Sample records for belt environment model

  1. Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in situ data and implications for environment definition (United States)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Jun, Insoo; Evans, Robin


    The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In low Earth orbit (LEO), the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles. The shape of the South Atlantic anomaly (SAA) from Jason-2 data is better captured by AP9 compared to AP8, while the peak SAA flux is better reproduced by AP8. The <1.5 MeV inner belt electrons from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles, while AE8 overpredicts the measurements. In the outer radiation belt, MagEIS and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) electrons closely follow the median estimate from AE9, while AP9 5th and 95th percentiles generally envelope REPT proton measurements in the inner belt and slot regions. While AE9/AP9 offer the flexibility to specify the environment with different confidence levels, the dose and trapped proton peak flux for POES and Jason-2 trajectories from the AE9/AP9 50th percentile and above are larger than the estimates from the AE8/AP8 models.

  2. Radiation Belt Test Model (United States)

    Freeman, John W.


    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  3. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.


    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  4. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica


    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  5. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.


    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  6. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.


    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  7. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  8. Inner Radiation Belt Representation of the Energetic Electron Environment: Model and Data Synthesis Using the Salammbo Radiation Belt Transport Code and Los Alamos Geosynchronous and GPS Energetic Particle Data (United States)

    Friedel, R. H. W.; Bourdarie, S.; Fennell, J.; Kanekal, S.; Cayton, T. E.


    The highly energetic electron environment in the inner magnetosphere (GEO inward) has received a lot of research attention in resent years, as the dynamics of relativistic electron acceleration and transport are not yet fully understood. These electrons can cause deep dielectric charging in any space hardware in the MEO to GEO region. We use a new and novel approach to obtain a global representation of the inner magnetospheric energetic electron environment, which can reproduce the absolute environment (flux) for any spacecraft orbit in that region to within a factor of 2 for the energy range of 100 KeV to 5 MeV electrons, for any levels of magnetospheric activity. We combine the extensive set of inner magnetospheric energetic electron observations available at Los Alamos with the physics based Salammbo transport code, using the data assimilation technique of "nudging". This in effect input in-situ data into the code and allows the diffusion mechanisms in the code to interpolate the data into regions and times of no data availability. We present here details of the methods used, both in the data assimilation process and in the necessary inter-calibration of the input data used. We will present sample runs of the model/data code and compare the results to test spacecraft data not used in the data assimilation process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN


    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  10. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  11. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua


    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  12. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  14. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)


    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI


    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  16. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.


    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  17. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  18. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu


    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  19. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.


    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  20. Jupiter radiation belt models (July 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.


    Flux profiles which were derived from data returned by Pioneer 10 during Jupiter encounter, form the basis for a new set of numerical models for the energy spectra of electrons and protons in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere

  1. Petrochronology in constraining early Archean Earth processes and environments: Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa (United States)

    Grosch, Eugene


    Analytical and petrological software developments over the past decade have seen rapid innovation in high-spatial resolution petrological techniques, for example, laser-ablation ICP-MS, secondary ion microprobe (SIMS, nano-SIMS), thermodynamic modelling and electron microprobe microscale mapping techniques (e.g. XMapTools). This presentation will focus on the application of petrochronology to ca. 3.55 to 3.33 billion-year-old metavolcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Onverwacht Group, shedding light on the earliest geologic evolution of the Paleoarchean Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) of South Africa. The field, scientific drilling and petrological research conducted over the past 8 years, aims to illustrate how: (a) LA-ICP-MS and SIMS U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology has helped identify the earliest tectono-sedimentary basin and sediment sources in the BGB, as well as reconstructing geodynamic processes as early as ca. 3.432 billion-years ago; (b) in-situ SIMS multiple sulphur isotope analysis of sulphides across various early Archean rock units help to reconstruct atmospheric, surface and subsurface environments on early Archean Earth and (c) the earliest candidate textural traces for subsurface microbial life can be investigated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite, micro-XANES Fe-speciation analysis and metamorphic microscale mapping. Collectively, petrochronology combined with high-resolution field mapping studies, is a powerful multi-disciplinary approach towards deciphering petrogenetic and geodynamic processes preserved in the Paleoarchean Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa, with implications for early Archean Earth evolution.

  2. The function of green belt Jatibarang as quality control for the environment of Semarang city (United States)

    Murtini, Titien Woro; Harani, Arnis Rochma; Ernadia, Loretta


    The quality of the healthy environment in a neighborhood city is decreasing in number. According to the government regulation, Act No. 26 of 2007, a city should have 20% of green areas from the total area of the city. Now, Semarang only has 7.5% of green areas from the total city area. One of the efforts made by the Government of Semarang is the establishment of a greenbelt in Jatibarang area. It consists of several parts, namely, the reservoirs in the green belt area and also the plant zone in other sectors. The reservoir has a function as the controller of water resources sustainability where the crops serve as the balance for the combination. Thus, it is interesting to study how the interplay of these two functions in a green belt area. The primary data used in this study was obtained from the locus of research by direct observation, interview, and physical data collection. Based on the data collection, data was then processed and analyzed in accordance with the indicators that had been compiled based on theories of reservoirs, green belts, and the quality of the urban environment. Government regulations regarding with the greenbelt and tanks were also used as references in the discussion. The research found out that the presence of the reservoir and the plants in the green belt of Jatibarang can improve the function of the green belt optimally which is a real influence for the improvement of the environment quality, especially water. The Greenbelt was divided into four zones, namely the Arboretum, Argo - Forestry, Ecotourism, Buffer - Zone also made the region became a beautiful greenbelt that brought a positive influence to environmental quality.

  3. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models (United States)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio


    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  4. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system. (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin


    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel. (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  6. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  7. First Results of Modeling Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics with the SAMI3 Plasmasphere Model (United States)

    Komar, C. M.; Glocer, A.; Huba, J.; Fok, M. C. H.; Kang, S. B.; Buzulukova, N.


    The radiation belts were one of the first discoveries of the Space Age some sixty years ago and radiation belt models have been improving since the discovery of the radiation belts. The plasmasphere is one region that has been critically important to determining the dynamics of radiation belt populations. This region of space plays a critical role in describing the distribution of chorus and magnetospheric hiss waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. Both of these waves have been shown to interact with energetic electrons in the radiation belts and can result in the energization or loss of radiation belt electrons. However, radiation belt models have been historically limited in describing the distribution of cold plasmaspheric plasma and have relied on empirically determined plasmasphere models. Some plasmasphere models use an azimuthally symmetric distribution of the plasmasphere which can fail to capture important plasmaspheric dynamics such as the development of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Previous work have coupled the kinetic bounce-averaged Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model used to model ring current and radiation belt populations with the Block-adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATSRUS) global magnetohydrodynamic model to self-consistently obtain the magnetospheric magnetic field and ionospheric potential. The present work will utilize this previous coupling and will additionally couple the SAMI3 plasmasphere model to better represent the dynamics on the plasmasphere and its role in determining the distribution of waves throughout the inner magnetosphere. First results on the relevance of chorus, hiss, and ultralow frequency waves on radiation belt electron dynamics will be discussed in context of the June 1st, 2013 storm-time dropout event.

  8. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code (United States)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.


    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  9. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  10. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Chen, Y.


    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  11. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L.; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G.; Friedel, Reiner H.


    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  12. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba


    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.


    We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ∼10 -4 primarily show an azimuthally symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 -6 and 10 -7 ), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ('transport dominated') to being dominated by the birth ring ('collision dominated') when the optical depth reaches a critical value of τ ∼ v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.

  14. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.


    We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of approximately 10 (exp -4) primarily show an azimuthally- symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 (exp -6) and 10 (exp-7)), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ("transport dominated") to being dominated by the birth ring ("collision dominated") when the optical depth reaches a critical value of r approximately v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.

  15. Depositional environment of the Onverwacht sedimentary rocks Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa (United States)

    Paris, I. A.

    The Onverwacht Group is the basal part of the ca 3.5 Ga succession forming the Barberton greenstone belt. It comprises a volcanic pile overlain by a thin layer of volcaniclastic sediments which, due to silicification, are extremely well preserved. There has been a controversy as to how and in what environment these sediments were formed, different sets of data being presented to reach opposite conclusions. The Onverwacht Group has been extensively repeated tectonically and here for the first time, sediments from different structural levels are studied together. Three separate facies have been recognised, a distal and proximal turbidite facies and a subaerial facies. Deposition of Onverwacht Group sedimentary rocks occurred in an oceanic basin characterised by the presence of emergent volcanic islands. After eruption, material was deposited both subaerially and in a shallow submarine environment on the volcanic slopes and, as a result of pyroclastic flow, in the deeper parts of the basin.

  16. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth's radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscher, D. M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.


    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth's radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained

  17. Polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts (United States)

    Dmitrievsky, A. N.; Balanyuk, I. E.


    In recent years, much attention has been paid to nontraditional hydrocarbon sources. Today the portion of nontraditional gas in the world extraction is 15% or 450 billion cubic meters, which hat makes up the volume of total gas exports from Russia. As is known, the easy-prospecting oil has been already found. The innovative technologies in geophysics, drilling, and excavation and the increased extraction coefficient expect further development and industrial compliance with these requirements. Based on calculations, the world oil reserves are now one trillion of stock tank barrels and one trillion barrels have been already extracted. The evergrowing demand for energy gives rise to the necessity of searching for and extracting more oil resources, and both these aspects are unique problems. The search for profitable petroleum deposits has become more and more difficult even in the leading companies. The increment of the world resources is a key vital question; therefore, the elaboration of criteria for the discovery of nontraditional deposits take on special significance in the economic respect. The authors are working out a conception that will be a guideline for future finding of the richest oil deposits in active geodynamic zones. For the first time, we suggest the polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts.

  18. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts


    Maras Michal; Hatala Jozef; Marasová Daniela


    Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modellin...

  19. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maras Michal


    Full Text Available Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modelling the dynamic force acting on the conveyor belt. In the conclusions of the paper there are given table and graphical results of the numerical modelling aimed at solving the problems connected with the damaging of a conveyor belt. By numerical modelling, in this case the finite element method, in the given way can be realized the parametric studies with changing values of input parameters, especially: - stretching force, - thickness of cover layers of the conveyor belt and strain properties of the rubber, - parameters of the steel cord of the conveyor belt.

  20. Application of multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Aryan, H.; Kang, S. B.; Balikhin, M. A.; Fok, M. C. H.; Agapitov, O. V.; Komar, C. M.; Kanekal, S. G.; Nagai, T.; Sibeck, D. G.


    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model along with many other radiation belt models require inputs for pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. In this study we incorporate recently developed multi-parameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multi-parameter wave models resembles the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  1. Uranium mineralization environment and prospecting potential of Dawan ore field in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai


    Located in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton, Nanling metallogenic belt, Dawan uranium ore field in Hunan Province is an important uranium-producing and rare metal, nonferrous metal cluster area due to the favourable mineralization environment. The Cambrian is the main uranium source bed and their contact zone to the pluton is the favorable part for mineralization. The uranium deposits which have been explored are all located in the exocontact zone of Jinjiling pluton in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton which is composed of the independent eastern and western magma evolution centers. In the west center, Jinjiling pluton is closely related to uranium mineralization where the trinity geologic setting was formed with magma evolution, hydrothermal fluid action and mineralization. The deep slitted and large faults provide the pathway and thermodynamic source for circulating migration of mineralizing fluid. The uranium mineralization mainly occurred in crustal stress conversion period of Late Cretaceous and related to the tensive NW extending fault and deep originated fluid. The gravity, aero magnetic, airborne gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies and radioactivity hydrochemical anomaly are important criteria for uranium prospecting. Based on the analysis of regional uranium mineralization environment, the prospecting potential is forecasted. (authors)

  2. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  3. Modelling of Conveyor Belt Passage by Driving Drum Using Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Mikušová


    Full Text Available The finite element methods are used in many disciplines by the development of products, typically in mechanical engineering (for example in automotive industry, biomechanics, etc.. Some modern programs of the finite element's methods have specific tools (electromagnetic, fluid and structural simulations. The finite elements methods allow detailed presentation of structures by bending or torsion, complete design, testing and optimization before the prototype production. The aims of this paper were to the model of conveyor belt passage by driving drum. The model was created by the program Abaqus CAE. The created model presented data about forces, pressures, and deformation of the belt conveyor.

  4. Kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. Insights from experimental modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Keiichi


    Physical experiments were performed to gain a better understanding on the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. The present study focuses on deformation of sedimentary cover caused by thrust and reverse movements along the basement fault. Our physical models comprise dry quartz sand representing brittle sedimentary rock and viscous silicone polymer representing overpressured mudstone. Computerized X-ray tomography was applied to the experiments to analyze the kinematic evolution of fold and thrust belts. In the sand models, the width of deformation zone above thrust was wider than that above reverse fault, because back thrust developed on the hanging wall of reverse fault. Within the physical models composed of dry sand and silicone polymer, minor folds and thrusts with minor displacement developed on the footwall of the major monoclinal flexure. These results compare well with the geometry and kinematic evolution of the fold and thrust belts in Japan. (author)

  5. Reconstruction of the Paleoproterozoic deeper ocean environment: Preliminary Report of the Ghana Birimian Greenstone Belt Drilling Project (GHB) (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Yoshimaru, S.; Miki, T.; Sakai, S.; Ikehara, M.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ito, T.; Onoue, T.; Takehara, M.; Tetteh, G. M.; Nyame, F. K.


    The Paleoproterozoic Era are one of the most rapid environmental change when the earth surface environment was affected by formation of continents and increasing atmospheric oxygen levels. Major oxidation of Great Oxidation Event (GOE) are reported this ages (eg. Holland, 2006; Condie, 2001; Lyons et al., 2014). The nature of deep sea environments at this time have not been clearly identified and oceanic sediments are mostly involved in subduction. The Paleoproterozoic Birimian Greenstone Belt is an ophiolitic volcaniclastic sequence in Ghana, with depositional age of over 2.3-2.2 Ga (Petersson et al., 2016). Detail research was conducted of the Ashanti (Axim-Konongo) Belt of the Birimian Greenstone Belt along the coast near Cape Three Points area. Very thick volcaniclastic and organic-rich sedimentary rocks, which we now refer to as the Cape Three Points Group, crop out in the lower part of the Birimian Greenstone Belt. Stratigraphically, three unit identified; the lower portion contains thick vesicular volcaniclastic rocks, the middle portion is made up of laminated volcaniclastics and black shale, and the upper portion dominated by fine laminated volcaniclastics with more black shale sequence. Continuous core drilling from Dec 3-12th 2015 of the upper part of the sequence intersected saprolite to a depth of 30m and fresh, well preserved stratigraphy with graded bedding and lamination to a depth of 195m. Half cut cores show well laminated organic rich black shale and relative carbonate rich layers with very fine pyrite grains. SHRIMP age data from a porphyry intrusion into this sequence indicate an age of 2250 Ma. Carbon isotope analysis shows δ13C = -43 to -37‰ for black shale with the very light isotope values for cyanobacterial signature.The fining-upward sequences, well laminated bed and black shales and REE data suggest this sequence situated partly silent stagnant with volcanic activity ocean floor environment around an oceanic island arc condition.

  6. Space Environment Modeling (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  7. A refined regional modeling approach for the Corn Belt - Experiences and recommendations for large-scale integrated modeling (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Gassman, Philip W.; Jha, Manoj K.; Kling, Catherine L.; Campbell, Todd; Srinivasan, Raghavan; White, Michael; Arnold, Jeffrey G.


    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture is the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in the stream systems of the Corn Belt region in the Midwestern US. This region is comprised of two large river basins, the intensely row-cropped Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) and Ohio-Tennessee River Basin (OTRB), which are considered the key contributing areas for the Northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone according to the US Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, in this area it is of utmost importance to ensure that intensive agriculture for food, feed and biofuel production can coexist with a healthy water environment. To address these objectives within a river basin management context, an integrated modeling system has been constructed with the hydrologic Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, capable of estimating river basin responses to alternative cropping and/or management strategies. To improve modeling performance compared to previous studies and provide a spatially detailed basis for scenario development, this SWAT Corn Belt application incorporates a greatly refined subwatershed structure based on 12-digit hydrologic units or 'subwatersheds' as defined by the US Geological Service. The model setup, calibration and validation are time-demanding and challenging tasks for these large systems, given the scale intensive data requirements, and the need to ensure the reliability of flow and pollutant load predictions at multiple locations. Thus, the objectives of this study are both to comprehensively describe this large-scale modeling approach, providing estimates of pollution and crop production in the region as well as to present strengths and weaknesses of integrated modeling at such a large scale along with how it can be improved on the basis of the current modeling structure and results. The predictions were based on a semi-automatic hydrologic calibration approach for large-scale and spatially detailed modeling studies, with the use of the Sequential

  8. Review of Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Large Scale Belt Conveyor System (United States)

    He, Qing; Li, Hong

    Belt conveyor is one of the most important devices to transport bulk-solid material for long distance. Dynamic analysis is the key to decide whether the design is rational in technique, safe and reliable in running, feasible in economy. It is very important to study dynamic properties, improve efficiency and productivity, guarantee conveyor safe, reliable and stable running. The dynamic researches and applications of large scale belt conveyor are discussed. The main research topics, the state-of-the-art of dynamic researches on belt conveyor are analyzed. The main future works focus on dynamic analysis, modeling and simulation of main components and whole system, nonlinear modeling, simulation and vibration analysis of large scale conveyor system.

  9. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Akhtar M.; Friis, Henrik

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas...... molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve...... southwestern extension of the Neo-Tethys) in the Early Miocene. Uplifted orogens of the Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite and marine successions of the Nisai and Khojak formations served as the major source terrains for the Miocene through Holocene molasse succession in the south and southeast verging successive...

  10. Using the classical linear regression model in analysis of the dependences of conveyor belt life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Andrejiová


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classical linear regression model of the dependence of conveyor belt life on some selected parameters: thickness of paint layer, width and length of the belt, conveyor speed and quantity of transported material. The first part of the article is about regression model design, point and interval estimation of parameters, verification of statistical significance of the model, and about the parameters of the proposed regression model. The second part of the article deals with identification of influential and extreme values that can have an impact on estimation of regression model parameters. The third part focuses on assumptions of the classical regression model, i.e. on verification of independence assumptions, normality and homoscedasticity of residuals.

  11. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyu Shin


    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  12. Experimental verification and comparison of the rubber V- belt continuously variable transmission models (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Dobaj, K.; Kot, A.


    The paper includes the analysis of the rubber V-belt cooperation with the CVT transmission pulleys. The analysis of the forces and torques acting in the CVT transmission was conducted basing on calculated characteristics of the centrifugal regulator and the torque regulator. The accurate estimation of the regulator surface curvature allowed for calculation of the relation between the driving wheel axial force, the engine rotational speed and the gear ratio of the CVT transmission. Simplified analytical models of the rubber V-belt- pulley cooperation are based on three basic approaches. The Dittrich model assumes two contact regions on the driven and driving wheel. The Kim-Kim model considers, in addition to the previous model, also the radial friction. The radial friction results in the lack of the developed friction area on the driving pulley. The third approach, formulated in the Cammalleri model, assumes variable sliding angle along the wrap arch and describes it as a result the belt longitudinal and cross flexibility. Theoretical torque on the driven and driving wheel was calculated on the basis of the known regulators characteristics. The calculated torque was compared to the measured loading torque. The best accordance, referring to the centrifugal regulator range of work, was obtained for the Kim-Kim model.

  13. Modeling of the radiation belt megnetosphere in decisional timeframes (United States)

    Koller, Josef; Reeves, Geoffrey D; Friedel, Reiner H.W.


    Systems and methods for calculating L* in the magnetosphere with essentially the same accuracy as with a physics based model at many times the speed by developing a surrogate trained to be a surrogate for the physics-based model. The trained model can then beneficially process input data falling within the training range of the surrogate model. The surrogate model can be a feedforward neural network and the physics-based model can be the TSK03 model. Operatively, the surrogate model can use parameters on which the physics-based model was based, and/or spatial data for the location where L* is to be calculated. Surrogate models should be provided for each of a plurality of pitch angles. Accordingly, a surrogate model having a closed drift shell can be used from the plurality of models. The feedforward neural network can have a plurality of input-layer units, there being at least one input-layer unit for each physics-based model parameter, a plurality of hidden layer units and at least one output unit for the value of L*.

  14. Modeling of electron time variations in the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.W.; Teague, M.J.; Schofield, N.J.; Vette, J.I.


    A review of the temporal variation in the trapped electron population of the inner and outer radiation zones is presented. Techniques presently used for modeling these zones are discussed and their deficiencies identified. An intermediate region is indicated between the zones in which the present modeling techniques are inadequate due to the magnitude and frequency of magnetic storms. Future trends are examined, and it is suggested that modeling of individual magnetic storms may be required in certain L bands. An analysis of seven magnetic storms is presented, establishing the independence of the depletion time of the storm flux and the storm magnitude. Provisional correlation between the storm magnitude and the Dst index is demonstrated

  15. Dynamic modelling and simulation of complex drive systems of large belt conveyors; Dynamische Modellierung und Simulation komplexer Antriebssysteme von Grossbandanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgwinkel, Paul; Vreydal, Daniel; Eltaliawi, Gamil; Vijayakumar, Nandhakumar [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR)


    For the first time the Co-simulation method was successfully used for full representation of a large belt conveyor for an open cast mine in a simulation model at the Institute for Mechanical Engineering in the Raw Materials Industry at Rhineland-Westphalia Technological University in Aachen. The aim of this project was the development of an electro-mechanical simulation model, which represents all components of a large belt conveyor from the drive motor to the conveyor belt in one simulation model and thus makes the interactions between the individual assemblies verifiable by calculations. With the aid of the developed model it was possible to determine critical operating speeds of the represented large belt conveyor and derive suitable measures to combat undesirable resonance states in the drive assembly. Furthermore it was possible to clarify the advantage of the full numerical representation of an electromechanical drive system. (orig.)

  16. A new 6-part collisional model of the Main Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Broz, Miroslav; Cibulkova, H.


    In this work, we constructed a new model for the collisional evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law from the work of Benz & Asphaug (1999) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt, and to verify if the number of asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulated mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified Boulder code (Morbidelli et al., 2009), in which the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations from the work of Durda et al. (2007) are included. Because material characteristics can affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles (Benavidez et al., 2012). To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D = 1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (parent body size of the order of 1 km). The work of MB was supported by grant GACR 13-013085 of the Czech Science Foundation and the Research Programme MSM0021620860 of the Czech Ministry of Education.

  17. Modeling Belt-Servomechanism by Chebyshev Functional Recurrent Neuro-Fuzzy Network (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Ruey; Kang, Yuan; Chu, Ming-Hui; Chang, Yeon-Pun

    A novel Chebyshev functional recurrent neuro-fuzzy (CFRNF) network is developed from a combination of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model and the Chebyshev recurrent neural network (CRNN). The CFRNF network can emulate the nonlinear dynamics of a servomechanism system. The system nonlinearity is addressed by enhancing the input dimensions of the consequent parts in the fuzzy rules due to functional expansion of a Chebyshev polynomial. The back propagation algorithm is used to adjust the parameters of the antecedent membership functions as well as those of consequent functions. To verify the performance of the proposed CFRNF, the experiment of the belt servomechanism is presented in this paper. Both of identification methods of adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are also studied for modeling of the belt servomechanism. The analysis and comparison results indicate that CFRNF makes identification of complex nonlinear dynamic systems easier. It is verified that the accuracy and convergence of the CFRNF are superior to those of ANFIS and RNN by the identification results of a belt servomechanism.

  18. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.


    specifically, and in summary, we present a model that displays how semi-continuous biomechanical and centripetally driven constructional soil-sediment biotransfers to raised animal-produced point centers are concomitantly leveled by physical-erosional centrifugally driven, lateral-radial downwasting processes. The model is analogous to a cyclical conveyor belt system of soil-sediment biotransfers to, then erosionally away, from innumerably raised point centers, the "activity centers" of burrowing animals. Career-spanning fieldwork across many tropical, subtropical, and mid-latitude environments strongly support the overall validity of the model. Apart from microbes, animals represent the most diverse organismic group on the planet, with plants and fungi distant seconds. Moreover, many if not most spend at least part of their existence living on and/or in soil and sediment, which includes both the subaerial and subaqueous realms of Earth (that is, all of it, except extreme polar areas). Animals bioturbate, vertically and laterally, and likely have done so since pre-Cambrian time. The fundamental conveyor belt process, where ongoing centripetal bioturbations are coupled with ongoing erosional wasting and spreading, joined by subsidiary processes, drives biomantle formation.

  19. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Brož, M.; Benavidez, P. G.


    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (Benz, W., Asphaug, E. [1999]. Icarus, 142, 5-20) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, “pristine”, outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli, A., et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 558-573), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., et al. [2007]. Icarus, 498-516) and Benavidez et al. (Benavidez, P.G., et al. [2012]. 219, 57-76) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D=1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. The assumption of (purely) rubble-pile asteroids leads to a significantly worse fit to the observed data, so that we can conclude that majority of main-belt asteroids are rather monolithic. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (with a parent body size of the order of 1 km).

  20. Feedforward and feedback projections of caudal belt and parabelt areas of auditory cortex: refining the hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A Hackett


    Full Text Available Our working model of the primate auditory cortex recognizes three major regions (core, belt, parabelt, subdivided into thirteen areas. The connections between areas are topographically ordered in a manner consistent with information flow along two major anatomical axes: core-belt-parabelt and caudal-rostral. Remarkably, most of the connections supporting this model were revealed using retrograde tracing techniques. Little is known about laminar circuitry, as anterograde tracing of axon terminations has rarely been used. The purpose of the present study was to examine the laminar projections of three areas of auditory cortex, pursuant to analysis of all areas. The selected areas were: middle lateral belt (ML; caudomedial belt (CM; and caudal parabelt (CPB. Injections of anterograde tracers yielded data consistent with major features of our model, and also new findings that compel modifications. Results supporting the model were: 1 feedforward projection from ML and CM terminated in CPB; 2 feedforward projections from ML and CPB terminated in rostral areas of the belt and parabelt; and 3 feedback projections typified inputs to the core region from belt and parabelt. At odds with the model was the convergence of feedforward inputs into rostral medial belt from ML and CPB. This was unexpected since CPB is at a higher stage of the processing hierarchy, with mainly feedback projections to all other belt areas. Lastly, extending the model, feedforward projections from CM, ML, and CPB overlapped in the temporal parietal occipital area (TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, indicating significant auditory influence on sensory processing in this region. The combined results refine our working model and highlight the need to complete studies of the laminar inputs to all areas of auditory cortex. Their documentation is essential for developing informed hypotheses about the neurophysiological influences of inputs to each layer and area.

  1. Interval Solution for Nonlinear Programming of Maximizing the Fatigue Life of V-Belt under Polymorphic Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wan


    Full Text Available In accord with the practical engineering design conditions, a nonlinear programming model is constructed for maximizing the fatigue life of V-belt drive in which some polymorphic uncertainties are incorporated. For a given satisfaction level and a confidence level, an equivalent formulation of this uncertain optimization model is obtained where only interval parameters are involved. Based on the concepts of maximal and minimal range inequalities for describing interval inequality, the interval parameter model is decomposed into two standard nonlinear programming problems, and an algorithm, called two-step based sampling algorithm, is developed to find an interval optimal solution for the original problem. Case study is employed to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the constructed model and the algorithm.

  2. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.


    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  3. Future temperature changes over the critical Belt and Road region based on CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Yun Dong


    Full Text Available Based on data of 22 models from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5, the performance of climate simulation is assessed and future changes under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 are projected over critical Belt and Road region. Compared with observations, the CMIP5 models simulate the linear trend and spatial distribution of the annual mean surface air temperature (SAT better in the north (NBR and south (SBR of the Belt and Road region. The trend of the 22-model ensemble mean (CMIP5 MME is 0.70/0.50 °C per 100 years from 1901 to 2005, and the observed trend is 1.11/0.77 °C per 100 years in the NBR/SBR region. After 1971, the relative error between CMIP5 MME and observations is 22%/15% in the NBR/SBR region. Seven/nine models are selected in the NBR/SBR to project future SAT changes under three RCP scenarios. For 2081–2100, warming in the NBR/SBR is projected to be (1.16 ± 0.29/(0.72 ± 0.32 °C, (2.41 ± 0.54/(1.55 ± 0.44 °C, and (5.23 ± 1.02/(3.33 ± 0.65 °C for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5, respectively. Under the RCP scenarios, the NBR region shows greater warming than the SBR region. The most significant warming is expected in Kazakhstan and the northern part of the SBR. The associated uncertainty generally increases with time under the three RCP scenarios. Furthermore, increases in warming over the Belt and Road region are more remarkable under higher-emission scenarios than lower-emission ones. Keywords: CMIP5 models, The Belt and Road region, Temperature projection, RCPs

  4. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.


    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  6. FEMME, a flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeClippele, V.; Herman, P.M.J.


    A new, FORTRAN-based, simulation environment called FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), designed for implementing, solving and analysing mathematical models in ecology is presented. Three separate phases in ecological modelling are distinguished: (1) the model

  7. A revised model of Jupiter's inner electron belts: Updating the Divine radiation model (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Levin, Steven M.; Bolton, Scott J.; Evans, Robin W.; Bhattacharya, Bidushi


    In 1983, Divine presented a comprehensive model of the Jovian charged particle environment that has long served as a reference for missions to Jupiter. However, in situ observations by Galileo and synchrotron observations from Earth indicate the need to update the model in the inner radiation zone. Specifically, a review of the model for 1 MeV data. Further modifications incorporating observations from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft will be reported in the future.

  8. Analysis of Fault Spacing in Thrust-Belt Wedges Using Numerical Modeling (United States)

    Regensburger, P. V.; Ito, G.


    Numerical modeling is invaluable in studying the mechanical processes governing the evolution of geologic features such as thrust-belt wedges. The mechanisms controlling thrust fault spacing in wedges is not well understood. Our numerical model treats the thrust belt as a visco-elastic-plastic continuum and uses a finite-difference, marker-in-cell method to solve for conservation of mass and momentum. From these conservation laws, stress is calculated and Byerlee's law is used to determine the shear stress required for a fault to form. Each model consists of a layer of crust, initially 3-km-thick, carried on top of a basal décollement, which moves at a constant speed towards a rigid backstop. A series of models were run with varied material properties, focusing on the angle of basal friction at the décollement, the angle of friction within the crust, and the cohesion of the crust. We investigate how these properties affected the spacing between thrusts that have the most time-integrated history of slip and therefore have the greatest effect on the large-scale undulations in surface topography. The surface position of these faults, which extend through most of the crustal layer, are identifiable as local maxima in positive curvature of surface topography. Tracking the temporal evolution of faults, we find that thrust blocks are widest when they first form at the front of the wedge and then they tend to contract over time as more crustal material is carried to the wedge. Within each model, thrust blocks form with similar initial widths, but individual thrust blocks develop differently and may approach an asymptotic width over time. The median of thrust block widths across the whole wedge tends to decrease with time. Median fault spacing shows a positive correlation with both wedge cohesion and internal friction. In contrast, median fault spacing exhibits a negative correlation at small angles of basal friction (laws that can be used to predict fault spacing in

  9. Modelling of shrinkage cavity defects during the wheel and belt casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dablement, S; Mortensen, D; Fjaer, H; Lee, M; Grandfield, J; Savage, G; Nguyen, V


    Properzi continuous casting is a wheel and belt casting process used for producing aluminium wire rod which is essential to the making of electrical cables and over head lines. One of the main concerns of Properzi process users is to ensure good quality of the final product and to avoid cast defects especially the presence of shrinkage cavity. Numerical models developed with the Alsim software, which allows an automatic calculation of gap dependent heat transfer coefficients at the metal-mould interface due to thermal deformation, are used in order to get a better understanding on the shrinkage cavity formation. Models show the effect of process parameters on the cavity defect development and provide initial guidance for users in order to avoid this kind of casting defect.

  10. Co1lisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc


    Debris disks around other stars, like the disks around Fomalhaut, Vega, and Epsilon Eridani, are often described as more massive versions of the Kuiper Belt. But for a long time, it's been hard to test this notion, because grain-grain collisions limit the grain lifetimes and we lacked the tools to model the effects of these collisions on the appearance of the disks. I'll describe a new breakthrough that has allowed us to make 3-D models of grain-grain collisions in debris disks for the first time, and I'll show the latest supercomputer simulations of these systems, illustrating how planets and collisions together sculpt the TNO dust.

  11. Combined convective and diffusive modeling of the ring current and radiation belt electron dynamics using the VERB-4D code (United States)

    Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Wang, D.


    Ring current and radiation belts are key elements in the global dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. Comprehensive mathematical models are useful tools that allow us to understand the multiscale dynamics of these charged particle populations. In this work, we present results of simulations of combined ring current - radiation belt electron dynamics using the four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-4D) code. The VERB-4D code solves the modified Fokker-Planck equation including convective terms and models simultaneously ring current (1 - 100 keV) and radiation belt (100 keV - several MeV) electron dynamics. We apply the code to the number of geomagnetic storms that occurred in the past, compare the results with different satellite observations, and show how low-energy particles can affect the high-energy populations. Particularly, we use data from Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) mission that provides a very good MLT coverage with 1.5-hour time resolution. The POES data allow us to validate the approach of the VERB-4D code for modeling MLT-dependent processes such as electron drift, wave-particle interactions, and magnetopause shadowing. We also show how different simulation parameters and empirical models can affect the results, making a particular emphasis on the electric and magnetic field models. This work will help us reveal advantages and disadvantages of the approach behind the code and determine its prediction efficiency.

  12. Geometry, kinematics and tectonic models of the Kazakhstan Orocline, Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Yuan, Chao; Safonova, Inna; Cai, Keda; Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Yunying


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is one of the largest accretionary orogens on Earth and is characterized by the occurrence of tight oroclines (Kazakhstan and Tuva-Mongolian oroclines). The origin of these large-scale orogenic curvatures is not quite understood, but is fundamentally important for understanding crustal growth and tectonic evolution of the CAOB. Here we provide an outline of available geological and paleomagnetic data around the Kazakhstan Orocline, with an aim of clarifying the geometry, kinematics and geodynamic origin of the orocline. The Kazakhstan Orocline is evident in a total magmatic image, and can be traced by the continuation of high magnetic anomalies associated with the Devonian Volcanic Belt and the Late Devonian to Carboniferous Balkhash-Yili arc. Paleomagnetic data show ∼112-126° clockwise rotation of the northern limb relative to the southern limb in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, as well as ∼15-28° clockwise rotation of the northern limb and ∼39-40° anticlockwise rotation of the southern limb relative to the hinge of the orocline during the Late Carboniferous to Permian. We argue that the Kazakhstan Orocline experienced two-stage bending with the early stage of bending (Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous; ∼112-126°) driven by slab rollback, and the later stage (Late Carboniferous to Permian; 54-68°) possibly associated with the amalgamation of the Siberian, Tarim and Baltic cratons. This new tectonic model is compatible with the occurrence of rift basins, the spatial migration of magmatic arc, and the development of large-scale strike-slip fault systems during oroclinal bending.

  13. Factors controlling the evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt, northwestern Gulf of Mexico, determined from numerical models (United States)

    Gradmann, Sofie; Beaumont, Christopher; Albertz, Markus


    The Perdido Fold Belt (PFB) is a prominent salt-cored deep water structure in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. It is characterized by symmetric, kink-banded folds of a ˜4.5 km thick prekinematic layer and its vicinity to the extensive Sigsbee Salt Canopy. We use 2-D finite element numerical models to study the evolution of the PFB as a gravity-driven fold belt both in a local context and in the context of the larger-scale passive margin, influenced by adjacent allochthonous salt structures. We show that parameters such as overburden strength, salt geometry, or salt viscosity determine timing, extent, and location of the modeled fold belt. Simplified models of the Gulf of Mexico show that toe-of-slope folding is a viable mechanism to develop diapirs in the deep salt basin and to delay folding of the distal overburden. In this scenario, the PFB likely represents the terminal folding of a much larger, diachronously formed fold belt system.

  14. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.


    circular or eccentric orbit. We then consider multi-planetary systems: two and three equal-mass planets on circular orbits and two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits in a packed configuration. As a final step, we compare each couple of values (Mp, ap), derived from the dynamical analysis of single and multiple planetary models, with the detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Results: For one single planet on a circular orbit we obtain conclusive results that allow us to exclude such a hypothesis since in most cases this configuration requires massive planets which should have been detected by our observations. Unsatisfactory is also the case of one single planet on an eccentric orbit for which we obtained high masses and/or eccentricities which are still at odds with observations. Introducing multi planetary architectures is encouraging because for the case of three packed equal-mass planets on circular orbits we obtain quite low masses for the perturbing planets which would remain undetected by our SPHERE observations. The case of two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits is also of interest since it suggests the possible presence of planets with masses lower than the detection limits and with moderate eccentricity. Our results show that the apparent lack of planets in gaps between double belts could be explained by the presence of a system of two or more planets possibly of low mass and on eccentric orbits whose sizes are below the present detection limits. Based on observations collected at Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) Program ID: 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865, and 198.C-0209.

  15. Orogen-transverse tectonic window in the Eastern Himalayan fold belt: A superposed buckling model (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Acharyya, S. K.; Ghosh, Subhajit; Saha, Puspendu


    The Eastern Lesser Himalayan fold-thrust belt is punctuated by a row of orogen-transverse domal tectonic windows. To evaluate their origin, a variety of thrust-stack models have been proposed, assuming that the crustal shortening occurred dominantly by brittle deformations. However, the Rangit Window (RW) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH) shows unequivocal structural imprints of ductile deformations of multiple episodes. Based on new structural maps, coupled with outcrop-scale field observations, we recognize at least four major episodes of folding in the litho-tectonic units of DSH. The last episode has produced regionally orogen-transverse upright folds (F4), the interference of which with the third-generation (F3) orogen-parallel folds has shaped the large-scale structural patterns in DSH. We propose a new genetic model for the RW, invoking the mechanics of superposed buckling in the mechanically stratified litho-tectonic systems. We substantiate this superposed buckling model with results obtained from analogue experiments. The model explains contrasting F3-F4 interferences in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS). The lower-order (terrain-scale) folds have undergone superposed buckling in Mode 1, producing large-scale domes and basins, whereas the RW occurs as a relatively higher-order dome nested in the first-order Tista Dome. The Gondwana and the Proterozoic rocks within the RW underwent superposed buckling in Modes 3 and 4, leading to Type 2 fold interferences, as evident from their structural patterns.

  16. Multistressor predictive models of invertebrate condition in the Corn Belt, USA (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Van Metre, Peter C.


    Understanding the complex relations between multiple environmental stressors and ecological conditions in streams can help guide resource-management decisions. During 14 weeks in spring/summer 2013, personnel from the US Geological Survey and the US Environmental Protection Agency sampled 98 wadeable streams across the Midwest Corn Belt region of the USA for water and sediment quality, physical and habitat characteristics, and ecological communities. We used these data to develop independent predictive disturbance models for 3 macroinvertebrate metrics and a multimetric index. We developed the models based on boosted regression trees (BRT) for 3 stressor categories, land use/land cover (geographic information system [GIS]), all in-stream stressors combined (nutrients, habitat, and contaminants), and for GIS plus in-stream stressors. The GIS plus in-stream stressor models had the best overall performance with an average cross-validation R2 across all models of 0.41. The models were generally consistent in the explanatory variables selected within each stressor group across the 4 invertebrate metrics modeled. Variables related to riparian condition, substrate size or embeddedness, velocity and channel shape, nutrients (primarily NH3), and contaminants (pyrethroid degradates) were important descriptors of the invertebrate metrics. Models based on all measured in-stream stressors performed comparably to models based on GIS landscape variables, suggesting that the in-stream stressor characterization reasonably represents the dominant factors affecting invertebrate communities and that GIS variables are acting as surrogates for in-stream stressors that directly affect in-stream biota.

  17. Stratigraphic model deposit Ofi Inf SDZ-2X A1, Jun in block in Orinoco Oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, E.; Sandoval, D.


    This work is about the Stratigraphic model deposit O fi I nf SDZ-2X A1, Junin block in Orinoco Oil belt.This model was based on a chrono stratigraphic interpretation and was defined the correlation between the main and secondary surfaces. The wells of the study area pass through the Cambrian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments. The last is more interesting for the study because of the stratigraphic and sand body surface presence

  18. Radial diffusion in the Uranian radiatian belts - Inferences from satellite absorption loss models (United States)

    Hood, L. L.


    Low-energy charged particle (LECP) phase space density profiles available from the Voyager/1986 Uranus encounter are analyzed, using solutions of the time-averaged radial diffusion equation for charged particle transport in a dipolar planetary magnetic field. Profiles for lower-energy protons and electrons are first analyzed to infer radial diffusion rate as a function of L, assuming that satellite absorption is the dominant loss process and local sources for these particles are negligible. Satellite macrosignatures present in the experimentally derived profiles are approximately reproduced in several cases, lending credence to the loss model and indicating that magnetospheric distributed losses are not as rapid as satellite absorption near the minimum satellite L shells for the particles. Diffusion rates and L dependences are found to be similar to those previously inferred in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (Thomsen et al., 1977) and for the inner Saturnian magnetosphere (Hood, 1985). Profiles for higher energy electrons and protons are also analyzed using solutions that allow for the existence of significant particle sources as well as sinks. Possible implications for radial diffusion mechanisms in the Uranian radiation belts are discussed.

  19. The Structure of the Distant Kuiper Belt in a Nice Model Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, R. E.; Shankman, C. J.; Kavelaars, J. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lawler, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Brasser, R. [Earth Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Alexandersen, M. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)


    This work explores the orbital distribution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System emplaced as a result of a Nice model migration from the simulations of Brasser and Morbidelli. This planetary migration scatters a planetesimal disk from between 29 and 34 au and emplaces a population of objects into the Kuiper Belt region. From the 2:1 Neptune resonance and outward, the test particles analyzed populate the outer resonances with orbital distributions consistent with trans-Neptunian object (TNO) detections in semimajor axis, inclination, and eccentricity, while capture into the closest resonances is too efficient. The relative populations of the simulated scattering objects and resonant objects in the 3:1 and 4:1 resonances are also consistent with observed populations based on debiased TNO surveys, but the 5:1 resonance is severely underpopulated compared to population estimates from survey results. Scattering emplacement results in the expected orbital distribution for the majority of the TNO populations; however, the origin of the large observed population in the 5:1 resonance remains unexplained.

  20. Modelling Virtual Environments for Geovisualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars


    The use of virtual environments in geovisualization has become a major topic within the last few years. The main reason for this interest in the growing use of 3D models and visual realizations in a wide range of applications concerned with the geographic element of information. The implementation...... within the geographic domain. A categorization of the virtual environments is offered through which the differences between them are highlighted. It is possible to achieve this categorization in many ways from many perspectives since this is not and will not be research of a purely positive nature...

  1. Toward a new tectonic model for the Late Proterozoic Araçuaí (SE Brazil)-West Congolian (SW Africa) Belt (United States)

    Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Noce, C. M.; Vidal, Ph; Monteiro, R. L. B. P.; Leonardos, O. H.


    The Araçuaí Belt is a Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano Cycle) geotectonic unit which was developed along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco Craton (SE Brazil) and was formerly considered as being an ensialic orogen. It is correlated with the Pan-African West Congolian Belt (SW Africa) in many reports. In the western domain of the belt, the Macaúbas Group—the most important supracrustal sequence related to the evolution of the Araçuaí Belt —comprises the Terra Branca and Carbonita Formations, which consist of littoral glacial sediments to shelf turbidites. These formations grade upward and eastward to the Salinas Formation, consisting of distal turbidites related to submarine fans, pelagic sediments, and a rock association (the Ribeirão da Folha Facies) typical of an ocean-floor environment. Banded iron formations, metacherts, diopsidites, massive sulfides, graphite schists, hyperaluminous schists, and ortho-amphibolites, intercalated with quartz-mica schists and impure quartzites, characterize the most distinctive and restricted volcano-sedimentary facies yet found within the Salinas Formation. Ultramafic slabs were tectonically emplaced within the Ribeirão da Folha Facies. Eight whole rock samples of meta-ultramafic rocks and ortho-amphibolites yielded a SmNd isochronic age of 793 ± 90 Ma ( ɛNd(T) = +4.1 ± 0.6. MSWD = 1.76 ). The structures of the northern Araçuaí Belt are marked by a doen-dip stretching lineation (western domain) related to frontal thrusts which controlled tectonic transport from east to west; stretching lineation rakes decrease in the eastern tectonic domain, indicating dominant oblique to transcurrent motion; the northern arch of the belt is characterized by major high-dip transcurrent shear zones. Our tectonic model starts with marked fracturing, followed by rifting that took place in the São Francisco-Congo Craton around 1000 ± 100 Ma (ages of basic intrusions and alkaline anorogenic granites). A sinistral transfer

  2. Checking the compatibility of the cold Kuiper belt with a planetary instability migration model (United States)

    Gomes, Rodney; Nesvorný, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Deienno, Rogerio; Nogueira, Erica


    The origin of the orbital structure of the cold component of the Kuiper belt is still a hot subject of investigation. Several features of the solar system suggest that the giant planets underwent a phase of global dynamical instability, but the actual dynamical evolution of the planets during the instability is still debated. To explain the structure of the cold Kuiper belt, Nesvorny (2015, AJ 150,68) argued for a "soft" instability, during which Neptune never achieved a very eccentric orbit. Here we investigate the possibility of a more violent instability, from an initially more compact fully resonant configuration of 5 giant planets. We show that the orbital structure of the cold Kuiper belt can be reproduced quite well provided that the cold population formed in situ, with an outer edge between 44 - 45 au and never had a large mass.

  3. Modelling radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.


    Just as an environmental model typically will be composed of a number of linked sub-models, representing physical, chemical or biological processes understood to varying degrees, this volume includes a series of linked chapters exemplifying the fundamental nature of environmental radioactivity models in all compartments of the environment. Modelling is an often misunderstood and maligned activity and this book can provide, to a broad audience, a greater understanding of modelling power but also some of the limitations. Modellers and experimentalists often do not understand and mistrust each other's work yet they are mutually dependent, in the sense that good experimental science can direct good modelling work and vice-versa. There is an increasing reliance on model results in environmental management, yet there is also often misuse and misrepresentation of these results. This book can help to bridge the gap between unrealistic expectations of model power and the realisation of what is possible, practicable and feasible in modelling of environmental radioactivity; and finally, - modelling tools, capacity and power have increased many-fold in a relatively short period of time. Much of this is due to the much-heralded computer revolution, but much is also due to better science. It is useful to consider what gap if any still remains between what is possible and what is necessary

  4. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China (United States)

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.


    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  5. Cabin Environment Physics Risk Model (United States)

    Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Mathias, Donovan Leigh


    This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe return. The results of the CEPR model replace the assumption that failure of the crew critical ECLSS functionality causes LOC instantly, and provide a more accurate representation of the spacecraft's risk posture. The instant-LOC assumption is shown to be excessively conservative and, moreover, can impact the relative risk drivers identified for the spacecraft. This, in turn, could lead the design team to allocate mass for equipment to reduce overly conservative risk estimates in a suboptimal configuration, which inherently increases the overall risk to the crew. For example, available mass could be poorly used to add redundant ECLSS components that have a negligible benefit but appear to make the vehicle safer due to poor assumptions about the propagation time of ECLSS failures.

  6. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling (United States)

    Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Allen Christopher S.


    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. This paper describes the implementation of acoustic modeling for design purposes by incrementally increasing model fidelity and validating the accuracy of the model while predicting the noise of sources under various conditions. During FY 07, a simple-geometry Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was developed and validated using a physical mockup and acoustic measurements. A process for modeling the effects of absorptive wall treatments and the resulting reverberation environment were developed. During FY 08, a model with more complex and representative geometry of the Orion Crew Module (CM) interior was built, and noise predictions based on input noise sources were made. A corresponding physical mockup was also built. Measurements were made inside this mockup, and comparisons were made with the model and showed excellent agreement. During FY 09, the fidelity of the mockup and corresponding model were increased incrementally by including a simple ventilation system. The airborne noise contribution of the fans was measured using a sound intensity technique, since the sound power levels were not known beforehand. This is opposed to earlier studies where Reference Sound Sources (RSS) with known sound power level were used. Comparisons of the modeling result with the measurements in the mockup showed excellent results. During FY 10, the fidelity of the mockup and the model were further increased by including an ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) wall, associated closeout panels, and the gap between ECLSS wall and mockup wall. The effect of sealing the gap and adding sound absorptive treatment to ECLSS wall were also modeled and validated.

  7. APROS - A multifunctional modelling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juslin, K.; Paljakka, M.


    The Advanced Process Simulation (APROS) environment has after more than a decade of dedicated product development and intense commercial use reached a level of maturity that is difficult to find with regard to similar products. One of the basic ideas behind this software tool is its multifunctional concept. The concept requires that the tool is suitable for modelling and simulation of the dynamics of a process plant during all phases of its life-span from pre-design to training and model supported operation and control. The implementation of this concept had a significant impact on the software structure. Several, sometimes contradictory requirements had to be encompassed. It should be suitable both for small simple models and full scope simulators. It should facilitate time-steps from milliseconds to minutes, for the same models, just depending on the scope of study. It should combine several modelling paradigms such as continuous, discrete, mechanistic and empirical. The intrinsic model building blocks should be comprehensively verified, but users' model equations should be accepted, as well. It should be easy to connect to external models or hardware, and to use both in master or slave mode. It should be easy to study and modify the internals of the models, their structures and parameters, but it should also be possible to disclose all delicate model information from unwanted access. The calculation should be optimised for current computer hardware, but the model specifications should be easily transportable to new platforms. And finally, it should be suited both for researchers, engineers and plant operators. How did we succeed? We had 20 years of comprehensive thermal hydraulic modelling tradition before starting the project. We had the key experts with the key knowledge. We dedicated more than 100 man years of efforts for the new software developments. Presently, we have a superb team maintaining and improving the software, complemented with new enthusiastic

  8. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan


    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  9. Piezoelectric and semiconducting coupled power generating process of a single ZnO belt/wire. A technology for harvesting electricity from the environment. (United States)

    Song, Jinhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin


    This paper presents the experimental observation of piezoelectric generation from a single ZnO wire/belt for illustrating a fundamental process of converting mechanical energy into electricity at nanoscale. By deflecting a wire/belt using a conductive atomic force microscope tip in contact mode, the energy is first created by the deflection force and stored by piezoelectric potential, and later converts into piezoelectric energy. The mechanism of the generator is a result of coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO. A piezoelectric effect is required to create electric potential of ionic charges from elastic deformation; semiconducting property is necessary to separate and maintain the charges and then release the potential via the rectifying behavior of the Schottky barrier at the metal-ZnO interface, which serves as a switch in the entire process. The good conductivity of ZnO is rather unique because it makes the current flow possible. This paper demonstrates a principle for harvesting energy from the environment. The technology has the potential of converting mechanical movement energy (such as body movement, muscle stretching, blood pressure), vibration energy (such as acoustic/ultrasonic wave), and hydraulic energy (such as flow of body fluid, blood flow, contraction of blood vessels) into electric energy that may be sufficient for self-powering nanodevices and nanosystems in applications such as in situ, real-time, and implantable biosensing, biomedical monitoring, and biodetection.

  10. Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene fluvial succession, Pishin Belt Northwest Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad


    Miocene subaerial sedimentation started after the final closure of Katawaz Remnant Ocean. Based on detailed field data twelve facies were recognized in Neogene successions exposed in Pishin Belt. These facies were further organized into four facies associations i.e. channels, crevasse splay, natural levee...... and floodplain facies associations. Facies associations and variations provided ample evidences to recognize number of fluvial architectural components in the succession e.g., low-sinuosity sandy braided river, mixed-load meandering, high-sinuosity meandering channels, single-story sandstone and/or conglomerate...... channels, lateral accretion surfaces (point bars) and alluvial fans. Neogene sedimentation in the Pishin Belt was mainly controlled by active tectonism and thrusting in response to oblique collision of the Indian Plate with Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate along the Chaman-Nushki Fault. Post Miocene...

  11. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism. (United States)

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun


    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P conveyor belt materials.

  12. Study on the Withdrawal Way of Silk Road Fund under the Belt and Road Initiative Based on Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yingying


    Full Text Available The Silk Road Fund is an important financial support of The Belt and Road Initiative, it has a strict investment operation process to realize the capital appreciation, so the withdrawal is crucial. This paper models the utility game and find the game mechanism between Silk Road Fund and target enterprise. And then we put forward some referential suggestions such as choosing suitable withdraw opportunity, perfecting talent team and information transmission mechanism,strengthening cooperation with local government, making effective use of gambling agreement and actively exploring new exit mode.

  13. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling (United States)

    Chu, SShao-sheng R.; Allen, Christopher S.


    carried out by acquiring octave band microphone data simultaneously at ten fixed locations throughout the mockup. SPLs (Sound Pressure Levels) predicted by our SEA model match well with measurements for our CM mockup, with a more complicated shape. Additionally in FY09, background NC noise (Noise Criterion) simulation and MRT (Modified Rhyme Test) were developed and performed in the mockup to determine the maximum noise level in CM habitable volume for fair crew voice communications. Numerous demonstrations of simulated noise environment in the mockup and associated SIL (Speech Interference Level) via MRT were performed for various communities, including members from NASA and Orion prime-/sub-contractors. Also, a new HSIR (Human-Systems Integration Requirement) for limiting pre- and post-landing SIL was proposed.

  14. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.


    hypothesis: what may benefit the human system (farms, refineries, cities) may damage the environment. The hydrological and optimization models will be run interactively, with the optimization model run for 10 years and the resulting land use solution then used in the SWAT hydrologic model to provide more detailed information on river/ecosystem impacts, which are assessed using low flow analysis. Problem areas highlighted by this analysis can be targeted by implementing flow requirements at different locations in the watershed; these constraints are then added to the optimization model which is run for another 10 years, and the new solution again analyzed in more detail to assess the effectiveness of the imposed environmental measures. Preliminary results show that under proposed subsidies and current crop prices, the percentage of land planted with Miscanthus will increase to environmentally unsustainable levels, but that implementing flow and water quality constraints can mitigate the damage to some extent. Moreover, tributary and mainstem subwatersheds in the Sangamon do not respond equally, even in this very homogenous region, and thus the spatial context is important for understanding the tradeoffs between economic and hydrologic benefits, which become increasingly important in creating sustainable biofuel production.

  15. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koller


    Full Text Available We describe here a new method for calculating the magnetic drift invariant, L*, that is used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and for other space weather applications. L* (pronounced L-star is directly proportional to the integral of the magnetic flux contained within the surface defined by a charged particle moving in the Earth's geomagnetic field. Under adiabatic changes to the geomagnetic field L* is a conserved quantity, while under quasi-adiabatic fluctuations diffusion (with respect to a particle's L* is the primary term in equations of particle dynamics. In particular the equations of motion for the very energetic particles that populate the Earth's radiation belts are most commonly expressed by diffusion in three dimensions: L*, energy (or momentum, and pitch angle (the dot product of velocity and the magnetic field vector. Expressing dynamics in these coordinates reduces the dimensionality of the problem by referencing the particle distribution functions to values at the magnetic equatorial point of a magnetic "drift shell" (or L-shell irrespective of local time (or longitude. While the use of L* aids in simplifying the equations of motion, practical applications such as space weather forecasting using realistic geomagnetic fields require sophisticated magnetic field models that, in turn, require computationally intensive numerical integration. Typically a single L* calculation can require on the order of 105 calls to a magnetic field model and each point in the simulation domain and each calculated pitch angle has a different value of L*. We describe here the development and validation of a neural network surrogate model for calculating L* in sophisticated geomagnetic field models with a high degree of fidelity at computational speeds that are millions of times faster than direct numerical field line mapping and integration. This new surrogate model has

  16. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts. (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas


    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  17. A Physical Model of the Proton Radiation Belts of Jupiter inside Europa's Orbit (United States)

    Nénon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Kollmann, P.; Garrett, H. B.; Sauer, S. P. A.; Paranicas, C.


    A physical model of the Jovian trapped protons with kinetic energies higher than 1 MeV inward of the orbit of the icy moon Europa is presented. The model, named Salammbô, takes into account the radial diffusion process, the absorption effect of the Jovian moons, and the Coulomb collisions and charge exchanges with the cold plasma and neutral populations of the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Preliminary modeling of the wave-particle interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves near the moon Io is also performed. Salammbô is validated against in situ proton measurements of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Galileo Probe, and Galileo Orbiter. A prominent feature of the MeV proton intensity distribution in the modeled area is the 2 orders of magnitude flux depletion observed in MeV measurements near the orbit of Io. Our simulations reveal that this is not due to direct interactions with the moon or its neutral environment but results from scattering of the protons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  18. Modified one-dimensional snowplow-model for the description of plasmadynamics in belt-pinch HECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konle, W.


    In a Belt-Pinch device a hot, high-β-plasma is produced by the method of fast shock-compression. For this heating method the radial equilibrium depends upon the time evolution of the fast rising magnetic fields outside the plasma. A simple mathematical model for plasma compression and relaxation toward radial equilibrium in the case β = 1 including the external electric circuit is presented in this paper. The numerical solution for different experimental parameters leads to information on values of these parameters for reaching a radial equilibrium. For the plasma compression a snowplow-bounce-model is used which gives the initial values for the equations of the relaxation phase. In this phase the plasma is described by three thin sheaths containing the total mass of the plasma, whose motions are damped by viscosity terms. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS

  19. Earthquake hazard assessment in the Zagros Orogenic Belt of Iran using a fuzzy rule-based model (United States)

    Farahi Ghasre Aboonasr, Sedigheh; Zamani, Ahmad; Razavipour, Fatemeh; Boostani, Reza


    Producing accurate seismic hazard map and predicting hazardous areas is necessary for risk mitigation strategies. In this paper, a fuzzy logic inference system is utilized to estimate the earthquake potential and seismic zoning of Zagros Orogenic Belt. In addition to the interpretability, fuzzy predictors can capture both nonlinearity and chaotic behavior of data, where the number of data is limited. In this paper, earthquake pattern in the Zagros has been assessed for the intervals of 10 and 50 years using fuzzy rule-based model. The Molchan statistical procedure has been used to show that our forecasting model is reliable. The earthquake hazard maps for this area reveal some remarkable features that cannot be observed on the conventional maps. Regarding our achievements, some areas in the southern (Bandar Abbas), southwestern (Bandar Kangan) and western (Kermanshah) parts of Iran display high earthquake severity even though they are geographically far apart.

  20. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N


    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  1. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen


    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  2. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben


    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  3. Organic carbon recovery modeling for a rotating belt filter and its impact assessment on a plant-wide scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behera, Chitta Ranjan; Santoro, Domenico; Gernaey, Krist V.


    In this study, we perform a systematic plant-wide assessment of the organic carbon recovery concept on wastewater treatment plants by an advanced cellulose recovery enabling technology called rotating belt filter (RBF). To this end, first, an empirical model is developed to describe organic carbon...... recovery by the RBF, which is then used for the plant-wide performance evaluation to further understand the impact of organic carbon recovery by framing four different scenarios. The key features of the scenario analysis are: (i) an RBF operating with thick mat increases methane production (around 10...... %) and brings down aeration energy demand (by 8 %) compared to the primary clarifier (PC) and, (ii) the sludge retention time (SRT) of the activated sludge (AS) tank increases by 55 % when an RBF runs with thick mat and therefore promotes higher nitrification rate, (iii) organic carbon recovery by the RBF does...

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Friction Contact Master Belt with the Gun Mount Barrel During the Process of High-Speed Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezulinsky Jaroslav


    Full Text Available The friction in the gun mount barrel at sliding speeds of artillery projectile 500 - 700 m/s is not sufficiently studied. The main problem is to increase the efficiency of the master belt with a significant increase of the interaction parameters of the barrel with the projectile. To determine the effect of heating on the change of physical and mechanical properties of the surface layer and friction coefficient on the surface of the master belt were made mathematical modeling of heat transfer.

  5. Constraints on Nitrous Oxide emissions within the US Corn Belt using tall tower observations and an Eulerian Modeling Approach (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Griffis, T. J.; Lee, X.; Fu, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.


    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions requires a sound understanding of N2O production processes and a robust estimate of N2O budgets. It is critical to understand how emissions vary spatially and temporally, and how they are likely to change given future climate and land management decisions. To address these challenges we have coupled two models including WRF-Chem version 3.8.1 and CLM-GBC-CROP version 4.5 to simulate retrospective and future N2O emissions for the US Corn Belt. Using 7 years (2010-2016) of N2O mixing ratio data from 6 tall tower sites within the US Midwest, we ran the coupled model at a spatial resolution of 0.125o× 0.125o and tested and optimized the simulation of N2O emissions at hourly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales. Our preliminary results indicate:1) The simulated tall tower mixing ratios for 6 tall towers were all significantly higher than the observations in the growing seasons, indicating a high bias of N2O emissions when using the default N2O production mechanisms in CLM. 2) Following the optimization of N2O production in CLM, the simulated tall tower mixing ratios were strongly correlated with the KCMP and WBI towers, and had moderate correlation with the BAO tower. Overall, the absolute biases in mixing ratios were relatively small. Our next step is to examine 7 years of simulations to assess the spatiotemporal variations of direct and indirect emissions within the US Corn Belt to help identify potential N2O hotspots and hot moments.

  6. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt



    This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...

  8. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  9. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  10. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.


    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  11. An evolving tectonic environment of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian granitic plutons in the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Dongdong; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Zhang, Yunzhao; Zhu, Deyu; Wang, Pengfei; Dai, Quanqi


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) represents one of the most important sites of juvenile crustal growth during the Phanerozoic. Located in the central part of the CAOB, the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes record the collisional processes between the peri-Siberian and Kazakhstan orogenic systems. However, the precise timing of collision between the two terranes remains controversial. The Wukuli and Kadelat plutons in the Chinese Altai belt are dated at ∼305 and ∼280 Ma respectively, whereas the Aketas pluton in the Eastern Junggar terrane is dated at ∼308 Ma. Granites from the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons are strongly peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1), and are characterized by low Al2O3, Na2O, MnO, MgO, CaO and heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents, but with high SiO2, K2O and Rb contents as well as high Rb/Sr ratios. Granites from the Wukuli pluton have low εNd(t) and εHf(t) values of -3.7 to -3.4 and -9.7 to +4.9, whereas those from the Kadelat pluton have values of -3.6 to -3.4 and -8.0 to +2.6. These features suggest S-type affinity for the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons with magma derivation through partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metasediments. The Aketas pluton is composed of weakly peraluminous quartz monzonites that have A/CNK values ranging from 0.92 to 1.08, with high Na2O, Sr, and Sr/Y, and low Y, Yb, Nb, and Ta. These rocks display positive εNd(t) (+4.8 to +6.4) and εHf(t) (+9.7 to +14.6) values, and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.703357-0.703868), similar to modern adakites, suggesting that the quartz monzonites were derived from the partial melting of lower crustal material. The geochemical characteristics suggest that the Aketas pluton was formed in a subduction-related setting, the Wukuli pluton in a syn-collisional setting, and the Kadelat pluton in the subsequent post-orogenic strike-slip-related setting. In combination with data from other granitoids in these two terranes, the Aketas pluton represents the youngest record of

  12. ADOxx Modelling Method Conceptualization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesat Efendioglu


    Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.

  13. Environment Models in War Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovel, Steven


    ... (such as rain, sleet, and snow), and the obscuration impacts of smoke, dust, and haze. Newer models have been developed that more accurately portray the turbulence and radiative transfer within these common atmospheric and environmental phenomena...

  14. A Summary of Coupled, Uncoupled, and Hybrid Tectonic Models for the Yakima Fold Belt--Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, Michele A.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.


    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize the range of opinions and supporting information expressed by the expert community regarding whether a coupled or uncoupled model, or a combination of both, best represents structures in the Yakima Fold Belt. This issue was assessed to have a high level of contention with up to moderate potential for impact on the hazard estimate. This report defines the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some possible approaches for reducing uncertainties regarding this issue.

  15. Monitoring Crop Productivity over the U.S. Corn Belt using an Improved Light Use Efficiency Model (United States)

    Wu, X.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Qin, Y.; Doughty, R.


    Large-scale monitoring of crop yield is of great significance for forecasting food production and prices and ensuring food security. Satellite data that provide temporally and spatially continuous information that by themselves or in combination with other data or models, raises possibilities to monitor and understand agricultural productivity regionally. In this study, we first used an improved light use efficiency model-Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) to simulate the gross primary production (GPP). Model evaluation showed that the simulated GPP (GPPVPM) could well captured the spatio-temporal variation of GPP derived from FLUXNET sites. Then we applied the GPPVPM to further monitor crop productivity for corn and soybean over the U.S. Corn Belt and benchmarked with county-level crop yield statistics. We found VPM-based approach provides pretty good estimates (R2 = 0.88, slope = 1.03). We further showed the impacts of climate extremes on the crop productivity and carbon use efficiency. The study indicates the great potential of VPM in estimating crop yield and in understanding of crop yield responses to climate variability and change.

  16. Two-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of the drying process of thick layers of natural materials in a conveyor-belt dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model and numerical analysis of the convective drying process of thick slices of colloidal capillary-porous materials slowly moving through conveyor-belt dryer. A flow of hot moist air was used as drying agent. The drying process has been analyzed in the form of a 2-D mathematical model, in two directions: along the conveyor and perpendicular on it. The mathematical model consists of two non-linear differential equations and one equation with a transcendent character and it is based on the mathematical model developed for drying process in a form of a 1-D thin layer. The appropriate boundary conditions were introduced. The presented model is suitable for the automated control of conveyor-belt dryers. The obtained results with analysis could be useful in predicting the drying kinetics of potato slices and similar natural products.

  17. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.


    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  18. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li


    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  19. Modeling mechanical and thermo-mechanical erosion by flowing lava at Raglan, Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada (United States)

    Cataldo, V.; Williams, D. A.; Lesher, C. M.


    The 1.5-D Williams et al. model of thermal erosion by turbulent lava was recently applied to the Athabasca Valles lava channel on Mars, in an attempt to establish the importance of thermal erosion in excavating this ~80-100 m deep outflow channel. The modeled erosion depths (0.4-7.5 m) are far less than the depth of the channel which, combined with the short duration of the eruption, suggests that mechanical erosion may have had a greater role. Several studies suggest that mechanical erosion by lava is more important in channel-tube formation than previously thought, under certain circumstances. How would we be able to distinguish between mechanical and thermal erosion? By investigating model results when substrate properties change, as we move from a consolidated, mechanically strong substrate to a partially consolidated or unconsolidated, mechanically weaker substrate. The Proterozoic Raglan komatiitic basalt lava channel of the Cape Smith Belt, New Québec, Canada is a complex erosional environment involving invasive erosion of both sediment and gabbro substrates - which makes it a critical test case. The lava eroded an upper layer of soft sediment, with erosion at the tops, bottoms, and sides of the conduit, through underlying gabbro, and then burrowed laterally into underlying sediment, a scenario requiring a two-dimensional modeling approach. Using the available field data, we will simulate two-dimensional thermomechanical and mechanical erosion interfaces on all sides of a turbulent lava flow by creating a finite-element mesh. The mesh will be defined by the geometry of the lava flow at those lava conduits for which data on lava and substrate composition, lava thickness, slope of the ground, conduit area and volume, and lava flow length are available. Ultimately, this model will be applied to lunar sinuous rilles and martian lava channels for which the use of a two-dimensional approach is needed.

  20. PAME: plasmonic assay modeling environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes


    Full Text Available Plasmonic assays are an important class of optical sensors that measure biomolecular interactions in real-time without the need for labeling agents, making them especially well-suited for clinical applications. Through the incorporation of nanoparticles and fiberoptics, these sensing systems have been successfully miniaturized and show great promise for in-situ probing and implantable devices, yet it remains challenging to derive meaningful, quantitative information from plasmonic responses. This is in part due to a lack of dedicated modeling tools, and therefore we introduce PAME, an open-source Python application for modeling plasmonic systems of bulk and nanoparticle-embedded metallic films. PAME combines aspects of thin-film solvers, nanomaterials and fiber-optics into an intuitive graphical interface. Some of PAME’s features include a simulation mode, a database of hundreds of materials, and an object-oriented framework for designing complex nanomaterials, such as a gold nanoparticles encased in a protein shell. An overview of PAME’s theory and design is presented, followed by example simulations of a fiberoptic refractometer, as well as protein binding to a multiplexed sensor composed of a mixed layer of gold and silver colloids. These results provide new insights into observed responses in reflectance biosensors.

  1. Influence of pre-existing basement faults on the structural evolution of the Zagros Simply Folded belt: 3D numerical modelling (United States)

    Ruh, Jonas B.; Gerya, Taras


    The Simply Folded Belt of the Zagros orogen is characterized by elongated fold trains symptomatically defining the geomorphology along this mountain range. The Zagros orogen results from the collision of the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. The Simply Folded Belt is located southwest of the Zagros suture zone. An up to 2 km thick salt horizon below the sedimentary sequence enables mechanical and structural detachment from the underlying Arabian basement. Nevertheless, deformation within the basement influences the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt. It has been shown that thrusts in form of reactivated normal faults can trigger out-of-sequence deformation within the sedimentary stratigraphy. Furthermore, deeply rooted strike-slip faults, such as the Kazerun faults between the Fars zone in the southeast and the Dezful embayment and the Izeh zone, are largely dispersing into the overlying stratigraphy, strongly influencing the tectonic evolution and mechanical behaviour. The aim of this study is to reveal the influence of basement thrusts and strike-slip faults on the structural evolution of the Simply Folded Belt depending on the occurrence of intercrustal weak horizons (Hormuz salt) and the rheology and thermal structure of the basement. Therefore, we present high-resolution 3D thermo-mechnical models with pre-existing, inversively reactivated normal faults or strike-slip faults within the basement. Numerical models are based on finite difference, marker-in-cell technique with (power-law) visco-plastic rheology accounting for brittle deformation. Preliminary results show that deep tectonic structures present in the basement may have crucial effects on the morphology and evolution of a fold-and-thrust belt above a major detachment horizon.

  2. The overwhelming role of soil N2O emissions in net greenhouse gas balance of the U.S. Corn Belt: Modeling estimate of nitrogen fertilizer impacts (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yu, Z.; Cao, P.; Tian, H.


    The Corn Belt of the Midwestern U.S. is one of the most productive systems in the world during the growing season, with gross primary production exceeding even that of the Amazon forests. Fueled by increased commodity prices in the late 2000s, the area in corn and soybean in the U.S. has reached record highs with most of the newly added cropland converted from grasslands, wetland, and Conservation Reserve Program land. Intensive management practices, such as fertilizer use, irrigation, tillage, residue removal etc., have been implemented following cropland expansion to maximize crop yield from converted marginal land or from more monoculture production. The Corn Belt has been recognized as one of the major contributors to carbon sinks in the U.S., partially because crop harvest and residue removal reduced soil respiration. In the meanwhile, 75% of the total N2O emission in the U.S. comes from agriculture, among which the Corn Belt is the major source due to nitrogen management, and has large potential of climate mitigation. However, it remains far from certain how intensive cropland expansion and management practices in this region have affected soil carbon accumulation and non-CO2 GHG emissions. In this study, by using a process-based land ecosystem model, Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), we investigated the impacts of nitrogen fertilizer use on soil carbon accumulation and direct N2O emissions across the U.S. Corn Belt. Surprisingly, we found N fertilizer-induced SOC storage continued shrinking after the 1980s while N2O emissions remains relatively constant. The N fertilizer use led to a net greenhouse gas release since 2000 in both the western and eastern Corn Belt, contributing to climate warming. This study implies an increasing importance of nitrogen management for both agricultural production and climate mitigation.

  3. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, Josep [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reeves, Geoffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friedel, Reiner H W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10{sup 5} calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand

  4. LANL* V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, Josep; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H.W.


    Space weather modeling, forecasts, and predictions, especially for the radiation belts in the inner magnetosphere, require detailed information about the Earth's magnetic field. Results depend on the magnetic field model and the L* (pron. L-star) values which are used to describe particle drift shells. Space wather models require integrating particle motions along trajectories that encircle the Earth. Numerical integration typically takes on the order of 10 5 calls to a magnetic field model which makes the L* calculations very slow, in particular when using a dynamic and more accurate magnetic field model. Researchers currently tend to pick simplistic models over more accurate ones but also risking large inaccuracies and even wrong conclusions. For example, magnetic field models affect the calculation of electron phase space density by applying adiabatic invariants including the drift shell value L*. We present here a new method using a surrogate model based on a neural network technique to replace the time consuming L* calculations made with modern magnetic field models. The advantage of surrogate models (or meta-models) is that they can compute the same output in a fraction of the time while adding only a marginal error. Our drift shell model LANL* (Los Alamos National Lab L-star) is based on L* calculation using the TSK03 model. The surrogate model has currently been tested and validated only for geosynchronous regions but the method is generally applicable to any satellite orbit. Computations with the new model are several million times faster compared to the standard integration method while adding less than 1% error. Currently, real-time applications for forecasting and even nowcasting inner magnetospheric space weather is limited partly due to the long computing time of accurate L* values. Without them, real-time applications are limited in accuracy. Reanalysis application of past conditions in the inner magnetosphere are used to understand physical

  5. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.


    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  6. [Altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation within mountainous regions of the Sayan Mountains: a model of ecological second-order phase transitions ]. (United States)

    Sukhovol'skiĭ, V G; Ovchinnikova, T M; Baboĭ, S D


    As a description of altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation, a model of ecological second-order transitions is proposed. Objects of the study have been chosen to be forest cenoses of the northern slope of Kulumyss Ridge (the Sayan Mauntains), while the results are comprised by the altitude profiles of wood vegetation. An ecological phase transition can be considered as the transition of cenoses at different altitudes from the state of presence of certain tree species within the studied territory to the state of their absence. By analogy with the physical model of second-order, phase transitions the order parameter is introduced (i.e., the area portion occupied by a single tree species at the certain altitude) as well as the control variable (i.e., the altitude of the wood vegetation belt). As the formal relation between them, an analog of the Landau's equation for phase transitions in physical systems is obtained. It is shown that the model is in a good accordance with the empirical data. Thus, the model can be used for estimation of upper and lower boundaries of altitude belts for individual tree species (like birch, aspen, Siberian fir, Siberian pine) as well as the breadth of their ecological niches with regard to altitude. The model includes also the parameters that describe numerically the interactions between different species of wood vegetation. The approach versatility allows to simplify description and modeling of wood vegetation altitude zonality, and enables assessment of vegetation cenoses response to climatic changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.


    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10 5 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  9. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  10. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  11. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro


    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  12. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  13. A physical model of the proton radiation belts of Jupiter inside Europa’s orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nénon, Quentin; Sicard, Angelica; Kollmann, Peter


    A physical model of the Jovian trapped protons with kinetic energies higher than 1 MeV inward of the orbit of the icy moon Europa is presented. The model, named Salammbô, takes into account the radial diffusion process, the absorption effect of the Jovian moons, and the Coulomb collisions and cha...

  14. A new surface-process model for landscape evolution at a mountain belt scale (United States)

    Willett, Sean D.; Braun, Jean; Herman, Frederic


    We present a new surface process model designed for modeling surface erosion and mass transport at an orogenic scale. Modeling surface processes at a large-scale is difficult because surface geomorphic processes are frequently described at the scale of a few meters, and such resolution cannot be represented in orogen-scale models operating over hundreds of square kilometers. We circumvent this problem by implementing a hybrid numerical -- analytical model. Like many previous models, the model is based on a numerical fluvial network represented by a series of nodes linked by model rivers in a descending network, with fluvial incision and sediment transport defined by laws operating on this network. However we only represent the largest rivers in the landscape by nodes in this model. Low-order rivers and water divides between large rivers are determined from analytical solutions assuming steady-state conditions with respect to the local river channel. The analytical solution includes the same fluvial incision law as the large rivers and a channel head with a specified size and mean slope. This permits a precise representation of the position of water divides between river basins. This is a key characteristic in landscape evolution as divide migration provides a positive feedback between river incision and a consequent increase in drainage area. The analytical solution also provides an explicit criterion for river capture, which occurs once a water divide migrates to its neighboring channel. This algorithm avoids the artificial network organization that often results from meshing and remeshing algorithms in numerical models. We demonstrate the use of this model with several simple examples including uniform uplift of a block, simultaneous uplift and shortening of a block, and a model involving strike slip faulting. We find a strong dependence on initial condition, but also a surprisingly strong dependence on channel head height parameters. Low channel heads, as

  15. Efficiency evaluation of China's investment in Africa under the background of constructing "Silk Road Economic Belt": Application of DEA model and Malmquist index method


    Ze, Tian; Yumei, Fan; Chao, Liu


    In recent years, with implementation and propulsion of the strategic planning "One Belt and One Road" of China, quality and efficiency of China's foreign direct investment have increasingly become a focused issue. This paper utilizes the DEA model and Malmquist index method to select the data of China's investment in 20 countries of Africa and conducts the empirical research on dynamic evaluation of efficiency of China's direct investment in Africa. The result shows that the general efficienc...

  16. Modeling the role of environment in addiction. (United States)

    Caprioli, Daniele; Celentano, Michele; Paolone, Giovanna; Badiani, Aldo


    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of animal models used to investigate the modulatory role of environment on drug addiction. The environment can alter the responsiveness to addictive drugs in at least three major ways. First, adverse life experiences can make an individual more vulnerable to develop drug addiction or to relapse into drug seeking. Second, neutral environmental cues can acquire, through Pavlovian conditioning, the ability to trigger drug seeking even after long periods of abstinence. Third, the environment immediately surrounding drug taking can alter the behavioral, subjective, and rewarding effects of a given drug, thus influencing the propensity to use the same drug again. We have focused in particular on the results obtained using an animal model we have developed to study the latter type of drug-environment interaction.

  17. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  18. Security Management Model in Cloud Computing Environment


    Ahmadpanah, Seyed Hossein


    In the cloud computing environment, cloud virtual machine (VM) will be more and more the number of virtual machine security and management faced giant Challenge. In order to address security issues cloud computing virtualization environment, this paper presents a virtual machine based on efficient and dynamic deployment VM security management model state migration and scheduling, study of which virtual machine security architecture, based on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) virtual machine de...

  19. The national operational environment model (NOEM) (United States)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren


    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  20. A 'conveyor belt' model for the dynamic contact angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe C, Della; Siboni, S, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Mesiano di Povo 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)


    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily detected, and in a repeatable way, are advancing and receding contact angles. In this paper, we discuss a simple model which accounts for the onset of advancing and receding contact angles measured by the Wilhelmy microbalance, one of the most powerful techniques for contact angle measurements. The model also explains the experimental observation that advancing and receding contact angles become closer to each other when the system is gently 'shaken', by supplying mechanical energy in an appropriate way. The model may be pedagogically useful in introducing students and teachers to aspects of capillary phenomena which are not usually discussed in basic physics courses.

  1. Empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the Earth's outer radiation belt at altitudes of up to 1000 km (United States)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Barinova, W. O.; Myagkova, I. N.; Eremeev, V. E.; Parunakyan, D. A.; Nguyen, M. D.; Barinov, O. G.


    An empirical model of the high-latitude boundary of the outer Earth's radiation belt (ERB) has been presented, which is based on the measurement data of electron fluxes on the polar low-orbit CORONAS-Photon, Meteor-M1, and Meteor-M2 satellites. The boundary was determined by a sharp decrease to the background level of the flux of trapped electrons with energies of 100 or 200 keV in the polar part of the profile of the outer radiation belt. A numerical algorithm has been implemented to determine the time moment, when the fastest flux changes are recorded. The primary search was carried out, first, on 30 s averaged data, then repeated on data with a higher resolution. A functional dependence was obtained in order to approximate the obtained set of intersections of the boundary by elliptical curve. The empirical model constructed using the CORONAS-Photon measurement data in the epoch of anomalously low geomagnetic activity reflects the longitude structure of the high-latitude boundary of the outer radiation belt associated with the internal Earth's magnetic field (MF), as well as its dependence on the universal time. Based on the data of intersections of the high-latitude boundary of the outer ERB (OERB) in the epoch of 2014-2016, the latitudinal shift of the boundary to the equator dependent on geomagnetic activity has been determined, as well as the nightside shift of the boundary due to the diurnal rotation of the Earth.

  2. Present and future ecological niche modeling of garter snake species from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Uri; D’Addario, Maristella


    Land use and climate change are affecting the abundance and distribution of species. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a very diverse region due to geological history, geographic position, and climate. It is also one of the most disturbed regions in Mexico. Reptiles are particularly sensitive to environmental changes due to their low dispersal capacity and thermal ecology. In this study, we define the important environmental variables (considering climate, topography, and land use) and potential distribution (present and future) of the five Thamnophis species present in TMVB. To do so, we used the maximum entropy modeling software (MAXENT). First, we modeled to select the most important variables to explain the distribution of each species, then we modeled again using only the most important variables and projected these models to the future considering a middle-moderate climate change scenario (rcp45), and land use and vegetation variables for the year 2050 (generated according to land use changes that occurred between years 2002 and 2011). Arid vegetation had an important negative effect on habitat suitability for all species, and minimum temperature of the coldest month was important for four of the five species. Thamnophis cyrtopsis was the species with the lowest tolerance to minimum temperatures. The maximum temperature of the warmest month was important for T. scalaris and T. cyrtopsis. Low percentages of agriculture were positive for T. eques and T. melanogaster but, at higher values, agriculture had a negative effect on habitat suitability for both species. Elevation was the most important variable to explain T. eques and T. melanogaster potential distribution while distance to Abies forests was the most important variable for T. scalaris and T. scaliger. All species had a high proportion of their potential distribution in the TMVB. However, according to our models, all Thamnophis species will experience reductions in their potential

  3. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.


    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via

  4. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models


    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K.


    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases...

  5. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasilya Dmitriy


    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  6. Integrated 3D geology modeling constrained by facies and horizontal well data for Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longxin, M.; Baojun, X.; Shancheng, Z.; Guoqing, H. [CNPC America Ltd., Caracas (Venezuela)


    Horizontal well drilling with cold production were used to develop most of heavy oil fields in Venezuela's Orinoco heavy oil belt. This study interpreted the horizontal well logs of Block M of the Orinoco heavy oil belt in an effort to improve production from this highly porous and permeable reservoir. The reservoir is comprised primarily of non-consolidated sandstones. A porosity calculation formula for the horizontal well without porosity logs was established based on the study of horizontal well logging data of block M in the Orinoco heavy oil belt. A high quality 3-D simulation tool was used to separate the block into several different sections. A set of methods were presented in order to identify if the well track was approaching an adjacent formation, to estimate the distance between the well track and the adjacent formation, and to correct the deep resistivity of the horizontal section affected by the adjacent formation. A set of interpretation techniques were established, based on the combination of well logging data, seismic data and the oilfield development performance data. It was concluded that the development of the precise 3D geological model helped to establish a solid foundation for guiding the well position design and the drilling of the horizontal well. It also contributed to the reservoir numerical simulation and the effective development of the oil field. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  7. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wagner


    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  8. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  9. Modeling tritium transport in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.


    A model of tritium transport in the environment near an atmospheric source of tritium is presented in the general context of modeling material cycling in ecosystems. The model was developed to test hypotheses about the process involved in tritium cycling. The temporal and spatial scales of the model were picked to allow comparison to environmental monitoring data collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Initial simulations with the model showed good agreement with monitoring data, including atmospheric and vegetation tritium concentrations. The model can also simulate values of tritium in vegetation organic matter if the key parameter distributing the source of organic hydrogen is varied to fit the data. However, because of the lack of independent conformation of the distribution parameter, there is still uncertainty about the role of organic movement of tritium in the food chain, and its effect on the dose to man

  10. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel


    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  11. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.


    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases. We correct this and other misunderstandings in the essay and find that gene-environment (GE) interplay is a well-articulated concept in behavior genetics and political science, operationalized as gene-environment correlation and gene-environment interaction. Both are incorporated into interpretations of the classical twin design (CTD) and estimated in numerous empirical studies through extensions of the CTD. We then conduct simulations to quantify the influence of GE interplay on estimates from the CTD. Due to the criticism’s mischaracterization of the CTD and GE interplay, combined with the absence of any empirical evidence to counter what is presented in the extant literature and this article, we conclude that the critique does not enhance our understanding of the processes that drive political traits, genetic or otherwise. PMID:24808718

  12. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A


    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  13. FAME, the Flux Analysis and Modeling Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boele Joost


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation and modification of genome-scale metabolic models is a task that requires specialized software tools. While these are available, subsequently running or visualizing a model often relies on disjoint code, which adds additional actions to the analysis routine and, in our experience, renders these applications suboptimal for routine use by (systems biologists. Results The Flux Analysis and Modeling Environment (FAME is the first web-based modeling tool that combines the tasks of creating, editing, running, and analyzing/visualizing stoichiometric models into a single program. Analysis results can be automatically superimposed on familiar KEGG-like maps. FAME is written in PHP and uses the Python-based PySCeS-CBM for its linear solving capabilities. It comes with a comprehensive manual and a quick-start tutorial, and can be accessed online at Conclusions With FAME, we present the community with an open source, user-friendly, web-based "one stop shop" for stoichiometric modeling. We expect the application will be of substantial use to investigators and educators alike.

  14. Identifications of the polar cap boundary and the auroral belt in the high-altitude magnetosphere: a model for field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, M.


    By means of the Ogo 5 Goddard Space Flight Center fluxgate magnetometer data the polar cap boundary is identified in the high-altitude magnetosphere by a sudden transition from a dipolar field to a more taillike configuration. It is inferred that there exists a field-aligned-current layer at the polar cap boundary. In the night side magnetosphere the polar cap boundary is identified as the high-latitude boundary of the plasma sheet. The field-aligned current flows downward to the ionosphere on the morning side of the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere on the afternoon side. The basic pattern of the magnetic field variations observed during the satellite's traversal of the auroral belt is presented. Currents flow in opposite directions in the two field-aligned-current layers. The current directions in these layers as observed by Ogo 5 in the high-altitude magnetosphere are the same as those observed at low altitudes by the polar-orbiting Triad satellite (Armstrong and Zmuda, 1973). The magnetic field in the region where the lower-latitude field-aligned-current layer is situated is essentially meridional. A model is presented in which two field-aligned-current systems, one at the polar cap boundary and the other on the low-latitude part of the auroral belt, are main []y connected by ionospheric currents flowing across the auroral belt. The existence of field-aligned currents deduced from the Ogo 5 observations is a permanent feature of the magnetosphere. Intensifications of the field-aligned currents and occurrences of multiple pairs of field-aligned-current layers characterize the disturbed conditions of these regions

  15. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  16. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors


    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu


    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  17. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering


    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  18. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.


    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  19. Theoretical model of the plasma edge. Part II: Transport along the open field lines of a magnetic island belt associated with the ionization instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.L.M.; Hasselberg, G.


    To the ionization instability described in Part I correspond odd Φ, even b r eigenfunctions leading, as for the tearing mode, to a magnetic island belt centred about the rational magnetic surface q=m a (q is the safety factor; m is the mode number). Plasma dumping on the target plates, along the island magnetic field lines, releases the neutrals, the ionization of which drives the instability. This self-consistent model of the plasma edge yields the electron temperature on the last closed equilibrium magnetic surface and the particle confinement time, which are compared with the values measured in TEXTOR and other tokamaks; interestingly, the value obtained for τ p is very reminiscent of the heuristic energy confinement time expression proposed by Kaye and Goldston. Theory also predicts an equilibrium bifurcation at high power, corresponding to a reduction, and then a collapse, of the island width. The hypothesis that the (L mode) island belt be hooked up to the machine's structure is briefly discussed. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  20. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  1. Model alloy oxidation in oxyfuel characteristic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, D.; Rizzo, F.; Kranzmann, A.; Monteiro, M.; Caminha, I.


    In the oxyfuel process, pure oxygen is burned in boilers with recycled gas producing a gas rich in CO_2, making it easer to capture the CO_2 in the end of the process. The present work investigates the high temperature corrosion characteristics of a model Fe-Cr-Co alloy in typical oxyfuel process environment. Samples were oxidized at 600°C during 1000 hours in single atmosphere condition, where the samples is exposed to the same gas in all faces, and in a dual atmosphere condition, where the sample is exposed to water vapor in one side and to oxyfuel gas in the other. Samples where characterized by SEM and EDX. Results showed that corrosion is higher in a dual atmosphere condition than in single condition. (author)

  2. Meteoroid Environment Modeling: the Meteoroid Engineering Model and Shower Forecasting (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.


    The meteoroid environment is often divided conceptually into meteor showers plus a sporadic background component. The sporadic complex poses the bulk of the risk to spacecraft, but showers can produce significant short-term enhancements of the meteoroid flux. The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has produced two environment models to handle these cases: the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and an annual meteor shower forecast. Both MEM and the forecast are used by multiple manned spaceflight projects in their meteoroid risk evaluation, and both tools are being revised to incorporate recent meteor velocity, density, and timing measurements. MEM describes the sporadic meteoroid complex and calculates the flux, speed, and directionality of the meteoroid environment relative to a user-supplied spacecraft trajectory, taking the spacecraft's motion into account. MEM is valid in the inner solar system and offers near-Earth and cis-lunar environments. While the current version of MEM offers a nominal meteoroid environment corresponding to a single meteoroid bulk density, the next version of MEMR3 will offer both flux uncertainties and a density distribution in addition to a revised near-Earth environment. We have updated the near-Earth meteor speed distribution and have made the first determination of uncertainty in this distribution. We have also derived a meteor density distribution from the work of Kikwaya et al. (2011). The annual meteor shower forecast takes the form of a report and data tables that can be used in conjunction with an existing MEM assessment. Fluxes are typically quoted to a constant limiting kinetic energy in order to comport with commonly used ballistic limit equations. For the 2017 annual forecast, the MEO substantially revised the list of showers and their characteristics using 14 years of meteor flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Defunct or insignificant showers were removed and the temporal profiles of many showers

  3. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.


    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  4. The impact of radiation belts region on top side ionosphere condition during last solar minimum. (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Przepiórka, Dororta; Matyjasiak, Barbara


    The wave particle interactions in radiation belts region are one of the key parameters in understanding the global physical processes which govern the near Earth environment. The populations of outer radiation belts electrons increasing in response to changes in the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, and decreasing as a result of scattering into the loss cone and subsequent absorption by the atmosphere. The most important question in relation to understanding the physical processes in radiation belts region relates to estimate the ratio between acceleration and loss processes. This can be also very useful for construct adequate models adopted in Space Weather program. Moreover the wave particle interaction in inner radiation zone and in outer radiation zone have significant influence on the space plasma property at ionospheric altitude. The aim of this presentation is to show the manifestation of radiation belts region at the top side ionosphere during the last long solar minimum. The presentation of longitude and seasonal changes of plasma parameters affected by process occurred in radiation belts region has been performed on the base of the DEMETER and COSMIC 3 satellite registration. This research is partly supported by grant O N517 418440

  5. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment. (United States)

    Mohler, James L.


    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  6. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhong Li


    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  7. Unimodal models to relate species to environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.


    To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their

  8. Enhanced living environments from models to technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dobre, Ciprian; Ganchev, Ivan; Garcia, Nuno; Goleva, Rossitza Ivanova


    Enhanced living environments employ information and communications technologies to support true ambient assisted living for people with disabilities. This book provides an overview of today's architectures, techniques, protocols, components, and cloud-based solutions related to ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments.

  9. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments (United States)

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna


    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  10. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts. (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels


    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  11. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  12. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)


    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Family Environment and Cognitive Development: Twelve Analytic Models (United States)

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Marjoribanks, Kevin


    The review indicates that refined measures of the family environment and the use of complex statistical models increase the understanding of the relationships between socioeconomic status, sibling variables, family environment, and cognitive development. (RC)

  14. Building, Using, Sharing and Reusing Environment Concept Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chadbourne, Christopher; Clark, Douglas


    .... The Environment Concept Model (ECM) is an object-oriented documentation technique. The technique is tailored for system engineers who must deliver a consistent synthetic environment representation, on time and within budget...

  15. Comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radition 2. East--west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a functon of Jovian longitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Pater, I.


    On the basis of comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiaton the 'hot region' or east--west asymmetry in the planet's radiation belts is proposed to be due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 and the existence of a dusk dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere, generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere. The model calculations were based upon the magnetic field configurations derived from the Pioneer data by Acuna and Ness [1976] (the O 4 model) and Davis, Jones and Smith (quoted in Smith and Gulkis [1979]) (the P 11 (3,2)A model), with an electron distribution derived in the first paper of this series [de Pater, this issue]. We would infer from the calculations that the O 4 model gives a slightly better fit to the data; the relatively large number density at lambda/sub J/approx.240 0 --360 0 , however, might indicate the presence of even higher order moments in the field

  16. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.


    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  17. Modeling Based Decision Support Environment, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration's vision is the creation of an intuitive human-in-the-loop engineering environment called Decision Navigator that leverages recent advances in...

  18. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  19. Model of Conservation on Sagara Anakan Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sugandi


    Full Text Available Widespread decline in agricultural land and the impact on production decline caused extensive forest activities to meet the needs of the population. Activities that cause less environmental quality offset environmental balance changes. These changes due to deforestation, erosion, degraded land and natural resource degradation are exploited so that the function of ecological, economic and social life. Damaged ecosystems resulting in erosion, landslides in the watershed affect the sedimentation in Sagara Anakan sea. Silting, resulting in narrowing of fishing activities, tourism, sports, and services decreased crossings. Because of the problem and the purpose of this study proposed and analyzed a few questions: 1 How does the socio-economic impact of farmers in conserving the environment of Sagara Anakan ?, 2 How do people form of conservation and coastal of Sagara Anakan ?, 3 How model of integrated conservation in the watershed and coastal of Sagara Anakan ? and 4 What role do the people in the watershed and coastal on Sagara Anakan conservation ?. Study site covers an area of flow and Ci Ci Tanduy Beureum and Sagara Tillers waters. Activities of the population in the process of land affected when in Sagara tillers. The method used was a survey with a sample divided by the watershed upstream, downstream and coastal tengahm. Using statistical analysis techniques and geography, so that part of the watershed characteristics can be imaged. Shallowing Sagara Anakan, physically was affected by the physical condition of the easily eroded and accelerated by human activities. The activities of farmer on the watershed have done conservation unless doing reforestation, whereas the farmer on the swamp and coastal areas are not doing conservation. Different physical circumstances, the conservation of watersheds and coastal forms differ. Socio-economic condition of farmer affect the conservation. The farmer could not reforestation conservation form, as the

  20. Propagation modeling in a manufacturing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell, J.D.; Horn, R.D.; Rader, M.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Shourbaji, A.A. [Oak Ridge Centers for Mfg. Technology, TN (United States)


    Wireless sensors which utilize low power spread spectrum data transmission have significant potential in industrial environments due to low cabling and installation costs. In addition, this technology imposes fewer constraints upon placement due to cable routing, allowing sensors to be installed in areas with poor access. Limitations are imposed on sensor and receiver placement by electromagnetic propagation effects in the industrial environment, including multipath and the presence of absorbing media. This paper explores the electromagnetic analysis of potential wireless sensor applications using commercially available finite element software. In addition, since the applications environment is often at least partially specified in electronic form using computer-aided drafting software, the importation of information from this software is discussed. Both three-dimensional and two-dimensional examples are presented which demonstrate the utility and limitations of the method.

  1. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon


    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  2. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  3. A Comprehensive Model of the Meteoroids Environment Around Mercury (United States)

    Pokorny, P.; Sarantos, M.; Janches, D.


    We present a comprehensive dynamical model for the meteoroid environment around Mercury comprised of meteoroids originating in asteroids, short and long period comets. Our model is fully calibrated and provides predictions for different values of TAA.

  4. The provenance and Sm/Nd Model ages of siliciclastic supracrustal rocks of the Faina and Santa Rita Greenstone belts, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, Marcelo Goncalves; Jost, Hardy; Lima, Bruno Eustaquio Moreira; Teixeira, Alexandre de Amorim


    The Faina and Santa Rita greenstone belts are two N 60 deg C W trending synclinoria separated by a N 30 deg C E strike-slip fault and rest allochtonous on the adjacent Uva and Caicara granite-gneiss complexes. The belts are made up of lower metakomatiites, followed by metabasalts and thick metasedimentary sequences deposited under contrasting paleogeographic settings. In Faina, the sequence consists of two complete shelf cycles, the first resting on basalts by an erosional unconformity. In Santa Rita, the basalts give gradually place to carbonaceous metashales, unconformably overlain by metarhythmites. Provenance based on trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry of chloride and muscovite, source-are modeling and REE elements indicate that protoliths of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita formed under the influence of a source area dominated by mafic ultramafic rocks, whilst during the sedimentation of the second shelf cycle and the metarhythmites of Santa Rita the source-area was dominated by TTG granitoids. Sm-Nd model ages of the lower sedimentary packages vary between 3.0 and 2.8 Ga and the upper between 2.7 and 2.6 Ga. These intervals coincide, respectively, with the estimated age of the underlying, and with the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr e U-Pb ages of the main granitoids and gneisses of the adjacent complexes. The same data indicate that, during the sedimentation of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita, both basins had independent source-areas, but shared the same source during the upper sections. Weathering nature and intensity of the source-area calculated by means of geochemical a data suggest that the dramatic change of provenance from the lower to the upper sections is due to the shift from tectonically stable to unstable regimes, interpreted as resulting from the emergence of the island arc whose roots are represented by the adjacent granite-gneiss complexes. (author)

  5. FAME, the flux analysis and modelling environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, J.; Olivier, B.G.; Teusink, B.


    Background: The creation and modification of genome-scale metabolic models is a task that requires specialized software tools. While these are available, subsequently running or visualizing a model often relies on disjoint code, which adds additional actions to the analysis routine and, in our

  6. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Crossa, José; Montesinos-López, Osval A.; Burgueño, Juan; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de los Campos, Gustavo


    The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects (u) that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance–covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP) and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK). The other model has the same genetic component as the first model (u) plus an extra component, f, that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects u. We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat) that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with u and f over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect u. PMID:27793970

  7. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cuevas


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects ( u that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance–covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK. The other model has the same genetic component as the first model ( u plus an extra component, f, that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects u . We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with u   and   f over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect u .

  8. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models. (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Crossa, José; Montesinos-López, Osval A; Burgueño, Juan; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de Los Campos, Gustavo


    The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects [Formula: see text] that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance-covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP) and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK). The other model has the same genetic component as the first model [Formula: see text] plus an extra component, F: , that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects [Formula: see text] We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat) that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with [Formula: see text] over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect [Formula: see text]. Copyright © 2017 Cuevas et al.

  9. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  10. Educational Network Environment: Models and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivitskaya, H.


    The presentation is structured as follows: functional model of distance learning; CDS - Content Development System; CMS - Content Management System; Communications: Microsoft Lync Server 2010; LMS - Learning Management System; Contents; Contents: creation tools; Contents: Multimedia content creation

  11. Using the Abitibi Greenstone Belt to Understand Martian Hydrothermal Systems and the Potential for Biosignature Preservation in High Temperature Aqueous Environments (United States)

    Hurowitz, J.; Abelson, J.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T.; Ehlmann, B.; Eigenbrode, J.; Grotzinger, J.; hide


    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 +/- 0.07% (+/- SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  12. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  13. The RHIC/AGS Online Model Environment: Design and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.; Brown, K.; Pilat, F.; Tafti Alai, A.; Tepikian, S.; Vanzeijtz


    An integrated online modeling environment is currently under development for use by AGS and RHIC physicists and commissioners. This environment combines the modeling efforts of both groups in a CDEV[1] client-server design, providing access to expected machine optics and physics parameters based on live and design machine settings. An abstract modeling interface has been designed as a set of adapters[2] around core computational modeling engines such as MAD and UAL/Teapot++[3]. This approach allows us to leverage existing survey, lattice, and magnet infrastructure, as well as easily incorporate new model engine developments. This paper describes the architecture of the RHIC/AGS modeling environment, including the application interface through CDEV and general tools for graphical interaction with the model using Tcl/Tk. Separate papers at this conference address the specifics of implementation and modeling experience for AGS and RHIC

  14. 3D Reservoir Modeling of Semutang Gas Field: A lonely Gas field in Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt, with Integrated Well Log, 2D Seismic Reflectivity and Attributes. (United States)

    Salehin, Z.; Woobaidullah, A. S. M.; Snigdha, S. S.


    Bengal Basin with its prolific gas rich province provides needed energy to Bangladesh. Present energy situation demands more Hydrocarbon explorations. Only 'Semutang' is discovered in the high amplitude structures, where rest of are in the gentle to moderate structures of western part of Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt. But it has some major thrust faults which have strongly breached the reservoir zone. The major objectives of this research are interpretation of gas horizons and faults, then to perform velocity model, structural and property modeling to obtain reservoir properties. It is needed to properly identify the faults and reservoir heterogeneities. 3D modeling is widely used to reveal the subsurface structure in faulted zone where planning and development drilling is major challenge. Thirteen 2D seismic and six well logs have been used to identify six gas bearing horizons and a network of faults and to map the structure at reservoir level. Variance attributes were used to identify faults. Velocity model is performed for domain conversion. Synthetics were prepared from two wells where sonic and density logs are available. Well to seismic tie at reservoir zone shows good match with Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator on seismic section. Vsh, porosity, water saturation and permeability have been calculated and various cross plots among porosity logs have been shown. Structural modeling is used to make zone and layering accordance with minimum sand thickness. Fault model shows the possible fault network, those liable for several dry wells. Facies model have been constrained with Sequential Indicator Simulation method to show the facies distribution along the depth surfaces. Petrophysical models have been prepared with Sequential Gaussian Simulation to estimate petrophysical parameters away from the existing wells to other parts of the field and to observe heterogeneities in reservoir. Average porosity map for each gas zone were constructed. The outcomes of the research

  15. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.


    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  16. A Propagation Environment Modeling in Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samn SherwoodW


    Full Text Available Foliage clutter, which can be very large and mask targets in backscattered signals, is a crucial factor that degrades the performance of target detection, tracking, and recognition. Previous literature has intensively investigated land clutter and sea clutter, whereas foliage clutter is still an open-research area. In this paper, we propose that foliage clutter should be more accurately described by a log-logistic model. On a basis of pragmatic data collected by ultra-wideband (UWB radars, we analyze two different datasets by means of maximum likelihood (ML parameter estimation as well as the root mean square error (RMSE performance. We not only investigate log-logistic model, but also compare it with other popular clutter models, namely, log-normal, Weibull, and Nakagami. It shows that the log-logistic model achieves the smallest standard deviation (STD error in parameter estimation, as well as the best goodness-of-fit and smallest RMSE for both poor and good foliage clutter signals.

  17. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P


    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  18. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  19. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  20. Retail business model transformation in multichannel environment


    Chapagain, B. (Bimala)


    Abstract With the advent of internet and e-commerce, the way of carrying out business and transactions has changed to a great extent. Consumers are continuously changing the way they do shopping and this has forced retail business to transform their traditional brick and mortar into adopting multi-channel business models. Retailing is one of the most dynamic and competitive areas of business organization. Effective marketin...

  1. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  2. A simple model to quantitatively account for periodic outbreaks of the measles in the Dutch Bible Belt (United States)

    Bier, Martin; Brak, Bastiaan


    In the Netherlands there has been nationwide vaccination against the measles since 1976. However, in small clustered communities of orthodox Protestants there is widespread refusal of the vaccine. After 1976, three large outbreaks with about 3000 reported cases of the measles have occurred among these orthodox Protestants. The outbreaks appear to occur about every twelve years. We show how a simple Kermack-McKendrick-like model can quantitatively account for the periodic outbreaks. Approximate analytic formulae to connect the period, size, and outbreak duration are derived. With an enhanced model we take the latency period in account. We also expand the model to follow how different age groups are affected. Like other researchers using other methods, we conclude that large scale underreporting of the disease must occur.

  3. A Stochastic Model of Plausibility in Live Virtual Constructive Environments (United States)


    from the model parameters that are inputs to the computer model ( mathematical model) but whose exact values are unknown to experimentalists and...Environments Jeremy R. Millar Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Computer Sciences Commons This Dissertation...25 3.3 Computing Plausibility Exceedance Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 IV

  4. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi...

  5. Multiscale Computing with the Multiscale Modeling Library and Runtime Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, J.; Mamonski, M.; Bosak, B.; Groen, D.; Ben Belgacem, M.; Kurowski, K.; Hoekstra, A.G.


    We introduce a software tool to simulate multiscale models: the Multiscale Coupling Library and Environment 2 (MUSCLE 2). MUSCLE 2 is a component-based modeling tool inspired by the multiscale modeling and simulation framework, with an easy-to-use API which supports Java, C++, C, and Fortran. We

  6. Evaluation of Student's Environment by DEA Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moradi


    Full Text Available The important question here is, is there real evaluation in educational advance? In other words, if a student has been successful in mathematics or has been unsuccessful in mathematics, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or weakness? If we want to respond to this significant question, it should be said that factors of educational advance must be divided into 5 main groups. 1-family, 2-teacher, 3- students 4-school and 5-manager of 3 schools It can then be said that a student's score does not just depend on a factor that people have imaged From this, it can be concluded that by using the DEA and SBM models, each student's efficiency must be researched and the factors of the student's strengths and weaknesses must be analyzed.

  7. Trust Model to Enhance Security and Interoperability of Cloud Environment (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Ping, Lingdi

    Trust is one of the most important means to improve security and enable interoperability of current heterogeneous independent cloud platforms. This paper first analyzed several trust models used in large and distributed environment and then introduced a novel cloud trust model to solve security issues in cross-clouds environment in which cloud customer can choose different providers' services and resources in heterogeneous domains can cooperate. The model is domain-based. It divides one cloud provider's resource nodes into the same domain and sets trust agent. It distinguishes two different roles cloud customer and cloud server and designs different strategies for them. In our model, trust recommendation is treated as one type of cloud services just like computation or storage. The model achieves both identity authentication and behavior authentication. The results of emulation experiments show that the proposed model can efficiently and safely construct trust relationship in cross-clouds environment.

  8. Models for genotype by environment interaction estimation on halomorphic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag


    Full Text Available In genotype by environment interaction estimation, as well as, in total trial variability anal­ysis several models are in use. The most often used are Analysis of variance, Eberhart and Russell model and AMMI model. Each of the models has its own specificities, in the way of sources of varia­tion comprehension and treatment. It is known that agriculturally less productive environments increase errors, dimmish reaction differences between genotypes and decrease repeatability of conditions during years. A sample consisting on six bread wheat varieties was studied in three veg­etation periods on halomorphic soil, solonetz type in Banat (vil. Kumane. Genotype by environ­ment interaction was quantified using ANOVA, Eberhart and Russell model and AMMI model. The results were compared not only on pure solonetz soil (control, but also on two level of ameliora­tion (25 and 50t/ha phosphor-gypsum.

  9. Modelling human behaviours and reactions under dangerous environment


    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y


    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions...

  10. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review]. (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  11. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales. (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.


    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  12. Stability of model membranes in extreme environments. (United States)

    Namani, Trishool; Deamer, David W


    The first forms of cellular life required a source of amphiphilic compounds capable of assembling into stable boundary structures. Membranes composed of fatty acids have been proposed as model systems of primitive membranes, but their bilayer structure is stable only within a narrow pH range and low ionic strength. They are particularly sensitive to aggregating effects of divalent cations (Mg+2, Ca+2, Fe+2) that would be present in Archaean sea water. Here we report that mixtures of alkyl amines and fatty acids form vesicles at strongly basic and acidic pH ranges which are resistant to the effects of divalent cations up to 0.1 M. Vesicles formed by mixtures of decylamine and decanoic acid (1:1 mole ratio) are relatively permeable to pyranine, a fluorescent anionic dye, but permeability could be reduced by adding 2 mol% of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon such as pyrene. Permeability to the dye was also reduced by increasing the chain length of the amphiphiles. For instance, 1:1 mole ratio mixtures of dodecylamine and dodecanoic acid were able to retain pyranine dye during and following gel filtration. We conclude that primitive cell membranes were likely to be composed of mixtures of amphiphilic and hydrophobic molecules that manifested increased stability over pure fatty acid membranes.

  13. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  14. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.


    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  15. Animal models of gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ayhan, Yavuz; Sawa, Akira; Ross, Christopher A; Pletnikov, Mikhail V


    The pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related mental illnesses likely involves multiple interactions between susceptibility genes of small effects and environmental factors. Gene-environment interactions occur across different stages of neurodevelopment to produce heterogeneous clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. The main obstacle for mechanistic studies of gene-environment interplay has been the paucity of appropriate experimental systems for elucidating the molecular pathways that mediate gene-environment interactions relevant to schizophrenia. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics and a plethora of experimental data from animal studies allow us to suggest a new approach to gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We propose that animal models based on identified genetic mutations and measurable environment factors will help advance studies of the molecular mechanisms of gene-environment interplay.

  16. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.


    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  17. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.


    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  18. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  19. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao


    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  20. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  1. The mathematics of models for climatology and environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildefonso Diaz, J. [ed.] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencas Matematicas


    This book presents a coherent survey of modelling in climatology and the environment and the mathematical treatment of those problems. It is divided into 4 parts containing a total of 16 chapters. Parts I, II and III are devoted to general models and part IV to models related to some local problems. Most of the mathematical models considered here involve systems of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  2. Variations in the width of the Indo-Pacific tropical rain belt over the last millennium: synthesis of stalagmite proxy records and climate model simulations (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline; Denniston, Rhawn


    The seasonal north-south migration of the intertropical convergence zone defines the tropical rain belt (TRB), a region of enormous terrestrial biodiversity and home to 40% of the world's population. The TRB is dynamic and has been shown to shift south as a coherent system during periods of Northern Hemisphere cooling. However, recent studies of Indo-Pacific hydroclimate suggest that during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850), the TRB in this region contracted rather than being displaced uniformly southward. This behaviour is not well understood, particularly during climatic fluctuations less pronounced than those of the Little Ice Age, the largest centennial-scale cool period of the last millennium. Using state-of-the-art climate model simulations conducted as part of the Last Millennium Ensemble with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we evaluate variations in the width of the Indo-Pacific TRB, as well as movements in the position of its northward and southward edges, across a range of timescales over the pre-Industrial portion of the last millennium (AD 850-1850). The climate model results complement a recent reconstruction of late Holocene variability of the Indo-Pacific TRB, based on a precisely-dated, monsoon-sensitive stalagmite reconstruction from northern Australia (cave KNI-51), located at the southern edge of the TRB and thus highly sensitive to variations at its southern edge. Integrating KNI-51 with a record from Dongge Cave in southern China allows a stalagmite-based TRB reconstruction. Our results reveal that rather than shifting meridionally, the Indo-Pacific TRB expanded and contracted over multidecadal/centennial time scales during the late Holocene, with symmetric weakening/strengthening of summer monsoons in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Indo-Pacific (the East Asian summer monsoon in China and the Australian summer monsoon in northern Australia). Links to large-scale climatic conditions across the Indo-Pacific region

  3. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment. (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S


    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu


    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  5. Random regression models for detection of gene by environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Theo HE


    Full Text Available Abstract Two random regression models, where the effect of a putative QTL was regressed on an environmental gradient, are described. The first model estimates the correlation between intercept and slope of the random regression, while the other model restricts this correlation to 1 or -1, which is expected under a bi-allelic QTL model. The random regression models were compared to a model assuming no gene by environment interactions. The comparison was done with regards to the models ability to detect QTL, to position them accurately and to detect possible QTL by environment interactions. A simulation study based on a granddaughter design was conducted, and QTL were assumed, either by assigning an effect independent of the environment or as a linear function of a simulated environmental gradient. It was concluded that the random regression models were suitable for detection of QTL effects, in the presence and absence of interactions with environmental gradients. Fixing the correlation between intercept and slope of the random regression had a positive effect on power when the QTL effects re-ranked between environments.

  6. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hudson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gokhale, N. [Madge Networks, San Jose, CA (United States)


    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  7. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.


    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  8. Hypercompetitive Environments: An Agent-based model approach (United States)

    Dias, Manuel; Araújo, Tanya

    Information technology (IT) environments are characterized by complex changes and rapid evolution. Globalization and the spread of technological innovation have increased the need for new strategic information resources, both from individual firms and management environments. Improvements in multidisciplinary methods and, particularly, the availability of powerful computational tools, are giving researchers an increasing opportunity to investigate management environments in their true complex nature. The adoption of a complex systems approach allows for modeling business strategies from a bottom-up perspective — understood as resulting from repeated and local interaction of economic agents — without disregarding the consequences of the business strategies themselves to individual behavior of enterprises, emergence of interaction patterns between firms and management environments. Agent-based models are at the leading approach of this attempt.

  9. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  10. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era (United States)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA ( magnetometer array, as well as from

  11. A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulent environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Mason


    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with

  12. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment. (United States)

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y


    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  15. [Analytic methods for seed models with genotype x environment interactions]. (United States)

    Zhu, J


    Genetic models with genotype effect (G) and genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) are proposed for analyzing generation means of seed quantitative traits in crops. The total genetic effect (G) is partitioned into seed direct genetic effect (G0), cytoplasm genetic of effect (C), and maternal plant genetic effect (Gm). Seed direct genetic effect (G0) can be further partitioned into direct additive (A) and direct dominance (D) genetic components. Maternal genetic effect (Gm) can also be partitioned into maternal additive (Am) and maternal dominance (Dm) genetic components. The total genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) can also be partitioned into direct genetic by environment interaction effect (G0E), cytoplasm genetic by environment interaction effect (CE), and maternal genetic by environment interaction effect (GmE). G0E can be partitioned into direct additive by environment interaction (AE) and direct dominance by environment interaction (DE) genetic components. GmE can also be partitioned into maternal additive by environment interaction (AmE) and maternal dominance by environment interaction (DmE) genetic components. Partitions of genetic components are listed for parent, F1, F2 and backcrosses. A set of parents, their reciprocal F1 and F2 seeds is applicable for efficient analysis of seed quantitative traits. MINQUE(0/1) method can be used for estimating variance and covariance components. Unbiased estimation for covariance components between two traits can also be obtained by the MINQUE(0/1) method. Random genetic effects in seed models are predictable by the Adjusted Unbiased Prediction (AUP) approach with MINQUE(0/1) method. The jackknife procedure is suggested for estimation of sampling variances of estimated variance and covariance components and of predicted genetic effects, which can be further used in a t-test for parameter. Unbiasedness and efficiency for estimating variance components and predicting genetic effects are tested by

  16. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner


    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  17. Large urban fire environment: trends and model city predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.A.; Small, R.D.


    The urban fire environment that would result from a megaton-yield nuclear weapon burst is considered. The dependence of temperatures and velocities on fire size, burning intensity, turbulence, and radiation is explored, and specific calculations for three model urban areas are presented. In all cases, high velocity fire winds are predicted. The model-city results show the influence of building density and urban sprawl on the fire environment. Additional calculations consider large-area fires with the burning intensity reduced in a blast-damaged urban center

  18. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.


    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  19. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.


    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  20. Roll-front uranium occurrences of the South Texas Mineral Belt: Development of a database for mineral potential modelling and quantitative resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalasky, M.


    The South Texas Mineral Belt in the United States is a broad curvilinear region of marginal-marine roll-front sandstone uranium occurrences. Located ~130 km inland, the belt parallels the Gulf of Mexico coastline and extends from southeast Texas to Mexico. It trends northeast-southwest and is about 400 km long and 10-50 km wide as delineated by alignments and clusters of occurrences, but ~100 km wide if outlying occurrences are included. The occurrences are hosted in coastal plain sediments and rocks of Tertiary age that dip gently towards the Gulf. These include the Lower Eocene Wilcox Group, Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, Upper Eocene Jackson Group, Upper Oligocene–Miocene Catahoula Tuff, Lower Miocene Oakville Sandstone, and Pliocene Goliad Sand. Older sequences are mixed fluvial-beach facies, whereas younger are dominantly fluvial. Occurrence distribution is controlled by host unit strike and dip, and permeable sequences therein, and by a combination of growth faults and locations of reductants.

  1. A Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene Fluvial Succession, Pishin Belt, Northwest Pakistan: Effect of Post Collisional Tectonics on Sedimentation in a Peripheral Foreland Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad


    . During the Early Miocene, subaerial sedimentation started after the final closure of the Katawaz Remnant Ocean. Based on detailed field data, twelve facies were recognized in Neogene successions exposed in the Pishin Belt. These facies were further organized into four facies associations i.e. channels......‐story sandstone and/or conglomerate channels, lateral accretion surfaces (point bars) and alluvial fans. Neogene sedimentation in the Pishin Belt was mainly controlled by active tectonism and thrusting in response to the oblique collision of the Indian Plate with the Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate along......, crevasse splay, natural levee and floodplain facies associations. Facies associations and variations provided ample evidence to recognize a number of fluvial architectural components in the succession e.g., low‐sinuosity sandy braided river, mixed‐load meandering, high‐sinuosity meandering channels, single...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  3. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G. D.; Cunningham, G. S.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Turner, D. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.


    Roč. 43, č. 11 (2016), s. 5616-5625 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : radiation belts * slot region * electron losses * wave particle interactions * hiss wave s * electron lifetimes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016

  4. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda


    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  5. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior. (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen


    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  6. Development of estimation method for crop yield using MODIS satellite imagery data and process-based model for corn and soybean in US Corn-Belt region (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Ko, J.; Hong, S.


    Crop productivity is associated with the food security and hence, several models have been developed to estimate crop yield by combining remote sensing data with carbon cycle processes. In present study, we attempted to estimate crop GPP and NPP using algorithm based on the LUE model and a simplified respiration model. The state of Iowa and Illinois was chosen as the study site for estimating the crop yield for a period covering the 5 years (2006-2010), as it is the main Corn-Belt area in US. Present study focuses on developing crop-specific parameters for corn and soybean to estimate crop productivity and yield mapping using satellite remote sensing data. We utilized a 10 km spatial resolution daily meteorological data from WRF to provide cloudy-day meteorological variables but in clear-say days, MODIS-based meteorological data were utilized to estimate daily GPP, NPP, and biomass. County-level statistics on yield, area harvested, and productions were used to test model predicted crop yield. The estimated input meteorological variables from MODIS and WRF showed with good agreements with the ground observations from 6 Ameriflux tower sites in 2006. For examples, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 for Tmin and Tavg ; from 0.68 to 0.85 for daytime mean VPD; from 0.85 to 0.96 for daily shortwave radiation, respectively. We developed county-specific crop conversion coefficient, i.e. ratio of yield to biomass on 260 DOY and then, validated the estimated county-level crop yield with the statistical yield data. The estimated corn and soybean yields at the county level ranged from 671 gm-2 y-1 to 1393 gm-2 y-1 and from 213 gm-2 y-1 to 421 gm-2 y-1, respectively. The county-specific yield estimation mostly showed errors less than 10%. Furthermore, we estimated crop yields at the state level which were validated against the statistics data and showed errors less than 1%. Further analysis for crop conversion coefficient was conducted for 200 DOY and 280 DOY

  7. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi......-dimensional schemes that are customized to serve specific information needs. EVER is based on an event concept that is very well suited for multi-dimensional modeling because measurement data often represent events in multi-dimensional databases...

  8. Mobile belt conveyor


    Tenora, Jiří


    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  9. A Virtual Environment for Resilient Infrastructure Modeling and Design (United States)


    Security CI Critical Infrastructure CID Center for Infrastructure Defense CSV Comma Separated Value DAD Defender-Attacker-Defender DHS Department...responses to disruptive events (e.g., cascading failure behavior) in a context- rich , controlled environment for exercises, education, and training...The general attacker-defender (AD) and defender-attacker-defender ( DAD ) models for CI are defined in Brown et al. (2006). These models help

  10. Models for integrated components coupled with their EM environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioan, D.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ciuprina, G.; Meijs, van der N.P.; Schoenmaker, W.


    Abstract: Purpose – The main aim of this study is the modelling of the interaction of on-chip components with their electromagnetic environment. Design/methodology/approach – The integrated circuit is decomposed in passive and active components interconnected by means of terminals and connectors

  11. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla


    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  12. Health, Supportive Environments, and the Reasonable Person Model (United States)

    Stephen Kaplan; Rachel Kaplan


    The Reasonable Person Model is a conceptual framework that links environmental factors with human behavior. People are more reasonable, cooperative, helpful, and satisfied when the environment supports their basic informational needs. The same environmental supports are important factors in enhancing human health. We use this framework to identify the informational...

  13. Environment Modeling Using Runtime Values for JPF-Android (United States)

    van der Merwe, Heila; Tkachuk, Oksana; Nel, Seal; van der Merwe, Brink; Visser, Willem


    Software applications are developed to be executed in a specific environment. This environment includes external native libraries to add functionality to the application and drivers to fire the application execution. For testing and verification, the environment of an application is simplified abstracted using models or stubs. Empty stubs, returning default values, are simple to generate automatically, but they do not perform well when the application expects specific return values. Symbolic execution is used to find input parameters for drivers and return values for library stubs, but it struggles to detect the values of complex objects. In this work-in-progress paper, we explore an approach to generate drivers and stubs based on values collected during runtime instead of using default values. Entry-points and methods that need to be modeled are instrumented to log their parameters and return values. The instrumented applications are then executed using a driver and instrumented libraries. The values collected during runtime are used to generate driver and stub values on- the-fly that improve coverage during verification by enabling the execution of code that previously crashed or was missed. We are implementing this approach to improve the environment model of JPF-Android, our model checking and analysis tool for Android applications.

  14. HexSim: a modeling environment for ecology and conservation. (United States)

    HexSim is a powerful and flexible new spatially-explicit, individual based modeling environment intended for use in ecology, conservation, genetics, epidemiology, toxicology, and other disciplines. We describe HexSim, illustrate past applications that contributed to our >10 year ...

  15. Environment modeling using runtime values for JPF-Android

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, H


    Full Text Available , the environment of an application is simplified/abstracted using models or stubs. Empty stubs, returning default values, are simple to generate automatically, but they do not perform well when the application expects specific return values. Symbolic execution...

  16. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris


    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  17. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments. (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose


    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  19. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use


    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C


    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  20. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles (United States)

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev


    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  1. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems (United States)

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)


    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  2. Modeling Users, Context and Devices for Ambient Assisted Living Environments (United States)

    Castillejo, Eduardo; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming


    The participation of users within AAL environments is increasing thanks to the capabilities of the current wearable devices. Furthermore, the significance of considering user's preferences, context conditions and device's capabilities help smart environments to personalize services and resources for them. Being aware of different characteristics of the entities participating in these situations is vital for reaching the main goals of the corresponding systems efficiently. To collect different information from these entities, it is necessary to design several formal models which help designers to organize and give some meaning to the gathered data. In this paper, we analyze several literature solutions for modeling users, context and devices considering different approaches in the Ambient Assisted Living domain. Besides, we remark different ongoing standardization works in this area. We also discuss the used techniques, modeled characteristics and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach to finally draw several conclusions about the reviewed works. PMID:24643006

  3. Strengthening the weak link: Built Environment modelling for loss analysis (United States)

    Millinship, I.


    Methods to analyse insured losses from a range of natural perils, including pricing by primary insurers and catastrophe modelling by reinsurers, typically lack sufficient exposure information. Understanding the hazard intensity in terms of spatial severity and frequency is only the first step towards quantifying the risk of a catastrophic event. For any given event we need to know: Are any structures affected? What type of buildings are they? How much damaged occurred? How much will the repairs cost? To achieve this, detailed exposure information is required to assess the likely damage and to effectively calculate the resultant loss. Modelling exposures in the Built Environment therefore plays as important a role in understanding re/insurance risk as characterising the physical hazard. Across both primary insurance books and aggregated reinsurance portfolios, the location of a property (a risk) and its monetary value is typically known. Exactly what that risk is in terms of detailed property descriptors including structure type and rebuild cost - and therefore its vulnerability to loss - is often omitted. This data deficiency is a primary source of variations between modelled losses and the actual claims value. Built Environment models are therefore required at a high resolution to describe building attributes that relate vulnerability to property damage. However, national-scale household-level datasets are often not computationally practical in catastrophe models and data must be aggregated. In order to provide more accurate risk analysis, we have developed and applied a methodology for Built Environment modelling for incorporation into a range of re/insurance applications, including operational models for different international regions and different perils and covering residential, commercial and industry exposures. Illustrated examples are presented, including exposure modelling suitable for aggregated reinsurance analysis for the UK and bespoke high resolution

  4. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.


    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  5. Saint: a lightweight integration environment for model annotation. (United States)

    Lister, Allyson L; Pocock, Matthew; Taschuk, Morgan; Wipat, Anil


    Saint is a web application which provides a lightweight annotation integration environment for quantitative biological models. The system enables modellers to rapidly mark up models with biological information derived from a range of data sources. Saint is freely available for use on the web at The web application is implemented in Google Web Toolkit and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. The Java source code is freely available for download at The Saint web server requires an installation of libSBML and has been tested on Linux (32-bit Ubuntu 8.10 and 9.04).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADDEO Alessandro


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show the use and the versatility of the active models in different applications. It has been realized an active model of a cylindrical spring and it has been applied in two mechanisms, different for typology and for backlash loads. The first example is a dynamometer in which nthe cylindrical spring is loaded by traction forces, while the second example is made up from a pressure valve in which the cylindrical-conic spring works under compression. The imposition of the loads in both cases, has allowed us to evaluate the model of the mechanism in different working conditions, also in assembly environment.

  7. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara


    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  8. Modeling Gene-Environment Interactions With Quasi-Natural Experiments. (United States)

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton


    This overview develops new empirical models that can effectively document Gene × Environment (G×E) interactions in observational data. Current G×E studies are often unable to support causal inference because they use endogenous measures of the environment or fail to adequately address the nonrandom distribution of genes across environments, confounding estimates. Comprehensive measures of genetic variation are incorporated into quasi-natural experimental designs to exploit exogenous environmental shocks or isolate variation in environmental exposure to avoid potential confounders. In addition, we offer insights from population genetics that improve upon extant approaches to address problems from population stratification. Together, these tools offer a powerful way forward for G×E research on the origin and development of social inequality across the life course. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron


    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  10. A Computerized Tomography Study of Vocal Tract Setting in Hyperfunctional Dysphonia and in Belting. (United States)

    Saldias, Marcelo; Guzman, Marco; Miranda, Gonzalo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria


    Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds. However, singers and teachers of belting do not regard belting as particularly strenuous. This study investigates possible similarities and differences between hyperfunctional voice production and belting. This study concerns vocal tract setting. Four male patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia and one male contemporary commercial music singer were registered with computerized tomography while phonating on [a:] in their habitual speaking pitch. Additionally, the singer used the pitch G4 in belting. The scannings were studied in sagittal and transversal dimensions by measuring lengths, widths, and areas. Various similarities were found between belting and hyperfunction: high vertical larynx position, small hypopharyngeal width, and epilaryngeal outlet. On the other hand, belting differed from dysphonia (in addition to higher pitch) by a wider lip and jaw opening, and larger volumes of the oral cavity. Belting takes advantage of "megaphone shape" of the vocal tract. Future studies should focus on modeling and simulation to address sound energy transfer. Also, they should consider aerodynamic variables and vocal fold vibration to evaluate the "price of decibels" in these phonation types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Sheng, W.; Li-Juan, L.; Qin-Fen, Y.


    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  12. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data (United States)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.


    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  13. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon


    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  14. Educational complex of light-colored modeling of urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Vladimir E.


    Full Text Available Mechanisms, methodological tools and structure of a training complex of light-colored modeling of the urban environment are developed in this paper. The following results of the practical work of students are presented: light composition and installation, media facades, lighting of building facades, city streets and embankment. As a result of modeling, the structure of the light form is determined. Light-transmitting materials and causing characteristic optical illusions, light-visual and light-dynamic effects (video-dynamics and photostatics, basic compositional techniques of light form are revealed. The main elements of the light installation are studied, including a light projection, an electronic device, interactivity and relationality of the installation, and the mechanical device which becomes a part of the installation composition. The meaning of modern media facade technology is the transformation of external building structures and their facades into a changing information cover, into a media content translator using LED technology. Light tectonics and the light rhythm of the plastics of the architectural object are built up through point and local illumination, modeling of the urban ensemble assumes the structural interaction of several light building models with special light-composition techniques. When modeling the social and pedestrian environment, the lighting parameters depend on the scale of the chosen space and are adapted taking into account the visual perception of the pedestrian, and the atmospheric effects of comfort and safety of the environment are achieved with the help of special light compositional techniques. With the aim of realizing the tasks of light modeling, a methodology has been created, including the mechanisms of models, variability and complementarity. The perspectives of light modeling in the context of structural elements of the city, neuropsychology, wireless and bioluminescence technologies are proposed

  15. A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee


    A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment, METRO-K has been developed. Characteristics of the model are as follows ; 1) mathematical structures are simple (i.e. simplified input parameters) and easy to understand due to get the results by analytical methods using experimental and empirical data, 2) complex urban environment can easily be made up using only 5 types of basic surfaces, 3) various remediation measures can be applied to different surfaces by evaluating the exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface. Exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface at a particular location of a receptor were evaluated using the data library of kerma values as a function of gamma energy and contamination surface. A kerma data library was prepared for 7 representative types of Korean urban building by extending those data given for 4 representative types of European urban buildings. Initial input data are daily radionuclide concentration in air and precipitation, and fraction of chemical type. Final outputs are absorbed dose rate in air contributing from the basic surfaces as a function of time following a radionuclide deposition, and exposure dose rate contributing from various surfaces constituting the urban environment at a particular location of a receptor. As the result of a contaminative scenario for an apartment built-up area, exposure dose rates show a distinct difference for surrounding environment as well as locations of a receptor


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  17. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.


    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  18. Modeling of the Martian environment for radiation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Qualls, G.D.; Singleterry, R.C.


    A model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) has been developed. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for conditions at Mars are transported through the Martian atmosphere down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account. The altitude to compute the atmospheric thickness profile has been determined by using a model for the topography based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The Mars surface composition has been modeled based on averages over the measurements obtained from orbiting spacecraft and at various landing sites, taking into account the possible volatile inventory (e.g. CO 2 and H 2 O ices) along with its time variations throughout the Martian year. The Mars Radiation Environment Model has been made available worldwide through the Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools (SIREST) website, a project of NASA Langley Research Center. This site has been developed to provide the scientific and engineering communities with an interactive site containing a variety of environmental models, shield evaluation codes, and radiation response models to allow a thorough assessment of ionizing radiation risk for current and future space missions

  19. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes


    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  20. LINDOZ model for Finland environment: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Apostoaie, A.I.; Mocanu, N.; Paunescu, N.


    LINDOZ model was developed as a realistic assessment tool for radioactive contamination of the environment. It was designed to produce estimates for the concentration of the pollutant in different compartments of the terrestrial ecosystem (soil, vegetation, animal tissue, and animal products), and to evaluate human exposure to the contaminant (concentration in whole human body, and dose to humans) from inhalation, ingestion and external irradiation. The user can apply LINDOZ for both routine and accidental type of releases. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results From the PROGRESS Project. (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Arber, T. D.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Walker, S. N.


    Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results from the PROGRESS Project. The overall goal of the PROGRESS project, funded in frame of EU Horizon2020 programme, is to combine first principles based models with the systems science methodologies to achieve reliable forecasts of the geo-space particle radiation environment.The PROGRESS incorporates three themes : The propagation of the solar wind to L1, Forecast of geomagnetic indices, and forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons within the magnetosphere. One of the important aspects of the PROGRESS project is the development of statistical wave models for magnetospheric waves that affect the dynamics of energetic electrons such as lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise. The error reduction ratio (ERR) concept has been used to optimise the set of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters for organisation of statistical wave models for these emissions. The resulting sets of parameters and statistical wave models will be presented and discussed. However the ERR analysis also indicates that the combination of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters accounts for only part of the variance of the emissions under investigation (lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise). In addition, advances in the forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons, exploiting empirical models and the first principles IMPTAM model achieved by the PROGRESS project is presented.

  2. Modeling the cometary environment using a fluid approach (United States)

    Shou, Yinsi

    Comets are believed to have preserved the building material of the early solar system and to hold clues to the origin of life on Earth. Abundant remote observations of comets by telescopes and the in-situ measurements by a handful of space missions reveal that the cometary environments are complicated by various physical and chemical processes among the neutral gases and dust grains released from comets, cometary ions, and the solar wind in the interplanetary space. Therefore, physics-based numerical models are in demand to interpret the observational data and to deepen our understanding of the cometary environment. In this thesis, three models using a fluid approach, which include important physical and chemical processes underlying the cometary environment, have been developed to study the plasma, neutral gas, and the dust grains, respectively. Although models based on the fluid approach have limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low gas density environment, they are computationally much more efficient than alternatives. In the simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at various heliocentric distances with a wide range of production rates, our multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model and multi-fluid cometary dust model have achieved comparable results to the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid in all collisional regimes. Therefore, our model is a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. Capable of accounting for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions in a self-consistent way, the multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model is a good tool to study the dynamics of the cometary coma with different production rates and heliocentric distances. The modeled H2O expansion speeds reproduce the general trend and the speed's nonlinear dependencies of production rate

  3. GENI: A graphical environment for model-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, S.; Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.


    A new method to operate machine and beam simulation programs for accelerator control has been developed. Existing methods, although cumbersome, have been used in control systems for commissioning and operation of many machines. We developed GENI, a generalized graphical interface to these programs for model-based control. This ''object-oriented''-like environment is described and some typical applications are presented. 4 refs., 5 figs

  4. ''POSEIDON'': one radioactive matter dispersion model in maritime environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffestin, D.; Lepicard, S.


    The radio element filiation effect respect, during a spoil in maritime environment was necessary to implement the mathematical integration technologies aiming to optimize the speed calculation and memory. These choices allowed to treat the filiation on several descent levels with compartmental more exact models. Recent data on the fishing product sources and their destinations allow now to sharpen the results by radiological shock decomposition on the European Community countries. 2 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs., 4 Appendixes

  5. Modelling in waters geochemistry. Concepts and applications in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windt, L. de; Lee, J.V.D.; Schmitt, J.M.


    The aim of this work is to give the main point of the physico-chemical concepts and of the mathematical laws on which are based the geochemical modelling of waters, while presenting concrete and typical applications examples to the problems of environment and of water resources management. In a table (Doc. AF 6530) are gathered the distribution sources of softwares and of thermodynamic data banks. (O.M.)

  6. Model Based Verification of Cyber Range Event Environments (United States)


    that may include users, applications, operating systems, servers, hosts, routers, switches, control planes , and instrumentation planes , many of...which lack models for their configuration. Our main contributions in this paper are the following. First, we have developed a configuration ontology...configuration errors in environment designs for several cyber range events. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of

  7. Modelling of the Flow of Streams of Cohesionless and Cohesive Bulk Materials in a Conveyor Discharge Point with a Flat Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Cyganiuk, J. A.; Kuryło, P.


    The paper presents the analysis of flow conditions of cohesive and cohesionless bulk materials in a conveyor discharge point of a flat conveyor belt. The analysis was carried out for stationary flows at high velocities. It presents mathematical methods for the description of the velocity of a material leaving a throwing point of a flat conveyor belt as well as final equations which enable the determination of velocity of the material after it has left the throwing point (with the accuracy sufficient for practical use). Next, the velocity calculated for the proposed mathematical description (for selected material groups) has been compared with the velocity obtained from mathematical relations commonly used by engineers. The proposed equations for determining the velocity of the material beyond the point have proved useful, since they enable excluding the indirect equations. Finally, the difference between the values of the velocity obtained with the proposed and indirect equations have been determined and the relative error for the proposed method has been calculated.

  8. A model for hypermedia learning environments based on electronic books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Aedo


    Full Text Available Current hypermedia learning environments do not have a common development basis. Their designers have often used ad-hoc solutions to solve the learning problems they have encountered. However, hypermedia technology can take advantage of employing a theoretical scheme - a model - which takes into account various kinds of learning activities, and solves some of the problems associated with its use in the learning process. The model can provide designers with the tools for creating a hypermedia learning system, by allowing the elements and functions involved in the definition of a specific application to be formally represented.

  9. A model for dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coke, L. R.; Sanchez, J. G.; Policastro, A. J.


    Although subway ventilation has been studied extensively, very little has been published on dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment. This paper presents a model that predicts dispersion of contaminants in a complex subway system. It accounts for the combined transient effects of train motion, station airflows, train car air exchange rates, and source release properties. Results are presented for a range of typical subway scenarios. The effects of train piston action and train car air exchange are discussed. The model could also be applied to analyze the environmental impact of hazardous materials releases such as chemical and biological agents.

  10. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  11. Modelling the transport of radionuclides through the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Galvao, J.P.; Foulquier; Pieri, J.; Belli, M.; Vanderbourght, O.


    The main objectives of the project are to identify areas where the present generation of models are breaking down, and to improve the fundamental knowledge in these areas so that more easily transportable (generic) models can be developed. Preliminary studies on the importance of bacteria in the food chain have also been included. Several areas of model limitation have been identified and potential causes have been hypothesized. Steady progress is being made towards the verification of these hypotheses and the ultimate goal of a generic model of radionuclide transport in the aquatic environment. Objectives and results of the nine contributions of the project for the reporting period are discussed. (R.P.) 13 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnier, P.


    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b)

  13. Dynamic occupational risk model for offshore operations in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Guozheng; Khan, Faisal; Wang, Hangzhou; Leighton, Shelly; Yuan, Zhi; Liu, Hanwen


    The expansion of offshore oil exploitation into remote areas (e.g., Arctic) with harsh environments has significantly increased occupational risks. Among occupational accidents, slips, trips and falls from height (STFs) account for a significant portion. Thus, a dynamic risk assessment of the three main occupational accidents is meaningful to decrease offshore occupational risks. Bow-tie Models (BTs) were established in this study for the risk analysis of STFs considering extreme environmental factors. To relax the limitations of BTs, Bayesian networks (BNs) were developed based on BTs to dynamically assess risks of STFs. The occurrence and consequence probabilities of STFs were respectively calculated using BTs and BNs, and the obtained probabilities verified BNs' rationality and advantage. Furthermore, the probability adaptation for STFs was accomplished in a specific scenario with BNs. Finally, posterior probabilities of basic events were achieved through diagnostic analysis, and critical basic events were analyzed based on their posterior likelihood to cause occupational accidents. The highlight is systematically analyzing STF accidents for offshore operations and dynamically assessing their risks considering the harsh environmental factors. This study can guide the allocation of prevention resources and benefit the safety management of offshore operations. - Highlights: • A novel dynamic risk model for occupational accidents. • First time consideration of harsh environment in occupational accident modeling. • A Bayesian network based model for risk management strategies.

  14. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham


    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning

  15. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  16. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  17. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment. (United States)

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar


    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  18. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto


    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  19. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  20. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.


    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  1. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results ... Geological and geophysical layout map of the Gadwal schist belt area, Andhra Pradesh (after Ananda Murty and ... Observed gravity (Bouguer) values, regional, residual and inferred gravity models along traverse I of the Gadwal schist.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  3. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III


    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  4. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  5. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  7. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  8. Strategic management in urban environment using SWOT and QSPM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pazouki


    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development is a new concept of fundamental environmental metropolitan management that not only creates the demand for changing the concepts of economic development, but also affects social development. The current study  provides  a conceptual model of a sustainable environment pattern In District 22 of Tehran that depends on the relationship between environment and economy, and a network of urban function, which  Included transport infrastructure and community centers and economic and regional level in support of the ecological services in Tehran. This landscape often  had discrepancies  with the development of the city between the layers and the creation of ecological fragile areas. The main objective of the study was to determine the sustainability indicators and create a future development  model  for District 22 of Tehran. The data was collected by having a review of similar studies and field research on the subject and therefore the effective factors were identified. After accomplished proceedings, the questionnaire was prepared and the results were used in SWOT charts' grading after analyzing at interior and exterior matrix. Ultimately, quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM was performed based on the results and analysis. This process provided a comprehensive model for sustainable urban development as sustainable development urban landscape pattern.

  9. The provenance and Sm/Nd Model ages of siliciclastic supracrustal rocks of the Faina and Santa Rita Greenstone belts, Goias, Brazil; Proveniencia e idades modelo Sm/Nd das rochas siliciclasticas arqueanas dos greenstone belts de Faina e Santa Rita, Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Marcelo Goncalves [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Jost, Hardy [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Lima, Bruno Eustaquio Moreira; Teixeira, Alexandre de Amorim


    The Faina and Santa Rita greenstone belts are two N 60 deg C W trending synclinoria separated by a N 30 deg C E strike-slip fault and rest allochtonous on the adjacent Uva and Caicara granite-gneiss complexes. The belts are made up of lower metakomatiites, followed by metabasalts and thick metasedimentary sequences deposited under contrasting paleogeographic settings. In Faina, the sequence consists of two complete shelf cycles, the first resting on basalts by an erosional unconformity. In Santa Rita, the basalts give gradually place to carbonaceous metashales, unconformably overlain by metarhythmites. Provenance based on trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry of chloride and muscovite, source-are modeling and REE elements indicate that protoliths of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita formed under the influence of a source area dominated by mafic ultramafic rocks, whilst during the sedimentation of the second shelf cycle and the metarhythmites of Santa Rita the source-area was dominated by TTG granitoids. Sm-Nd model ages of the lower sedimentary packages vary between 3.0 and 2.8 Ga and the upper between 2.7 and 2.6 Ga. These intervals coincide, respectively, with the estimated age of the underlying, and with the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr e U-Pb ages of the main granitoids and gneisses of the adjacent complexes. The same data indicate that, during the sedimentation of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita, both basins had independent source-areas, but shared the same source during the upper sections. Weathering nature and intensity of the source-area calculated by means of geochemical a data suggest that the dramatic change of provenance from the lower to the upper sections is due to the shift from tectonically stable to unstable regimes, interpreted as resulting from the emergence of the island arc whose roots are represented by the adjacent granite-gneiss complexes. (author)

  10. Modelling study of sea breezes in a complex coastal environment (United States)

    Cai, X.-M.; Steyn, D. G.

    This study investigates a mesoscale modelling of sea breezes blowing from a narrow strait into the lower Fraser valley (LFV), British Columbia, Canada, during the period of 17-20 July, 1985. Without a nudging scheme in the inner grid, the CSU-RAMS model produces satisfactory wind and temperature fields during the daytime. In comparison with observation, the agreement indices for surface wind and temperature during daytime reach about 0.6 and 0.95, respectively, while the agreement indices drop to 0.4 at night. In the vertical, profiles of modelled wind and temperature generally agree with tethersonde data collected on 17 and 19 July. The study demonstrates that in late afternoon, the model does not capture the advection of an elevated warm layer which originated from land surfaces outside of the inner grid. Mixed layer depth (MLD) is calculated from model output of turbulent kinetic energy field. Comparison of MLD results with observation shows that the method generates a reliable MLD during the daytime, and that accurate estimates of MLD near the coast require the correct simulation of wind conditions over the sea. The study has shown that for a complex coast environment like the LFV, a reliable modelling study depends not only on local surface fluxes but also on elevated layers transported from remote land surfaces. This dependence is especially important when local forcings are weak, for example, during late afternoon and at night.

  11. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya


    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  12. Successful model of suicide prevention in the Ukraine military environment. (United States)

    Rozanov, Vsevolod A; Mokhovikov, Alexander N; Stiliha, Richard


    The article deals with the problem of suicidal behavior in the Ukraine military environment and gives an example of the successful prevention approach. The model of prevention is based on (1) education of the responsible officers, (2) training of the representatives of the most vulnerable risk groups, and (3) follow-up procedures based on distribution of pocket books for soldiers, educational booklets, and sets of helpful materials for officers. One of the main conclusions is that the prevention activity must be organized as a continuum of actions, seminars, consultations, and materials distribution.

  13. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D (United States)

    Overfelt, Tony


    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  14. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  15. Animal model for schizophrenia that reflects gene-environment interactions. (United States)

    Nagai, Taku; Ibi, Daisuke; Yamada, Kiyofumi


    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that impairs mental and social functioning and affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Genetic susceptibility factors for schizophrenia have recently been reported, some of which are known to play a role in neurodevelopment; these include neuregulin-1, dysbindin, and disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). Moreover, epidemiologic studies suggest that environmental insults, such as prenatal infection and perinatal complication, are involved in the development of schizophrenia. The possible interaction between environment and genetic susceptibility factors, especially during neurodevelopment, is proposed as a promising disease etiology of schizophrenia. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (polyI : C) is a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA that leads to the pronounced but time-limited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Maternal immune activation by polyI : C exposure in rodents is known to precipitate a wide spectrum of behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological abnormalities in adult offspring. Recently, we have reported that neonatal injection of polyI : C in mice results in schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations in adulthood. In this review, we show how gene-environment interactions during neurodevelopment result in phenotypic changes in adulthood by injecting polyI : C into transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative form of human DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Our findings suggest that polyI : C-treated DN-DISC1 mice are a well-validated animal model for schizophrenia that reflects gene-environment interactions.

  16. Application of Service Quality Model in Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ding Hooi


    Full Text Available Most of the ideas on service quality stem from the West. The massive developments in research in the West are undeniable of their importance. This leads to the generation and development of new ideas. These ideas were subsequently channeled to developing countries. Ideas obtained were then formulated and used by these developing countries in order to obtain better approach in channeling service quality. There are ample to be learnt from the service quality model, SERVQUAL which attain high acceptance in the West. Service quality in the education system is important to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of education. Effective and quality education will be able to offer quality graduates, which will contribute to the development of the nation. This paper will discuss the application of the SERVQUAL model into the education environment.

  17. Meta-model of EPortfolio Usage in Different Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Balaban


    Full Text Available EPortfolio offers a new philosophy of teaching and learning, giving the learner an opportunity to express oneself, to show one’s past work and experience to all the interested parties ranging from teachers to potential employers. However, an integral model for ePortfolio implementation in academic institutions that would take into account three different levels of stakeholders: 1. Individual (student and teacher; 2. Institution; and 3. Employer, currently does not exist. In this paper the role of ePortfolio in academic environment as well as the context in which ePortfolio operates is analyzed in detail. As a result of the comprehensive analysis that takes into account individual, academic institution and employer, a meta-model of ePortfolio usage in Lifelong Learning is proposed.

  18. Validation of a Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment Model (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    In a prior effort, a thermal/fluid model of the interior of Penn State University's laboratory-scale Insulation Test Motor (ITM) was constructed to predict both the convective and radiative heat transfer to the interior walls of the ITM with a minimum of empiricism. These predictions were then compared to values of total and radiative heat flux measured in a previous series of ITM test firings to assess the capabilities and shortcomings of the chosen modeling approach. Though the calculated fluxes reasonably agreed with those measured during testing, this exercise revealed means of improving the fidelity of the model to, in the case of the thermal radiation, enable direct comparison of the measured and calculated fluxes and, for the total heat flux, compute a value indicative of the average measured condition. By replacing the P1-Approximation with the discrete ordinates (DO) model for the solution of the gray radiative transfer equation, the radiation intensity field in the optically thin region near the radiometer is accurately estimated, allowing the thermal radiation flux to be calculated on the heat-flux sensor itself, which was then compared directly to the measured values. Though the fully coupling the wall thermal response with the flow model was not attempted due to the excessive computational time required, a separate wall thermal response model was used to better estimate the average temperature of the graphite surfaces upstream of the heat flux gauges and improve the accuracy of both the total and radiative heat flux computations. The success of this modeling approach increases confidence in the ability of state-of-the-art thermal and fluid modeling to accurately predict SRM internal environments, offers corrections to older methods, and supplies a tool for further studies of the dynamics of SRM interiors.

  19. Mathematical modeling in economics, ecology and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hritonenko, Natali


    Updated to textbook form by popular demand, this second edition discusses diverse mathematical models used in economics, ecology, and the environmental sciences with emphasis on control and optimization. It is intended for graduate and upper-undergraduate course use, however, applied mathematicians, industry practitioners, and a vast number of interdisciplinary academics will find the presentation highly useful. Core topics of this text are: ·         Economic growth and technological development ·         Population dynamics and human impact on the environment ·         Resource extraction and scarcity ·         Air and water contamination ·         Rational management of the economy and environment ·         Climate change and global dynamics The step-by-step approach taken is problem-based and easy to follow. The authors aptly demonstrate that the same models may be used to describe different economic and environmental processes and that similar invest...

  20. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.


    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  1. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.


    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  2. Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.


    The effects of forest canopies on snow accumulation and ablation processes can be very important for the hydrology of midlatitude and high-latitude areas. A mass and energy balance model for snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments was developed utilizing extensive measurements of snow interception and release in a maritime mountainous site in Oregon. The model was evaluated using 2 years of weighing lysimeter data and was able to reproduce the snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution throughout winters both beneath the canopy and in the nearby clearing, with correlations to observations ranging from 0.81 to 0.99. Additionally, the model was evaluated using measurements from a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) field site in Canada to test the robustness of the canopy snow interception algorithm in a much different climate. Simulated SWE was relatively close to the observations for the forested sites, with discrepancies evident in some cases. Although the model formulation appeared robust for both types of climates, sensitivity to parameters such as snow roughness length and maximum interception capacity suggested the magnitude of improvements of SWE simulations that might be achieved by calibration.

  3. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Marnier


    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b).

  4. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms. (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn


    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  5. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.


    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  6. The Parental Environment Cluster Model of Child Neglect: An Integrative Conceptual Model. (United States)

    Burke, Judith; Chandy, Joseph; Dannerbeck, Anne; Watt, J. Wilson


    Presents Parental Environment Cluster model of child neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in parents' neglectful behavior: (1) parenting skills and functions; (2) development and use of positive social support; and (3) resource availability and management skills. Model offers a focal theory for research, structure for…

  7. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.


    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  8. Space Environment Modelling with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods (United States)

    Lundstedt, H.; Wintoft, P.; Wu, J.-G.; Gleisner, H.; Dovheden, V.


    Space based technological systems are affected by the space weather in many ways. Several severe failures of satellites have been reported at times of space storms. Our society also increasingly depends on satellites for communication, navigation, exploration, and research. Predictions of the conditions in the satellite environment have therefore become very important. We will here present predictions made with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and hybrids of AT methods. We are developing a space weather model based on intelligence hybrid systems (IHS). The model consists of different forecast modules, each module predicts the space weather on a specific time-scale. The time-scales range from minutes to months with the fundamental time-scale of 1-5 minutes, 1-3 hours, 1-3 days, and 27 days. Solar and solar wind data are used as input data. From solar magnetic field measurements, either made on the ground at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford, or made from space by the satellite SOHO, solar wind parameters can be predicted and modelled with ANN and MHD models. Magnetograms from WSO are available on a daily basis. However, from SOHO magnetograms will be available every 90 minutes. SOHO magnetograms as input to ANNs will therefore make it possible to even predict solar transient events. Geomagnetic storm activity can today be predicted with very high accuracy by means of ANN methods using solar wind input data. However, at present real-time solar wind data are only available during part of the day from the satellite WIND. With the launch of ACE in 1997, solar wind data will on the other hand be available during 24 hours per day. The conditions of the satellite environment are not only disturbed at times of geomagnetic storms but also at times of intense solar radiation and highly energetic particles. These events are associated with increased solar activity. Predictions of these events are therefore


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Germain-RUTHERFORD


    Full Text Available The impact of ever-increasing numbers of online courses on the demographic composition of classes has meant that the notions of diversity, multiculturality and globalization are now key aspects of curriculum planning. With the internationalization and globalization of education, and faced with rising needs for an increasingly educated and more adequately trained workforce, universities are offering more flexible programs, assisted by new educational and communications technologies. Faced with this diversity of populations and needs, many instructors are becoming aware of the importance of addressing the notions of multiculturality and interculturality in the design of online however this raises many questions. For example, how do we integrate and address this multicultural dimension in a distance education course aimed at students who live in diverse cultural environments? How do the challenges of intercultural communication in an online environment affect online teaching and learning? What are the characteristics of an online course that is inclusive of all types of diversity, and what are the guiding principles for designing such courses? We will attempt to answer some of these questions by first exploring the concepts of culture and learning cultures. This will help us to characterize the impact on online learning of particular cultural dimensions. We will then present and discuss different online instructional design models that are culturally inclusive, and conclude with the description of a mediated instructional training module on the management of the cultural dimension of online teaching and learning. This module is mainly addressed to teachers and designers of online courses.

  10. Semantic modeling of portfolio assessment in e-learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Romero


    Full Text Available In learning environment, portfolio is used as a tool to keep track of learner’s progress. Particularly, when it comes to e-learning, continuous assessment allows greater customization and efficiency in learning process and prevents students lost interest in their study. Also, each student has his own characteristics and learning skills that must be taken into account in order to keep learner`s interest. So, personalized monitoring is the key to guarantee the success of technology-based education. In this context, portfolio assessment emerge as the solution because is an easy way to allow teacher organize and personalize assessment according to students characteristic and need. A portfolio assessment can contain various types of assessment like formative assessment, summative assessment, hetero or self-assessment and use different instruments like multiple choice questions, conceptual maps, and essay among others. So, a portfolio assessment represents a compilation of all assessments must be solved by a student in a course, it documents progress and set targets. In previous work, it has been proposed a conceptual framework that consist of an ontology network named AOnet which is a semantic tool conceptualizing different types of assessments. Continuing that work, this paper presents a proposal to implement portfolios assessment in e-learning environments. The proposal consists of a semantic model that describes key components and relations of this domain to set the bases to develop a tool to generate, manage and perform portfolios assessment.

  11. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  12. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  13. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini


    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  14. Lattice models of directed and semiflexible polymers in anisotropic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydukivska, K; Blavatska, V


    We study the conformational properties of polymers in presence of extended columnar defects of parallel orientation. Two classes of macromolecules are considered: the so-called partially directed polymers with preferred orientation along direction of the external stretching field and semiflexible polymers. We are working within the frames of lattice models: partially directed self-avoiding walks (PDSAWs) and biased self-avoiding walks (BSAWs). Our numerical analysis of PDSAWs reveals, that competition between the stretching field and anisotropy caused by presence of extended defects leads to existing of three characteristic length scales in the system. At each fixed concentration of disorder we found a transition point, where the influence of extended defects is exactly counterbalanced by the stretching field. Numerical simulations of BSAWs in anisotropic environment reveal an increase of polymer stiffness. In particular, the persistence length of semiflexible polymers increases in presence of disorder. (paper)

  15. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir


    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  16. Expanding the modeling capabilities of the cognitive environment simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Pople, H.E. Jr.


    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been conducting a research program to develop more effective tools to model the cognitive activities that underlie intention formation during nuclear power plant (NPP) emergencies. Under this program an artificial intelligence (AI) computer simulation called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) has been developed. CES simulates the cognitive activities involved in responding to a NPP accident situation. It is intended to provide an analytic tool for predicting likely human responses, and the kinds of errors that can plausibly arise under different accident conditions to support human reliability analysis. Recently CES was extended to handle a class of interfacing loss of coolant accidents (ISLOCAs). This paper summarizes the results of these exercises and describes follow-on work currently underway

  17. Emerge - A Python environment for the modeling of subsurface transfers (United States)

    Lopez, S.; Smai, F.; Sochala, P.


    The simulation of subsurface mass and energy transfers often relies on specific codes that were mainly developed using compiled languages which usually ensure computational efficiency at the expense of relatively long development times and relatively rigid software. Even if a very detailed, possibly graphical, user-interface is developed the core numerical aspects are rarely accessible and the smallest modification will always need a compilation step. Thus, user-defined physical laws or alternative numerical schemes may be relatively difficult to use. Over the last decade, Python has emerged as a popular and widely used language in the scientific community. There already exist several libraries for the pre and post-treatment of input and output files for reservoir simulators (e.g. pytough). Development times in Python are considerably reduced compared to compiled languages, and programs can be easily interfaced with libraries written in compiled languages with several comprehensive numerical libraries that provide sequential and parallel solvers (e.g. PETSc, Trilinos…). The core objective of the Emerge project is to explore the possibility to develop a modeling environment in full Python. Consequently, we are developing an open python package with the classes/objects necessary to express, discretize and solve the physical problems encountered in the modeling of subsurface transfers. We heavily relied on Python to have a convenient and concise way of manipulating potentially complex concepts with a few lines of code and a high level of abstraction. Our result aims to be a friendly numerical environment targeting both numerical engineers and physicist or geoscientists with the possibility to quickly specify and handle geometries, arbitrary meshes, spatially or temporally varying properties, PDE formulations, boundary conditions…


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.


    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  19. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.


    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  20. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi


    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  1. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.


    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  2. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  3. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  4. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments (United States)

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye


    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  5. Trapped Proton Environment in Medium-Earth Orbit (2000-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Friedel, Reinhard Hans [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kippen, Richard Marc [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report describes the method used to derive fluxes of the trapped proton belt along the GPS orbit (i.e., a Medium-Earth Orbit) during 2000 – 2010, a period almost covering a solar cycle. This method utilizes a newly developed empirical proton radiation-belt model, with the model output scaled by GPS in-situ measurements, to generate proton fluxes that cover a wide range of energies (50keV- 6MeV) and keep temporal features as well. The new proton radiation-belt model is developed based upon CEPPAD proton measurements from the Polar mission (1996 – 2007). Comparing to the de-facto standard empirical model of AP8, this model is not only based upon a new data set representative of the proton belt during the same period covered by GPS, but can also provide statistical information of flux values such as worst cases and occurrence percentiles instead of solely the mean values. The comparison shows quite different results from the two models and suggests that the commonly accepted error factor of 2 on the AP8 flux output over-simplifies and thus underestimates variations of the proton belt. Output fluxes from this new model along the GPS orbit are further scaled by the ns41 in-situ data so as to reflect the dynamic nature of protons in the outer radiation belt at geomagnetically active times. Derived daily proton fluxes along the GPS ns41 orbit, whose data files are delivered along with this report, are depicted to illustrate the trapped proton environment in the Medium-Earth Orbit. Uncertainties on those daily proton fluxes from two sources are evaluated: One is from the new proton-belt model that has error factors < ~3; the other is from the in-situ measurements and the error factors could be ~ 5.

  6. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program. (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan


    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  7. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.


    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  8. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  9. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  10. Study on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Numerical analysis for belt tension distribution in brands of a ring at steady state; Kinzoku V belt wo mochiita CVT ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekiso belt (steel ring) no dendo kiko kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T; Kuwabara, S [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanehara, S [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The power transmitting mechanisms for laminated belts were studied to analyze belt tension in each band of the ring of metal V-belts. A numerical model consisting of linear springs and frictional elements was proposed. The present model was experimentally proved. It is revealed based on the numerical results that each band shares the ring tension equally when the coefficients of friction for bands and a pulley are the same while the first band must support more when the coefficients of friction between two bands are lower than that between a saddle surface of the block and the inner band. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  11. eTOXlab, an open source modeling framework for implementing predictive models in production environments. (United States)

    Carrió, Pau; López, Oriol; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel


    Computational models based in Quantitative-Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) methodologies are widely used tools for predicting the biological properties of new compounds. In many instances, such models are used as a routine in the industry (e.g. food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industry) for the early assessment of the biological properties of new compounds. However, most of the tools currently available for developing QSAR models are not well suited for supporting the whole QSAR model life cycle in production environments. We have developed eTOXlab; an open source modeling framework designed to be used at the core of a self-contained virtual machine that can be easily deployed in production environments, providing predictions as web services. eTOXlab consists on a collection of object-oriented Python modules with methods mapping common tasks of standard modeling workflows. This framework allows building and validating QSAR models as well as predicting the properties of new compounds using either a command line interface or a graphic user interface (GUI). Simple models can be easily generated by setting a few parameters, while more complex models can be implemented by overriding pieces of the original source code. eTOXlab benefits from the object-oriented capabilities of Python for providing high flexibility: any model implemented using eTOXlab inherits the features implemented in the parent model, like common tools and services or the automatic exposure of the models as prediction web services. The particular eTOXlab architecture as a self-contained, portable prediction engine allows building models with confidential information within corporate facilities, which can be safely exported and used for prediction without disclosing the structures of the training series. The software presented here provides full support to the specific needs of users that want to develop, use and maintain predictive models in corporate environments. The technologies used by e

  12. Handling Emergency Management in [an] Object Oriented Modeling Environment (United States)

    Tokgoz, Berna Eren; Cakir, Volkan; Gheorghe, Adrian V.


    It has been understood that protection of a nation from extreme disasters is a challenging task. Impacts of extreme disasters on a nation's critical infrastructures, economy and society could be devastating. A protection plan itself would not be sufficient when a disaster strikes. Hence, there is a need for a holistic approach to establish more resilient infrastructures to withstand extreme disasters. A resilient infrastructure can be defined as a system or facility that is able to withstand damage, but if affected, can be readily and cost-effectively restored. The key issue to establish resilient infrastructures is to incorporate existing protection plans with comprehensive preparedness actions to respond, recover and restore as quickly as possible, and to minimize extreme disaster impacts. Although national organizations will respond to a disaster, extreme disasters need to be handled mostly by local emergency management departments. Since emergency management departments have to deal with complex systems, they have to have a manageable plan and efficient organizational structures to coordinate all these systems. A strong organizational structure is the key in responding fast before and during disasters, and recovering quickly after disasters. In this study, the entire emergency management is viewed as an enterprise and modelled through enterprise management approach. Managing an enterprise or a large complex system is a very challenging task. It is critical for an enterprise to respond to challenges in a timely manner with quick decision making. This study addresses the problem of handling emergency management at regional level in an object oriented modelling environment developed by use of TopEase software. Emergency Operation Plan of the City of Hampton, Virginia, has been incorporated into TopEase for analysis. The methodology used in this study has been supported by a case study on critical infrastructure resiliency in Hampton Roads.

  13. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong


    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  14. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will provide NASA with an integrated visualization environment providing greater insight and a more intuitive representation of large technical...

  15. The 2007 click it or ticket high-visibility seat belt mobilization : traffic tech. (United States)


    In May 2007 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : sponsored the fifth national Click It or Ticket (CIOT) : high-visibility seat belt enforcement mobilization, which followed : the CIOT program model of earned and paid media : publicizi...

  16. Modeling of SCC initiation and propagation mechanisms in BWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Hans, E-mail: [Institute for Failure Analysis and Failure Prevention ISSV e.V., c/o Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces, D-22039 Hamburg (Germany); Klein, Oliver [Institute for Failure Analysis and Failure Prevention ISSV e.V., c/o Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces, D-22039 Hamburg (Germany)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that SSC in BWR environments includes anodic crack propagation and hydrogen assisted cracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen cracking is triggered by crack tip acidification following local impurity accumulations and subsequent phase precipitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculate effects of pH, chlorides, potentials and stress on crack SCC growth rates at 288 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: During operation of mainly BWRs' (Boiling Water Reactors) excursions from recommended water chemistries may provide favorite conditions for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Maximum levels for chloride and sulfate ion contents for avoiding local corrosion are therefore given in respective water specifications. In a previously published deterministic 288 Degree-Sign C - corrosion model for Nickel as a main alloying element of BWR components it was demonstrated that, as a theoretically worst case, bulk water chloride levels as low as 30 ppb provide local chloride ion accumulation, dissolution of passivating nickel oxide and precipitation of nickel chlorides followed by subsequent local acidification. In an extension of the above model to SCC the following work shows that, in a first step, local anodic path corrosion with subsequent oxide breakdown, chloride salt formation and acidification at 288 Degree-Sign C would establish local cathodic reduction of accumulated hydrogen ions inside the crack tip fluid. In a second step, local hydrogen reduction charges and increasing local crack tip strains from increasing crack lengths at given global stresses are time stepwise calculated and related to experimentally determined crack critical cathodic hydrogen charges and fracture strains taken from small scale SSRT tensile tests pieces. As a result, at local hydrogen equilibrium potentials higher than those of nickel in the crack tip solution, hydrogen ion reduction initiates hydrogen crack propagation that is enhanced with

  17. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  18. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.


    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  19. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.


    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  20. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.


    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  1. A room acoustical computer model for industrial environments - the model and its verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Foged, Hans Torben


    This paper presents an extension to the traditional room acoustic modelling methods allowing computer modelling of huge machinery in industrial spaces. The program in question is Odeon 3.0 Industrial and Odeon 3.0 Combined which allows the modelling of point sources, surface sources and line...... of an omnidirectional sound source and a microphone. This allows the comparison of simulated results with the ones measured in real rooms. However when simulating the acoustic environment in industrial rooms, the sound sources are often far from being point like, as they can be distributed over a large space...

  2. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.


    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  3. High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments: Applications and Coupling of Participating Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard


    The High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments (HFSoLE) Challenge Project (C75) encompasses a suite of seven oceanographic models capable of exchanging information in a physically meaningful sense across the littoral environment...

  4. [Strategy programming for acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries]. (United States)

    Yang, Yuyang; Shen, Zhixiang; Wu, Zhongchao; Luo, Lu; Liu, Jingyuan; Liu, Baoyan


    Acupuncture has been applied in 183 countries and regions and gradually become a name card as TCM spreads across the world. The international influence of which plays a significant role in enhancing TCM development. The laws and regulations of TCM acupuncture along One-Belt-One-Road countries were compared and analyzed in this article. With comprehensive research and analysis, the international development strategy of acupuncture was rationally proposed. Combined with the historical background of China's national initiative One-Belt-One-Road, the acupuncture was taken as a breakthrough to lead the global spreading of TCM culture and Chinese herbs, so as to enhance China's soft strength, which could further create a fine cultural environment for the economic prosperity of One-Belt-One-Road countries. In addition, the strategy selection for China regarding TCM acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries was proposed, and the suggestive solution and implementation strategy for the essential missions and significant issues were provided.

  5. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.


    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D


    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  6. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  7. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  8. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies


    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Modeling Dynamic Perceptual Attention in Complex Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Youngjun; van Velsen, Martin; Hill, Jr, Randall W


    An important characteristic of a virtual human is the ability to direct its perceptual attention to entities and areas in a virtual environment in a manner that appears believable and serves a functional purpose...

  10. Modeling an Improvised Nuclear Device in an Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viar, William


    .... This thesis had four objectives. The first objective reviewed the four blast effects: blast wave, thermal radiation, ionizing radiation, and electromagnetic pulse as they apply to low yield weapons in an urban environment...

  11. Towards a Development Environment for Model Based Test Design


    Jing, Han


    Within the UP IP I&V organization there is high focus on increasing the ability to predict product quality in a cost efficient way. Test automation has therefore been an important enabler for us. The IP test design environment is continuously evolving and the investigations will show which improvements that is most important to implement in short and long term. In Ericsson UP IP I&V, the test automation framework environments are severed to complete some process by automated method, f...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT


    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  13. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants? (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu


    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  14. Examples that illustrate sedimentological aspects of the proterozoic placer model on the Kaap-Vaal Craton, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.


    In the fluvial-fan model of Proterozoic placers in South Africa, mid-fan and fanbase environments are illustrated by the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, proximal braided-belt environments by the B Reef, distal braided-belt environments by the Vaal Reef, and deltaiclike environments by sheets, ribbons, and pods at the extremities of the South and Basal Reefs. The nature of distribution of gold and uranium in these various environments has been evaluated and the knowledge successfully applied by the author to the valuation and practical mining of the reefs since 1965

  15. A Neural Network Model to Learn Multiple Tasks under Dynamic Environments (United States)

    Tsumori, Kenji; Ozawa, Seiichi

    When environments are dynamically changed for agents, the knowledge acquired in an environment might be useless in future. In such dynamic environments, agents should be able to not only acquire new knowledge but also modify old knowledge in learning. However, modifying all knowledge acquired before is not efficient because the knowledge once acquired may be useful again when similar environment reappears and some knowledge can be shared among different environments. To learn efficiently in such environments, we propose a neural network model that consists of the following modules: resource allocating network, long-term & short-term memory, and environment change detector. We evaluate the model under a class of dynamic environments where multiple function approximation tasks are sequentially given. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses stable incremental learning, accurate environmental change detection, proper association and recall of old knowledge, and efficient knowledge transfer.

  16. Deterministic methods for the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations and the Van Allen belts dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdiec, S.


    Artificial satellites operate in an hostile radiation environment, the Van Allen radiation belts, which partly condition their reliability and their lifespan. In order to protect them, it is necessary to characterize the dynamics of the energetic electrons trapped in these radiation belts. This dynamics is essentially determined by the interactions between the energetic electrons and the existing electromagnetic waves. This work consisted in designing a numerical scheme to solve the equations modelling these interactions: the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations. Our choice was directed towards methods of direct integration. We propose three new spectral methods for the momentum discretization: a Galerkin method and two collocation methods. All of them are based on scaled Hermite functions. The scaling factor is chosen in order to obtain the proper velocity resolution. We present in this thesis the discretization of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson system and the numerical results obtained. Then we study the possible extensions of the methods to the complete relativistic problem. In order to reduce the computing time, parallelization and optimization of the algorithms were carried out. Finally, we present 1Dx-3Dv (mono-dimensional for x and three-dimensional for velocity) computations of Weibel and whistler instabilities with one or two electrons species. (author)

  17. Influence of Fuel Load Dynamics on Carbon Emission by Wildfires in the Clay Belt Boreal Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Terrier


    Full Text Available Old-growth forests play a decisive role in preserving biodiversity and ecological functions. In an environment frequently disturbed by fire, the importance of old-growth forests as both a carbon stock as well as a source of emissions when burnt is not fully understood. Here, we report on carbon accumulation with time since the last fire (TSF in the dominant forest types of the Clay Belt region in eastern North America. To do so, we performed a fuel inventory (tree biomass, herbs and shrubs, dead woody debris, and duff loads along four chronosequences. Carbon emissions by fire through successional stages were simulated using the Canadian Fire Effects Model. Our results show that fuel accumulates with TSF, especially in coniferous forests. Potential carbon emissions were on average 11.9 t·ha−1 and 29.5 t·ha−1 for old-growth and young forests, respectively. In conclusion, maintaining old-growth forests in the Clay Belt landscape not only ensures a sustainable management of the boreal forest, but it also optimizes the carbon storage.

  18. Model for measuring complex performance in an aviation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.


    An experiment was conducted to identify models of pilot performance through the attainment and analysis of concurrent verbal protocols. Sixteen models were identified. Novice and expert pilots differed with respect to the models they used. Models were correlated to performance, particularly in the case of expert subjects. Models were not correlated to performance shaping factors (i.e. workload). 3 refs., 1 tab

  19. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.


    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  20. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail:


    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  1. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  2. Modeling the C. elegans nematode and its environment using a particle system. (United States)

    Rönkkö, Mauno; Wong, Garry


    A particle system, as understood in computer science, is a novel technique for modeling living organisms in their environment. Such particle systems have traditionally been used for modeling the complex dynamics of fluids and gases. In the present study, a particle system was devised to model the movement and feeding behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in three different virtual environments: gel, liquid, and soil. The results demonstrate that distinct movements of the nematode can be attributed to its mechanical interactions with the virtual environment. These results also revealed emergent properties associated with modeling organisms within environment-based systems.

  3. Three-dimensional data assimilation and reanalysis of radiation belt electrons: Observations of a four-zone structure using five spacecraft and the VERB code (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Kondrashov, D.; Subbotin, D.; Makarevich, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Nagai, T.


    Obtaining the global state of radiation belt electrons through reanalysis is an important step toward validating our current understanding of radiation belt dynamics and for identification of new physical processes. In the current study, reanalysis of radiation belt electrons is achieved through data assimilation of five spacecraft with the 3-D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code using a split-operator Kalman filter technique. The spacecraft data are cleaned for noise, saturation effects, and then intercalibrated on an individual energy channel basis, by considering phase space density conjunctions in the T96 field model. Reanalysis during the CRRES era reveals a never-before-reported four-zone structure in the Earth's radiation belts during the 24 March 1991 shock-induced injection superstorm: (1) an inner belt, (2) the high-energy shock-injection belt, (3) a remnant outer radiation belt, and (4) a second outer radiation belt. The third belt formed near the same time as the second belt and was later enhanced across keV to MeV energies by a second particle injection observed by CRRES and the Northern Solar Terrestrial Array riometer network. During the recovery phase of the storm, the fourth belt was created near L*=4RE, lasting for several days. Evidence is provided that the fourth belt was likely created by a dominant local heating process. This study outlines the necessity to consider all diffusive processes acting simultaneously and the advantage of supporting ground-based data in quantifying the observed radiation belt dynamics. It is demonstrated that 3-D data assimilation can resolve various nondiffusive processes and provides a comprehensive picture of the electron radiation belts.

  4. INTUITEL and the Hypercube Model - Developing Adaptive Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fuchs


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce an approach for the creation of adaptive learning environments that give human-like recommendations to a learner in the form of a virtual tutor. We use ontologies defining pedagogical, didactic and learner-specific data describing a learner's progress, learning history, capabilities and the learner's current state within the learning environment. Learning recommendations are based on a reasoning process on these ontologies and can be provided in real-time. The ontologies may describe learning content from any domain of knowledge. Furthermore, we describe an approach to store learning histories as spatio-temporal trajectories and to correlate them with influencing didactic factors. We show how such analysis of spatiotemporal data can be used for learning analytics to improve future adaptive learning environments.

  5. Distinguishing Environment and System in Coloured Petri Net Models of Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon


    This paper introduces and formally defines the environment-and-system-partitioned property for behavioral models of reactive systems expressed in the formal modeling language Coloured Petri Net. The purpose of the formalization is to make it possible to automatically validate any CPN model...... with respect to this property based on structural analysis. A model has the environment-and-system-partitioned property if it is based on a clear division between environment and system. This division is important in many model-driven approaches to software development such as model-based testing and automated...

  6. An u-Service Model Based on a Smart Phone for Urban Computing Environments (United States)

    Cho, Yongyun; Yoe, Hyun

    In urban computing environments, all of services should be based on the interaction between humans and environments around them, which frequently and ordinarily in home and office. This paper propose an u-service model based on a smart phone for urban computing environments. The suggested service model includes a context-aware and personalized service scenario development environment that can instantly describe user's u-service demand or situation information with smart devices. To do this, the architecture of the suggested service model consists of a graphical service editing environment for smart devices, an u-service platform, and an infrastructure with sensors and WSN/USN. The graphic editor expresses contexts as execution conditions of a new service through a context model based on ontology. The service platform deals with the service scenario according to contexts. With the suggested service model, an user in urban computing environments can quickly and easily make u-service or new service using smart devices.

  7. Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt (United States)

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung


    The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.

  8. NRPB models for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, C.; Barraclough, I.; Brown, J.


    There is a wide range of models available at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Such models form an essential part of assessments of the radiological impact of releases of radionuclides into the environment. These models cover: the atmosphere; the aquatic environment; the geosphere; the terrestrial environment including foodchains. It is important that the models used for radiological impact assessments are robust, reliable and suitable for the assessment being undertaken. During model development it is, therefore, important that the model is both verified and validated. Verification of a model involves ensuring that it has been implemented correctly, while validation consists of demonstrating that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. The extent to which a model can be verified depends on its complexity and whether similar models exist. For relatively simple models verification is straightforward, but for more complex models verification has to form part of the development, coding and testing of the model within quality assurance procedures. Validation of models should ideally consist of comparisons between the results of the models and experimental or environmental measurement data that were not used to develop the model. This is more straightforward for some models than for others depending on the quantity and type of data available. Validation becomes increasingly difficult for models which are intended to predict environmental transfer at long times or at great distances. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt qualitative validation techniques to ensure that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. This report summarises the models used at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment as part of a radiological impact assessment. It outlines the work carried out to verify and validate the models. The majority of these models are not currently available

  9. TAME - the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment: model definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, R.A.; Mueller-Lemans, H.; Dorp, F. van; Gribi, P.


    TAME - the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment is a new computer model for use in assessments of the radiological impact of the release of radionuclides to the biosphere, following their disposal in underground waste repositories. Based on regulatory requirements, the end-point of the calculations is the maximum annual individual dose to members of a hypothetical population group inhabiting the biosphere region. Additional mid- and end-points in the TAME calculations are dose as function of time from eleven exposure pathways, foodstuff concentrations and the distribution of radionuclides in the modelled biosphere. A complete description of the mathematical representations of the biosphere in TAME is given in this document, based on a detailed review of the underlying conceptual framework for the model. Example results are used to illustrate features of the conceptual and mathematical models. The end-point of dose is shown to be robust for the simplifying model assumptions used to define the biosphere for the example calculations. TAME comprises two distinct sub-models - one representing the transport of radionuclides in the near-surface environment and one for the calculation of dose to individual inhabitants of that biosphere. The former is the result of a detailed review of the modelling requirements for such applications and is based on a comprehensive consideration of all features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to Swiss biospheres, both in the present-day biosphere and in potential future biosphere states. Representations of the transport processes are derived from first principles. Mass balance for water and solid material fluxes is used to determine the rates of contaminant transfer between components of the biosphere system. The calculation of doses is based on existing representations of exposure pathways and draws on experience both from Switzerland and elsewhere. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. TAME - the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment: model definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, R.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mueller-Lemans, H. [Tergoso AG fuer Umweltfragen, Sargans (Switzerland); Dorp, F. van [Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA), Baden (Switzerland); Gribi, P. [Colenco AG, Baden (Switzerland)


    TAME - the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment is a new computer model for use in assessments of the radiological impact of the release of radionuclides to the biosphere, following their disposal in underground waste repositories. Based on regulatory requirements, the end-point of the calculations is the maximum annual individual dose to members of a hypothetical population group inhabiting the biosphere region. Additional mid- and end-points in the TAME calculations are dose as function of time from eleven exposure pathways, foodstuff concentrations and the distribution of radionuclides in the modelled biosphere. A complete description of the mathematical representations of the biosphere in TAME is given in this document, based on a detailed review of the underlying conceptual framework for the model. Example results are used to illustrate features of the conceptual and mathematical models. The end-point of dose is shown to be robust for the simplifying model assumptions used to define the biosphere for the example calculations. TAME comprises two distinct sub-models - one representing the transport of radionuclides in the near-surface environment and one for the calculation of dose to individual inhabitants of that biosphere. The former is the result of a detailed review of the modelling requirements for such applications and is based on a comprehensive consideration of all features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to Swiss biospheres, both in the present-day biosphere and in potential future biosphere states. Representations of the transport processes are derived from first principles. Mass balance for water and solid material fluxes is used to determine the rates of contaminant transfer between components of the biosphere system. The calculation of doses is based on existing representations of exposure pathways and draws on experience both from Switzerland and elsewhere. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Impact Modelling for Circular Economy: Geodesign Discussion Support Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šileryte, R.; Wandl, A.; van Timmeren, A.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; van Lammeren, Ron; Rip, Frans


    Transitioning towards circular economy requires changes in the current system which yield a number of impacts on such fundamental values as human health, natural environment, exhaustible resources, social well-being and prosperity. Moreover, this process involves multiple actors and requires careful

  12. An Ecohydrologic Model for a Shallow Groundwater Urban Environment (United States)

    The urban environment is a patchwork of natural and artificial surfaces that results in complex interactions with and impacts to natural hydrologic cycles. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major hydrologic flow that is often altered from urbanization, though the mechanisms of change ...

  13. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprisiu Ioana


    Full Text Available Abstract The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties. The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  14. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel


    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  15. Geospace environment modeling 2008--2009 challenge: Dst index (United States)

    Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.M.; Glocer, A.; Welling, D.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wittberger, M.; Jordanova, V.K.; Yu, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Weigel, R.S.; Sazykin, S.; Boynton, R.; Wei, H.; Eccles, V.; Horton, W.; Mays, M.L.; Gannon, J.


    This paper reports the metrics-based results of the Dst index part of the 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge. The 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for four geomagnetic storm events and five different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical, climatological or physics-based models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of 30 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations, we use comparisons of 1 hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of 1 minute model data with the 1 minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geological Survey. The latter index can be used to calculate spectral variability of model outputs in comparison to the index. We find that model rankings vary widely by skill score used. None of the models consistently perform best for all events. We find that empirical models perform well in general. Magnetohydrodynamics-based models of the global magnetosphere with inner magnetosphere physics (ring current model) included and stand-alone ring current models with properly defined boundary conditions perform well and are able to match or surpass results from empirical models. Unlike in similar studies, the statistical models used in this study found their challenge in the weakest events rather than the strongest events.

  16. Vibration analysis on automatic take-up device of belt conveyor (United States)

    Qin, Tailong; Wei, Jin


    Through introducing application condition of belt conveyor in the modern mining industry, the paper proposed, in the dynamic course of its starting, braking or loading, it would produce moving tension and elastic wave. And analyzed the factors cause the automatic take-up device of belt conveyor vibrating: the take-up device's structure and the elastic wave. Finally the paper proposed the measure to reduce vibration and carried on the modeling and simulation on the tension buffer device.

  17. Work Environment Dialogue in a Swedish Municipality — Strengths and Limits of the Nordic Work Environment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Frick


    Full Text Available In the Nordic work environment model, health risks at work are mainly to be managed in cooperation with the employees and their representatives. The model is based on strong trade unions and is supported by the state through participatory rights and funding to produce and disseminate knowledge on risks and solutions. The model is evident in the large Swedish municipal sector with its strong unions and extensive social dialogue. However, municipal employees also face widespread risks, mainly from mental and physical overload. They led the costly wave of rising sickness absence from the late 1990s. Municipal (and other employers therefore attempt to reduce the absence. The rural municipality of Leksand started a project Hälsosam with the broad objectives to half the absence, implement a national agreement on better dialogue, make Leksand an attractive employer, and improve employee influence and work environment. The article’s objective is to use Hälsosam’s intervention project to explore the limits of what the Nordic work environment model can achieve against risks rooted in the employers’ prerogative of organizing, resourcing, and managing the operations that create the conditions at work. Hälsosam’s practice focused on sickness absence and the forms of the new national agreement. The absence was halved by reducing cases of long-term sickness. There was also workplace health promotion and the safety reps were supported through regular meetings. However, little was done to the extensive mental and physical overload revealed in a survey. Nor was the mandatory work environment management improved, as was ordered by the municipal council. This remained delegated to first-line managers who had a limited ability to handle work risks. This limited practice implemented Leksand’s political priority to reduce the absenteeism, while other objectives had less political support. The difficulties to improve the work environment and its management

  18. Using a Split-belt Treadmill to Evaluate Generalization of Human Locomotor Adaptation. (United States)

    Vasudevan, Erin V L; Hamzey, Rami J; Kirk, Eileen M


    Understanding the mechanisms underlying locomotor learning helps researchers and clinicians optimize gait retraining as part of motor rehabilitation. However, studying human locomotor learning can be challenging. During infancy and childhood, the neuromuscular system is quite immature, and it is unlikely that locomotor learning during early stages of development is governed by the same mechanisms as in adulthood. By the time humans reach maturity, they are so proficient at walking that it is difficult to come up with a sufficiently novel task to study de novo locomotor learning. The split-belt treadmill, which has two belts that can drive each leg at a different speed, enables the study of both short- (i.e., immediate) and long-term (i.e., over minutes-days; a form of motor learning) gait modifications in response to a novel change in the walking environment. Individuals can easily be screened for previous exposure to the split-belt treadmill, thus ensuring that all experimental participants have no (or equivalent) prior experience. This paper describes a typical split-belt treadmill adaptation protocol that incorporates testing methods to quantify locomotor learning and generalization of this learning to other walking contexts. A discussion of important considerations for designing split-belt treadmill experiments follows, including factors like treadmill belt speeds, rest breaks, and distractors. Additionally, potential but understudied confounding variables (e.g., arm movements, prior experience) are considered in the discussion.

  19. Conceptual design of a Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) shuttle-attached experiment (United States)

    Aguilar, Jerry L.


    The conceptual design of a shuttle-attached Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) experiment is presented. The MBR is an advanced radiator concept in which a rotating belt is used to radiate thermal energy to space. The experiment is developed with the primary focus being the verification of the dynamic characteristics of a rotating belt with a secondary objective of proving the thermal and sealing aspects in a reduced gravity, vacuum environment. The mechanical design, selection of the belt material and working fluid, a preliminary test plan, and program plan are presented. The strategy used for selecting the basic sizes and materials of the components are discussed. Shuttle and crew member requirements are presented with some options for increasing or decreasing the demands on the STS. An STS carrier and the criteria used in the selection process are presented. The proposed carrier for the Moving Belt Radiator experiment is the Hitchhiker-M. Safety issues are also listed with possible results. This experiment is designed so that a belt can be deployed, run at steady state conditions, run with dynamic perturbations imposed, verify the operation of the interface heat exchanger and seals, and finally be retracted into a stowed position for transport back to earth.

  20. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  1. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah


    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  2. Quantifying the impact of changes in crop area on evapotranspiration regimes in the US corn and soybean belts through phenological modeling and data assimilation (United States)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.


    In recent years, fluctuations in food, feed, and fuel prices have led to shifts in the area of cropland dedicated to maize and soybean cultivation in the Northern Great Plains. We report here on a modeling experiment that compares three different simulated scenarios for actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from maize-soybean dominated areas in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota during the 2000-2009 growing seasons. Scenario 1 relies on MODIS-derived crop maps to provide a baseline of subpixel crop proportions; Scenario 2 increases the proportion of maize by to 100 percent; Scenario 3 substitutes grassland for half the maize. We use a simple soil water balance model of ETa linked to an empirically derived crop specific phenology model also capable of producing seasonal trajectories of canopy attributes. This coupled model has been successfully deployed using flux tower records from multiple locations in the central US. Forcing the coupled model using data from NLDAS, we derive seasonal trajectories of daily NDVI and ETa as well as phenological transition points for maize, soybean, and grassland for each scenario. Seasonal differences in ETa among the three scenarios underscore the importance of how land use modulates land surface phenologies and, in turn, water and energy balances.

  3. Reply to comment by Tan et al. on "Sandbox modeling of evolving thrust wedges with different preexisting topographic relief: Implications for the Longmen Shan thrust belt, eastern Tibet" (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Chen, Zhuxin; Li, Zhigang; Li, Shen; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Yiquan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Maomao; Fang, Shaozhi; Cui, Jian


    Tan et al. comment that the preexisting topographic relief in our sandbox is opposed to its prototype in the central Longmen Shan. Therefore, the comparison between our sandbox modeling and the natural topography is questionable and does not agree with our conclusion that the Xiaoyudong fault is a tear fault. First, we are grateful to the authors for their approval of our sandbox modeling and its contribution to understanding fault behavior within thrust wedges. However, after reading the comment carefully, we found that they misunderstood the meaning of topographic relief we conveyed. In response, we would like to address the differences between the topography in their comment and the orogen-scale topography we investigated in our modeling to defend our conclusion.



    Anzhelika D. Tsymbalaru


    In the paper the scientific approaches to modeling of innovation educational environment of a general educational institution – system (analysis of object, process and result of modeling as system objects), activity (organizational and psychological structure) and synergetic (aspects and principles).

  5. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D


    Selected recent developments and promising directions for improving the quality of models of human performance in synthetic environments are summarized, beginning with the potential uses and goals for behavioral models...

  6. Modeling higher education attractiveness to stand global environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Inabilities to deal with the changing environment may lead Higher Education Institutions (HEI to loose institutional attractiveness. Digital transformation requires global insertion as essential feature to institutional attractiveness. Processes for international education seem to lack the links between real environmental trends and the internal capabilities to global education. HEI managers may approach endeavors to internationalize education combining ambidextrous strategy supported by consolidated resilience capabilities. The latest ones refer to building internal value attributes to increase institutional attractiveness assuring solid standing in the global environment. In this article, a theoretical essay, we approach the problem of creating resilience as a way of backing up ambidexterity to generate institutional attractiveness. The set of value attributes, on the other hand, may originate strategic routes to strengthen internal competences and to make the institution more attractive, as a dynamic capability.

  7. Synchronous communication in PLM environments using annotated CAD models


    Camba, Jorge D.; Contero, Manuel; Salvador Herranz, Gustavo Manuel; Plumed, Raquel


    The connection of resources, data, and knowledge through communication technology plays a vital role in current collaborative design methodologies and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) systems, as these elements act as channels for information and meaning. Despite significant advances in the area of PLM, most communication tools are used as separate services that are disconnected from existing development environments. Consequently, during a communication session, the specific elements being...

  8. Scoping the future: a model for integrating learning environments


    Honeychurch, Sarah; Barr, Niall


    The Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has become synonymous with online learning in HE.However, with the rise of Web 2.0 technologies, social networking tools and cloud computing thearchitecture of the current VLEs is increasingly anachronistic. This paper suggests an alternative tothe traditional VLE: one which allows for flexibility and adaptation to the needs of individual teachers,while remaining resilient and providing students with a seamless experience. We present a prototypeof our vi...

  9. The use of paleo-thermo-barometers and coupled thermal, fluid flow and pore fluid pressure modelling for hydrocarbon and reservoir prediction in fold and thrust belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roure, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Callot, J.P.; Ferket, H.; Gonzales, E.; Guilhaumou, N.; Hardebol, N.J.; Lacombe, O.; Malandain, J.; Mougin, P.; Muska, K.; Ortuno, S.; Sassi, W.; Swennen, R.; Vilasi, N.


    Basin modelling tools are now more efficient to reconstruct palinspastic structural cross sections and compute the history of temperature, pore-fluid pressure and fluid flow circulations in complex structural settings. In many cases and especially in areas where limited erosion occurred, the use of

  10. An integrated modeling framework for exploring flow regime and water quality changes with increasing biofuel crop production in the U.S. Corn Belt (United States)

    Yaeger, Mary A.; Housh, Mashor; Cai, Ximing; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    To better address the dynamic interactions between human and hydrologic systems, we develop an integrated modeling framework that employs a System of Systems optimization model to emulate human development decisions which are then incorporated into a watershed model to estimate the resulting hydrologic impacts. The two models are run interactively to simulate the coevolution of coupled human-nature systems, such that reciprocal feedbacks between hydrologic processes and human decisions (i.e., human impacts on critical low flows and hydrologic impacts on human decisions on land and water use) can be assessed. The framework is applied to a Midwestern U.S. agricultural watershed, in the context of proposed biofuels development. This operation is illustrated by projecting three possible future coevolution trajectories, two of which use dedicated biofuel crops to reduce annual watershed nitrate export while meeting ethanol production targets. Imposition of a primary external driver (biofuel mandate) combined with different secondary drivers (water quality targets) results in highly nonlinear and multiscale responses of both the human and hydrologic systems, including multiple tradeoffs, impacting the future coevolution of the system in complex, heterogeneous ways. The strength of the hydrologic response is sensitive to the magnitude of the secondary driver; 45% nitrate reduction target leads to noticeable impacts at the outlet, while a 30% reduction leads to noticeable impacts that are mainly local. The local responses are conditioned by previous human-hydrologic modifications and their spatial relationship to the new biofuel development, highlighting the importance of past coevolutionary history in predicting future trajectories of change.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  14. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  15. The role of virtual reality and 3D modelling in built environment education


    Horne, Margaret; Thompson, Emine Mine


    This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Altho...

  16. MathModelica - An Extensible Modeling and Simulation Environment with Integrated Graphics and Literate Programming


    Fritzson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats


    MathModelica is an integrated interactive development environment for advanced system modeling and simulation. The environment integrates Modelica-based modeling and simulation with graphic design, advanced scripting facilities, integration of program code, test cases, graphics, documentation, mathematical type setting, and symbolic formula manipulation provided via Mathematica. The user interface consists of a graphical Model Editor and Notebooks. The Model Editor is a graphical user interfa...

  17. Environment model creation and ADAS architecture for trucks : design and implementation of a sensor fusion algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamatopoulos, E.


    This report presents a structural approach for environment model creation and ADAS architecture for trucks. In particular, an appropriate sensor suite that is suitable for a set of ADAS functions is defined. On this basis, the development of a proof of concept for an Environment Model system, by

  18. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education (United States)

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.


    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  19. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans


    as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011) showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1) and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9) while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13) and Day 159 (Nov...... 20). Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition...... competition may deviate from the potential (optimal) growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated....

  20. The architecture and prototype implementation of the Model Environment system (United States)

    Donchyts, G.; Treebushny, D.; Primachenko, A.; Shlyahtun, N.; Zheleznyak, M.


    An approach that simplifies software development of the model based decision support systems for environmental management has been introduced. The approach is based on definition and management of metadata and data related to computational model without losing data semantics and proposed methods of integration of the new modules into the information system and their management. An architecture of the integrated modelling system is presented. The proposed architecture has been implemented as a prototype of integrated modelling system using. NET/Gtk{#} and is currently being used to re-design European Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergency Management RODOS ( using Java/Swing.

  1. Modelling of artificial radioactivity migration in environment: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignoli, G.; Bertozzi, G.


    The aim of this report is to present a compilation and description of models to assess the environmental behaviour and effects of accidental and routine releases of artificial radioactivity from nuclear power facilities. About 60 models are described and a card is given for each one, to indicate in summarized form its features and data content. This collection is intended to help in developing specific personal models by assembling different parts chosen among the most suitable ones of different models of various degrees of sophistication

  2. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  3. Synthetic approaches to aromatic belts: building up strain in macrocyclic polyarenes. (United States)

    Eisenberg, David; Shenhar, Roy; Rabinovitz, Mordecai


    This tutorial review discusses synthetic strategies towards aromatic belts, defined here as double-stranded conjugated macrocycles, such as [n]cyclacenes, [n]cyclophenacenes, Schlüter belt, and Vögtle belt. Their appeal stems, firstly, from the unique nature of their conjugation, having p orbitals oriented radially rather than perpendicular to the plane of the macrocycle. Secondly, as aromatic belts are model compounds of carbon nanotubes of different chiralities, a synthetic strategy towards the buildup of structural strain in these compounds could finally open a route towards rational chemical synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The elusiveness of these compounds has stimulated fascinating and ingenious synthetic strategies over the last decades. The various strategies are classified here by their approach to the buildup of structural strain, which is the main obstacle in the preparation of these curved polyarenes.

  4. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan


    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  5. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L


    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  6. Seat-belt message and the law? (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G


    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  7. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.


    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  8. Non stationary nucleation: the model with minimal environment


    Kurasov, Victor


    A new model to calculate the rate of nucleation is formulated. This model is based on the classical nucleation theory but considers also vapor depletion around the formed embryo. As the result the free energy has to be recalculated which brings a new expression for the nucleation rate.

  9. Development of an Environment for Software Reliability Model Selection (United States)


    now is directed to other related problems such as tools for model selection, multiversion programming, and software fault tolerance modeling... multiversion programming, 7. Hlardware can be repaired by spare modules, which is not. the case for software, 2-6 N. Preventive maintenance is very important

  10. Integration of Modeling in Solidworks and Matlab/Simulink Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekus Dawid


    Full Text Available W pracy opisano tok postepowania podczas budowy modeli symulacyjnych z wykorzystaniem programu SolidWorks i Matlab/Simulink. Tworzenie modelu symulacyjnego przebiega etapami, to znaczy najpierw opracowywany jest model geometryczny w programie SolidWorks, nastepnie dzieki mozliwosci wymiany danych, model CAD jest implementowany w srodowisku obliczeniowym Matlab/Simulink. Modele SimMechanics pozwalaja na sledzenie wielu parametrów, np. trajektorii, predkosci, czy przyspieszen dowolnych elementów układu złozonego. W pracy, jako przykłady modeli symulacyjnych opracowanych zgodnie z zaprezentowana metoda, pokazano modele laboratoryjnego zurawia samochodowego oraz zurawia lesnego. Modele te umozliwiaja wizualizacje zadanego - za pomoca wymuszen kinematycznych - cyklu pracy.

  11. Reactor advantages of the belt pinch and liquid metal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J.; Rappaport, H.; Zheng Linjin; Dorland, B.; Miller, R.; Turnbull, A.


    MHD stability of highly elongated tokamaks (termed a belt pinch) are considered for high bootstrap fraction cases. By employing high triangularity or indentation, and invoking wall stabilization, and β can be increased by a factor of roughly 3 by increasing κ from 2 to 4. Axisymmetric stability up to κ=4 tolerable by employing a shell which conforms more closely to the boundary than in present experiments. Engineering difficulties with a close fitting shell in a reactor environment may be overcome by employing a liquid lithium alloy shell. Rapid metal flows can lead to potentially deleterious plasma shifts and damping of the flow. (author)

  12. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  13. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler


    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  14. Vertical climatic belts in the Tatra Mountains in the light of current climate change (United States)

    Łupikasza, Ewa; Szypuła, Bartłomiej


    The paper discusses temporal changes in the configuration of vertical climatic belts in the Tatra Mountains as a result of current climate change. Meteorological stations are scarce in the Tatra Mountains; therefore, we modelled decadal air temperatures using existing data from 20 meteorological stations and the relationship between air temperature and altitude. Air temperature was modelled separately for northern and southern slopes and for convex and concave landforms. Decadal air temperatures were additionally used to delineate five climatic belts previously distinguished by Hess on the basis of threshold values of annual air temperature. The spatial extent and location of the borderline isotherms of 6, 4, 2, 0, and - 2 °C for four decades, including 1951-1960, 1981-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010, were compared. Significant warming in the Tatra Mountains, uniform in the vertical profile, started at the beginning of the 1980s and led to clear changes in the extent and location of the vertical climatic belts delineated on the basis of annual air temperature. The uphill shift of the borderline isotherms was more prominent on southern than on northern slopes. The highest rate of changes in the extent of the climatic belts was found above the isotherm of 0 °C (moderately cold and cold belts). The cold belt dramatically diminished in extent over the research period.

  15. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.


    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  16. Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in a Waste Stabilization Pond System Using Flexible Modeling Environment with MCMC. (United States)

    Mukhtar, Hussnain; Lin, Yu-Pin; Shipin, Oleg V; Petway, Joy R


    This study presents an approach for obtaining realization sets of parameters for nitrogen removal in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system. The proposed approach was designed for optimal parameterization, local sensitivity analysis, and global uncertainty analysis of a dynamic simulation model for the WSP by using the R software package Flexible Modeling Environment (R-FME) with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Additionally, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was integrated into the FME to evaluate the major parameters that affect the simulation outputs in the study WSP. Comprehensive modeling analysis was used to simulate and assess nine parameters and concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Results indicate that the integrated FME-GLUE-based model, with good Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (0.53-0.69) and correlation coefficients (0.76-0.83), successfully simulates the concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Moreover, the Arrhenius constant was the only parameter sensitive to model performances of ON-N and NH₃-N simulations. However, Nitrosomonas growth rate, the denitrification constant, and the maximum growth rate at 20 °C were sensitive to ON-N and NO₃-N simulation, which was measured using global sensitivity.

  17. Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments (United States)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl


    Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an

  18. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is emphasizing the use of larger, more integrated models in conjunction with systems engineering tools and decision support systems. These tools place a...

  19. Symbolic Model of Perception in Dynamic 3D Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carruth, D. W; Robbins, B; Thomas, M. D; Morais, A; Letherwood, M; Nebel, K


    Computational models of human cognition have been applied to many complex real-world tasks including air traffic control, human-computer interaction, learning arithmetic, traversing the World Wide Web...

  20. GCR Environmental Models I: Sensitivity Analysis for GCR Environments (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.


    Accurate galactic cosmic ray (GCR) models are required to assess crew exposure during long-duration missions to the Moon or Mars. Many of these models have been developed and compared to available measurements, with uncertainty estimates usually stated to be less than 15%. However, when the models are evaluated over a common epoch and propagated through to effective dose, relative differences exceeding 50% are observed. This indicates that the metrics used to communicate GCR model uncertainty can be better tied to exposure quantities of interest for shielding applications. This is the first of three papers focused on addressing this need. In this work, the focus is on quantifying the extent to which each GCR ion and energy group, prior to entering any shielding material or body tissue, contributes to effective dose behind shielding. Results can be used to more accurately calibrate model-free parameters and provide a mechanism for refocusing validation efforts on measurements taken over important energy regions. Results can also be used as references to guide future nuclear cross-section measurements and radiobiology experiments. It is found that GCR with Z>2 and boundary energies below 500 MeV/n induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This finding is important given that most of the GCR models are developed and validated against Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/CRIS) measurements taken below 500 MeV/n. It is therefore possible for two models to very accurately reproduce the ACE/CRIS data while inducing very different effective dose values behind shielding.

  1. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski


    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  2. Environmental Impact Specification for Direct Space Weathering of Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects (United States)

    Cooper, John F.


    The Direct Space Weathering Project of NASA's Outer Planets Research Program addresses specification of the plasma and energetic particle environments for irradiation and surface chemical processing of icy bodies in the outer solar system and the local interstellar medium. Knowledge of the radiation environments is being expanded by ongoing penetration of the twin Voyager spacecraft into the heliosheath boundary region of the outer heliosphere and expected emergence within the next decade into the very local interstellar medium. The Voyager measurements are being supplemented by remote sensing from Earth orbit of energetic neutral atom emission from this boundary region by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Although the Voyagers long ago passed the region of the Classical Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 and thereafter explore one or more KBOs, meanwhile providing updated measurements of the heliospheric radiation environment in this region. Modeling of ion transport within the heliosphere allows specification of time-integrated irradiation effects while the combination of Voyager and IBEX data supports projection of the in-situ measurements into interstellar space beyond the heliosheath. Transformation of model ion flux distributions into surface sputtering and volume ionization profiles provides a multi-layer perspective for space weathering impact on the affected icy bodies and may account for some aspects of color and compositional diversity. Other important related factors may include surface erosion and gardening by meteoritic impacts and surface renewal by cryovolcanism. Chemical products of space weathering may contribute to energy resources for the latter.

  3. Automated reconstruction of 3D models from real environments (United States)

    Sequeira, V.; Ng, K.; Wolfart, E.; Gonçalves, J. G. M.; Hogg, D.

    This paper describes an integrated approach to the construction of textured 3D scene models of building interiors from laser range data and visual images. This approach has been implemented in a collection of algorithms and sensors within a prototype device for 3D reconstruction, known as the EST (Environmental Sensor for Telepresence). The EST can take the form of a push trolley or of an autonomous mobile platform. The Autonomous EST (AEST) has been designed to provide an integrated solution for automating the creation of complete models. Embedded software performs several functions, including triangulation of the range data, registration of video texture, registration and integration of data acquired from different capture points. Potential applications include facilities management for the construction industry and creating reality models to be used in general areas of virtual reality, for example, virtual studios, virtualised reality for content-related applications (e.g., CD-ROMs), social telepresence, architecture and others. The paper presents the main components of the EST/AEST, and presents some example results obtained from the prototypes. The reconstructed model is encoded in VRML format so that it is possible to access and view the model via the World Wide Web.

  4. Integral projection models for finite populations in a stochastic environment. (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Engen, Steinar; Saether, Bernt-Erik


    Continuous types of population structure occur when continuous variables such as body size or habitat quality affect the vital parameters of individuals. These structures can give rise to complex population dynamics and interact with environmental conditions. Here we present a model for continuously structured populations with finite size, including both demographic and environmental stochasticity in the dynamics. Using recent methods developed for discrete age-structured models we derive the demographic and environmental variance of the population growth as functions of a continuous state variable. These two parameters, together with the expected population growth rate, are used to define a one-dimensional diffusion approximation of the population dynamics. Thus, a substantial reduction in complexity is achieved as the dynamics of the complex structured model can be described by only three population parameters. We provide methods for numerical calculation of the model parameters and demonstrate the accuracy of the diffusion approximation by computer simulation of specific examples. The general modeling framework makes it possible to analyze and predict future dynamics and extinction risk of populations with various types of structure, and to explore consequences of changes in demography caused by, e.g., climate change or different management decisions. Our results are especially relevant for small populations that are often of conservation concern.

  5. An interdisciplinary approach to modeling tritium transfer into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A.


    More robust radiological assessment models are required to support the safety case for the nuclear industry. Heavy water reactors, fuel processing plants, radiopharmaceutical factories, and the future fusion reactor, all have large tritium loads. While of low probability, large accidental tritium releases cannot be ignored. For Romania that uses CANDU600 for nuclear energy, tritium is the national radionuclide. Tritium enters directly into the life cycle in many physicochemical forms. Tritiated water (HTO) is leaked from most nuclear installations but is partially converted into organically bound tritium (OBT) through plant and animal metabolic processes. Hydrogen and carbon are elemental components of major nutrients and animal tissues and their radioisotopes must be modeled differently from those of most other radionuclides. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plant and conversion into organically bound tritium strongly depend on plant characteristics, season, and weather conditions. In order to cope with this large variability and avoid expensive calibration experiments, we developed a model using knowledge of plant physiology, agrometeorology, soil sciences, hydrology, and climatology. The transfer of tritiated water to plant was modeled with resistance approach including sparse canopy. The canopy resistance was modeled using the Jarvis-Calvet approach modified in order to make direct use of the canopy photosynthesis rate. The crop growth model WOFOST was used for photosynthesis rate both for canopy resistance and formation of organically bound tritium. Using this formalism, the tritium transfer parameters were directly linked to processes and parameters known from agricultural sciences. Model predictions for tritium in wheat were close to a factor two, according to experimental data without any calibration. The model was also tested on rice and soybean and can be applied for various plants and environmental conditions. For sparse canopy, the model used coupled

  6. Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad


    Stochastic geometry (SG) has been widely accepted as a fundamental tool for modeling and analyzing cellular networks. However, the fading models used with SG analysis are mainly confined to the simplistic Rayleigh fading, which is extended to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks with generalized two-ray (GTR) fading channel. The GTR fading explicitly accounts for two DSCs in addition to the diffuse components and offers high flexibility to capture diverse fading channels that appear in realistic outdoor/indoor wireless communication scenarios. It also encompasses the famous Rayleigh and Rician fading as special cases. To this end, the prominent effect of DSCs is highlighted in terms of average spectral efficiency. © 2016 IEEE.

  7. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface ( The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  8. Genomic-Enabled Prediction Kernel Models with Random Intercepts for Multi-environment Trials (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Granato, Italo; Fritsche-Neto, Roberto; Montesinos-Lopez, Osval A.; Burgueño, Juan; Bandeira e Sousa, Massaine; Crossa, José


    In this study, we compared the prediction accuracy of the main genotypic effect model (MM) without G×E interactions, the multi-environment single variance G×E deviation model (MDs), and the multi-environment environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe) where the random genetic effects of the lines are modeled with the markers (or pedigree). With the objective of further modeling the genetic residual of the lines, we incorporated the random intercepts of the lines (l) and generated another three models. Each of these 6 models were fitted with a linear kernel method (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GB) and a Gaussian Kernel (GK) method. We compared these 12 model-method combinations with another two multi-environment G×E interactions models with unstructured variance-covariances (MUC) using GB and GK kernels (4 model-method). Thus, we compared the genomic-enabled prediction accuracy of a total of 16 model-method combinations on two maize data sets with positive phenotypic correlations among environments, and on two wheat data sets with complex G×E that includes some negative and close to zero phenotypic correlations among environments. The two models (MDs and MDE with the random intercept of the lines and the GK method) were computationally efficient and gave high prediction accuracy in the two maize data sets. Regarding the more complex G×E wheat data sets, the prediction accuracy of the model-method combination with G×E, MDs and MDe, including the random intercepts of the lines with GK method had important savings in computing time as compared with the G×E interaction multi-environment models with unstructured variance-covariances but with lower genomic prediction accuracy. PMID:29476023

  9. A generalization of the bond fluctuation model to viscoelastic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Christian C


    A lattice-based simulation method for polymer diffusion in a viscoelastic medium is presented. This method combines the eight-site bond fluctuation model with an algorithm for the simulation of fractional Brownian motion on the lattice. The method applies to unentangled self-avoiding chains and is probed for anomalous diffusion exponents α between 0.7 and 1.0. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of the generalized Rouse model of a self-avoiding chain polymer in a viscoelastic medium. (paper)

  10. Comprehensive model for disruption erosion in a reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.


    A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Programmatic access to logical models in the Cell Collective modeling environment via a REST API. (United States)

    Kowal, Bryan M; Schreier, Travis R; Dauer, Joseph T; Helikar, Tomáš


    Cell Collective ( is a web-based interactive environment for constructing, simulating and analyzing logical models of biological systems. Herein, we present a Web service to access models, annotations, and simulation data in the Cell Collective platform through the Representational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API). The REST API provides a convenient method for obtaining Cell Collective data through almost any programming language. To ensure easy processing of the retrieved data, the request output from the API is available in a standard JSON format. The Cell Collective REST API is freely available at All public models in Cell Collective are available through the REST API. For users interested in creating and accessing their own models through the REST API first need to create an account in Cell Collective ( Technical user documentation: Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components

    KAUST Repository

    Alammouri, Ahmad; Elsawy, Hesham; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Di Renzo, Marco; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim


    to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks

  13. Computer modeling of dosimetric pattern in aquatic environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... solving the dose rates to aquatic organisms with emphasis on the coastal areas of Nigeria where oil exploration activities involve the use of radioactive materials. Solution of the dose function representing the baseline have been modeled the result of which can be employed in assessing future contamination in the area.

  14. Study on modeling of Energy-Economy-Environment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seung Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    This study analyzed the effect of carbon dioxide reduction policy generated by energy use by developing a new operation general equilibrium model. This model is a multi sector successive dynamic model, designed to be able to forecast economic variables as well as GDP, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission amount until 2030 for every 5 years. Using this model, it analyzed three greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios, the introduction of world single carbon tax, the setting up limit of greenhouse gas discharge, and the introduction of international discharge permit trading system. It analyzes that it gives a heavy burden to Korean economy when Korean government implements the greenhouse gas reduction policy with only domestic policy instrument. Therefore it is considered that it is required to reduce greenhouse gas cost-effectively by using Kyoto Protocol actively, such as international permit trading, co-implementation, and clean development system, when greenhouse gas reduction gives a heavy burden. Moreover, a policy that is dependent only on price mechanism, such as carbon tax or permit trading, to reduce greenhouse gas requires a very high cost and has a limitation. Therefore, to relieve some burden on economy requires to implement non-price mechanism simultaneously such as energy technology development and restructuring on industry and transportation system. (author). 70 refs., 11 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob


    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  16. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [Uniiversity of Nevada, Las Vegas; Haber, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas


    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  17. Business models for distributed generation in a liberalized market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordijn, Jaap; Akkermans, Hans


    The analysis of the potential of emerging innovative technologies calls for a systems-theoretic approach that takes into account technical as well as socio-economic factors. This paper reports the main findings of several business case studies of different future applications in various countries of distributed power generation technologies, all based on a common methodology for networked business modeling and analysis. (author)

  18. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.


    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  19. Modelling of authentic reflectance behaviour in virtual environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    č. 62 (2005), s. 49-50 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF textures * virtual reality * image modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  20. Nonlinear Scattering of VLF Waves in the Radiation Belts (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Ganguli, Guru; Mithaiwala, Manish


    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering. Since the pitch-angle scattering rate is a strong function of the wave properties, a solid understanding of VLF wave sources and propagation in the magnetosphere is critical to accurately calculate electron lifetimes. Nonlinear scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is a mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation, and has not been accounted for in previous models of radiation belt dynamics. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Recent results show that the threshold for nonlinear scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear scattering can then dramatically alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al. 2012]. By considering these effects, the lifetimes of electrons can be dramatically reduced. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  1. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  2. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.


    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  3. Pricing the Services in Dynamic Environment: Agent Pricing Model (United States)

    Žagar, Drago; Rupčić, Slavko; Rimac-Drlje, Snježana

    New Internet applications and services as well as new user demands open many new issues concerning dynamic management of quality of service and price for received service, respectively. The main goals of Internet service providers are to maximize profit and maintain a negotiated quality of service. From the users' perspective the main goal is to maximize ratio of received QoS and costs of service. However, achieving these objectives could become very complex if we know that Internet service users might during the session become highly dynamic and proactive. This connotes changes in user profile or network provider/s profile caused by high level of user mobility or variable level of user demands. This paper proposes a new agent based pricing architecture for serving the highly dynamic customers in context of dynamic user/network environment. The proposed architecture comprises main aspects and basic parameters that will enable objective and transparent assessment of the costs for the service those Internet users receive while dynamically change QoS demands and cost profile.

  4. The impact of the provisions of the suspensions on the track of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive at jamming rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. Using the developed mathematical model of the failures drives suspensions due to jamming rollers to the reference design of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive is performed modelling of dynamic characteristics. Investigation of the influence of the location of the failed drives suspensions on the track on the main technical characteristics of the conveyor belt with suspended belt was carried out.

  5. The impact of the provisions of the suspensions on the track of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive in violation of the power supply of the drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. Using the developed mathematical model of the failures drives suspensions due to the breakage of the electric circuit to the reference design of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive is performed modelling of dynamic characteristics. Investigation of the influence of the location of the failed drives suspensions on the track on the main technical characteristics of the conveyor belt with suspended belt was carried out.

  6. Walking Flexibility after Hemispherectomy: Split-Belt Treadmill Adaptation and Feedback Control (United States)

    Choi, Julia T.; Vining, Eileen P. G.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Bastian, Amy J.


    Walking flexibility depends on use of feedback or reactive control to respond to unexpected changes in the environment, and the ability to adapt feedforward or predictive control for sustained alterations. Recent work has demonstrated that cerebellar damage impairs feedforward adaptation, but not feedback control, during human split-belt treadmill…

  7. Modeling Electrostatic Fields Generated by Internal Charging of Materials in Space Radiation Environments (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.


    Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.

  8. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina


    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  9. Modelization of the SECM in molten salts environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.; Slim, C.; Di Caprio, D.; Delpech, S.; Stafiej, J.


    We develop a cellular automata simulation of SECM (Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy)experiments to study corrosion in molten salt media for generation IV nuclear reactors. The electrodes used in these experiments are cylindrical glass tips with a coaxial metal wire inside. As the result of simulations we obtain the current approach curves of the electrodes with geometries characterized by several values of the ratios of glass to metal area at the tip. We compare these results with predictions of the known analytic expressions, solutions of partial differential equations for flat uniform geometry of the substrate. We present also the results for other, more complicated substrate surface geometries e. g. regular saw modulated surface, or surface obtained by an Eden model process. We show that with a simple cellular automata model we can reasonably well simulate the results of SECM setup. The stochastic resolution of the diffusion equations is made possible by the parallel code implemented on GPU

  10. Trust and Compliance Management Models in Emerging Outsourcing Environments


    Pasic , Aljosa; Bareño , Juan; Gallego-Nicasio , Beatriz; Torres , Rubén; Fernandez , Daniel


    International audience; Businesses today have more than ever a sharp focus on reducing capital and operational expenses. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) and adoption of shared service models have all increased on a global scale. This results in an emerging complexity and volatility of business relationships. As the future internet of services evolves towards dynamic "service marketplaces", where shared services are discovered, negotiated and choreograph...

  11. Eolian Modeling System: Predicting Windblown Dust Hazards in Battlefield Environments (United States)


    trend (i.e., a straight line on log-log scales) given by R ∝ T–α, (1) where R is the accumulation rate, T is the time interval of accumulation, and α...Figure 5(A) for a representative set of model parameters. The straight line labeled by h represents a linear increase in epipedon thickness with time...Pelletier, Frequency-magnitude distribution of eolian transport and the geomorphically most-effective windstorm , submitted but not accepted to Geophysical

  12. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment. (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil


    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  13. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  14. Modelling the droplet interaction in a hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foissac, A.


    During the situation of a nuclear reactor cooling loss, the pressure of the containment building may increase due to a release of steam, of gas coming from fission products and also of explosive gas, like di-hydrogen, created by chemical reaction in the primary cooling system. The procedure plan consists in using the spray system, constituted by hundreds of nozzles, in order to decrease pressure and temperature, to wash out fission products and to enhance gas mixing to avoid explosive gas local accumulation. The efficiency of the spray system may depend on the size and the velocity of the spray droplets. These parameters can be modified by collisions, occurring as soon as the spray envelopes overlap. This work models the droplet size and velocity poly-dispersion, and its evolution due to the collisions, then, implements these models in the Eulerian NEPTUNE-CFD code. The sectional method is chosen, and the collision is modeled from the results obtained on an experimental facility for the study of the droplet binary collision under typical conditions of a reactor severe accident. The numerical simulation of the spray system has then been performed, and compared to the experimental results on a large scale bench for characterizing large industrial sprays. A good agreement is obtained. These results provide a first step toward a comprehensive simulation of a whole scenario of a reactor vessel under severe accident conditions with spray activation. (author)

  15. Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Maize Using Kernel Models with Genotype × Environment Interaction. (United States)

    Bandeira E Sousa, Massaine; Cuevas, Jaime; de Oliveira Couto, Evellyn Giselly; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Jarquín, Diego; Fritsche-Neto, Roberto; Burgueño, Juan; Crossa, Jose


    Multi-environment trials are routinely conducted in plant breeding to select candidates for the next selection cycle. In this study, we compare the prediction accuracy of four developed genomic-enabled prediction models: (1) single-environment, main genotypic effect model (SM); (2) multi-environment, main genotypic effects model (MM); (3) multi-environment, single variance G×E deviation model (MDs); and (4) multi-environment, environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe). Each of these four models were fitted using two kernel methods: a linear kernel Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GBLUP (GB), and a nonlinear kernel Gaussian kernel (GK). The eight model-method combinations were applied to two extensive Brazilian maize data sets (HEL and USP data sets), having different numbers of maize hybrids evaluated in different environments for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), and ear height (EH). Results show that the MDe and the MDs models fitted with the Gaussian kernel (MDe-GK, and MDs-GK) had the highest prediction accuracy. For GY in the HEL data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 9 to 32%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 9 to 49%. For GY in the USP data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 0 to 7%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 34 to 70%. For traits PH and EH, gains in prediction accuracy of models with GK compared to models with GB were smaller than those achieved in GY. Also, these gains in prediction accuracy decreased when a more difficult prediction problem was studied. Copyright © 2017 Bandeira e Sousa et al.

  16. Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Maize Using Kernel Models with Genotype × Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaine Bandeira e Sousa


    Full Text Available Multi-environment trials are routinely conducted in plant breeding to select candidates for the next selection cycle. In this study, we compare the prediction accuracy of four developed genomic-enabled prediction models: (1 single-environment, main genotypic effect model (SM; (2 multi-environment, main genotypic effects model (MM; (3 multi-environment, single variance G×E deviation model (MDs; and (4 multi-environment, environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe. Each of these four models were fitted using two kernel methods: a linear kernel Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GBLUP (GB, and a nonlinear kernel Gaussian kernel (GK. The eight model-method combinations were applied to two extensive Brazilian maize data sets (HEL and USP data sets, having different numbers of maize hybrids evaluated in different environments for grain yield (GY, plant height (PH, and ear height (EH. Results show that the MDe and the MDs models fitted with the Gaussian kernel (MDe-GK, and MDs-GK had the highest prediction accuracy. For GY in the HEL data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 9 to 32%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 9 to 49%. For GY in the USP data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 0 to 7%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 34 to 70%. For traits PH and EH, gains in prediction accuracy of models with GK compared to models with GB were smaller than those achieved in GY. Also, these gains in prediction accuracy decreased when a more difficult prediction problem was studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana A. Vakaliuk


    Full Text Available The article summarizes the essence of the category "model". There are presented the main types of models used in educational research: structural, functional, structural and functional model as well as basic requirements for building these types of models. The national experience in building models and designing cloud-based learning environment of educational institutions (both higher and secondary is analyzed. It is presented structural and functional model of cloud-based learning environment for Bachelor of Informatics. Also we describe each component of cloud-based learning environment model for bachelors of informatics training: target, managerial, organizational, content and methodical, communication, technological and productive. It is summarized, that COLE should solve all major tasks that relate to higher education institutions.

  18. Using Five Stage Model to Design of Collaborative Learning Environments in Second Life (United States)

    Orhan, Sevil; Karaman, M. Kemal


    Specifically Second Life (SL) among virtual worlds draws attention of researchers to form collaborative learning environments (Sutcliffe & Alrayes, 2012) since it could be used as a rich platform to simulate a real environment containing many collaborative learning characteristics and interaction tools within itself. Five Stage Model (FSM)…

  19. Multi-environment QTL mixed models for drought stress adaptation in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, K.L.; Malosetti, M.; Chapman, S.; McIntyre, L.; Reynolds, M.; Shorter, R.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.


    Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection methods ignore QTL-by-environment interaction (QEI) and are limited in accommodation of error and environment-specific variance. This paper outlines a mixed model approach using a recombinant inbred spring wheat population grown in six drought stress

  20. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams (United States)

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde


    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  1. Aging Well and the Environment: Toward an Integrative Model and Research Agenda for the Future (United States)

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Iwarsson, Susanne; Oswald, Frank


    Purpose of the Study: The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their…

  2. Modelling the impact of Cernavoda NPP on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.-I.


    In connection with a stay as a visiting researcher at VTT Energy (Technical Research Center of Finland), a study was conducted related to the atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants. The most important aspects of this study are described in this paper. These include: the application of the TRADOS dispersion and dose assessment model in the case of the Cernavoda NPP and the development of a special program INTEGRATION for the calculation of cloud gamma dose rate of 72 nuclides. (authors)

  3. Energy-Environment interface: an economic model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glot-Sanchez, N.


    This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part has four chapters, from the first to the fourth one;the second part has four chapters, from the fifth to the eighth one. The first part describes an analysis of different areas about the subject: the energy sphere, the environmental sphere, the notion of external effects and environmental policy in terms of instruments. The second part is the analysis of the results of a model, aiming to determine the energy strategies in matter of electricity production and their investments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. 181 refs

  4. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II. Effects, modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.L.


    This was the sixth International Specialty Conference on ozone for the Air ampersand Waste Management Association since 1978 and the first to be held in the Southeast. Of the preceding five conferences, three were held in Houston, one in New England, and one in Los Angeles. The changing location continues to support the understanding that tropospheric ozone is a nationwide problem, requiring understanding and participation by representatives of all regions. Yet, questions such as the following continue to be raised over all aspects of the nation's efforts to control ozone. Are the existing primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone the appropriate targets for the ozone control strategy, or should they be modified to more effectively accommodate new health or ecological effects information, or better fit statistical analyses of ozone modeling data? Are the modeling tools presently available adequate to predict ozone concentrations for future precursor emission trends? What ozones attainment strategy will be the best means of meeting the ozone standard? To best answer these and other questions there needs to be a continued sharing of information among researchers working on these and other questions. While answers to these questions will often be qualitative and location specific, they will help focus future research programs and assist in developing future regulatory strategies

  5. The modelling of tritium behaviour in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.


    In view of the operation of reprocessing plants and fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Tritium, however, is chemically identical to hydrogen and thus interacts directly with water and organic substances, making processes like conversion of HT to HTO, re-emission after deposition, and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium (OBT) relevant, all of which may modify the total balance of the available HT or HTO inventories. Because of these physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to inhalation and skin absorption and by ingestion pathways. The significance of the re-emission process in dose assessments - especially for HT-releases - has been clearly demonstrated in example calculations and applications of UFOTRI. The results of a comparison between an HT-release experiment in Canada 1987 and calculations of UFOTRI can be taken as a first validation of the model

  6. Increased prediction accuracy in wheat breeding trials using a marker × environment interaction genomic selection model. (United States)

    Lopez-Cruz, Marco; Crossa, Jose; Bonnett, David; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Singh, Ravi P; Autrique, Enrique; de los Campos, Gustavo


    Genomic selection (GS) models use genome-wide genetic information to predict genetic values of candidates of selection. Originally, these models were developed without considering genotype × environment interaction(G×E). Several authors have proposed extensions of the single-environment GS model that accommodate G×E using either covariance functions or environmental covariates. In this study, we model G×E using a marker × environment interaction (M×E) GS model; the approach is conceptually simple and can be implemented with existing GS software. We discuss how the model can be implemented by using an explicit regression of phenotypes on markers or using co-variance structures (a genomic best linear unbiased prediction-type model). We used the M×E model to analyze three CIMMYT wheat data sets (W1, W2, and W3), where more than 1000 lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and evaluated at CIMMYT's research station in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, under simulated environmental conditions that covered different irrigation levels, sowing dates and planting systems. We compared the M×E model with a stratified (i.e., within-environment) analysis and with a standard (across-environment) GS model that assumes that effects are constant across environments (i.e., ignoring G×E). The prediction accuracy of the M×E model was substantially greater of that of an across-environment analysis that ignores G×E. Depending on the prediction problem, the M×E model had either similar or greater levels of prediction accuracy than the stratified analyses. The M×E model decomposes marker effects and genomic values into components that are stable across environments (main effects) and others that are environment-specific (interactions). Therefore, in principle, the interaction model could shed light over which variants have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E. The data set and the scripts required to reproduce the analysis are

  7. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.


    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.


    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  9. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment (United States)

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit


    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  10. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats


    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna


    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  11. An integrated model of social environment and social context for pediatric rehabilitation. (United States)

    Batorowicz, Beata; King, Gillian; Mishra, Lipi; Missiuna, Cheryl


    This article considers the conceptualization and operationalization of "social environment" and "social context" with implications for research and practice with children and youth with impairments. We first discuss social environment and social context as constructs important for understanding interaction between external environmental qualities and the individual's experience. The article considers existing conceptualizations within psychological and sociological bodies of literature, research using these concepts, current developmental theories and issues in the understanding of environment and participation within rehabilitation science. We then describe a model that integrates a person-focused perspective with an environment-focused perspective and that outlines the mechanisms through which children/youth and social environment interact and transact. Finally, we consider the implications of the proposed model for research and clinical practice. This conceptual model directs researchers and practitioners toward interventions that will address the mechanisms of child-environment interaction and that will build capacity within both children and their social environments, including families, peers groups and communities. Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play, and love [p.2]. Understanding how social environment and personal factors interact over time to affect the development of children/youth can influence the design of services for children and youth with impairments. The model described integrates the individual-focused and environment-focused perspectives and outlines the mechanisms of the ongoing reciprocal interaction between children/youth and their social environments: provision of opportunities, resources and supports and contextual processes of choice, active engagement and collaboration. Addressing these mechanisms could contribute to creating healthier environments in which all

  12. An Open-Source Simulation Environment for Model-Based Engineering, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is a new spacecraft simulation environment for model-based engineering of flight algorithms and software. The goal is to provide a much faster way...

  13. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D


    ... architectures including hybrid architectures, and agent and Belief, Desires and Intentions (BDI) architectures. A list of projects with high payoff for modeling human performance in synthetic environments is provided as a conclusion.

  14. User Utility Oriented Queuing Model for Resource Allocation in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang


    Full Text Available Resource allocation is one of the most important research topics in servers. In the cloud environment, there are massive hardware resources of different kinds, and many kinds of services are usually run on virtual machines of the cloud server. In addition, cloud environment is commercialized, and economical factor should also be considered. In order to deal with commercialization and virtualization of cloud environment, we proposed a user utility oriented queuing model for task scheduling. Firstly, we modeled task scheduling in cloud environment as an M/M/1 queuing system. Secondly, we classified the utility into time utility and cost utility and built a linear programming model to maximize total utility for both of them. Finally, we proposed a utility oriented algorithm to maximize the total utility. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed model.

  15. Energy/environment 112/98 italian law. From model to feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorosino, S.; Mennella, M.


    In this paper reported some considerations related to the organization and management in matter of energy and environment in regional and local government. Administrative procedures, organizational models and feasibility in the italian regions are reported [it

  16. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Christopher D; Wolfson, Michael A


    Field measurements and acoustic propagation modeling for the frequency range 1 10 kHz are combined to analyze the acoustic environment of Haro Strait of Puget Sound, home to the southern resident killer whales...

  17. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter (United States)

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo


    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  18. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yao


    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  19. Modeling the behavior of optical elements in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, T.A.; Rhoades, C.E. Jr.; Merker, M.; Triplett, J.R.


    Calculation of heating caused by the deposition of x-rays in thin film optical elements is complicated because the mean free path of photo and autoionization electrons is comparable to the thin film thickness and thus the electron deposition cannot be considered local. This paper describes the modeling in a 1-D code of: (a) x-ray deposition and transport; (b) electron production, deposition and transport; and (c) thermal conduction and transport. X-ray transport is handled by multigroup discrete ordinates, electron transport is done by the method of characteristics, applied to the two term spherical harmonics expansion approximation (P1) to the Spencer-Lewis transport equation, and thermal transport is computed by a simple Richardson extrapolation of a backward Euler solution to the heat conduction equations. Results of a few test cases are presented. 8 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere (United States)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete


    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.