tomaraee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative analysis of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance at different wheel load and inflation pressure levels is presented. The experiments were planned in a randomized block design and were conducted in the controlled conditions provided by a soil bin environment utilizing a well-equipped single wheel-tester of Urmia University, Iran. The image processing technique was used for determination of the contact patch length and contact patch width. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the correlations. The highest values of contact length and width and tire deflection occurred at the highest wheel load and lowest tire inflation pressure. Contact patch width is a polynomial (order 2 function of wheel load while there is a linear relationship between tire contact length and wheel load as well as between tire deflection and wheel load. Correlations were developed for the evaluation of contact patch length-rolling resistance, contact patch width-rolling resistance and tire deflection-rolling resistance. It is concluded that the variables studied have a significant effect on rolling resistance.

  15. Research on Dynamic Tension for Belt Conveyor with Constant Force Automatic Take-Up Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guo-ying; CHEN Jing-li; LI Yu-jin

    2003-01-01

    The article Provides a dynamic model for belt conveyor. Based on the drive-force of conveyor, take-up tension of take-up assembly, gravity of conveyor belt and material, and friction between belt and idlers, it gives a viscoelastic dynamic equation for conveyor belt. It presents a calculation method of analytic solution to both viscoelastic dynamic equation and geometric dynamic equation when automatic take-up assembly is applied to belt conveyor. The article also makes a study of design method of limiting and eliminating the conveyor belt's elastic vibration.

  16. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  17. Two new basaltic asteroids in the Outer Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R

    2007-01-01

    The identification of other basaltic objects in the asteroid belt is mandatory to explain the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. This diversity requires more than one differentiated parent body, a fact that is consistent with the diversity of differentiated parent bodies implied by the iron meteorites. Based on a list of previously identified candidate basaltic (V-type) asteroids, two asteroids in the outer main belt, (7472) Kumakiri and (10537) 1991 RY16, were spectroscopically observed during an observational run in Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. We confirm the V-type character of these two asteroids that, together with (1459) Magnya, become the only known traces of basaltic found in the outer main belt up to now. We also demonstrate that the searching for candidate V-type asteroids using a photometric survey, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produces reliable results.

  18. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; I B Ramaprasada Rao; N Srinivasulu

    2001-03-01

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.

  19. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  20. Relativistic surfatron process for Landau resonant electrons in radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Osmane, A

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of the nonlinear wave-particle interactions for relativistic particles have shown that Landau resonant orbits could be efficiently accelerated along the mean background magnetic field for propagation angles $\\theta$ in close proximity to a critical propagation $\\theta_\\textrm{c}$ associated with a Hopf--Hopf bifurcation condition. In this report, we extend previous studies to reach greater modeling capacities for the study of electrons in radiation belts by including longitudinal wave effects and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We find that even though both effects can limit the surfatron acceleration of electrons in radiation belts, gains in energy of the order of 100 keV, taking place on the order of ten milliseconds, are sufficiently strong for the mechanism to be relevant to radiation belt dynamics.

  1. TAKRAF belt conveyors - effective means of transport for bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, L.

    1988-11-01

    Presents belt conveyor types produced by TAKRAF, especially those intended for use at surface mines. The FAM works (Transport Equipment) produces belt conveyors 800-1,400 mm wide, with 2.09-5.24 m/s belt velocity, 460-3,750 m/sup 3//h capacity, max. feed distance 2,500 m and (1-5)x55 kW drive power. The drive stations are based on pontoons or caterpillar vehicles while the end-stations are based on pontoons. Charging hoppers have autonomic drives and are mobile on rail. The described conveyors can also be used in power plants. The FAM works produces 650-800 mm wide conveyors for thermal electric power stations. The conveyors are equipped with metal detectors and metal separators.

  2. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  3. Adaptive Nonlinear Tire-Road Friction Force Estimation for Vehicular Systems Based on a Novel Differentiable Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adaptive nonlinear observer-based parameter estimation scheme using a newly continuously differentiable friction model has been developed to estimate the tire-road friction force. The differentiable friction model is more flexible and suitable for online adaptive identification and control with the advantage of more explicit parameterizable form. Different from conventional estimation methods, the filtered regression estimation parameter is introduced in the novel adaptive laws, which can guarantee that both the observer error and parameter error exponentially converge to zero. Lyapunov theory has been used to prove the stability of the proposed methods. The effectiveness of the estimation algorithm is illustrated via a bus simulation model in the Trucksim software and simulation environment. The relatively accurate tire-road friction force was estimated just by the easily existing sensors signals wheel rotational speed and vehicle speed and the proposed method also displays strong robustness against bounded disturbances.

  4. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  5. Bifurcation for Dynamical Systems of Planet-Belt Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical systems of planet-belt interaction are studied by the fixed-point analysis and the bifurcation of solutions on the parameter space is discussed. For most cases, our analytical and numerical results show that the locations of fixed points are determined by the parameters and these fixed points are either structurally stable or unstable. In addition to that, there are two special fixed points: the one on the inner edge of the belt is asymptotically stable and the one on the outer ...

  6. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  7. Logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil Reverse logistics for post-consumer tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Lagarinhos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Após a aprovação da Resolução CONAMA (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente nº 258/99, ocorreu um avanço significativo na reciclagem de pneus no Brasil, com o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética. Em 2009, foi aprovada a Resolução CONAMA nº 416/09 que muda a forma de cálculo para a reciclagem, de pneus produzidos para venda no mercado de reposição. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é apresentar a logística reversa dos pneus usados no Brasil e comparar com os sistemas implementados no Japão, Estados Unidos e Comunidade Européia. No período de 1999 até 2010, foram destinados 2,44 milhões de toneladas, o equivalente a 487,6 milhões de pneus inservíveis de automóveis.After the CONAMA (National Council for Environment resolution 258/99, significant improvement occurred in the recycling of tires in Brazil, with technologies being developed for reusing, recycling and energy recovery. In 2009, the CONAMA 416/09 resolution changed the formula for calculating the recycling of tires, to be sold in the replacement market. The main objective in this work is to present the reverse logistics of used tires in Brazil and compare it with the systems already implemented in Japan, Europe and USA. From 1999 to 2010, were recycled 2.44 million tons, corresponding to 487.6 million automotive tires.

  8. 组合片式无气孔轮胎模具研究%Research on Ventless Slice Tire Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 周建强; 单既强; 王晓东; 张任

    2014-01-01

    Ventless-mold has become an inevitable trend of technological innovation and product upgrades in tire mold industry . Ventless-mold for radial tires with venting system constituted by circumferential venting gaps , circumferential venting grooves , radial venting grooves and axial venting holes are introduced . Test results show that surfaces of tires cured by this type of mold are with better appearance , better venting performance , free of thin flash and rubber 'light' when the venting gaps are ranging from 0 . 020mm to 0 . 06mm .%无气孔技术是轮胎模具行业技术改造、产品升级的必然趋势。本文研究了一种由周向排气缝隙、周向排气槽、径向排气槽,轴向排气孔组成的排气系统的无气孔子午轮胎模具。采用不同宽度排气缝隙试验,结果表明,排气缝隙宽度为0.02~0.06mm 时,能保证良好的排气性能,硫化轮胎表面不会出现“缺胶”问题,同时胎面不出现胶片,外观质量高。

  9. Development Strategy of Hankook Tire%韩泰轮胎的发展战略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏博; 姚丽佳

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the development strategies of Hankook Tire are presented. The 2015 target of Hankook Tire is to become the iffth largest tire company in the world. The main strategies are strengthening of research and development through expansion of global R&D center and focus on patentable technology, expansion of the high-end market share and global capacity, and adaptation of sales strategy for the local markets.%介绍韩泰轮胎有限公司的发展战略。韩泰轮胎2015年度的目标是成为全球第五大轮胎企业。通过拓展全球研发中心和加强专利技术的开发和应用来提高产品研发能力以及扩大高端配套市场份额、扩张全球产能、对不同细分市场采取因地制宜的销售策略是韩泰轮胎发展的重要战备方针。

  10. Structural Behavior by Reinforcement Type in the Joint of RC Beams and Columns Mixed with Waste Tire Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tae Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One main purpose of this study is to measure the improvement of the ductility through structural tests of the connection between an exterior column and a beam of normal concrete in comparison with a concrete frame constructed with a mix of waste tire material. The actual section size of each column and beam is 30㎝×30㎝ with the reinforced concrete (henceforth RC, which is based on a ¼-scale design with exterior columns and beams. The models are termed NCJ-1, TCJ-1, NCJ-2, NCJ-2, NCJ-3, and TCJ-3 for the six (6 types used here. It is estimated that the main rebar in the beam is not anchored over the boundary of the connection rejoin. Instead, it is anchored only to the boundary. The displacement of a diagonally reinforced connection rejoin with the waste-tire mixture showed a 3.3% increase with a 3% decrease of the resistance capacity. In the model of the connection rejoin with more waste-tire mixture and rebar anchored over the boundary of the connection rejoin.

  11. Multicentricidade no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Salles Chagas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento cirúrgico de escolha no carcinoma diferenciado da tireóide sempre foi controverso. OBJETIVO: Analisar o acometimento tumoral do lobo contralateral da tireóide no carcinoma diferenciado, correlacionando risco e benefício com as complicações decorrentes da segunda intervenção. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, de 1998 a 2006, com 27 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia menos que total, sendo 21 lobectomias, cinco tireoidectomias subtotais e uma istmectomia. Foram analisados: gênero, idade, tipo de cirurgia, complicações, histopatológico do espécime cirúrgico e invasão do lobo contralateral. As idades variaram de 17 a 89 anos; o tipo histopatológico mais freqüente foi o carcinoma papilífero clássico (18 casos, seguido do carcinoma folicular (seis casos, do carcinoma papilífero variante folicular (dois casos e do carcinoma de células Hürthle (um caso. Vinte e um pacientes foram submetidos à totalização da tireoidectomia, 15 a 30 dias depois. RESULTADOS: A análise do lobo contralateral foi negativa para carcinoma em 16 (76,5% e positiva nos cinco restantes (23,8%. As complicações observadas foram: disfonia temporária (três casos e hipoparatireoidismo (dois casos, sendo um permanente. CONCLUSÃO: A totalização da tireoidectomia é um procedimento importante no tratamento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide pelo elevado acometimento contralateral (23,8%. A incidência de complicações é pequena.The treatment of choice for the well differentiated thyroid carcinoma has always been controversial. AIM: to analyze tumor invasion of the thyroid gland's contralateral lobe in cases of differentiated carcinoma, correlating risk/benefit with the complications of a second surgical approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study, from 1998 to 2006, of 27 patients undergoing less than total thyroidectomy: lobectomy (21, subtotal thyroidectomy (5 or isthmusectomy (1. Gender, age, type of surgery

  12. Management of used tires, accomplishments in the world, and situation in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that all over the world there are more than 550 million road vehicles in everyday use. Annually, 1.3 billion used tyres are dismantled from these vehicles due to safety reasons. A small number of these tyres end up reused as second-hand tyres or, after being retreated, as new ones. The rest are end of life tyres which are recycled or used as tire derived fuels under controlled combustion conditions. Modern vehicle tyres are a high-technological product containing, on the average, 85% hydrocarbon, 10-15% steel, as well as some other chemical materials. Tyres belong to high caloric materials, with calorific value of a passenger car tyre of approx. 30.2 MJ/kg being more than of hard coal and comparable to calorific value of petrol-coke. Having this in mind many countries use end of life tyres as safe alternative fuel in cement works or power plants. Undeveloped countries dump end of life tyres on legal and illegal scrap stockpiles. End of life tyres, if deposed correctly, don’t endanger the environment because they are chemically inert. However, since they can easily be burnt there is a real possibility of tyre dump fires, which in effect can lead to harmful products emission that extremely pollute the environment. End of life tyres represent a very important secondary material, which when recycled is transformed into a number of raw materials used in rubber industry, for road construction, sports facilities, residential and business buildings, artificial fish habitats in shallow seas, sea walls, steel production, etc. By the industrial procedures of controlled degradation, which have been uneconomical up till now, gaseous and liquid fuel can be obtained by natural rubber, steel and soot recycling. The countries of the EU, together with Norway and Switzerland, were the world leaders in the field of effective end of life tyre management in the year 2009. Out of 2.62 million tonnes of end of life tyres, 95% were restored or used as

  13. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  14. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  15. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  16. Nature of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, S.F.; Murray, C.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA). Lab. for Planetary Studies)

    1983-01-20

    The distributions of orbital eccentricities and inclinations near the Jovian resonances in the asteroid belt show that the observed Kirkwood gaps in the distribution of the semimajor axes were formed after the asteroids had dispersed from the near-coplanar disk in which they accreted.

  17. Uranium deposits of the Grants, New Mexico mineral belt (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a study of the genesis of the U deposits of the Grants mineral belt. Enrichment of Mg in ore zones is frequently observed, with chlorite being a common product. Clay mineralogic studies argue for chlorite-illite-montmorillonite associations with ores. The methods include scanning electron microscopy, Eh-pH diagrams, activation analysis, and rare earth element studies

  18. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  19. Collisional and dynamic evolution of dust from the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Gruen, Eberhard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Durda, Daniel D.

    1992-01-01

    The size and spatial distribution of collisional debris from main belt asteroids is modeled over a 10 million year period. The model dust and meteoroid particles spiral toward the Sun under the action of Poynting-Robertson drag and grind down as they collide with a static background of field particles.

  20. Influence of the Gould Belt on Interstellar Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    A new analytical 3D model of interstellar extinction within 500 pc of the Sun as a function of the Galactic spherical coordinates is suggested. This model is physically more justified than the widely used Arenou model, since it takes into account the presence of absorbing matter both in the layer along the equatorial Galactic plane and in the Gould Belt. The extinction in the equatorial layer varies as the sine of the Galactic longitude and in the Gould Belt as the sine of twice the longitude in the Belt plane. The extinction across the layers varies according to a barometric law. It has been found that the absorbing layers intersect at an angle of 17 deg and that the Sun is located near the axial plane of the absorbing layer of the Gould Belt and is probably several parsecs below the axial plane of the equatorial absorbing layer but above the Galactic plane. The model has been tested using the extinction of real stars from three catalogs.