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Sample records for belt conveyor system

  1. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  3. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  4. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  5. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  6. Research on conditional characteristics vision real-time detection system for conveyor belt longitudinal tear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Li, Xinyu; Pang, Y.; Lü, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng; Jin, Baoquan

    2017-01-01

    Conveyor belt longitudinal tear is one of the most serious problems in coal mining. Existing systems cannot realise lossless and real-time detection for longitudinal tear of conveyor belt. Currently, visual detecting systems are proposed by many researchers and are becoming the future trend. A

  7. The chloroplast thylakoid membrane system is a molecular conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, C

    1988-10-01

    Light drives photosynthesis, but paradoxically light is also the most variable environmental factor influencing photosynthesis both qualitatively and quantitatively. The photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is adaptable in the extreme, as exemplified by its capacity for acclimation to very bright sunny or deeply shaded conditions. It can also respond to rapid changes in light such as sunflecks. In this paper I offer a model that i) explains the thylakoid membrane organisation into grana stacks and stroma lamellae, ii) proposes a role for rapid D1 protein turnover and LHCII phosphorylation, and iii) suggests a mechanism for photoinhibition. I argue that the photosynthetic membrane system is dynamic in three dimensions, so much so that, in the light, it is in constant motion and operates in a manner somewhat analogous to a conveyor belt. D1 protein degradation is proposed to be the motor that drives this system. Photoinhibition is suggested to be due to the arrest of D1 protein turnover.

  8. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  9. Review of Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Large Scale Belt Conveyor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Li, Hong

    Belt conveyor is one of the most important devices to transport bulk-solid material for long distance. Dynamic analysis is the key to decide whether the design is rational in technique, safe and reliable in running, feasible in economy. It is very important to study dynamic properties, improve efficiency and productivity, guarantee conveyor safe, reliable and stable running. The dynamic researches and applications of large scale belt conveyor are discussed. The main research topics, the state-of-the-art of dynamic researches on belt conveyor are analyzed. The main future works focus on dynamic analysis, modeling and simulation of main components and whole system, nonlinear modeling, simulation and vibration analysis of large scale conveyor system.

  10. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  12. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  13. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  14. An electromyographic and kinematic comparison between an extendable conveyor system and an articulating belt conveyor used for truck loading and unloading tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Nagavarapu, Shasank; Allread, W Gary

    2017-01-01

    Many retail distribution centers (DCs) manually load and unload boxes into or out of trailers and shipping containers. This study investigated whether an articulating belt conveyor with a height adjustable platform, positioned at the end of an extendable conveyor, significantly reduces shoulder and back muscle loading and the spine kinematics associated with these tasks. Electromyographic and kinematic data were collected from eight volunteer employees as trailers at a shoe DC were unloaded and from nine volunteer employees as trailers at an apparel DC were loaded. Participants in this repeated measures study handled boxes with a conventional powered extendable conveyor system and with the articulating belt conveyor positioned at the end of the extendable conveyor. Bilaterally the normalized activation levels of the erector spinae and anterior deltoid muscles were reduced when loading and unloading boxes with the articulating belt conveyor. Spine movement speeds were also reduced with the articulating conveyor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  16. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  19. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  20. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  1. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  2. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  3. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  4. The Design of RFID Conveyor Belt Gate Systems Using an Antenna Control Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPCglobal for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  5. INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROLLER ON THE POWER OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM OF THE BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz OPASIAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of new design of rollers. The study focused on the measurement of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers and the impact of new construction on the power consumption of the belt conveyor. Rollers have been modified through the use of class C4 bearing seals and labyrinth seal U4Exp 62/65 with a cover 2LU4 of runner construction. Measurements of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers were made on a universal rollers stand and power measurements were carried out on a belt conveyor power supply system Gwarek 1200 No. TW in mine KWK Mysłowice–Wesoła.

  6. Dynamic modelling and simulation of complex drive systems of large belt conveyors; Dynamische Modellierung und Simulation komplexer Antriebssysteme von Grossbandanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgwinkel, Paul; Vreydal, Daniel; Eltaliawi, Gamil; Vijayakumar, Nandhakumar [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR)

    2010-09-15

    For the first time the Co-simulation method was successfully used for full representation of a large belt conveyor for an open cast mine in a simulation model at the Institute for Mechanical Engineering in the Raw Materials Industry at Rhineland-Westphalia Technological University in Aachen. The aim of this project was the development of an electro-mechanical simulation model, which represents all components of a large belt conveyor from the drive motor to the conveyor belt in one simulation model and thus makes the interactions between the individual assemblies verifiable by calculations. With the aid of the developed model it was possible to determine critical operating speeds of the represented large belt conveyor and derive suitable measures to combat undesirable resonance states in the drive assembly. Furthermore it was possible to clarify the advantage of the full numerical representation of an electromechanical drive system. (orig.)

  7. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  8. Design of Online Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System for Belt Conveyors Based on Wavelet Packet Decomposition and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyors are the equipment widely used in coal mines and other manufacturing factories, whose main components are a number of idlers. The faults of belt conveyors can directly influence the daily production. In this paper, a fault diagnosis method combining wavelet packet decomposition (WPD and support vector machine (SVM is proposed for monitoring belt conveyors with the focus on the detection of idler faults. Since the number of the idlers could be large, one acceleration sensor is applied to gather the vibration signals of several idlers in order to reduce the number of sensors. The vibration signals are decomposed with WPD, and the energy of each frequency band is extracted as the feature. Then, the features are employed to train an SVM to realize the detection of idler faults. The proposed fault diagnosis method is firstly tested on a testbed, and then an online monitoring and fault diagnosis system is designed for belt conveyors. An experiment is also carried out on a belt conveyor in service, and it is verified that the proposed system can locate the position of the faulty idlers with a limited number of sensors, which is important for operating belt conveyors in practices.

  9. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  10. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  11. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  12. Release measurement of great amount of waste. Conveyor belt versus wire mesh pallet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland; Langer, Felix [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Great amount of waste has to be measured for release during the decommissioning and rebuilding of nuclear facilities and installation. Since the enclosed storage or decontamination is very expensive it is advisable for economic reasons to separate contaminated material. The necessary measurement is however a time and cost intensive work which has carefully provided. There are two general methods to perform this task: one is a continuously running system on the basis of a conveyor belt system. The other approach is a discontinuously running system using wire mesh pallets. With the knowledge from existing installations this article will discuss the pro's and contra's and show the limits of the systems.

  13. Converter-controlled belt conveyor systems under the difficult conditions; Umrichtergesteuerte Bandanlagen unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horz, Michael-Josef [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Abt. Elektrotechnik unter Tage; Mueller, Uwe [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste

    2010-05-15

    Panel 572 is located at a depth of 1,200 m in the Girondelle seam at the West mine. The panel has a mean thickness of 2.5 m and is designed as a shearer loader face with a length of 460 m. Coal is conveyed to the shaft by six belts with a total length of about 6 km and a total lifting height of 396 m. The main conveyor belt 1 with an installed power of 3 MW links the panel to a bunker. Conveyor belts 2 to 4 each with 500 kW drive power have operated in a stable manner since the start of working of the panel. Due to in-seam drivage with a selective-cut machine of type AM 85 an area with a marked trough was produced in the coal conveyor road. This area is traversed by belt 5. The planning and control of the conveyor belt in this difficult geological environment impose high demands on drive and control technology. To ensure stable operation under different loads a raft of measures was resolved and implemented. The contribution examines the problem and describes the implemented measures in detail. (orig.)

  14. Simulation Method of Designing and Selecting Tensioning Systems for Mining Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    This article deals with a methodology developed to design and select tensioning systems with using simulation studies on a belt conveyor model. It describes the structure of a dynamic model of a belt conveyor with distributed parameters and details of physical models of the applied belt tensioning systems. For proper display and comparison of work described tensioning systems are shown examples of the results of simulations carried out on a discrete model of the mining belt conveyor. Presented methodology has been verified through industrial research and realization of a number of complex projects requiring simulation tests of take-up systems of belt conveyors. W artykule przedstawiono symulacyjną metodę projektowania i doboru układów napinania taśmy, wykorzystującą wyniki badań modelowych, będącą często wymaganym rozszerzeniem stosowanych analitycznych metod obliczeniowych (Kulinowski, 2013b). Z uwagi na zjawiska falowe występujące w taśmie podczas nieustalonych stanów pracy przenośników taśmowych, rozruchu, hamowania i pracy przy zmiennej ilości nadawy, wyniki obliczeń uzyskane z wykorzystaniem standardowych metod obliczeniowych można uznać jedynie za szacunkowe lub wstępne do przeprowadzenia badań symulacyjnych. Charakter rozruchu przenośnika taśmowego zależy od typu zastosowanego urządzenia rozruchowego i napinającego, mas wprowadzanych w ruch oraz od własności sprężystych taśmy. Problemy związane z analizą pracy układów napędowych i urządzeń napinających podczas rozruchu przenośników cięgnowych rozwiązano z wykorzystaniem modelu dyskretnego o parametrach rozłożonych (Dolipski et al., 2012; Kulinowski, 2012) opisanego w pierwszej części publikacji. Badania symulacyjne przeprowadzone na takim modelu umożliwiają ocenę pracy przenośnika taśmowego wykorzystującego taśmę z rdzeniem tkaninowym lub stalowym, dlatego też kolejny rozdział artykułu poświęcono modelom reologicznym taśm przeno

  15. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  16. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  17. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  18. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  19. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  1. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  2. Variable-speed belt conveyor systems improve economy in operation; Drehzahlgeregelte Bandanlagen verbessern die betriebswirtschaftlichen Kennzahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Neuffer, I.; Weber, D. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Anlagenbau und Technische Dienstleistungen (ATD)

    1999-03-01

    Previous large conveyor system solutions were a compromise between mechanical design and electrical drive technology, usually based on slipring motors for cost reasons. Today`s power electronics systems now make it possible to use medium-voltage frequency converters in large conveyor systems. This new technology opens up design solutions with torque control that yield distinctly better behaviour under load fluctuation conditions, thereby reducing wear and tear. Experience gained from completed projects has shown that a higher-level load-dependent conveyor speed control can achieve energy savings of up to 20%, since material flows tend to be stochastic rather than constant. Maximum speed is required for short periods only and can therefore be obtained by means of field weakening, a higher gear ratio and short-time overshooting of the rated motor current. This permits the use of motors with smaller frame sizes. Furthermore, in view of the controlled torque and shorter belt runs, it is conceivable that built-in safety margins could be reduced. The solution presented here shows how a distinct improvement in cost efficiency can be attained. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bisherige Loesungen fuer grosse Bandanlagen sind ein Kompromiss zwischen mechanischer Konstruktion und elektrischer Antriebstechnik, bei der aus Kostengruenden meist Schleifringlaeufermotoren eingesetzt werden. Aufgrund der Moeglichkeiten, die die Leistungselektronik heute bietet, ist ein Einsatz von Mittelspannungsumrichtern auch auf diesem Gebiet realisierbar. Damit sind Loesungen moeglich, die besonders durch ein gefuehrtes Moment ein deutlich verbessertes Verhalten bei Momenten- oder Lastaenderungen herbeifuehren und damit eine materialschonende Betriebsweise ermoeglichen. Ausserdem hat sich bei ausgefuehrten Anlagen gezeigt, dass sich durch eine uebergeordnete foerderleistungsabhaengige Bandgeschwindigkeitsregelung auch Energie bis zu 20% einsparen laesst, da der Materialfluss nicht stetig, sondern eher

  3. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  4. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  5. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  6. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  7. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  8. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  9. Study on the reliability of the underground conveyor belt system installed at Vulcan Mine, the Jiu Valley Basin in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomuș Ovidiu-Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comprehensive reliability analysis of the conveyor belts belonging to an underground coal mine in the Jiu Valley, Romania. As resulted from the mine management reports, the transportation system is responsible for many downtimes and is a real bottleneck in the constant and adequate production, and the suspicion is the weak state of belt conveyers, which are the spinal column of the extraction process. For this reason, a comprehensive reliability analysis has been decided, in order to deliver a maintenance-upgrading plan.

  10. Investigations dealing with variable-speed drives of belt conveyor systems; Untersuchungen an drehzahlstellbaren Antrieben von Gurtbandfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvel, B. van den [RWE Power AG, Technikzentrum Tagebaue/Hauptwerkstatt, Versuchsabteilung, Frechen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Safe and faultless operation of belt conveyor systems is a crucial factor in maintaining the availability of interlinked conveying systems employed in mining operations; the use of components with a high efficiency or low energy consumption and energy-conserving plant operation modes allow economic efficiency to be enhanced. With the power increase of single drives to 2500 kW the static design is gaining significance and - with the introduction of variable-speed conveyor drives - particular importance is also to be attached to the proper dynamic design and adjustment of the drive units. Comprehensive measurement and computational studies made of different conveyor drive units in the 900 to 2500 kW power range revealed that excitations of torsional natural frequencies caused by the drives' tooth contact frequencies were the reason for the damage that had occurred; remedial measures were developed the efficacy of which was demonstrated in practice. Moreover, investigations aimed at precautionary damage prevention are described which were performed with newly designed gears prior to the conversion of proven conveyor drives to variable-speed drive units. When designing new gears in the future, we recommend to also investigate them with regard to their dynamic behaviour in the drive train during the design phase by performing appropriate torsional vibration analyses. (orig.)

  11. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  12. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  13. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  14. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  15. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  16. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  17. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  18. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  19. Condition-orientated servicing and maintenance of large belt conveyor systems. Examples from the management of belt conveyors and idler rollers in the Rhenish brown coal district; Zustandsorientierte Wartung und Instandhaltung von Grossbandanlagen. Beispiele aus der Foerdergurt- und Bandtragrollenbewirtschaftung im rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Marcus [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Frechen (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue/Maschinentechnik/Foerdergurte

    2009-04-28

    The belt conveyor systems and in particular the products used on them, viz. 'conveyor belts and idler rollers', are highly relevant to the costs of maintenance and strategically important for the system availability in open-cast mines. The measures described show how new technologies and methods are integrated in the open-cast mining processes. Conveyors, machines and tools are optimised and further developed within the framework of a continuous improvement process in order to meet more stringent requirements. Comparable further development and adaptation of new technologies takes place on all defined products. (orig.)

  20. Perancangan Prototype Early Warning System pada Kontrol On/Off Belt Conveyor Menggunakan PLC Siemens S7-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Taufik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation system become an important aspect of the manufacturing process because could make integration manufacturing process on it more effective and more efficient. PLC or Programmable Logic Controller is one kind of automation system. Many industries use PLC as automation control device in the manufacturing process to control all kind of process. For example at transportation process of coals in generator industry. Coals could be burned because main elements of coals are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Base on this prototype early warning system design, we get the result if sensor thermocouple detects temperature larger than setpoint temperature (it is 2000C, then PLC will give an order to shut down the output, that is a belt conveyor. The result of this prototype design could use at coals transportation as an early warning system. The design of prototype early warning system could detect and prevent fire because of the consequence of burned coals until spreading of fire could be avoided.

  1. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  2. Energy optimization of conveyor belts at RWE Power AG; Energetische Optimierung von Foerdergurten bei der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Manfred [RWE Power International RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Gewinnungs- und Foerdertechnik

    2009-11-15

    Influencing horizontal resistance to motion has the greatest leverage effect in terms of reducing the power requirements of belt conveyors. The selection of a suitable conveyor belt with optimized running resistance enables substantial cost savings, both with regard to current energy consumption and with regard to the drive power to be installed. Measurements carried out on standard conveyor belts used by RWE Power show differences of up to 30 % in the principal resistance. A method to reliably predict the energy properties of a conveyor belt by means of small specimens was developed. In addition, the requirements to be met in terms of mechanical endurance of a belt depending on conveyor configuration, which set limits to the development of energy-saving belts suitable for operation, will be outlined. To resolve this conflict of aims, conveyor engineers are given concrete tips on the design of belt conveyor systems. (orig.)

  3. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  4. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  5. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, S.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil

  6. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  7. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  8. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  9. The study of thickness and density compensation of neutron-measuring moisture system on conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin; Xu Zhongfeng

    1999-01-01

    The neutron-measuring transmission moisture system on the conveyer belt is systematically studied. A method of density and thickness compensation has been used to carryout the on-line measurements of the moisture of the unshaped, discontinuous and irregular moving matter. At the same time, the thickness weighed average method is employed to modify the prompt moisture at a fixed time, and to improve the accuracy of measuring the moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement errors are within ±2.5% when the thickness is between 2 cm and 16 cm and the water percentage is between 6% and 16%. The errors can reach 0.2% if thickness weighed average for moving matter lasts for a long time

  10. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  11. A new proved field-tested system for early detection of smouldering fire at conveyor belt equipment; Ein neues betriebsreifes System zur Glimmbrandfrueherkennung an Gurtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, H. [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW, Dortmund (Germany); Misz, Thomas [Zentralstab Kernbereich, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany)

    2009-11-05

    In underground mining, a CO (carbon oxide)-monitoring is not suitable, to detect a beginning fire in a very early stage and at its place of origin, especially when the ventilation current is very high. By the fibre-optical supervision system GESO, an additional early warning system was developed, which is very safe. It is used especially for belt conveyors in underground roadways. The technology for service temperature measurement, developed and extended for use in explosive atmosphere is state-of-the-art in industries on the surface. (orig.)

  12. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  13. This conveyor belt in a tube is a coal-heaver's dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorie, D

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a piece of equipment used for the handling of coal. Several of these tubulators have been installed in boiler houses in New Zealand. The tubulator is a conveyor belt in a tube and its details are presented. The innovative features of the conveyor are listed along with its advantages over existing systems.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE CHECK MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS ON MODEL BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  15. Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jason; Zheng, Yuxin; Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-08-26

    The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale biological and physical sciences over the past few decades. The progress made in this field invites further study of even smaller systems and at a larger scale, with tools that could be distributed more easily and made more widely available. Unfortunately, the fundamental laws of diffraction limit the minimum size of the focal spot of a laser beam, which makes particles smaller than a half-wavelength in diameter hard to trap and generally prevents an operator from discriminating between particles which are closer together than one half-wavelength. This precludes the optical manipulation of many closely-spaced nanoparticles and limits the resolution of optical-mechanical systems. Furthermore, manipulation using focused beams requires beam-forming or steering optics, which can be very bulky and expensive. To address these limitations in the system scalability of conventional optical trapping our lab has devised an alternative technique which utilizes near-field optics to move particles across a chip. Instead of focusing laser beams in the far-field, the optical near field of plasmonic resonators produces the necessary local optical intensity enhancement to overcome the restrictions of diffraction and manipulate particles at higher resolution. Closely-spaced resonators produce strong optical traps which can be addressed to mediate the hand-off of particles from one to the next in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. Here, we describe how to design and produce a conveyor belt using a gold surface patterned with plasmonic C-shaped resonators and how to operate it with polarized laser light to achieve super-resolution nanoparticle manipulation and transport. The nano-optical conveyor belt chip can be produced using lithography techniques and easily packaged and distributed.

  16. Diagnostics of Technical Condition of Gear Units of Belt Conveyors for the Aggregate of Methods of Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny G.; Gerike, Boris L.; Drozdenko, Yuriy V.; Lupiy, Michael G.; Grigoryeva, Natalya V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reviews the issues of complex use of methods of technical diagnostics of gearboxes for belt conveyors, with the aim of creating an effective system of maintenance. The article is showing the results of the evaluation of the technical condition of the drives of belt conveyors based on vibration monitoring and thermal parameters, and analysis of lubricating oil.

  17. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  18. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  19. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  20. New Quality Standards of Testing Idlers for Highly Effective Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Robert; Gladysiewicz, Lech; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents result of research and analyses carried out into the belt conveyors idlers’ rotational resistance which is one of the key factor indicating the quality of idlers. Moreover, idlers’ rotational resistance is important factor in total resistance to motion of belt conveyor. The evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers is carried out in accordance with actual national and international standards which determine the methodology of measurements and acceptable values of measured idlers’ parameters. Requirements defined by the standards, which determine the suitability of idlers to a specific application, despite the development of knowledge on idlers and quality of presently manufactured idlers maintain the same level of parameters values over long periods of time. Nowadays the need to implement new, efficient and economically justified solution for belt conveyor transportation systems characterized by long routes and energy-efficiency is often discussed as one of goals in belt conveyors’ future. One of the basic conditions for achieving this goal is to use only carefully selected idlers with low rotational resistance under the full range of operational loads and high durability. Due to this it is necessary to develop new guidelines for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in accordance with actual standards and perfecting of existing and development of new methods of idlers testing. The changes in particular should concern updating of values of parameters used for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in relation to belt conveyors’ operational challenges and growing demands in terms of belt conveyors’ energy efficiency.

  1. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  2. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-10-20

    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  3. Realization methodology for optimal design of steel structures conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of optimum design of metal structures of the fixed conveyor with hanging belt. The analysis results optimum design of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging belt.

  4. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  5. Start-up of belt conveyors used for haulage of large lumps under difficult climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, J

    1979-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out by the Research and Development Center for Brown Coal in Most, Czechoslovakia into effects of climate, weather and mass of coal lumps on reliability of belt conveyors in surface mines. Dirt buildup on the driving drums reduces friction and increases belt sliding hazards. Belt wear increases. Driving drum diameter, increased by the buildup, negatively influences load distribution among the electric motors of the drive system. In extreme cases belt wear and irregular load distribution cause belt failures. Methods for buildup removal used in Czechoslovakia and methods for protection of the return side of a conveyor are described. Effects of large mass of coal lumps and ice buildup on large lumps on the risk of belt damage (cuts, punctures etc,) are discussed. Recommendations for design of coal transfer points are made. 2 refs.

  6. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...

  7. Design of belt conveyor electric control device based on CC-link bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Goufen; Zhan, Minhua; Li, Jiehua

    2016-01-01

    In view of problem of the existing coal mine belt conveyor is no field bus communication function, two levels belt conveyor electric control system design is proposed based on field bus. Two-stage belt conveyor electric control system consists of operation platform, PLC control unit, various sensors, alarm device and the water spraying device. The error protection is realized by PLC programming, made use of CC-Link bus technology, the data share and the cooperative control came true between host station and slave station. The real-time monitor was achieved by the touch screen program. Practical application shows that the system can ensure the coalmine production, and improve the automatic level of the coalmine transport equipment.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  9. Transport of mass goods on the top run and bottom run of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, D

    1977-06-01

    For combined coal winning from the collieries 'General Blumenthal' and 'Ewald Fortsetzung' a large belt conveyor plant was taken into operation which is able to transport 1360 tons/h in the top run and 300 tons/h of dirt in the bottom run. The different types of coal are transported separately in intermittent operation with the aid of bunker systems connected to the front and rear of the belt conveyor. Persons can be transported in the top run as well as in the bottom run.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST METHODS OF THE CONVEYOR BELTS USED IN ENVIRONMENTS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSION HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  11. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  12. Automatic sampling technology in wide belt conveyor with big volume of coal flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15

    The principle and technique of sampling in a wide belt conveyor with high coal flow was studied. The design method of the technology, the key parameters, the collection efficiency, the mechanical unit, power supply and control system and worksite facility were ascertained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Application of cool wan flow control weight scale design on belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djokorayono, Rony; Junus; Rivai, A; Gunarwan; Indarzah

    2003-01-01

    Control of the coal mass flow on the belt conveyor at coal handling unit PLTU Suralaya has been designed by using weight scale of gamma absorption technique where accuracy for the measurement of weight scale system is 0,5% to 0,1%. The absorption gamma radiation will be measured by scintillation or ion chamber detector

  14. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  15. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  16. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  17. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  18. Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuming; Dong Shiyuan; Li Furong; Wan Zemin

    1991-01-01

    Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale is a reliable and on-line device that weighs solids mass flow continuously by γ-ray absorption and scattering. The operation principle and measuring method are described. And some factors influencing the accuracy are discussed. The full scale total weight of type QH-200 nuclear scale is 10 6 t. The result of calibration in the industrial field shows that the accuracy of QH-200 is better than ±1.0% for typical belt loading

  19. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  20. THE HARMONIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR A BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  1. PROPOSALS ON IMPROVING THE EXCAVATION, TRANSPORT AND COAL DEPOSIT, USING THE RUBBER CONVEYOR BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  2. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  3. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  4. On the weakly nonlinear, transversal vibrations of a conveyor belt with a low and time-varying velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweken, G.; van Horssen, W.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the weakly nonlinear, transversal vibrations of a conveyor belt will be considered. The belt is assumed to move with a low and time-varying speed. Using Kirchhoff's approach a single equation of motion will be derived from a coupled system of partial differential equations describing

  5. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  6. Evaluation of Criteria for the Detection of Fires in Underground Conveyor Belt Haulageways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka Eranda

    2012-07-01

    Large-scale experiments were conducted in an above-ground gallery to simulate typical fires that develop along conveyor belt transport systems within underground coal mines. In the experiments, electrical strip heaters, imbedded ~5 cm below the top surface of a large mass of coal rubble, were used to ignite the coal, producing an open flame. The flaming coal mass subsequently ignited 1.83-meter-wide conveyor belts located approximately 0.30 m above the coal surface. Gas samples were drawn through an averaging probe located approximately 20 m downstream of the coal for continuous measurement of CO, CO 2 , and O 2 as the fire progressed through the stages of smoldering coal, flaming coal, and flaming conveyor belt. Also located approximately 20 m from the fire origin and approximately 0.5 m below the roof of the gallery were two commercially available smoke detectors, a light obscuration meter, and a sampling probe for measurement of total mass concentration of smoke particles. Located upstream of the fire origin and also along the wall of the gallery at approximately 14 m and 5 m upstream were two video cameras capable of both smoke and flame detection. During the experiments, alarm times of the smoke detectors and video cameras were measured while the smoke obscuration and total smoke mass were continually measured. Twelve large-scale experiments were conducted using three different types of fire-resistant conveyor belts and four air velocities for each belt. The air velocities spanned the range from 1.0 m/s to 6.9 m/s. The results of these experiments are compared to previous large-scale results obtained using a smaller fire gallery and much narrower (1.07-m) conveyor belts to determine if the fire detection criteria previously developed (1) remained valid for the wider conveyor belts. Although some differences between these and the previous experiments did occur, the results, in general, compare very favorably. Differences are duly noted and their impact on fire

  7. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro

    2015-09-25

    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters.

  8. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Paul; Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    We propose a method for peristaltic transport of nanoparticles using the optical force field over a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures may be designed to produce strong near-field hot spots when illuminated. The hot spots function as optical traps, separately addressable by their resonant wavelengths and polarizations. By activating closely packed traps sequentially, nanoparticles may be handed off between adjacent traps in a peristaltic fashion. A linear repeating structure of three separately addressable traps forms a "nano-optical conveyor belt"; a unit cell with four separately addressable traps permits controlled peristaltic transport in the plane. Using specifically designed activation sequences allows particle sorting.

  9. Modelling and control system of multi motor conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the mathematical model of electromechanical system: conveyor – multimotor electric drive with a frequency converter, with the implementation in Simulink/MatLab, which allows one to perform studies of conveyor operation modes, taking into account the specifics of the mechanism with different electric drives control algorithms. The authors designed the mathematical models of the conveyor and its control system that provides increased uniformity of load distribution between drive motors and restriction of dynamic loads on the belt (over-regulation until 15%).

  10. Application of Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA to a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM Conveyor Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elbadawi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fault finding and failure predicting techniques in manufacturing and production systems often involve forecasting failures, their effects, and occurrences. The majority of these techniques predict failures that may appear during the regular system production time. However, they do not estimate the failure modes and they require extensive source code instrumentation. In this study, we suggest an approach for predicting failure occurrences and modes during system production time intervals at the University of Hail (UoH. The aim of this project is to implement failure mode effect and criticality analysis (FMECA on computer integrated manufacturing (CIM conveyors to determine the effect of various failures on the CIM conveyor belt by ranking and prioritizing each failure according to its risk priority number (RPN. We incorporated the results of FMECA in the development of formal specifications of fail-safe CIM conveyor belt systems. The results show that the highest RPN values are for motor over current failure (450, conveyor chase of vibration (400, belt run off at the head pulley (200, accumulated dirt (180, and Bowed belt (150. The study concludes that performing FMECA is highly effective in improving CIM conveyor belt reliability and safety in the mechanical engineering workshop at UoH.

  11. Minimising the fire hazard from the use of belt conveyors in intake roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeming, J.R. [Health and Safety Executive, Sheffield, S. Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The fire that occurred a the Creswell underground coal mine in Derbyshire in 1950 in which 90 miners lost their lives was caused by a damaged rubber conveyor belt that ignited after being friction heated. The fire propagated along the intake trunk roadway by the burning belt itself, which ignited the timber roadway supports and hampered fire-fighting efforts. This paper demonstrated that operating conveyors in intake trunk roadways presents a risk that products of combustion can be carried to the working areas of a mine via ventilation pathways, thus creating a hazard to the underground miners. In North America, the use of belt air is not commonly used to ventilate working areas. However, these arrangements are common in the United Kingdom. As such, installation, inspection and maintenance standards have been created to minimize the risk of fire in underground, remotely operated belt conveyors in underground mines. Monitoring systems are also in place for early detection of any fire. A review of recent underground fires in the United Kingdom has shown that the measures adopted have been successful in avoiding uncontrollable fires. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Studi Pengaruh Ukuran Butir Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Pasir Terhadap Performansi Belt Conveyor Pada Pabrik Pembuatan Tiang Beton

    OpenAIRE

    Depari, Prianto

    2010-01-01

    Pabrik pembuatan tiang beton yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material yang berbentuk bulk. Material pasir adalah salah satu contoh material bulk, yang diangkut dengan belt conveyor untuk proses mix bahan baku dari beton seperti kerikil, semen, agregat dan lain-lain. Penggunaan belt conveyor ini akan meningkatkan efisiensi kerja dari pabrik pembuatan beton. Performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu diidentifikasian secara baik dan benar. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan be...

  13. Plasmonic graded nano-disks as nano-optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhiwen; Lu, Haifei; Chen, Jiajie; Chen, Kun; Xu, Fang; Ho, Ho-Pui

    2014-08-11

    We propose a plasmonic system consisting of nano-disks (NDs) with graded diameters for the realization of nano-optical conveyor belt. The system contains a couple of NDs with individual elements coded with different resonant wavelengths. By sequentially switching the wavelength and polarization of the excitation source, optically trapped target nano-particle can be transferred from one ND to another. The feasibility of such function is verified based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique and the Maxwell stress tensor method. Our design may provide an alternative way to construct nano-optical conveyor belt with which target molecules can be delivered between trapping sites, thus enabling many on-chip optofluidic applications.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and secondary belt-conveyor drives. 75.1101 Section 75.1101 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor... be installed at main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. ...

  15. Influence of some design and operating parameters of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of several design and operating parameters of conveyor on the individual components of the stretching tension in the belt of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was analyzed. The analysis of influence a number design and operating parameters on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was done. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  16. Designing on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono

    2014-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this neutron activation technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed include the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition subsystem design, and operator computer console design. This program will use Nal(Tl) scintillation detector to detect gamma-rays emitted by elements in coal due to neutron activation of a neutron source, "2"5"2Cf (Californium-252). This basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  17. Simulation of the dust suppression process with foam in the areas of belt conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the analysis of the physical essence and simulation of the process of dust retention with foam in the air of working zones of belt conveyors transporting sand, crushed stone, gravel, coal, grain. In accordance with the proposed physical-energy concept of simulation of the process of dust control its physical essence is in a deliberate sequential action on the dust particles with previously prepared by the parameters external (additional dispersed systems. Use of dust retention technology foam method provides high efficiency of reducing the concentration of dust in the air of working areas of belt conveyors, which varies in the range of 85.0–99.0 %, which provides the standard level of dust contamination (MPC in air of working areas of listed industrial sources of formation and emission of dust.

  18. A multi points ultrasonic detection method for material flow of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For big detection error of single point ultrasonic ranging technology used in material flow detection of belt conveyor when coal distributes unevenly or is large, a material flow detection method of belt conveyor is designed based on multi points ultrasonic counter ranging technology. The method can calculate approximate sectional area of material by locating multi points on surfaces of material and belt, in order to get material flow according to running speed of belt conveyor. The test results show that the method has smaller detection error than single point ultrasonic ranging technology under the condition of big coal with uneven distribution.

  19. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  20. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  1. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.

  2. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  3. RESEARCH ON THE HOMOGENEITY OF TEMPERATURES IN JOINT'S AREA BY VULCANIZING THE CONVEYOR BELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DOBROTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in this paper have followed the analysis of the heat transfer mode during joining through vulcanization of the conveyor belts and also the homogeneity of the temperatures in the joint area. The researches were made under laboratory conditions taking into account the process of joining of two conveyor belts of the type ST 2000 with an installation of the type DSLQ. Temperature measurement was conducted using an EX42570 pyrometer in four distinct points corresponding to each end of the two conveyor belts on the both sides of the band, namely the active and inactive side.

  4. A new press line concept for conveyor belts; Neues Pressenkonzept fuer Foerdergurte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumueller, Steffen [Siempelkamp Maschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Pressure and temperature are the relevant process parameters for the vulcanisation of rubber products. Particularly, the vulcanisation of large-surface rubber products such as belt conveyors sets large requirements on the mechanical characteristics of the press lines. Siempelkamp Maschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH and Co. KG (Krefeld, Federal Republic of Germany) is specialized on these requirements. For over 100 years, this company constructs vulcanisation presses for the belt conveyor industry. In the first ten decades, the layout of the press lines according to stiffness and transmission of large forces were in the focus. Till to the late 1980ies, these press lines represented the standard of the belt conveyor industry.

  5. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  6. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts

    OpenAIRE

    Maras Michal; Hatala Jozef; Marasová Daniela

    1997-01-01

    Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modellin...

  7. Vibration analysis on automatic take-up device of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tailong; Wei, Jin

    2008-10-01

    Through introducing application condition of belt conveyor in the modern mining industry, the paper proposed, in the dynamic course of its starting, braking or loading, it would produce moving tension and elastic wave. And analyzed the factors cause the automatic take-up device of belt conveyor vibrating: the take-up device's structure and the elastic wave. Finally the paper proposed the measure to reduce vibration and carried on the modeling and simulation on the tension buffer device.

  8. Relocation of belt conveyors along the final slope of the Belacevac surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, N; Rosic, Z

    1987-07-01

    Describes how following a landslide on the northern wing of the Belacevac surface coal mine the belt conveyor lines had to be relocated in order to assure a reliable coal supply to the Kosovo A and Kosovo B thermal power stations. The relocation was achieved in three phases with new approach cuts being made, necessitating the removal of 280,000 m/sup 3/ of overburden in the first phase and 870,000 m/sup 3/ in the second phase of the reconstruction. Illustrates the relocation of the conveyor system by means of site plans and notes that the production of coal and the removal of overburden were not interrupted during the relocation exercise. 2 refs.

  9. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maras Michal

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modelling the dynamic force acting on the conveyor belt. In the conclusions of the paper there are given table and graphical results of the numerical modelling aimed at solving the problems connected with the damaging of a conveyor belt. By numerical modelling, in this case the finite element method, in the given way can be realized the parametric studies with changing values of input parameters, especially: - stretching force, - thickness of cover layers of the conveyor belt and strain properties of the rubber, - parameters of the steel cord of the conveyor belt.

  10. Mules needed to install belt conveyor. Beumer executes major order in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    Asia Cement Group, a major building material manufacturer headquartered in Taipeh (Taiwan), has built a new plant in the vicinity of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. Currently, a kiln with a capacity of 4200 tons per day is installed there. For moving the limestone from the quarry to the factory, located 30 km away, the Asia Cement Group has commissioned BEUMER with constructing a curved belt conveyor. The major order with a total volume of EUR 5 million includes design and installation of a 12.5-kilometre long system through rough mountainous terrain. (orig.)

  11. Influence of some design and operating parameters of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of several design and operating parameters of conveyor on the individual components of the stretching tension in the belt of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was analyzed. The analysis of influence a number design and operating parameters on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was done. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  12. Attachment of Salmonella serovars and Listeria monocytogenes to stainless steel and plastic conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluz, G A; Pitchiah, S; Alvarado, C Z

    2012-08-01

    In poultry industry, cross-contamination due to processing equipment and contact surfaces is very common. This study examined the extent of bacterial attachment to 6 different types and design of conveyor belts: stainless steel-single loop, stainless steel-balance weave, polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric, acetal, polypropylene mesh top, and polypropylene. Clean conveyor belts were immersed separately in either a cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis) or Listeria monocytogenes strains (Scott A, Brie 1, ATCC 6744) for 1 h at room temperature. Soiled conveyor chips were dipped in poultry rinses contaminated with Salmonella or Listeria cocktail and incubated at 10°C for 48 h. The polyurethane with mono-polyester fabric conveyor belt and chip exhibited a higher (Pconveyor belt attached a lower (Pconveyor belts exhibited stronger bacterial adhesion compared with stainless steel. The result suggests the importance of selecting the design and finishes of conveyor belt materials that are most resistant to bacterial attachment.

  13. Determination of acceleration for belt conveyor speed control in transient operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Speed control has been found a feasible mean to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. However, the current research has not taken the determination of the acceleration in transient operation into account sufficiently. With respect to the belt tension rating, demanded safety factor and the

  14. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at 37 °C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6 h at 10 °C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly...

  15. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  16. The need for sustainable technology diffusion in mining: Achieving the use of belt conveyor systems in the German hard-rock quarrying industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of raw materials can be one of the most challenging tasks in open pit mining, with truck transportation representing the largest factor in mining costs and resulting in major greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In this study, the transportation methods of bulk materials within German hard-rock open pit mines were investigated. Approximately 450 quarries were studied for their production tonnage, lease areas, mined rock type as well as mining methods and processing equipment. The results demonstrate that 90% of the operations use truck-based transportation methods, with the remainder relying partly or completely on continuous conveyor-based systems. The installation of continuous conveyors compared to trucks represents a real alternative because of reduced dead load, reduced GHG emissions and in many cases even reduced costs. Thus, for in-pit haulage in quarries sustainable technology substitutions exist that are yet to be adopted by the German quarrying industry. As this study shows, in the future the diffusion of sustainable technologies requires site champions and large-scale case studies that demonstrate their successful introduction in the mining value chain.

  17. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  18. Conceptual design of novel IP-conveyor-belt Weissenberg-mode data-collection system with multi-readers for macromolecular crystallography. A comparison between Galaxy and Super Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, N; Sakabe, K; Sasaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy is a Weissenberg-type high-speed high-resolution and highly accurate fully automatic data-collection system using two cylindrical IP-cassettes each with a radius of 400 mm and a width of 450 mm. It was originally developed for static three-dimensional analysis using X-ray diffraction and was installed on bending-magnet beamline BL6C at the Photon Factory. It was found, however, that Galaxy was also very useful for time-resolved protein crystallography on a time scale of minutes. This has prompted us to design a new IP-conveyor-belt Weissenberg-mode data-collection system called Super Galaxy for time-resolved crystallography with improved time and crystallographic resolution over that achievable with Galaxy. Super Galaxy was designed with a half-cylinder-shaped cassette with a radius of 420 mm and a width of 690 mm. Using 1.0 A incident X-rays, these dimensions correspond to a maximum resolutions of 0.71 A in the vertical direction and 1.58 A in the horizontal. Upper and lower screens can be used to set the frame size of the recorded image. This function is useful not only to reduce the frame exchange time but also to save disk space on the data server. The use of an IP-conveyor-belt and many IP-readers make Super Galaxy well suited for time-resolved, monochromatic X-ray crystallography at a very intense third-generation SR beamline. Here, Galaxy and a conceptual design for Super Galaxy are described, and their suitability for use as data-collection systems for macromolecular time-resolved monochromatic X-ray crystallography are compared.

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling of Conveyor Belt Passage by Driving Drum Using Finite Element Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Mikušová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The finite element methods are used in many disciplines by the development of products, typically in mechanical engineering (for example in automotive industry, biomechanics, etc.. Some modern programs of the finite element's methods have specific tools (electromagnetic, fluid and structural simulations. The finite elements methods allow detailed presentation of structures by bending or torsion, complete design, testing and optimization before the prototype production. The aims of this paper were to the model of conveyor belt passage by driving drum. The model was created by the program Abaqus CAE. The created model presented data about forces, pressures, and deformation of the belt conveyor.

  1. Transient Torsional Analysis of a Belt Conveyor Drive with Pneumatic Flexible Shaft Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaššay Peter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development and application of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings have been in the center of our department research activities for a long time. These couplings are able to change torsional stiffness by changing pressure in their flexible elements – air bellows. Until now we have dealt with the use of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings for tuning mechanical systems working with periodically alternating load torque at steady state. Some mechanical systems, however, operate with a static load torque at constant speed (e.g. hoists, elevators, etc., where it is necessary to consider the suitability of shaft coupling in terms of load torque at transient conditions (run-up and braking. Therefore we decided to analyze the use of pneumatic flexible shaft couplings also in this type of mechanical systems on an example of conveyor belt drive.

  2. Idealized debris flow in flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chi-Hai; Chen, Cheng-lung

    1989-01-01

    The generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model is used to derive the theoretical expressions of two-dimensional velocities and surface profile for debris flow established in a flume with bed driven by a conveyor belt. The rheological parameters of the GVF model are evaluated through the comparison of theoretical results with measured data. A slip velocity of the established (steady) nonuniform flow on the moving bed (i.e., the conveyor belt) is observed, and a relation between the slip velocity and the velocity gradient at the bed is derived. Two belts, one rough and the other smooth, were tested. The flow profile in the flume is found to be linear and dependent on the roughness of the belt, but not much on its speed.

  3. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-02

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems.

  4. Device for determining the content of bulk materials on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, D.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the forward scattering of photon radiation the invention is aimed at determining the content of bulk material, in particular the ash content of lignite, independently of the height of the material conveyed by belts. This could be achieved by making the radiation source support movable, so that the distance between source and conveyor belt is variable and adaptable to the mean height of the bulk material

  5. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at

  6. Studies of The Durability of Belt Conveyor Idlers with Working Loads Taken into Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The results of laboratory and operational studies conducted in the Machinery Systems Division of Wroclaw University of Technology in recent years have became the basis for selecting proper belt conveyor roller designs optimized for specific strength and operational criteria. The usefulness of the results for assessing the energy intensity of idlers, estimating their durability and determining modernization policies has been confirmed. Methods of estimating the durability of carrying idlers on the basis of the identified output stream distributions are presented. Results of studies carried out using an analytical method and a laboratory method are reported. It has been shown that the operational durability of a roller is determined by its design, the roller set parameters (the spacing and the angle of bevel) and the operating conditions having a bearing on the irregularity of the transported output stream.

  7. A Comparison of Effective Tension Calculation for Design Belt Conveyor between CEMA and DIN Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Iman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era, many industries are demanding material transfer equipment that works maximally and cheaply. Belt Conveyor is one of the most efficient material transfer equipment compared to heavy equipment or other transportation equipment, because it can transport the material in large capacity. When designing conveyor belts, many industries want large transport capacity at low cost. One of the cost savings can be done with low motor power consumption. Many standards describe the effective tension calculation on the conveyor belt in detail with the parameters, since the effective tension calculation results are essential for determining motor power. This paper aims to analyze the effective tension on conveyor belts using CEMA 5th, CEMA 6th and DIN 22101 standards with case studies of 1000 TPH carrying capacity and 3 m/s conveyor speed. The difference between CEMA and DIN when determining the effective tension is on the use of coefficient of friction, because DIN uses a global coefficient of friction while CEMA uses different friction coefficients on idler, belt and material. This difference in coefficient of friction results in different ways of calculating the resistance being the accumulation of the effective tension. The result is an effective tension value using DIN 22101 standard of 22,148.16 N with motor power consumption of 66.5 kW, while effective tension value using CEMA 5th standard is 32.201.66 N with motor power consumption 96.47 kW, and effective tension value using CEMA 6th standard is 29,686.48 N with 89.06 kW motor power consumption.

  8. Large belt conveyors: starting them and keeping them going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Although heavy-duty conveyor drives are subjected to some of the most severe operating conditions, it is still possible to achieve reliability and low maintenance. Some areas where choices in design and construction can make a difference include thermal capacity, sealing, lubrication and strength. Dodge recently brought out its redesigned Global Series 750 CST - controlled start transmission - a multi-stage gear reducer with an internal clutch designed for smooth starting of high inertia loads on long-distance conveyors. The Antelope Mine in Wyoming's Powder River Basin first installed Dodge CST units in 1984 and has added more units over the years. CSTs have also been successfully employed in Australian coal mines. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  9. Impact of Selected Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of Splices on Multiply Textile Conveyor Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Mirosław; Błażej, Ryszard; Hardygóra, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Splices are the weakest points in the conveyor belt loop. The strength of these joints, and thus their design as well as the method and quality of splicing, determine the strength of the whole conveyor belt loop. A special zone in a splice exists, where the stresses in the adjacent plies or cables differ considerably from each other. This results in differences in the elongation of these elements and in additional shearing stresses in the rubber layer. The strength of the joints depends on several factors, among others on the parameters of the joined belt, on the connecting layer and the technology of joining, as well as on the materials used to make the joint. The strength of the joint constitutes a criterion for the selection of a belt suitable for the operating conditions, and therefore methods of testing such joints are of great importance. This paper presents the method of testing fatigue strength of splices made on multi-ply textile conveyor belts and the results of these studies.

  10. Modern conveyors move more coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-10-15

    Belt makers and belt designers of underground and overground systems engineer high capacity systems while preparing for new regulations which could reshape how conveyors are designed, probably leading to increased costs. The article reviews developments by manufacturers such as Fenner Dunlop, Continental Conveyor and Equipment Company and Veyance Technologies (previously Goodyear Engineered Products). 3 photos.

  11. Method of modifying conveyor belt profile for monitoring ask content of coarse grain coal by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taborsky, J.; Tryzna, P.; Formanek, Z.; Vales, J.

    1982-01-01

    The conveyor belt is gripped in the chosen place with benches to form a V shape with a constant cross section independent of the immediate amount of transported coal. At this point the source and the radiation intensity monitor are placed in horizontal plane on the sides of the conveyor belt. Their connecting line is perpendicular to the direction of the movement of the conveyor belt. Thus, monitoring of the ash content of mined coal and operative control of mining according to measured values are made possible. (Ha)

  12. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun

    2007-03-01

    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P conveyor belt materials.

  13. Conveyor system bolt failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, S.H.; Waaser, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Reactors at SRP are used to produce nuclear isotopes for national defense. As part of the routine operation of each of the reactors, irradiated fuel assemblies are remotely discharged from the reactor, transferred in air, and placed underwater in a Deposit and Exit (D and E) canal. The D and E conveyor transports the assemblies under the reactor room wall into the disassembly basin, where they are stored for several months before shipment to the separations areas. On August 13, 1980, a broken bolt was discovered on the D and E conveyor during a routine pre-operational inspection. The failed bolt was one of four which anchor a bearing on one of the conveyor drive shafts. All four of the bolts on the affected bearing were replaced as an immediate corrective measure and the discharge of irradiated fuel assemblies was subsequently completed without difficulty

  14. The Question of Energy-Efficient Design of the Automated Electric Drive of Multi-Engine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semykina Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method for improving the energy efficiency of multi-motor variable frequency electric drives of trunk belt conveyors, based on the conveyor speed changing and controlling of the magnetic state of the motor. At conclusion, economic and energy effects of the implementation are estimated.

  15. Influence analysis of design parameters of suspensions on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the basic design of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive, a series of numerical calculations was performed. As a result, the influence of friction and mass-dimensional design parameters of suspensions on the main technical parameters of the conveyor was established. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  16. Estimation of Rheological Properties of Viscous Debris Flow Using a Belt Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, J.; Steinwendtner, H.

    2000-09-01

    Rheological parameters of viscous debris flows are influenced by a great amount of factors and are therefore extremely difficult to estimate. Because of this uncertainties a belt conveyor (conveyor channel) was constructed to measure flow behaviour and rheological properties of natural debris flow material. The upward movement of the smooth rubberised belt between fixed lateral plastic walls causes a stationary wave relative to these bends. This special experimental design enables to study behaviour of viscous ebris flow material with maximum grain diameters up to 20 mm within several minutes and to hold measuring equipment very simple. The conveyor channel was calibrated first with Xanthan, a natural polysaccharide used as thickener in food technology, whose rheological properties are similar to viscous debris flow material. In a second step natural debris flow material was investigated. Velocities and rheological parameters were measured with varying solid concentration and slope of the channel. In cases where concentration of coarse particles exceed around 15% by volume the conveyor channel obtains an alternative to expensive commercial viscometers for determination of rheological parameters of viscous debris flows.

  17. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing.

  18. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  19. ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT RESISTANCE OF CONVEYOR BELT AND ROLLERS IN THE COAL MINE MYSŁOWICE-WESOŁA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz OPASIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of new design of SAG rollers. The study focused on the measurement of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers and the impact of new construction on the power consumption of the conveyor. Rollers have been modified through the use of class C4 bearing seals and labyrinth seal U4Exp 62/65 with a cover 2LU4 of runner construction. Measurements of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers were made on a universal rollers test bench, and power measurements were carried out on a belt conveyor power supply system Gwarek 1200 No. TW in KWK Mysłowice-Wesoła

  20. Development of a method for the noncontact moisture measurement of different materials at a belt conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory tests a method was developed for a contactless moisture measurement at belt conveyors of different materials like coal, clay, industrial slay and stones of inflating clay. The moisture was measured with an 241 Am-Be-neutron source, the absolute necessary determination of the changing flow of material was made with the gamma rays of 137 Cs or 241 Am. The analysis of the records shows, that to all measuring values mathematical defined curves could be found, so that methods of calculation for the moisture content could be deduced. The maximal obtainable accuracy is about ± 0.5 percentage by weight. With the industrial slay and the stones of inflating clay supplementary tests were made direct on the belt conveyor. They show, that also in the practice good results can be obtained. (orig.) [de

  1. Using the classical linear regression model in analysis of the dependences of conveyor belt life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Andrejiová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the classical linear regression model of the dependence of conveyor belt life on some selected parameters: thickness of paint layer, width and length of the belt, conveyor speed and quantity of transported material. The first part of the article is about regression model design, point and interval estimation of parameters, verification of statistical significance of the model, and about the parameters of the proposed regression model. The second part of the article deals with identification of influential and extreme values that can have an impact on estimation of regression model parameters. The third part focuses on assumptions of the classical regression model, i.e. on verification of independence assumptions, normality and homoscedasticity of residuals.

  2. Detection of the strange bodies on the conveyor belt using gamma radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, A.; Ochiana, G.; Oncescu, M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method for the computation of the activity of a gamma radiation source used in a radiometric assembly designed to detect the strange bodies (iron, stone or wood-made granules) within the textile material on the conveyor belt. The mathematical modelling method based on the Monte Carlo procedure has been used, with different values of the errors of types I and II; the investigation method is the transmission of gamma radiations. (Author)

  3. The energy-saving design of belt conveyors. Energiesparende Auslegung von Gurtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greune, A

    1989-01-01

    The examination of the factors affecting the main resistance on an experimental belt conveyor was carried out by varying the velocity and tension of the belt, the diameter of the carrying idlers and the distance between them, and, for the first time, this examination was performed on different belts with different covers. The influences of the varied parameters for the proportions of main resistance, frictional resistance due to imprint, belt flexing resistance and the rotational resistance of the idlers were recorded with the use of formulae and were graphically represented. For the entire relative main resistance referred to 1 m plant length it was possible to obtain a minimum for a particular combination of parameters, and further recommendations for the energy-saving design of belt conveyors were deduced from this. The joint goals of reducing the load-dependence of the rotational resistance and of improving the reliability of seals, at the same time keeping the number of parts to a minimum and making assembly simple, formed the focal point of examination into the possibilities of improving the construction of carrying idlers. Thus, individual components and alternative constructions were examined on a test bench for measuring the rotational resistance as well as on a test bench for seals, and indications for the design of individual assembly groups were developed from this. (orig.).

  4. Range camera on conveyor belts: estimating size distribution and systematic errors due to occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Mats; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1999-11-01

    When range cameras are used for analyzing irregular material on a conveyor belt there will be complications like missing segments caused by occlusion. Also, a number of range discontinuities will be present. In a frame work towards stochastic geometry, conditions are found for the cases when range discontinuities take place. The test objects in this paper are pellets for the steel industry. An illuminating laser plane will give range discontinuities at the edges of each individual object. These discontinuities are used to detect and measure the chord created by the intersection of the laser plane and the object. From the measured chords we derive the average diameter and its variance. An improved method is to use a pair of parallel illuminating light planes to extract two chords. The estimation error for this method is not larger than the natural shape fluctuations (the difference in diameter) for the pellets. The laser- camera optronics is sensitive enough both for material on a conveyor belt and free falling material leaving the conveyor.

  5. Online analysis of coal on a conveyor belt by use of machine vision and kernel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, C.; Jemwa, G.T.; van Dyk, J.C.; Keyser, M.J.; van Heerden, J.H.P. [University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch (South Africa). Dept. of Process Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the use of image analysis to quantify the amount of fines (6mm) present for different coal samples under conditions simulating the coal on conveyor belts similar to those being used by Sasol for gasification purposes. Quantification of the fines will be deemed particularly successful, if the fines mass fraction, as determined by sieve analysis, is possible to be predicted with an error of less than 10%. In this article, kernel-based methods to estimate particle size ranges on a pilot-scale conveyor belt as well as edge detection algorithms are considered. Preliminary results have shown that the fines fraction in the coal on the conveyor belt could be estimated with a median error of approximately 24.1%. This analysis was based on a relatively small number of sieve samples (18 in total) and needs to be validated by more samples. More samples would also facilitate better calibration and may lead to improved estimates of the sieve fines fractions. Similarly, better results may also be possible by using different approaches to image acquisition and analysis. Most of the error in the fines estimates can be attributed to sampling and to fines that were randomly obscured by the top layer (of larger particles) of coal on the belt. Sampling errors occurred as a result of some breakage of the coal between the sieve analyses and the acquisition of the images. The percentage of the fines obscured by the top layer of the coal probably caused most of the variation in the estimated mass of fines, but this needs to be validated experimentally. Preliminary studies have indicated that some variation in the lighting conditions have a small influence on the reliability of the estimates of the coal fines fractions and that consistent lighting conditions are more important than optimal lighting conditions.

  6. Investigating possible use of roller bearings made of plastic in belt conveyor idlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzeszek, A

    1979-05-01

    This paper presents results of laboratory and operational tests of roller bearings made of polyamide in belt conveyor idlers. During operational tests the conveyor was inclined to one side so the load on individual bearings varied and the bearings were also covered with dust and dirt. The tests show that the first failures of the plastic bearings took place after 3 months but some of the bearings were in operation one year without failures. All the failures were caused by wear of the bearing due to dust and dirt on their sliding surface. Increased friction resulted in higher temperatures which deformed the bearings. The tests showed that the bearings which were not dirty operated without failure. It is concluded that the plastic-made roller bearings cannot be used under conditions of brown coal surface mines as these mines are characterized by intense dustfall and by dirt which would increase friction in the bearings. (In Polish)

  7. Noise Reduction of Steel Cord Conveyor Belt Defect Electromagnetic Signal by Combined Use of Improved Wavelet and EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the noise of a defect electromagnetic signal of the steel cord conveyor belt used in coal mines, a new signal noise reduction method by combined use of the improved threshold wavelet and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD is proposed. Firstly, the denoising method based on the improved threshold wavelet is applied to reduce the noise of a defect electromagnetic signal obtained by an electromagnetic testing system. Then, the EMD is used to decompose the denoised signal and then the effective Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF is extracted by the dominant eigenvalue strategy. Finally, the signal reconstruction is carried out by utilizing the obtained IMF. In order to verify the proposed noise reduction method, the experiments are carried out in two cases including the defective joint and steel wire rope break. The experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper obtains the higher Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR for the defect electromagnetic signal noise reduction of steel cord conveyor belts.

  8. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  9. Design and commissioning of the 40.10 large belt conveyor; Auslegung und Inbetriebnahme der Grossbandanlage 40.10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatter, H. [Bergwerk Saar, Saarbruecken (Germany); Wiedenroth, J. [Koch Transporttechnik GmbH, Wadgassen (Germany); Keller, K.

    2006-03-23

    The Saar colliery with an output of 15.000 t saleable output/day is one of the most efficient mines of DSK. In view of the northward migration of the faces and the incorporation of the new Primsmulde field it was necessary to optimise the existing infrastructure of the colliery and adapt it to the new situation. A central element of this optimisation was the new 40.10 conveyor connection. The contribution deals with the design, assembly and commissioning of the 40.10 belt conveyor which is one of the largest conveyors in deep coal mines with an installed power of 6.000 kW. (Orig.)

  10. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  11. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  12. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  13. Aircraft measurements within a warm conveyor belt during the T-NAWDEX-FALCON campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfler, Andreas; Boettcher, Maxi; Borrmann, Stephan; Busen, Reinhold; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Grams, Christian; Kaufmann, Stefan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Lammen, Yannick; Reutter, Philipp; Rautenhaus, Marc; Schlager, Hans; Sodemann, Harald; Voigt, Christiane; Wernli, Heini

    2013-04-01

    Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) are air streams that are highly relevant for the dynamics in the mid-latitudes as they strongly influence the evolution and intensity of northern hemispheric mid-latitude weather systems. For the predictability of cyclones the representation of diabatic processes associated with latent heat release due to phase transitions of water, surface fluxes, or radiative effects are believed to be a limiting factor. Diabatic processes in cyclones strongly depend on the transport of water vapor and are mainly organized and controlled by the coherently ascending WCB air masses. In October 2012 the T-NAWDEX-Falcon (THORPEX-North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign was organized by DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and ETH Zurich. During 9 research flights over Europe in-cloud measurements in WCBs were obtained with the DLR aircraft Falcon. Lagrangian flights were conducted with the aim to measure in the same air mass during different stages of the WCB to quantify the transport of moisture and the net latent heating along WCBs and their importance for forecast errors associated with mid-latitude weather systems. Besides in-situ observations of wind, temperature and humidity to characterize the thermodynamic structure of the WCBs, a set of dropsondes was deployed to gain a complete view on the complex structure of the cyclone. This presentation gives an overview of the three successful IOPs performed during the T-NAWDEX-Falcon campaign. To address forecast uncertainty and to enable flight planning up to four days in advance of the flights novel diagnostics based on deterministic and ensemble prediction NWP data were employed during the campaign. Furthermore a number of different trajectory models were applied for this field experiment. Based on selected flights from one intensive observation period the challenging planning process of Lagrangian matches of flight paths is described and first results are presented.

  14. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hansen, Paul; Cheng, Yao-Te; Lu, Tsung-Ju; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    Optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate biological and colloidal material, but the diffraction limit of far-field optics makes focused beams unsuitable for manipulating nanoscale objects with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. While plasmonic structures have recently been successful in trapping nanoscale objects with high positioning accuracy, using such structures for manipulation over longer range has remained a significant challenge. In this work, we introduce a conveyor belt design based on a novel plasmonic structure, the resonant C-shaped engraving (CSE). We show how long-range manipulation is made possible by means of handoff between neighboring CSEs, and we present a simple technique for controlling handoff by rotating the polarization of laser illumination. We experimentally demonstrate handoff between a pair of CSEs for polystyrene spheres 200, 390, and 500 nm in diameter. We then extend this technique and demonstrate controlled particle transport down a 4.5 μm long "nano-optical conveyor belt."

  15. Belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Hoferek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá problematikou pásového dopravníku pro přepravu suchého písku. Cílem práce je provést konstrukční řešení pásového dopravníku podle zadaných parametrů, kterými jsou dopravní výkon 100 000 kg.h-1, výškový rozdíl 5 m a vzdálenost mezi osami bubnů 40 m. Práce obsahuje krátký popis pásového dopravníku a jeho hlavních částí, funkční výpočet dle platné normy ČSN ISO 5048 a volbu jednotlivých komponentů z firemních katalogů. Dále také návrh napínacího zařízení, návrh po...

  16. Conveyor belt biomantles: Centripetal bioturbation coupled with erosional downwasting -- an explanatory model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Johnson, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    specifically, and in summary, we present a model that displays how semi-continuous biomechanical and centripetally driven constructional soil-sediment biotransfers to raised animal-produced point centers are concomitantly leveled by physical-erosional centrifugally driven, lateral-radial downwasting processes. The model is analogous to a cyclical conveyor belt system of soil-sediment biotransfers to, then erosionally away, from innumerably raised point centers, the "activity centers" of burrowing animals. Career-spanning fieldwork across many tropical, subtropical, and mid-latitude environments strongly support the overall validity of the model. Apart from microbes, animals represent the most diverse organismic group on the planet, with plants and fungi distant seconds. Moreover, many if not most spend at least part of their existence living on and/or in soil and sediment, which includes both the subaerial and subaqueous realms of Earth (that is, all of it, except extreme polar areas). Animals bioturbate, vertically and laterally, and likely have done so since pre-Cambrian time. The fundamental conveyor belt process, where ongoing centripetal bioturbations are coupled with ongoing erosional wasting and spreading, joined by subsidiary processes, drives biomantle formation.

  17. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-01-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  18. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  19. The impact of the provisions of the suspensions on the track of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive at jamming rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. Using the developed mathematical model of the failures drives suspensions due to jamming rollers to the reference design of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive is performed modelling of dynamic characteristics. Investigation of the influence of the location of the failed drives suspensions on the track on the main technical characteristics of the conveyor belt with suspended belt was carried out.

  20. The impact of the provisions of the suspensions on the track of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive in violation of the power supply of the drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. Using the developed mathematical model of the failures drives suspensions due to the breakage of the electric circuit to the reference design of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive is performed modelling of dynamic characteristics. Investigation of the influence of the location of the failed drives suspensions on the track on the main technical characteristics of the conveyor belt with suspended belt was carried out.

  1. The use of tubular belt conveyors for the industrial waste of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Davydov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of processing slag of electrolyzers and reverberatory furnaces slag of secondary aluminum production, obtained after extracting aluminum, as well as ash and slag of thermal power plants, hydro plants, waste of ferrous metallurgy in the construction industry are presented in this work. Tubular belt conveyor (TBC with the use of special expensive tapes, are widely used abroad for moving industrial raw materials. It is also used in Russia (Lebedinsky ore-dressing and processing enterprise and Reftinskaya hydro power. A tape which is rolled in a tube allows to improve the sanitary conditions of labor, to ensure the full safety of cargo, to exclude the harmful effects of aggressive chemical cargoes at the metal of the conveyor, extending its service life. There is an opportunity to convey materials under the angle of 20–25°. The main drawback of TBC, which exist today, is that they are working on an especially patented tape, which is very expensive and it is not produced in Russia. The costs of its replacement are comparable to the price of the pipeline. The Russian customers have already faced this problem. The components are not produced in Russia either, and the cost of their subsequent purchases increases dramatically. The technical parameters of TBC of the Lebedinsky ore-dressing and processing enterprise and the Reftinskaya hydro power, as well as a comparative table on the use of TBC are presented in this work. Lists of the advantages of TBC are also adduced. The characteristic of TBC Contitech are given. The use of modern anti-static and flame retardant polymeric materials in the manufacture of the rollers will allow further progress in solving the issues of safe operation of belt conveyors. Such important parameters as reliability and maintainability were taken into account while constructing these conveyors. The tests to replace the metal clips with the rollers, which are made of anti-static polymers are carried out. This

  2. The effects of materials' composition and some external factors on measuring precision for nuclear conveyor belt scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Hong Pingshun; Wang Min

    1997-01-01

    The effects of some external factors on the metrological precision of a nuclear conveyor belt scale were verified with a series of tests. It is shown that the precision is related not only with the moisture content and composition of the covered materials, but also with the belt's deviation and the evenness of the materials. Mild wind seems to have no effect on the precision

  3. Beyond Accidents : A Back-Analysis on Conveyor Belt Injury for a Better Design for Maintenance Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinetti, Alberto; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria; Romano, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    The conveyor belt represents one of the most commonly used methods of transporting bulk materials today. As highlighted multiple times in research, the moving parts are a critical issue causing accidents and injuries and several of these are strictly related to the opportunity to enter in working

  4. Modelling of the Flow of Streams of Cohesionless and Cohesive Bulk Materials in a Conveyor Discharge Point with a Flat Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganiuk, J. A.; Kuryło, P.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents the analysis of flow conditions of cohesive and cohesionless bulk materials in a conveyor discharge point of a flat conveyor belt. The analysis was carried out for stationary flows at high velocities. It presents mathematical methods for the description of the velocity of a material leaving a throwing point of a flat conveyor belt as well as final equations which enable the determination of velocity of the material after it has left the throwing point (with the accuracy sufficient for practical use). Next, the velocity calculated for the proposed mathematical description (for selected material groups) has been compared with the velocity obtained from mathematical relations commonly used by engineers. The proposed equations for determining the velocity of the material beyond the point have proved useful, since they enable excluding the indirect equations. Finally, the difference between the values of the velocity obtained with the proposed and indirect equations have been determined and the relative error for the proposed method has been calculated.

  5. Stagnation, circulation, and erosion of granular materials through belt conveyor sluice gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Moralda, Michael; Dunne, Ryan

    2013-11-01

    Control of flow rates in conversion reactors for discrete materials like biomass can be achieved in belt conveyors through a combination of belt speed, hopper size, and aperture opening. As material is extracted from the bottom of the storage hopper, other material cannot achieve plug flow and therefore is restricted from exiting through a sluice-gate type opening. The excess material moves vertically from the opening causing a pile up and recirculation back along the free surface of the hopper. Experimental results obtained through high speed imaging show the position of the stagnation point as well as the rate of circulation is dependent on the mass flow rate achieved and instantaneous fill level. The movement of material into the plug flow along the belt allows verification of deposition models on erodible beds rather than rigid surfaces with artificial roughness of glued particles. Similarly, the pile-up at the exit influences the efficiency of the transport affecting the narrow energy return on investment of biomass resources. The laboratory-scale behavior can therefore be translated into industrial performance metrics for increased operational efficiency. This work is supported by the NSF REU Site Operation E-Tank under award number 1156789.

  6. Conveyor belt effect in the flow through a tube of a viscous fluid with spinning particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, B U

    2012-04-28

    The extended Navier-Stokes equations describing the steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid with spinning particles are solved for flow through a circular cylindrical tube. The flow caused by an applied torque density in the azimuthal direction and linear in the radial distance from the axis is compared with the flow caused by a uniform applied force density directed along the axis of the tube. In both cases the flow velocity is of Poiseuille type plus a correction. In the first case the flow velocity is caused by the conveyor belt effect of spinning particles. The corrections to the Poiseuille flow pattern in the two cases differ only by a proportionality factor. The spin velocity profiles in the two cases are also proportional.

  7. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  8. On-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Rafter, P.T.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A fast neutron and γ-ray transmission technique is being developed for the on-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts. Calculations show that the technique is capable of determining coke moisture to within 0.3 wt% for coke thicknesses down to 50 mm provided that count rates are measured to within 0.1% relative. Laboratory measurements on static and moving coke samples showed that coke moisture can be determined to within 0.25 and 0.45 wt% for crushed and lump coke, respectively. It is planned to carry out a long-term plant trial of the technique on lump coke feed to the No. 3 blast furnace at BHP, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. (author)

  9. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  10. A conveyor system for feeding work stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheader, J.; Davies, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    A conveyor system comprises carriages drive, e.g. by a linear motor, a pre-arranged sequence of steps to move workpieces in forward and reverse directions between work stations. Each work station has a part position and a work position and each carriage has a number of compartments for workpieces spaced apart at a pitch equal to the spacing between the part and work positions at each station. Transfer means at the work stations move workpieces between the carriage compartments and the part and work positions. The workpieces can be nuclear fuel pins mounted in carriers and the carriages shuttle to and fro between adjacent stations to move fuel pins and carriers in a forward direction and the return empty carriers in a reverse direction. (author)

  11. The Baltic haline conveyor belt or the overturning circulation and mixing in the Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf

    2004-06-01

    A study of the water-mass circulation of the Baltic has been undertaken by making use of a three dimensional Baltic Sea model simulation. The saline water from the North Atlantic is traced through the Danish Sounds into the Baltic where it upwells and mixes with the fresh water inflow from the rivers forming a Baltic haline conveyor belt. The mixing of the saline water from the Great Belt and Oresund with the fresh water is investigated making use of overturning stream functions and Lagrangian trajectories. The overturning stream function was calculated as a function of four different vertical coordinates (depth, salinity, temperature and density) in order to understand the path of the water and where it upwells and mixes. Evidence of a fictive depth overturning cell similar to the Deacon Cell in the Southern Ocean was found in the Baltic proper corresponding to the gyre circulation around Gotland, which vanishes when the overturning stream function is projected on density layers. A Lagrangian trajectory study was performed to obtain a better view of the circulation and mixing of the saline and fresh waters. The residence time of the water masses in the Baltic is calculated to be 26-29 years and the Lagrangian dispersion reaches basin saturation after 5 years.

  12. Analysis of the influence of design parameters of vertically-closed track conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the basic design of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive, a series of numerical calcu-lations was performed. As a result, the influence of design parameters of vertical loop route on the main tech-nical parameters of the conveyor was established. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  13. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  14. The impact of the provisions of the suspensions on the track of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive at jamming rollers

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. Using the developed mathematical model of the failures drives suspensions due to jamming rollers to the reference design of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive is performed modelling of dynamic characteristics. Investigation of the influence of the location of the failed drives suspensions on the track on th...

  15. Increased productivity in construction of civil and mining tunnels through the use of high-capacity tunnel-boring machines and continuous belt conveyor muck haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, J.G.; Ganey, R.J.; Killingsworth, J.E. [Perini Corp., Chicago, IL (United States). US Heavy Division

    1994-12-31

    The use of a large diameter high production tunnel boring machine interfaced with a high capacity continuous belt conveyor system provides a highly productive and cost effective construction system for both civil and mining tunnels. Continuous advance of the tunnel boring machine for a distance of 1,000 feet (305 m) allows for very efficient operation of the system. The available cost reductions will likely prove that this approach to waste handling will make marginally viable projects economically feasible. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Plasmonic non-concentric nanorings array as an unidirectional nano-optical conveyor belt actuated by polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Guanghui; Jiao, Wenxiang; Ying, Zhoufeng; Zou, Ningmu; Ho, Ho-Pui; Sun, Tianyu; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-15

    We report a nano-optical conveyor belt containing an array of gold plasmonic non-concentric nanorings (PNNRs) for the realization of trapping and unidirectional transportation of nanoparticles through rotating the polarization of an excitation beam. The location of hot spots within an asymmetric plasmonic nanostructure is polarization dependent, thus making it possible to manipulate a trapped target by rotating the incident polarization state. In the case of PNNR, the two poles have highly unbalanced trap potential. This greatly enhances the chance of transferring trapped particles between adjacent PNNRs in a given direction through rotating the polarization. As confirmed by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain analysis, an array of PNNRs forms an unidirectional nano-optical conveyor belt, which delivers target nanoparticles or biomolecules over a long distance with nanometer accuracy. With the capacity to trap and to transfer, our design offers a versatile scheme for conducting mechanical sample manipulation in many on-chip optofluidic applications.

  17. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Verde, D M; Calado, T C; Ocampo, J S; Silva-Monteiro, E; Savino, W

    1999-05-01

    Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble beta-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  18. MONITORING KEMAJUAN PENGERJAAN PROYEK BELT CONVEYOR PLANT 14 HAMBALANG BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Juliana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kriteria yang harus dipenuhi produk yang dihasilkan dari proyek meliputi kriteria atau batasan waktu, batasan ruang lingkup, batasan biaya dan batasan kualitas. Untuk itu, maka perlu dilakukan monitoring untuk mengetahui kemajuan proyek sehingga keempat kriteria tersebut terpenuhi. Progress atau kemajuan proyek menjadi indikator dalam monitoring untuk menilai perkembangan pelaksanaan pekerjaan dibandingkan dengan rencana. Perkembangan pelaksanaan proyek harus dilaporkan secara periodik. Pada pelaksanaan proyek pembangunan belt conveyor plant 14 Hambalang, PT Unixindo Ekatama Sentana dalam melakukan monitoring perkembangan proyek belum ada sistem pelaporan yang terintegrasi dan pengolahan data masih dilakukan secara manual dengan menggunakan aplikasi Ms.Excel. Dalam penelitian ini dibangun sistem informasi monitoring pelaporan proyek untuk memudahkan monitoring kemajuan proyek. Aplikasi untuk monitoring kemajuan proyek yang dibangun dengan berbasis web menggunakan PHP dan MySQL. Tujuan dari penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu untuk menghasilkan sistem informasi untuk melakukan monitoring kemajuan proyek berbasis web dan tersedia sistem pelaporan kemajuan proyek yang terintegrasi sehingga memudahkanperusahaan dalam memonitoring proyek secara online. Manfaat yang diharapkan dari adanya sistem monitoring kemajuan proyek secara online adalah memudahkan proses monitoring kemajuan proyek yang dapat dilakukan secara online. Dari penelitian dihasilkan sistem informasi monitoring yang dibuat memudahkan pelaporan proyek di lapangan yang dilakukan secara online sehingga perusahaan dapat memonitor kemajuan proyek secara kontinyu dan dapat digunakan untuk menilai perkembangan pekerjaan proyek yang dibandingkan dengan perencanaan proyek sehingga dapat mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan perbaikan. Kata kunci: kemajuan proyek, pelaporan proyek, monitoring proyek berbasis web.

  19. The conveyor belt hypothesis for thymocyte migration: participation of adhesion and de-adhesion molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Verde D.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymocyte differentiation is the process by which bone marrow-derived precursors enter the thymus, proliferate, rearrange the genes and express the corresponding T cell receptors, and undergo positive and/or negative selection, ultimately yielding mature T cells that will represent the so-called T cell repertoire. This process occurs in the context of cell migration, whose cellular and molecular basis is still poorly understood. Kinetic studies favor the idea that these cells leave the organ in an ordered pattern, as if they were moving on a conveyor belt. We have recently proposed that extracellular matrix glycoproteins, such as fibronectin, laminin and type IV collagen, among others, produced by non-lymphoid cells both in the cortex and in the medulla, would constitute a macromolecular arrangement allowing differentiating thymocytes to migrate. Here we discuss the participation of both molecules with adhesive and de-adhesive properties in the intrathymic T cell migration. Functional experiments demonstrated that galectin-3, a soluble ß-galactoside-binding lectin secreted by thymic microenvironmental cells, is a likely candidate for de-adhesion proteins by decreasing thymocyte interaction with the thymic microenvironment.

  20. On the transversal vibrations of a conveyor belt with a low and time-varying velocity : Part I: the string-like case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweken, G.; Van Horssen, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper initial-boundary value problems for a linear wave (string) equation are considered. These problems can be used as simple models to describe the vertical vibrations of a conveyor belt, for which the velocity is small with respect to the wave speed. In this paper the belt is assumed to

  1. Analysis of the influence of the cutting edge geometry on parameters of the perforation process for conveyor and transmission belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtkowiak Dominik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforated belts, which are used in vacuum conveyor belts, can have significantly different mechanical properties like strength and elasticity due to a variety of used materials and can have different thickness from very thin (0,7 mm to thick belts (6 mm. In order to design a complex machine for mechanical perforation, which can perforate whole range of belts, it is necessary to research the influence of the cutting edge geometry on the parameters of the perforation process. Three most important parameters, which describe the perforation process are the cutting force, the velocity and the temperature of the piercing punch. The results presented in this paper consider two different types of punching (a piercing punch with the punching die or with the reducer plate and different cutting edge directions, angles, diameters and material properties. Test were made for different groups of composites belts – with polyurethane and polyester fabric, polyamide core or aramid-fibre reinforced polymers. The main goal of this research is to specify effective tools and parameters of the perforation process for each group of composites belts.

  2. Reducing The Risk Of Fires In Conveyor Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremushkina, M. S.; Poddubniy, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of increasing the safety of operation of belt conveyors in mines. Was developed the control algorithm that meets the technical requirements of the mine belt conveyors, reduces the risk of fires of conveyors belt, and enables energy and resource savings taking into account random sort of traffic. The most effective method of decision such tasks is the construction of control systems with the use of variable speed drives for asynchronous motors. Was designed the mathematical model of the system "variable speed multiengine drive - conveyor - control system of conveyors", that takes into account the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of the transport system, provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of application the developed algorithms, which allows to reduce the dynamic overload in the belt to (15-20)%.

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off.

  5. Development of a completely decentralized control system for modular continuous conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Stephan H.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the flexibility of application of continuous conveyor systems, a completely decentralized control system for a modular conveyor system is introduced in the paper. This system is able to carry conveyor units without any centralized infrastructure. Based on existing methods of decentralized data transfer in IT networks, single modules operate autonomously and, after being positioned into the required topology, independently connect together to become a functioning conveyor system.

  6. Heavy rainfall in Mediterranean cyclones. Part I: contribution of deep convection and warm conveyor belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos; Gray, Suzanne L.; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we provide an insight to the role of deep convection (DC) and the warm conveyor belt (WCB) as leading processes to Mediterranean cyclones' heavy rainfall. To this end, we use reanalysis data, lighting and satellite observations to quantify the relative contribution of DC and the WCB to cyclone rainfall, as well as to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of these processes with respect to the cyclone centre and life cycle. Results for the period 2005-2015 show that the relationship between cyclone rainfall and intensity has high variability and demonstrate that even intense cyclones may produce low rainfall amounts. However, when considering rainfall averages for cyclone intensity bins, a linear relationship was found. We focus on the 500 most intense tracked cyclones (responsible for about 40-50% of the total 11-year Mediterranean rainfall) and distinguish between the ones producing high and low rainfall amounts. DC and the WCB are found to be the main cause of rainfall for the former (producing up to 70% of cyclone rainfall), while, for the latter, DC and the WCB play a secondary role (producing up to 50% of rainfall). Further analysis showed that rainfall due to DC tends to occur close to the cyclones' centre and to their eastern sides, while the WCBs tend to produce rainfall towards the northeast. In fact, about 30% of rainfall produced by DC overlaps with rainfall produced by WCBs but this represents only about 8% of rainfall produced by WCBs. This suggests that a considerable percentage of DC is associated with embedded convection in WCBs. Finally, DC was found to be able to produce higher rain rates than WCBs, exceeding 50 mm in 3-h accumulated rainfall compared to a maximum of the order of 40 mm for WCBs. Our results demonstrate in a climatological framework the relationship between cyclone intensity and processes that lead to heavy rainfall, one of the most prominent environmental risks in the Mediterranean. Therefore, we set

  7. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  8. ContiTronic - The intelligent conveyor belt from ContiTech; ContiTronic - Das intelligente Transportband von ContiTech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alles, R; Wach, T [ContiTech Transportbandsysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    ContiTech has investigated the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and found that specially developed transponders can be vulcanized into rubber conveyor belts without impairing their performance capabilities. The system opens up a whole host of new applications in bulk materials handling within various sectors of industry (mining, steel industry, etc.). With the support of the Cologne-based Rheinbraun AG, the ContiTronic system was tested in lignite mining Operations in Hambach. (orig.) [Deutsch] Untersuchungen bei ContiTech ueber die Radio-Frequenz-Identifikation (RFID) ergaben, dass sich speziell entwickelte Transponder in Gummifoerdergurte einvulkanisieren lassen, ohne dass deren Funktion beeintraechtigt wird. Das System eroeffnet bei der Schuettgutfoerderung in den verschiedensten Industriebereichen (Bergbau, Stahlindustrie usw.) neue Anwendungen. Mit Unterstuetzung der Rheinbraun AG, Koeln, wurde das ContiTronic-System im Braunkohlentagebau Hambach erprobt. (orig.)

  9. Online X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Heavy Metals in Pulverized Coal on a Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; XinLei, Zhang; WenBao, Jia; Qing, Shan; YongSheng, Ling; DaQian, Hei; Da, Chen

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals in haze episode will continue to threaten the quality of public health around the world. In order to decrease the emission of heavy metals produced from coal burning, an online X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer system, consisting of an XRF analyzer with data acquisition software and a laser rangefinder, was developed to carry out the measurement of heavy metals in pulverized coal. The XRF analyzer was mounted on a sled, which can effectively smooth the surface of pulverized coal and reduce the impact of surface roughness during online measurement. The laser rangefinder was mounted over the sled for measuring the distance between a pulverized coal sample and the analyzer. Several heavy metals and other elements in pulverized coal were online measured by the XRF analyzer directly above a conveyor belt. The limits of detection for Hg, Pb, Cr, Ti, Fe, and Ca by the analyzer were 44 ± 2, 34 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 41 ± 4, 19 ± 3, and 65 ± 2 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the elements mentioned was less than 7.74%. By comparison with the results by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), relative deviation (%D) of the online XRF analyzer was less than 10% for Cr, Ti, and Ca, in the range of 0.8-24.26% for Fe, and greater than 20% for Hg and Pb. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Two-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of the drying process of thick layers of natural materials in a conveyor-belt dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model and numerical analysis of the convective drying process of thick slices of colloidal capillary-porous materials slowly moving through conveyor-belt dryer. A flow of hot moist air was used as drying agent. The drying process has been analyzed in the form of a 2-D mathematical model, in two directions: along the conveyor and perpendicular on it. The mathematical model consists of two non-linear differential equations and one equation with a transcendent character and it is based on the mathematical model developed for drying process in a form of a 1-D thin layer. The appropriate boundary conditions were introduced. The presented model is suitable for the automated control of conveyor-belt dryers. The obtained results with analysis could be useful in predicting the drying kinetics of potato slices and similar natural products.

  11. Testing the feasibility of using a conveyor belt to load weanling and nursery pigs for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation is known to be a multi-faceted stressor, with the process of loading being one of the most significant factors impacting the stress to which animals are exposed. This project was designed to determine if using a conveyor to load pigs into the top deck of a simulated straight deck trai...

  12. OPTIMUM DESIGN AND COST CHARACTERISTIC OF SMALL CONVEYOR

    OpenAIRE

    Suwat Nanetoe; Nitipong Soponpongpipat

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many works dealing with the economic analysis of a long conveyor, the information about a short conveyor is insufficient. This study, thus, deals with the short conveyor by studying the effect of belt width, belt length, convey capacity, and conveyor inclination angle on the cost characteristic of short conveyor. The study was done by calculating the conveyor belt widths and their supports that could service a given convey capacity, conveyor length, and inclination angle. T...

  13. Number of conveyor belts optimization regarding to its type and logistical parameters in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Malindžák

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Material transportation by belt conveyers is widely used in many industrial branches including mining plants. Belt conveyingdevelopment during the last year was oriented mainly on construction of belts. The consequence of this is the improvement of itsmanufacture qualities bringing down the costs for their exchange and maintenance.Despite the fact that there are some theoreticalcalculations based on a standards it is common in the industry that the belt is not properly selected or it is overdesigned or number of itstypes is too large what can lead to increased costs for its storage. The paper describes the optimization of number of belt types in miningcompany SIDERIT, s. r. o. Nižná Slaná by the method of modernization and unification of belts under practical skills and projectingbased on theoretical calculations.

  14. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-04-24

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80-11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open.

  15. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. Research on the Influence of Weighing Accuracy Caused by the Position of Tension Wheel on the Electronic Belt-Conveyor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hu; Song, Qiuzhi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a Single- Idler electronic belt-conveyor scale is the Object of study. The contact force between the belt and the supporting roller is calculated by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The relationship between the tension distance of the tension wheel and the contact force between the belt and the weighing roller is obtained. The best stretching distance is found through analysis. And the conclusion which is the weighing error is different at the same stretching distance but the different weight of material is obtained. A compensation mechanism is proposed to improve the weighing accuracy.

  17. Analytical Method of Designing and Selecting Take-Up Systems for Mining Belt Conveyors / Analityczna Metoda Projektowania i Doboru UKŁADÓW Napinania Dla GÓRNICZYCH PRZENOŚNIKÓW TAŚMOWYCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a method developed to design and select tensioning systems which makes use of standard calculations. It describes procedures for selecting and analysing the operation of devices tensioning the belt, which procedures are based on the static characteristics of these devices, and a proposal for introducing a substitute belt elasticity modulus that would make the calculations of the tensioning stroke length account for the value of the initial force tensioning the belt and for its sag between sets of idlers. Static characteristics of tensioning systems have been used to describe their operation and present the advantages and disadvantages of individual design solutions W artykule przedstawiono opracowaną metodę projektowania i doboru układów napinania taśmy wykorzystującą stosowane standardowe procedury obliczeniowe uzupełnione o zależności analityczne uwzględniające zwis taśmy między zestawami krążnikowymi i charakterystyki statyczne urządzeń napinających taśmę. W pierwszej części publikacji opisano analityczną metodę doboru układu napinania taśmy bazującą na wynikach obliczeń sił w taśmie i szacunkowych kalkulacjach drogi napinania taśmy stosowanych obecnie w standardowych procedurach obliczeniowych (Golka i in., 2007; Gładysiewicz, 2003; Żur i Hardygóra, 1996). Następnie przedstawiono propozycję uzupełnienia stosowanej metody analitycznej o wprowadzenie diagramu drogi napinania i uwzględnienie zastępczego modułu sprężystości taśmy (Kulinowski, 2012). W obliczeniach standardowych przyjmuje się, że długość odcinka taśmy pomiędzy zestawami krążnikowymi jest równa ich rozstawowi. W rzeczywistych warunkach może się zdarzyć, że na niektórych odcinkach złożonego profilu trasy przenośnika wartość zwisu taśmy przekracza wartości dopuszczalne, wtedy długość taśmy między zestawami krążnikowymi jest znacząco większa od rozstawu zestawów. W takich przypadkach wartość modułu spr

  18. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  19. Profit from plant experience in specifying coal conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajter, L C

    1985-09-01

    Most coal conveyors in operation today were designed to handle raw unwashed coal and are experiencing difficulties when dealing with fine, wet coal which has been cleaned. Conveyor designers should base their designs for new systems on the worst possible materials. Design criteria are discussed in detail and recommendations made for chute liners and radii, skirt system, belt speed, transfer points, belt wipers, weather protection and access. 3 references.

  20. Conveyor technology rolls ahead to keep pace with industry demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-11-15

    New drives, belts and rolling components maintain capacity but require less energy and maintenance. Computer-assisted component design and system modelling are becoming standard in improving conveyors for transporting ores, pellets or coal in open-cast mines. Continental Conveyor, for example, uses Statix modelling software to analyze existing conveyor systems and design new ones. Sandvik Materials Handling uses discrete element modelling. Developments by the major manufacturers including Veyance Technologies, Hagglunds Drives, and TPKL complings in drives, complings, conveyors, monitoring systems etc. are described in this article. 2 photos.

  1. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  2. Primary investigation of a design for a dual energy gamma-ray transmission gauge to determine the ash content of coal on a conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, A.; Rahimi, H.; Rahimi, N.; Amini, A.; Naimpour, A.; Moafian, J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to design a dual energy γ-ray transmission gauge for measuring, on-line, the ash content of coal, an investigation was carried out to determine the relation between the theoretical mass absorption coefficient (μ-bar) and the % ash of coal in the Kerman District Coal Mines. Because coal, transported on a conveyor belt, may be a non-homogeneous mixture from one or more mines, it was decided to compare % ash in a mixture of coals from several mines with that from individual mines, the measurements being made whilst the coal was being transported on a conveyor belt. The investigation shows that the relation between the mass absorption coefficient and the % ash in a coal mixture from several mines cannot be used to assess, accurately, the value of μ-bar for coals from individual mines in this particular region. (author)

  3. Harmonisation of fire testing of conveyor belts for underground applications within the EC; Harmonisierung der brandtechnischen Pruefverfahren von Foerdergurten fuer den Einsatz unter Tage innerhalb der EG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foit, W. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brand- und Explosionsschutz unter Tage - Versuchsgrube Tremonia

    1998-12-01

    The mining countries of the EC still have different regulations for fire testing of conveyor belts. The test methods will be harmonized for the Common Market, and requirements on conveyor belts will be standardized within the EC. A new EC standard will be drawn up. [Deutsch] Zur Zeit sind in den bergbaubetreibenden Laendern der EG noch unterschiedliche Verfahren zur brandtechnischen Pruefung von Foerdergurten vorgeschrieben. Mit dem Inkrafttreten des Gemeinsamen Marktes und der damit zusammenhaengenden Forderung nach Abbau von Handelshemmnissen sollen diese Pruefverfahren harmonisiert werden. Ziel ist es, die an die Foerdergurte zu stellenden brandtechnischen Anforderungen innerhalb der EG zu vereinheitlichen. Es soll deshalb eine europaeische Norm zur Beurteilung des Brandverhaltens und der Brandausbreitung an Foerdergurten fuer den Kohlenbergbau unter Tage erstellt werden. (orig./MSK)

  4. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  5. Engineering study on conveyor system for HC-21C project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The sludge stabilization process thermally stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing materials in a muffle furnace. This process is used to prepare the material for long term storage in the vaults. The process is conducted in Room 230A and 230B. The furnaces are located in glovebox HC-21C. Glovebox HC-21A is used for preparation of the charge and packaging of the high fired oxide. The feed for the process is located throughout the PRF and RMC-line gloveboxes, with over half of the feedstock currently being located in HA-23S. For readiness assessment, the sludge stabilization process at PFP was reviewed by the ALARA team to see how the process could be improved. One suggestion was made that the conveyor system be used to transfer items from HA-23S to the process glovebox (HA-21A) instead of sealing items in and out of the gloveboxes. The following discussion describes and compares past and current methods. In addition, actions are addressed that would need to be completed before the conveyor method could be used. The transportation of the feedstock to the process and all the different influencing factors will be examined to determine the best method. This assessment is being performed considering only the current campaign for HC-21C. However, there is a possibility that in the future, additional furnaces will be installed and further campaigns done

  6. Ammonia and methane emissions during drying of dewatered biogas digestate in a two-belt conveyor dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awiszus, S; Meissner, K; Reyer, S; Müller, J

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to identify type and amount of emissions during the drying of biogas digestate in a two-belt conveyor dryer at different temperature settings and to investigate the effect on its nutrient content. Furthermore, the possibility of recovering nitrogen from the exhaust air was investigated. Emissions of CH 4 , CO 2 and NH 3 were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biogas is mainly composed of CH 4 and CO 2 , hence gas release from the digestate during drying was expected to increase the concentration of these components. Although CO 2 concentration was elevated above the background concentration, CH 4 did not exceed the background concentration. Maximum NH 3 concentration of 183.3mg·m -3 was detected during drying. A NH 3 concentration of 10.8mg·m -3 was measured in the exhaust air of the ammonia scrubber, which is equal to a NH 3 reduction rate of 94%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of physical work load by statistical analysis of the heart rate in a conveyor-belt worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontosic, I; Vukelić, M; Pancić, M; Kunisek, J

    1994-12-01

    Physical work load was estimated in a female conveyor-belt worker in a bottling plant. Estimation was based on continuous measurement and on calculation of average heart rate values in three-minute and one-hour periods and during the total measuring period. The thermal component of the heart rate was calculated by means of the corrected effective temperature, for the one-hour periods. The average heart rate at rest was also determined. The work component of the heart rate was calculated by subtraction of the resting heart rate and the heart rate measured at 50 W, using a regression equation. The average estimated gross energy expenditure during the work was 9.6 +/- 1.3 kJ/min corresponding to the category of light industrial work. The average estimated oxygen uptake was 0.42 +/- 0.06 L/min. The average performed mechanical work was 12.2 +/- 4.2 W, i.e. the energy expenditure was 8.3 +/- 1.5%.

  8. A Positive Feedback Process Between Tropical Cyclone Intensity and the Moisture Conveyor Belt Assessed With Lagrangian Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keita; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Hirata, Hidetaka; Kawano, Tetsuya; Kato, Masaya; Shinoda, Taro

    2017-12-01

    Using a cloud-resolving regional model and Lagrangian diagnostics, we assess a positive feedback process between tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and the moisture conveyor belt (MCB), which connects a TC and the Indian Ocean (IO), the South China Sea (SCS), and the Philippine Sea (PS) vapors, from a macroscopic view. We performed sensitivity experiments that modified the observed sea surface temperature field over the IO and the SCS to regulate the MCB behavior, and we examined the remote response of a prototypical TC. The results show that the connection between MCB formation and TC development is very robust, which was also observed in another TC's case. The MCB plays a vital role in transporting lots of moist air parcels toward the TC from the IO, SCS, and PS regions. The transported parcels, which further gained the underlying ocean vapor along the MCB, are easily trapped in the inner core by radial inflow in the atmospheric boundary layer and, subsequently, release latent heat around the eyewall, resulting in the TC's intensifying. This acts to further penetrate the moist parcels of remote ocean origin into the inner core through the enhanced and expanded inflow. An additional experiment suggested that the MCB is not formed unless the westward propagation of equatorial waves induced by TC heating overlaps with the background monsoon westerlies. These findings support the reliability and validity of TC-MCB feedback.

  9. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromiec, J.P.; Wesolowski, W.; Brzeznicki, S.; Wroblewska-Jakubowska, K.; Kucharska, M. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C{sub 12}, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, and PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  10. A positive feedback process between tropical cyclone intensity and the moisture conveyor belt assessed with Lagrangian diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K.; Kawamura, R.; Hirata, H.; Kawano, T.

    2017-12-01

    Using a cloud-resolving regional model and Lagrangian diagnostics, we assess a positive feedback process between tropical cyclone (TC) intensity and the moisture conveyor belt (MCB), which connects a TC and the Indian Ocean (IO), the South China Sea (SCS), and the Philippine Sea vapors, from a macroscopic view. We performed sensitivity experiments that modified the observed sea surface temperature (SST) field over the IO and the SCS to regulate the MCB behavior, and we examined the remote response of a prototypical TC. The results show that the connection between MCB formation and TC development is very robust, which was also observed in another TC's case. The MCB plays a vital role in transporting lots of moist air parcels toward the TC from the remote ocean. The transported parcels are easily trapped in the inner core by radial inflow in the atmospheric boundary layer and, subsequently, release latent heat around the eye wall, resulting in the TC's intensifying. This acts to further penetrate the moist parcels of remote ocean origin into the inner core through the enhanced and expanded inflow. An additional experiment confirmed that the MCB is not formed unless the westward propagation of equatorial Rossby waves induced by TC heating overlaps with the background monsoon westerlies. These findings support the reliability and validity of TC-MCB feedback.

  11. An integrated multi-criteria decision-making methodology for conveyor system selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairat Jiamruangjarus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Material handling equipment (MHE is important for every industry because it has an effect on the productivity of manufacturing. Conveyor systems are presently one popular type of MHE. This paper presents an integration of the analytic network process (ANP with the benefits, opportunities, costs and risk (BOCR model in order to select the best conveyor system. The proposed model established a network with four merits, six strategies criteria, and twenty six sub-criteria with four alternatives (present, roller conveyor, chain conveyor, and monorail. The ANP is to determine the relative weights of an evaluative criteria and decision alternatives. Therefore, the final ranking of the alternatives are calculated by synthesizing the score of each alternative under BOCR. The results showed that the best alternative under all five methods is the chain conveyor. These research results can be easily applied, adapted and used to improve performance of selecting the conveyer system in small and medium enterprises through large industries.

  12. Toxic effect of volatile products of thermooxidizing decomposition of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faff, J.; Dudkiewicz, J.; Kauczak, M.; Waniewski, E.; Tokarzewski, E.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic effects of thermo-oxidizing decomposition products of conveying belts made of PVC and rubber have been tested. The resultant smokes were passed through a protective absorber. During 14-days' post-exposure observation, an increased activity of asparagine, aminotransferase and in some animal alanine aminotransferase was found. Moderately increased pathomorphological changes were found in lungs (emphysema, oedema interstitial and bronchogenic inflammations), along with slight degenerative changes in the liver and kidneys. In the peripheral blood, increased amounts of erythrocytes and leukocytes were found.

  13. Field trial of a pair production gauge for the on-line determination of ash in coal on a conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Rafter, P.T.; Ellis, W.K.; Gravitis, V.L.; Howells, E.; McLennan, T.D.; Muldoon, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The ash content of coal can be determined by a method based on pair production. Coal is irradiated with high energy γ-rays and the resulting 0.511 MeV annihilation and Compton scattered γ-rays are measured. The pair production (PP) technique has been previously proved in the laboratory on static bulk samples and in the field on high-throughput sample by-lines. In the present paper, a plant test to assess the PP gauge for direct on-line conveyor belt analysis is described. This test was undertaken on the recirculating coal facility at the pilot plant coal washery at the BHP Steel Works, Newcastle, New South Wales. Seven Hunter Valley coals with ash in the range 7.5-33 wt% were circulated around the conveyor loop, and scanned by both PP and low energy γ-ray transmission (LET) gauges. Samples were measured on-belt as a function of sample depth, compaction, moisture and particle size. The mass per unit area of coal on the belt was varied in the range 40-210 kg m -2 . The r.m.s. deviation between PP gauge ash and chemical laboratory ash was 1.07 wt% ash for 370 individual on-belt measurements on coal of mass per unit area greater than 60 kg m -2 ad 0.45 wt% ash for the mean ash of each sample. (author)

  14. Clostridium difficile in retail baskets, trolleys, conveyor belts, and plastic bags in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqumber, Mohammed A

    2014-10-01

    To determine Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) prevalence on retail surfaces and shoppers plastic bags. From 20 June to 10 August 2011, in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 17 supermarkets from 2 cities, Albaha and Altaif, Saudi Arabia were sampled. A total of 800 samples, which comprised 200 samples per surveyed surface, were studied. These included baskets, trolleys, conveyer belts, and outgoing shoppers' plastic bags. Clostridium difficile strains were isolated. The isolates were characterized using ribotyping and  polymerase chain reaction for the detection of toxin A (tcdA), toxin B (tcdB), binary toxin (cdtB), and toxin C (tcdC) genes. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined on a Muller-Hinton agar with 5% sheep blood agar using E-tests. Overall, the C. difficile prevalence on sampled surfaces was 0.75%. The highest prevalence was found on retail baskets and trolleys, followed by plastic bags. A total of 5 different ribotypes were identified. Alterations in tcdC were detected in ribotype 027 and BT1. All the identified isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistant to levofloxacin. In this study, C. difficile was present at a rate of 0.75% on supermarket surfaces. Spore disinfection of implicated surfaces may be necessary to control any community-acquired infections caused by this pathogen. 

  15. Energy calculation model of an outgoing conveyor with application of a transfer chute with the damping plate

    OpenAIRE

    V. Molnár; G. Fedorko; N. Husáková; J. Král' Jr.; M. Ferdynus

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of transport systems consisting of several belt conveyors is significantly affected by re-direction. The proper sizing of several conveyor belts using deflector plates can significantly affect their efficiency. At present, there are no uniform rules (models) which specify the methodology and procedures for their design. This paper brings proposals of design of optimal parameters for energy-efficient operation of the transport system consisting of belt ...

  16. Shiftable conveyor systems in open-cast mines in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, H S; Patel, J C

    1984-12-01

    The materials handling and earthmoving arrangements are described at the Neyveli lignite mine in Tamil Nadu State, 200 km from Madras, India. The equipment used consists of shiftable conveyors, transfer feeders and drive stations.

  17. Determination of ash concentration and coal calorific values of coal directly on the conveyor belt; Bestimmung der Aschegehalte und Heizwerte von Kohlen direkt auf dem Foerderband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wess, Juergen [PANalytical GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Among the multi-element methods of instrumental analyses, the neutron activation analysis takes a special position. The method is able to penetrate even thick layers of samples and covers whole mass flows online, like on conveyor belts. A new technique of pulsed excitation allows the reduction of undesired components of analytical gamma-rays, which allows the determination of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Therefore, the ash content, based on the ash containing elements, and the calorific values, based on calculation models, can be measured in one process. (orig.)

  18. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  19. A 'conveyor belt' model for the dynamic contact angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe C, Della; Siboni, S, E-mail: stefano.siboni@ing.unitn.it [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, Mesiano di Povo 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily detected, and in a repeatable way, are advancing and receding contact angles. In this paper, we discuss a simple model which accounts for the onset of advancing and receding contact angles measured by the Wilhelmy microbalance, one of the most powerful techniques for contact angle measurements. The model also explains the experimental observation that advancing and receding contact angles become closer to each other when the system is gently 'shaken', by supplying mechanical energy in an appropriate way. The model may be pedagogically useful in introducing students and teachers to aspects of capillary phenomena which are not usually discussed in basic physics courses.

  20. Powerful conveyer belt real-time online detection system based on x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Feng; Miao, Chang-yun; Meng, Wei

    2009-07-01

    The powerful conveyer belt is widely used in the mine, dock, and so on. After used for a long time, internal steel rope of the conveyor belt may fracture, rust, joints moving, and so on .This would bring potential safety problems. A kind of detection system based on x-ray is designed in this paper. Linear array detector (LDA) is used. LDA cost is low, response fast; technology mature .Output charge of LDA is transformed into differential voltage signal by amplifier. This kind of signal have great ability of anti-noise, is suitable for long-distance transmission. The processor is FPGA. A IP core control 4-channel A/D convertor, achieve parallel output data collection. Soft-core processor MicroBlaze which process tcp/ip protocol is embedded in FPGA. Sampling data are transferred to a computer via Ethernet. In order to improve the image quality, algorithm of getting rid of noise from the measurement result and taking gain normalization for pixel value is studied and designed. Experiments show that this system work well, can real-time online detect conveyor belt of width of 2.0m and speed of 5 m/s, does not affect the production. Image is clear, visual and can easily judge the situation of conveyor belt.

  1. Pipe conveyors transport bulk material efficiently over long distances; Rohrgurtfoerderer transportieren Schuettgut effizient ueber lange Strecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, Frank [BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH und Co. KG, Beckum (Germany); Staribacher, Josef [KOCH Material Handling GmbH, Schwechat (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    The specific characteristics of a pipe conveyor, which are due to its operating principle, allow transportation solutions which are not possible with other conveyor systems; or if they are possible, then only with considerable restrictions or additional expenses. The enclosed design of the pipe conveyor protects the material from the environment and the environment from the conveyed material. The system, thus, makes a valuable contribution towards achieving environmental protection objectives and in meeting official regulations. The pipe conveyor handles both tight curve radiuses and steep inclines. This permits a very flexible route and also allows existing obstacles to be bypassed. Consequently, solutions can often be found which do not require any changes to be made to the existing terrain or plant structures. The investment costs of just the conveyor can sometimes be slightly higher for a pipe conveyor than for a conventional troughed belt conveyor. But if the pipe conveyor can take full advantage of its special features, then these additional costs become quite relative very quickly. And if, for example, transfer points, alterations of existing facilities, earthwork, or expensive dust and noise protection measures can be avoided due to the very flexible route layout of the pipe conveyor, then these savings on part of the customer are much higher than the additional costs for this perfect conveyor system. All told, it is possible to solve challenging conveying tasks with great efficiency while also saving resources when the pipe conveyor is used; thus, producing a sustained benefit to both the operator and the environment. (orig.)

  2. The design of RFID convey or belt gate systems using an antenna control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong Ryol; Lee, Seung Joon; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPC)global for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  3. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  4. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  5. Conceptual design of a conveyor system for the Philippine multipurpose cobalt-60 gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility at the PNRI presently utilizes the batch irradiation method using turntables to rotate the product boxes. The target materials or products are being carried manually or with the use of pushcart through the personnel maze. This paper presents a conceptual design for the best suitable product-handling or conveyor system for the Philippine Multipurpose Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiation Facility. The main irradiation conveyor line shall be a 55 cm x 200 cm slat-type conveyor made of SUS 304 material that could be operated in a semi-batch continuous flow and/or shuffle-dwell method with a tact-time range of 10 min to 7 h. The products can be irradiated in a single direction, two-pass, two-sided method. (auth.). 11 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Development of a mobile cord-monitoring unit (CMU) for steel cord conveyor belts of RWE Power AG; Entwicklung einer mobilen Zugtraeger-Ueberwachungs-Einrichtung (ZTUe) an Stahlseilfoerdergurten der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, Max-Peter Benjamin [RWE Power AG, Technikzentrum Tagebau, Frechen (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    We have succeeded in developing a mobile measuring system suitable for everyday use that has already proven its practical suitability in a wide range of measurements. At present, we are preparing the stationary and permanent installation of aluminium supporting beams in the various conveyor drive stations. Thus, outages for the temporary installation of the supporting beam, which were still few, would no longer be required and the ''measuring crew'' would only have to carry around the handy measurement case and laptop. This considerably simpler application and the positive feedback on the benefits of the system are the main reasons why we will not work on the development of a stationary online system. The remaining additional benefit of such a unit would only be of minor significance. We are currently planning the following additional development steps as far as the ''mobile cord-monitoring unit'' is concerned: Developing a sensor-based belt edge monitoring unit as a modular complement to the system. This unit will monitor both belt edges by means of sensors, record them in the measuring signal and represent them explicitly in the evaluation. Linking the CMU evaluation software with the RegGEA system mentioned in Chapter 7, which has been introduced at RWE Power. This step combines an advanced central maintenance and planning system with an innovative belt damage detection system in a single piece of peripheral equipment, which offers the user much more advantages than the sum of the two individual systems taken alone would have done. Designing an aluminium supporting beam divisible into individual segments. Its handy pallet dimensions will allow the complete system to be transported to any site outside of RWE Power. Even though the system was originally conceived as a development for RWE Power, it has already met with great interest outside of RWE Power AG. (orig.)

  7. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  8. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 2: ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1975-03-01

    This is the second part of an article on an unusual form of passenger transport, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds up to 16 km/h. Part 1, "Ergonomic considerations of acceleration, deceleration and transfer sections," was published in the December, 1974, issue.

  9. design and implementation of conveyor line speed synchroniser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... This paper presents the mathematical modeling of a conveyor ... speed of action of other process machines results in ..... 3.1 Simulation Results of Dc Motor and Belt Conveyor .... Using MATLAB, SIMULINK, and Control.

  10. Design of conveyor utilization monitoring system: a case study of powder coating line in sheet metal fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Hoedi; Sugiarto, Yohanes; Nur Rosyidi, Cucuk

    2018-03-01

    Conveyor is a very useful equipment to replace manpower in transporting the goods. It highly influences the productivity, production capacity utilization and eventually the production cost. This paper proposes a system to monitor the utilization of conveyor at a low cost through a case study at powder coating process line in a sheet metal fabrication. Preliminary observation was conducted to identify the problems. The monitoring system was then built and executed. The system consists of two sub systems. First is sub system for collecting and transmitting the required data and the second is sub system for displaying the data. The system utilizes sensors, wireless data transfer and windows-based application. The test results showed that the whole system works properly. By this system, the productivity and status of the conveyor can be monitored in real time. This research enriches the development of conveyor monitoring system especially for implementation in small and medium enterprises.

  11. Application of a cross-pit bridge conveyor system in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeindler, R.W. (Krupp Canada Inc., Calgary, Alberta); Fawcett, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    A summary is presented of the report completed by the Coal Mining Research Centre in 1980. This report was of a cross-pit conveyor system applied as an auxillary mining complement to the major stripping unit, a dragline. The purpose of the CMRC report was to evaluate selective mining and replacement of the upper horizons of the strata as an aid in reclamation. These strata were the topsoil, subsoil and glacial till. Past utilization of cross-pit conveyor systems and related engineering studies were assessed. The parameters of the study were based on the mining and geological conditions of the Alberta prairie coal mines. The principal excavator for stripping was a dragline. Excavation of the upper horizons was done by a bucket-wheel excavator discharging onto the cross-pit conveyor. Alternative equipment applications were economically compared. Four cases or geological sections were evaluated in detail. The economics of the alternative mining systems for each of the cases were determined. In all instances, the most economical solution was a tandem system utilizing a dragline with a bucket-wheel excavator/cross-pit conveyor system. For both the CMRC study and a similar US paper, the application of a tandem system provided the lowest annual ownership and operating costs. The tandem system consists of a dragline excavating and casting the majority of the waste or overburden and a BWE/CPCS selectively excavating and replacing the topsoil, subsoil and part of the unconsolidated overburden. The bridge spans and designs are within known technical and economic limits.

  12. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high loads of debris.

  13. High tech conveyors unitize Selby coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Designs proposed by Anderson Strathclyde PLC and Cable Belt for single-flight conveyors to bring the output of the five Selby mines to the surface have both been developed by the UK National Coal Board. Both designs extend the limits of conveyor technology and are expected to economise on transport and longwalling costs. 4 references.

  14. Current methods and possibilities to determine the variability of Cu content in the copper ore on a conveyor belt in one of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurdziak Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology of ore sampling on a belt conveyor in one of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. mines was presented together with the results of analysis of the variation of ore tonnage and quality. The ore was transferred from one mine to another one through the analysed transfer conveyor on the route from the mine Division of Mining to copper plants. The transported ore was sampled in person from Division of Concentrators on a regular basis for metal accounting purposes between both mines. The ore quality control became a significant problem since it is impossible to predict with satisfactory advance both Cu content in the feed as well as its lithology composition which is required to improve and optimise the enrichment efficiency.

  15. Solvent minimization induces preferential orientation and crystal clustering in serial micro-crystallography on micro-meshes, in situ plates and on a movable crystal conveyor belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Alexei S., E-mail: soares@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mullen, Jeffrey D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274 (United States); Parekh, Ruchi M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Suffolk County Community College, Selden, NY 11784 (United States); McCarthy, Grace S.; Roessler, Christian G.; Jackimowicz, Rick; Skinner, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Orville, Allen M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Allaire, Marc [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Sweet, Robert M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2014-10-09

    Strategies are described for optimizing the signal-to-noise of diffraction data, and for combining data from multiple crystals. One challenge that must be overcome is the non-random orientation of crystals with respect to one another and with respect to the surface that supports them. X-ray diffraction data were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source from insulin and lysozyme crystals that were densely deposited on three types of surfaces suitable for serial micro-crystallography: MiTeGen MicroMeshes™, Greiner Bio-One Ltd in situ micro-plates, and a moving kapton crystal conveyor belt that is used to deliver crystals directly into the X-ray beam. 6° wedges of data were taken from ∼100 crystals mounted on each material, and these individual data sets were merged to form nine complete data sets (six from insulin crystals and three from lysozyme crystals). Insulin crystals have a parallelepiped habit with an extended flat face that preferentially aligned with the mounting surfaces, impacting the data collection strategy and the design of the serial crystallography apparatus. Lysozyme crystals had a cuboidal habit and showed no preferential orientation. Preferential orientation occluded regions of reciprocal space when the X-ray beam was incident normal to the data-collection medium surface, requiring a second pass of data collection with the apparatus inclined away from the orthogonal. In addition, crystals measuring less than 20 µm were observed to clump together into clusters of crystals. Clustering required that the X-ray beam be adjusted to match the crystal size to prevent overlapping diffraction patterns. No additional problems were encountered with the serial crystallography strategy of combining small randomly oriented wedges of data from a large number of specimens. High-quality data able to support a realistic molecular replacement solution were readily obtained from both crystal types using all three serial crystallography strategies.

  16. Solvent minimization induces preferential orientation and crystal clustering in serial micro-crystallography on micro-meshes, in situ plates and on a movable crystal conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Alexei S; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Parekh, Ruchi M; McCarthy, Grace S; Roessler, Christian G; Jackimowicz, Rick; Skinner, John M; Orville, Allen M; Allaire, Marc; Sweet, Robert M

    2014-11-01

    X-ray diffraction data were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source from insulin and lysozyme crystals that were densely deposited on three types of surfaces suitable for serial micro-crystallography: MiTeGen MicroMeshes™, Greiner Bio-One Ltd in situ micro-plates, and a moving kapton crystal conveyor belt that is used to deliver crystals directly into the X-ray beam. 6° wedges of data were taken from ∼100 crystals mounted on each material, and these individual data sets were merged to form nine complete data sets (six from insulin crystals and three from lysozyme crystals). Insulin crystals have a parallelepiped habit with an extended flat face that preferentially aligned with the mounting surfaces, impacting the data collection strategy and the design of the serial crystallography apparatus. Lysozyme crystals had a cuboidal habit and showed no preferential orientation. Preferential orientation occluded regions of reciprocal space when the X-ray beam was incident normal to the data-collection medium surface, requiring a second pass of data collection with the apparatus inclined away from the orthogonal. In addition, crystals measuring less than 20 µm were observed to clump together into clusters of crystals. Clustering required that the X-ray beam be adjusted to match the crystal size to prevent overlapping diffraction patterns. No additional problems were encountered with the serial crystallography strategy of combining small randomly oriented wedges of data from a large number of specimens. High-quality data able to support a realistic molecular replacement solution were readily obtained from both crystal types using all three serial crystallography strategies.

  17. Solvent minimization induces preferential orientation and crystal clustering in serial micro-crystallography on micro-meshes, in situ plates and on a movable crystal conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Alexei S.; Mullen, Jeffrey D.; Parekh, Ruchi M.; McCarthy, Grace S.; Roessler, Christian G.; Jackimowicz, Rick; Skinner, John M.; Orville, Allen M.; Allaire, Marc; Sweet, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Strategies are described for optimizing the signal-to-noise of diffraction data, and for combining data from multiple crystals. One challenge that must be overcome is the non-random orientation of crystals with respect to one another and with respect to the surface that supports them. X-ray diffraction data were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source from insulin and lysozyme crystals that were densely deposited on three types of surfaces suitable for serial micro-crystallography: MiTeGen MicroMeshes™, Greiner Bio-One Ltd in situ micro-plates, and a moving kapton crystal conveyor belt that is used to deliver crystals directly into the X-ray beam. 6° wedges of data were taken from ∼100 crystals mounted on each material, and these individual data sets were merged to form nine complete data sets (six from insulin crystals and three from lysozyme crystals). Insulin crystals have a parallelepiped habit with an extended flat face that preferentially aligned with the mounting surfaces, impacting the data collection strategy and the design of the serial crystallography apparatus. Lysozyme crystals had a cuboidal habit and showed no preferential orientation. Preferential orientation occluded regions of reciprocal space when the X-ray beam was incident normal to the data-collection medium surface, requiring a second pass of data collection with the apparatus inclined away from the orthogonal. In addition, crystals measuring less than 20 µm were observed to clump together into clusters of crystals. Clustering required that the X-ray beam be adjusted to match the crystal size to prevent overlapping diffraction patterns. No additional problems were encountered with the serial crystallography strategy of combining small randomly oriented wedges of data from a large number of specimens. High-quality data able to support a realistic molecular replacement solution were readily obtained from both crystal types using all three serial crystallography strategies

  18. Designing a system for measuring the flow of material transported on belts using ultrasonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihuţ, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Excavation tailings (scraping) and extracting the useful (lignite) in surface mine pits in Mining Basin Oltenia is achieved with technological lines of excavation - transport - dump of high productivity. A correlation of working capacity of the main components of technological lines (motor rotor, high capacity transport, car dumps) is necessary for economic reasons on electricity consumption. To achieve experience in the process was chosen excavator SRS 1400 from South Jilt career in the CET Turceni. The question of coal excavated volume has a great importance in the mine pits. At the excavation is desired a density estimate for each machine production tracking, cost estimation and tracking product unit profitability of each band on various sections zones. Permanent display size excavated volume snapshots in the excavator's cabin permits to track tape loading, eliminating unproductive times and information management to determine profitability. Another important requirement is closing the loop of the machine drive system of an excavator for a uniform deposition of carbon on the strip, thus achieving automatic control of the loading belt. Such equipment is important for the system dispatching in surface mine pits. Through a system of three ultrasound transducers to determine the smart instant of coal excavated section which, coupled with the tape speed, integrated over time will determine the amount of excavated coal. The basis of the system developed is a device for determining the volume and quantity of coal excavated acting on the march and optimize the system speed excavator working order. The device is designed primarily following the careers of lignite production: rotor excavators, rubber conveyor belts and dump facilities. Newly developed system aims to achieve the following determines: the optimum energy excavation depending on the nature of excavated material - lignite, shale, clay, etc., economic times to use the excavator bucket teeth rotor, energy

  19. Mining-induced fault reactivation associated with the main conveyor belt roadway and safety of the Barapukuria Coal Mine in Bangladesh: Constraints from BEM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Shinjo, Ryuichi [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Fault reactivation during underground mining is a critical problem in coal mines worldwide. This paper investigates the mining-induced reactivation of faults associated with the main conveyor belt roadway (CBR) of the Barapukuria Coal Mine in Bangladesh. The stress characteristics and deformation around the faults were investigated by boundary element method (BEM) numerical modeling. The model consists of a simple geometry with two faults (Fb and Fb1) near the CBR and the surrounding rock strata. A Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with bulk rock properties is applied to analyze the stability and safety around the fault zones, as well as for the entire mining operation. The simulation results illustrate that the mining-induced redistribution of stresses causes significant deformation within and around the two faults. The horizontal and vertical stresses influence the faults, and higher stresses are concentrated near the ends of the two faults. Higher vertical tensional stress is prominent at the upper end of fault Fb. High deviatoric stress values that concentrated at the ends of faults Fb and Fb1 indicate the tendency towards block failure around the fault zones. The deviatoric stress patterns imply that the reinforcement strength to support the roof of the roadway should be greater than 55 MPa along the fault core zone, and should be more than 20 MPa adjacent to the damage zone of the fault. Failure trajectories that extend towards the roof and left side of fault Fb indicate that mining-induced reactivation of faults is not sufficient to generate water inflow into the mine. However, if movement of strata occurs along the fault planes due to regional earthquakes, and if the faults intersect the overlying Lower Dupi Tila aquiclude, then liquefaction could occur along the fault zones and enhance water inflow into the mine. The study also reveals that the hydraulic gradient and the general direction of groundwater flow are almost at right angles with the trends of

  20. Irradiation process validation in the new conveyor system installed at PISI: special dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantano, Barbara P.; Docters, Andrea S.

    2009-01-01

    Semi Industrial Irradiation Plant (PISI) is a multipurpose facility which uses 60 Co sources to treat different products with numerous purposes, such as sterilization of medical devices, pharmaceutical and veterinarian products; control of pathogenic microorganisms, shelf-life extension and insect disinfestation of food, among others. In order to achieve the desired effect, the product is carried inside the irradiation chamber by means of a conveyor system, and it is exposed to radiation following a pre-established path. The recent installation of a new conveyor system at PISI demands the execution of a thorough validation programme. The scope of this presentation is to describe the dose mapping tasks that will be performed in order to characterize the irradiator and its new conveyor system with respect to distribution and variability of dose, complying with international standards on good irradiation practices. Information about the distribution and variability of dose in a product irradiated under defined conditions will allow the obtaining of process parameters which will conform the process specifications in future routine irradiations. The initial stages of the Validation Programme are the Installation Qualification, the Operational Qualification (OQ) and the Performance Qualification (PQ). To accomplish the IQ diverse tests are being carried out at PISI in order to verify that the system has been installed and is operating according to its technical specifications. Both OQ and PQ require dose mapping on simulated and real product, respectively. Dose mapping consists on placing dosimeters on a process load of homogeneous material -under certain irradiator and process parameters- according to a three-dimensional pre-established placement pattern. Since the replacement of the conveyor system introduces a significant modification in the source-to-product geometry, therefore in dose distribution, there is no reference dosimetry data available, so a more exhaustive

  1. Simulation of load traffic and steeped speed control of conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article examines the possibilities of the step control simulation of conveyor speed within Mathcad, Simulink, Stateflow software. To check the efficiency of the control algorithms and to more accurately determine the characteristics of the control system, it is necessary to simulate the process of speed control with real values of traffic for a work shift or for a day. For evaluating the belt workload and absence of spillage it is necessary to use empirical values of load flow in a shorter period of time. The analytical formulas for optimal speed step values were received using empirical values of load. The simulation checks acceptability of an algorithm, determines optimal parameters of regulation corresponding to load flow characteristics. The average speed and the number of speed switching during simulation are admitted as criteria of regulation efficiency. The simulation example within Mathcad software is implemented. The average conveyor speed decreases essentially by two-step and three-step control. A further increase in the number of regulatory steps decreases average speed insignificantly but considerably increases the intensity of the speed switching. Incremental algorithm of speed regulation uses different number of stages for growing and reducing load traffic. This algorithm allows smooth control of the conveyor speed changes with monotonic variation of the load flow. The load flow oscillation leads to an unjustified increase or decrease of speed. Work results can be applied at the design of belt conveyors with adjustable drives.

  2. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  3. Rebuilding conveyor transfer points to cut fugitive material and improve operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahura, R P [Martin Engineering Company, Neponset, MA (USA)

    1992-10-01

    The article describes a three-part programme to control spillage and prevent fugitive material at conveyor transfer points. The three parts are: adequate belt support; the installation of a wear line inside the chute to preserve the rubber seal system; and the maintenance of an effective edge seal. The article also discusses designing for ease of maintenance. 9 figs.

  4. Integrated electromechanical simulation of the drives of large conveyor systems; Integrierte elektromechanische Simulation der Antriebe von Grossbandanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeliger, Andreas; Vreydal, Daniel; Eltaliawi, Gamil; Vijayakumar, Nandhakumar [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergwerks- und Huettenmaschinenkunde

    2009-04-28

    The aim of the GrobaDyn research project is the complete modelling of a large conveyor system. With the aid of the model possible conversion of the previous drives with a constant speed to variable-speed drives will be simulated in advance of the planning phase of this conversion and any resonance phenomena within the operating speed range analysed and if necessary counter-measures taken. (orig.)

  5. Modelling and control algorithms of the cross conveyors line with multiengine variable speed drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremushkina, M. S.; Baburin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the actual problem of developing the control algorithm that meets the technical requirements of the mine belt conveyors, and enables energy and resource savings taking into account a random sort of traffic. The most effective method of solution of these tasks is the construction of control systems with the use of variable speed drives for asynchronous motors. The authors designed the mathematical model of the system ‘variable speed multiengine drive - conveyor - control system of conveyors’ that takes into account the dynamic processes occurring in the elements of the transport system, provides an assessment of the energy efficiency of application the developed algorithms, which allows one to reduce the dynamic overload in the belt to 15-20%.

  6. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  7. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  8. Visual bottle inspection performance in highly paced belt-conveyor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Tanaka, T

    1977-12-01

    The relation between visual work performance and a few variables with immediate effects, i.e, lighting, work speed, work spell, etc. was studied. At the same time, some physiological and behavioral variations obtained in the study were also discussed. Through experiments and surveys, the optimum conditions were found for each variable. Work performance, however, is affected in such a subtle, interactive and dynamic manner that the working conditions are to be adjusted by taking into account not only these variables having immediate effects but also those indirectly relating ones meeting real needs in the practical working fields. Improvement of some physical working conditions, such as lighting, produces only a transitory increase of performance which is very unstable unless other determinants of performance are simultaneously managed in a proper manner. The same applied to arrangement of the optimum work speed and work spell for highly paced visual inspection, variations in rejection rate and in physiological functions interacting with individual and other determinants. In order to maximize understanding of the integrated and synthesized manner of determinants, it is emphasized that work performance must be pursued in a considerably comprehensive framework from a long-term perspective.

  9. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems that use carbon monoxide sensors shall provide identification of fire along all belt conveyors. (1... downwind of each belt drive unit, each tailpiece transfer point, and each belt take-up. If the belt drive, tailpiece, and/or take-up for a single transfer point are installed together in the same air course, and the...

  11. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  12. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  13. Experimental Study of Paddy Grain Drying in Continuous Recirculation System Pneumatic Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo Totok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, paddy drying using conventional method is irrelevant to used. The increasing need of grain each year is one of the main factor that pushes scientist to invent new methods of drying paddy grain. The old method is unusefull since it takes up space, needed the sun as the drying media which causes a long drying time. One of the alternative of drying paddy grain is by using mechanic dryer. By using this dryer type, the process of drying takes faster comparing to the old method and the distribution of grain is supplied continuously. The dryer which uses pneumatic conveyor can be one of the solution due to its less energy consumption, a better drying result, and high drying capacity. The variable used to identify drying performance is temperature and loading weight. From the experiment, it is resulted that the best temperature for drying paddy grain is 60°C with the weight loading of 150 gram.

  14. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  15. Jim Walter Resources installs new overland conveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-12-15

    Embarking on a major expansion plan, the company is constructing a new additional overland conveyor coal to a recently refurbished prep plant. Jim Walter Resources recently invested $20 million in a new 5-mile overland conveyor system to haul coal from the No.7 deep coal mine in Alabama to the No.5 coal preparation plant. The size of the No.7 mine was effectively doubled. The article describes how this expansion move was decided upon and describes the design and installation of the new conveyor which spans approximately 5 miles. 4 photos.

  16. Scintillation densimeter for liquids and an isotopic conveyor weighers with plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhaj, B.; Antonyak, V.; Plyater, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The method is described of the weighted material's mass measuring according to the results of the conveyor momentary load measurement derived from the attenuation of radiation in the transmission geometry, conveyor belt velocity measurement and digital processing of the signals from the measurement of the bouth values. In the measuring gage there are located: the point type gamma source of cesium-137 with 4 mCi capacity, the scintillation detector with plastic cylindric scintillator of 5 cm in diameter and with the length approximately equal to the width of the conveyor belt and also the tachometer-generator. The conveyor weighers described is intended for use with conveyor having belt; from 60 to 180 cm wide. The results are given of industrial exploitation of the instrument [ru

  17. Pickering irradiated fuel transfer conveyor isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, D J; Eijsermans, L J [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Pickering A NGS has been in operation for 25 years and is one of the longest in service CANDU stations. Some underwater fuel handling equipment, notably the conveyor stops, have been without maintenance throughout that time. This paper describes the concept of a conveyor isolation system that permits draining of a single or multiple elevator columns and also the early stages of a development program for the elastomeric sealing element. The prototype seal element has been proven in lab tests to be capable of limiting leakage to 0.5 IGPM (imperial gallons per minute) at the design pressure of 6.5 psi. The design of a sealing element is particularly interesting because the conveyor tube is a square cross-section which contains an additional obstruction , a conveyor drive cable. A seal delivery, actuating and positioning system has been conceptually laid out and the design is proceeding, with projected implementation in 1998. (author). 8 figs.

  18. Pickering irradiated fuel transfer conveyor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Eijsermans, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pickering A NGS has been in operation for 25 years and is one of the longest in service CANDU stations. Some underwater fuel handling equipment, notably the conveyor stops, have been without maintenance throughout that time. This paper describes the concept of a conveyor isolation system that permits draining of a single or multiple elevator columns and also the early stages of a development program for the elastomeric sealing element. The prototype seal element has been proven in lab tests to be capable of limiting leakage to 0.5 IGPM (imperial gallons per minute) at the design pressure of 6.5 psi. The design of a sealing element is particularly interesting because the conveyor tube is a square cross-section which contains an additional obstruction , a conveyor drive cable. A seal delivery, actuating and positioning system has been conceptually laid out and the design is proceeding, with projected implementation in 1998. (author). 8 figs

  19. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  20. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E

    2012-01-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  1. Smart Idlers : RFID in conveyor belt monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) is a technology that offers unique identifi cation of objects and processes. It can actively or passively communicate and, in combination with sensors, it can capture more detailed physical information. RFID technology has been integrated into our daily life.

  2. Synaptic vesicle distribution by conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughamian, Armen J; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2012-03-02

    The equal distribution of synaptic vesicles among synapses along the axon is critical for robust neurotransmission. Wong et al. show that the continuous circulation of synaptic vesicles throughout the axon driven by molecular motors ultimately yields this even distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Durability Testing of Idlers for Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pytlik

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the durability tests carried out on both of these idlers it can be concluded that the applied research methodology describes the test conditions of idlers, in a manner as close as possible to their actual operational conditions, which were subject to a variety of factors for a total time of 116 hours, they included: dust, water, loads and variable rotational speed. This methodology allowed us to determine, even at the stage of laboratory tests, the suitability of a particular idler to certain operational conditions.

  4. FPGA-Based HD Camera System for the Micropositioning of Biomedical Micro-Objects Using a Contactless Micro-Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Yusifli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advancements, micro-object contactless conveyers are becoming an essential part of the biomedical sector. They help avoid any infection and damage that can occur due to external contact. In this context, a smart micro-conveyor is devised. It is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA-based system that employs a smart surface for conveyance along with an OmniVision complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS HD camera for micro-object position detection and tracking. A specific FPGA-based hardware design and VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL implementation are realized. It is done without employing any Nios processor or System on a Programmable Chip (SOPC builder based Central Processing Unit (CPU core. It keeps the system efficient in terms of resource utilization and power consumption. The micro-object positioning status is captured with an embedded FPGA-based camera driver and it is communicated to the Image Processing, Decision Making and Command (IPDC module. The IPDC is programmed in C++ and can run on a Personal Computer (PC or on any appropriate embedded system. The IPDC decisions are sent back to the FPGA, which pilots the smart surface accordingly. In this way, an automated closed-loop system is employed to convey the micro-object towards a desired location. The devised system architecture and implementation principle is described. Its functionality is also verified. Results have confirmed the proper functionality of the developed system, along with its outperformance compared to other solutions.

  5. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge foam to the belt drive, belt takeup, electrical controls, gear reducing unit and the conveyor belt..., electrical controls, gear reducing unit, and the conveyor belt over a distance of 50 feet; and, (2) At... electrical controls, gear reducing unit, and the conveyor belt over a distance of 150 feet. (c) The foam...

  7. Angular mining conveyor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sender, A; Mura, A; Liduchowski, L; Zok, P; Skolik, W; Szyngiel, S; Rojek, H; Gajda, B; Major, M; Stanislawski, P; Sliwiok, H; Sikora, J

    1988-10-19

    Angular mining conveyor provided with a drag chain extending along the axis of its path of movement, and a corner member, inside which the drag chain is led in a forced way, characterized in that the drag chain, where its path curves around the corner member, is located by supporting of the vertical links of the chain along the required curved section of the conveyor path around said corner member, and the supporting line of the links is so chosen, that, within the said curved section of the conveyor path, a space is maintained between the vertical end surface of the scrapers and the outer curved surface of the radially inner side wall of a corner trough associated with the corner member, through which corner trough the scrapers pass. 10 figs.

  8. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  9. Conveyor for sorting radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisco, A.J.; Johnson, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus is described for detecting radioactive components in dry active waste, the apparatus comprising: means for reducing the waste to pieces of substantially uniform size, first and second conveyors and a housing for the conveyors; means for conveying the pieces from the means for reducing the waste to the first and second conveyors; each of the first and second conveyors includes a receiving portion and a discharge portion; the discharge portion is spaced above and upstream from the receiving portion to disperse the pieces as they are transferred from the first conveyor to the second conveyor so that pieces which are in clusters are separated from each other to increase the likelihood of detecting radiation emanating means for detecting radioactive radiation emanating from the pieces, at least one of radiation detector means is located on each of the conveyors. Each is disposed in close overlying relation to its respective conveyor so that low levels of radiation emanating from the pieces can be detected; each of the conveyors includes means for flattening the pieces of waste before the pieces pass under the radiation detector means; and the means for flattening disposed between the receiving portion of each conveyor and the radiation detector means; the housing is generally closed; and means for providing a generally closed connection between the housing and the means for reducing the waste so that air that is in the housing and in the means for reducing the waste can be controlled

  10. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the most important aspects, and the results of the project DEVELOPMENT AND COMMISSIONING OF AN INTEGRATED HAULAGE AND VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN A MINE USING VERY LONG SUBLEVEL-CAVING WINNING METHOD. Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole (continuous) haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. from the winning faces to the surface, and also the interlocks between them. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac. Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system, it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of 2000 m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. (Author)

  11. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  12. Design of conveyor chutes with special attention to blockage, wear and conveyor detection change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P C; Hill, G L [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1991-04-01

    Coal handling continues to present industry with significant problems which, to overcome, result in the expenditure of considerable sums of money. While there are considerable efforts being made to reduce coal production costs, materials handling which represents a large proportion of those costs, is still a generally neglected area. This project has demonstrated that many of the problems of existing transfer areas can be overcome by the use of a small mass-flow bin and belt feeder combination, particularly for the case of high speed belts where many of these problems are further amplified. The study has emphasised the need to begin chute designs with an assessment of the flow properties of the bulk solid, once these have been established an accurate plot of the material's trajectory is required before the design of any type of chute can commence. It has been shown that surge bin transfer chutes would have particular application in: high speed belt conveying; transfer of fragile materials prone to degradation and dusting; more than one conveyor to be fed from a single belt; transfers at any angle with high efficiency. Throughout this project these aspects have been studied. Techniques for predicting feeder loads and power requirements are recommended, and ways of predicting the exit velocity from impact plates have been studied. The influence of gates and feeder angles on mass flow rates from high velocity belt feeders is reported.

  13. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse...

  14. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  15. An Improved Dispatching Method (a-HPDB for Automated Material Handling System with Active Rolling Belt for 450 mm Wafer Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is facing the transition from 300 mm to 450 mm wafer fabrication. Due to the increased size and weight, 450 mm wafers will pose unprecedented challenges on semiconductor wafer fabrication. To better handle and transport 450 mm wafers, an advanced Automated Material Handling System (AMHS is definitely required. Though conveyor-based AMHS is expected to be suitable for 450 mm wafer fabrication, still it faces two main problems, traffic-jam problem and lot-prioritization. To address the two problems, in this research we have proposed an improved dispatching method, termed Heuristic Preemptive Dispatching Method using Activated Roller Belt (a-HPDB. We have developed some effective rules for the a-HPDB based on Activated Roller Belt (ARB. In addition, we have conducted experiments to investigate its effectiveness. Compared with the HPDB and R-HPD, two dispatching rules proposed in previous studies, our experimental results showed the a-HPDB had a better performance in terms of average lot delivery time (ALDT. For hot lots and normal lots, the a-HPDB had advantages of 4.14% and 8.92% over the HPDB and advantages of 4.89% and 8.52% over R-HPD, respectively.

  16. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  17. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-01-01

    During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as ...

  18. Feasibility of surface sampling in automated inspection of concrete aggregates during bulk transport on a conveyor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Di Maio, F.; Lotfi, S.; Bakker, M.; Hu, M.; Vahidi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Automated optic inspection of concrete aggregates for pollutants (e.g. wood, plastics, gypsum and brick) is required to establish the suitability for reuse in new concrete products. Inspection is more efficient when directly sampling the materials on the conveyor belt instead of feeding them in a

  19. Noise Properties of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The definition of the current conveyor is presented and it is shown how different generations of current conveyors can all be combined into a single definition of a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII). Next, noise sources are introduced into the model, and a general noise...

  20. Errors of isotope conveyor weigher caused by profile variations and shift of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations of isotope conveyor weigher in transmission geometry and with long plastic scintillator as a detector are presented in the paper. The results indicate that errors caused by material shift across the conveyor belt can be decreased by forming probe sensitivity to incident radiation along its axis by means of additional radiation absorbents. The errors caused by material profile variations can effectively be diminished by increase of photon energy. Application of 60 Co instead of 137 Cs ensured more than three times lower errors caused by profile variation. Errors caused by vertical movements of the belt with material, decrease considerably, when single point source situated in the center of the measuring head is replaced at least by two point sources situated out of the center, above the edges of the belt. (author)

  1. THE ASTEROID BELT AS A RELIC FROM A CHAOTIC EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, André; Raymond, Sean N.; Pierens, Arnaud [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Morbidelli, Alessandro [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Winter, Othon C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista—Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Nesvorny' , David, E-mail: izidoro.costa@gmail.com [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    The orbital structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the solar system’s dynamical history. The current belt only contains ∼10{sup −3} Earth masses yet the asteroids’ orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. In the context of models of terrestrial planet formation, the belt may have been excited by Jupiter’s orbital migration. The terrestrial planets can also be reproduced without invoking a migrating Jupiter; however, as it requires a severe mass deficit beyond Earth’s orbit, this model systematically under-excites the asteroid belt. Here we show that the orbits of the asteroids may have been excited to their current state if Jupiter’s and Saturn’s early orbits were chaotic. Stochastic variations in the gas giants’ orbits cause resonances to continually jump across the main belt and excite the asteroids’ orbits on a timescale of tens of millions of years. While hydrodynamical simulations show that the gas giants were likely in mean motion resonance at the end of the gaseous disk phase, small perturbations could have driven them into a chaotic but stable state. The gas giants’ current orbits were achieved later, during an instability in the outer solar system. Although it is well known that the present-day solar system exhibits chaotic behavior, our results suggest that the early solar system may also have been chaotic.

  2. An experimental investigation of microalgal dewatering efficiency of belt filter system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sandip

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the microalgal dewatering efficiency of a belt filter system for feed concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L. A prototype belt filtration system designed for 50 g dry wt./L microalgal feed concentration was used for this investigation. The highest concentration of microalgal suspension available for testing on the prototype belt filtration system was 6 g dry wt./L obtained from biomass settling tanks at the Lawrence, Kansas domestic wastewater treatment plant. For preparation of feed suspension with concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L, microalgal cultivation was followed by flocculation. A mixed laboratory culture of freshwater species dominated by three eukaryotic green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus sp., and Kirchneriella sp. was cultivated in wastewater effluent. This was followed by flocculation which resulted in a microalgal feed suspension concentration of 4 g dry wt./L. Belt dewatering tests were conducted on microalgal suspensions with feed concentrations of 4 g dry wt./L and 6 g dry wt./L. The maximum microalgal recovery with the belt dewatering system was 46% from the 4 g dry wt./L, and 84% from the 6 g dry wt./L suspensions respectively. The results of this study indicate that microalgal suspension concentrations as low as 6 g dry wt./L can be recovered with a belt filter system improving the overall dewatering efficiency of the system.

  3. Universal method for opnimal design main structural assemblies of steel structures stationary conveyor with hanging ribbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The technique and the detailed algorithm for optimal design of steel structures hospitaltion of the conveyor with hang-ing ribbon. Developed a universal objective function together with the system-limited-subject to limits of main components of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging ribbon.

  4. Review of Innovative Sediment Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Alternative conveyor belt systems appear to be available from the growing hydraulic fracturing ( fracking , shale gas recovery) industry, which use...tons of aggregate material (with diameters up to 2 in.) per hour. This equates to roughly 150 cu yd per hr, de- pending on sand density. As fracking

  5. 30 CFR 75.1101-16 - Dry powder chemical systems; sensing and fire-suppression devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-contained dry powder chemical system shall be equipped with sensing devices which shall be designed to activate the fire-control system, sound an alarm and stop the conveyor drive motor in the event of a rise... belt drive, each sensor shall be equipped with a standby power source which shall be capable of...

  6. Modelling dust liberation in bulk material handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derakhshani, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Dust has negative effects on the environmental conditions, human health as well as industrial equipment and processes. In this thesis, the transfer point of a belt conveyor as a bulk material handling system with a very high potential place for dust liberation is studied. This study is conducted

  7. Drycon dry ash conveyor: dry bottom ash handling system with reduced operating costs and improved plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Drycon dry bottom ash extraction system is designed to remove bottom ash beneath the furnace, cooling it without any need of water. Fresh air in countercurrent flow to the ash is used for the ash cooling. Data presented show how savings of time and costs can be achieved with this system and how a boiler efficiency can be increased using this technology. Considerable advantages in the reliability of operation with new improvements of the design are described. 7 figs.

  8. Traction calculation of band conveyors using the ''Nairi-2'' computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlunin, V A; Livshis, A V; Pod' yemshchikov, A N

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm is described and a program is introduced for traction calculation of band conveyors using the ''Nairi-2'' computer. The calculation system of the conveyor is derived by means of dividing the closed loop of the band into straight sections, which are separated by drums. The number of sections depends on the number of drums, the bypass system of them by the band, the shape of the conveyor route and in each specific case, a specific number is chosen. The initial information for the computer is assigned by a matrix, each row of which consists of parameters of the corresponding section. As a result, the forces of the beginning and end of the sections are found, and the required output of the drive motors with observance of the conditions of non-slippage of the drive drums and limiting of the maximum slack of the band between rollers are also found. The program allows one to make traction calculations of band conveyors with any routing shape for any number and position of the drive drums.

  9. A "Conveyor Belt" Model for the Dynamic Contact Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, C.; Siboni, S.

    2011-01-01

    The familiar Young contact angle measurement of a liquid at equilibrium on a solid is a fundamental aspect of capillary phenomena. But in the real world it is not so easy to observe it. This is due to the roughness and/or heterogeneity of real surfaces, which typically are not perfectly planar and chemically homogeneous. What can be easily…

  10. The Conveyor Belt Problem and Newton's Third Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Maurice Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the thermal power developed by friction is exactly half the supplied power in the general case of a variable force of friction. Investigates the mechanism whereby one-half the input energy is dissipated as heat using mathematical expressions. (YP)

  11. Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, W; Reichel, J; Hommelhoff, P; Hänsch, T W

    2001-01-22

    We demonstrate an integrated magnetic device which transports cold atoms near a surface with very high positioning accuracy. Time-dependent currents in a lithographic conductor pattern create a moving chain of potential wells; atoms are transported in these wells while remaining confined in all three dimensions. We achieve mean fluxes up to 10(6) s(-1) with a negligible heating rate. An extension of this device allows merging of atom clouds by unification of two Ioffe-Pritchard potentials. The unification, which we demonstrate experimentally, can be performed without loss of phase space density. This novel, all-magnetic atom manipulation offers exciting perspectives, such as trapped-atom interferometry.

  12. Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Meck, Maideyi; Makurira, Hodson; Magole, Lapologang; Mashauri, Damas; mazvimavi, Dominic; Mul, Marloes

    2016-04-01

    The theme for the 2014 symposium focused on the contribution of integrated water resources management (IWRM) to socio-economic development. A number of papers presented various methods that could be used to enable society to access clean water; sanitation and provision of water for rainfed and irrigation based agriculture and aquaculture. Water is the engine of development, that drives both money generating ventures as well as activities which cannot be assigned exact monetary value, but are essential for the social and economic well being of communities. It is now accepted that in order to produce most products, the contribution of water has to be factored in; from manufacturing to mining. The role that water plays in the has a much higher economic value than most people realize.

  13. Determination of antimony trioxide in fire-retardant conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytych-Witwicka, B.; Szmyd, E.

    1976-12-01

    Two methods for the determination of antimony trioxide in rubber and pvc are described. One is a colorimetric method based on the reaction of antimony with rhodamine B; the other is a polarographic method. The results of the two methods show a satisfactory consistency and the methods themselves appear rapid and effective.

  14. Comparative analysis of steel structures stationary conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of computation of metal structures LLC «Сonveyor» with the subsequent analysis of its main struc-tural units. The analysis results of the metal structures, LLC «Сonveyor» with a similar metal structure obtained in the optimal design process.

  15. Grassroot Sports: Conveyor Belt for Sports Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...

  16. Experimental setimeted of the some parameters of the conveyor belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasová Daniela

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available At present one of the most spread methods able to solve non-linear problems of the mechanics is theis the finite-element method. When solving problems of hyperelasticity by the finite-element method (FEM for introducing the input materials' constants of the body investigated, best - thought-out Money-Rivlin's theory is used. It is the method describing the behaviour of hyper-elastic materials with large elastic (reversible deformations. For the description of behaviour of the hyperelastic materials, can be used also the development from more members, comprising 5 or 9 materials' constants. The problem with the determining the hyperelastic materials' characteristics is one of the most important factors effecting the accuracy of the calculation result. The material's constants A and B are det-rmined experimentally from the practical tests, e.g.tensile, compressive or other and have to meet certain conditions. The paper shows the possibility how to determinate these matherials´ charakteris-tics and their verification by the mathematical model ANSYS.

  17. Analysis of the Noise Characteristics of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The definition of the current conveyor is reviewed and a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII) is shown to combine the different generations of current conveyors presently existing. Next, noise sources are introduced, and a general noise model for the current conveyor is descr......The definition of the current conveyor is reviewed and a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII) is shown to combine the different generations of current conveyors presently existing. Next, noise sources are introduced, and a general noise model for the current conveyor...

  18. Multidisciplinary design optimization of the belt drive system considering both structure and vibration characteristics based on improved genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongliang; Song, Xueguan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiaobang

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic performance of a belt drive system is composed of many factors, such as the efficiency, the vibration, and the optimal parameters. The conventional design only considers the basic performance of the belt drive system, while ignoring its overall performance. To address all these challenges, the study on vibration characteristics and optimization strategies could be a feasible way. This paper proposes a new optimization strategy and takes a belt drive design optimization as a case study based on the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). The MDO of the belt drive system is established and the corresponding sub-systems are analyzed. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed by using an improved genetic algorithm. Based on the optimal results obtained from the MDO, the three-dimension (3D) model of the belt drive system is established for dynamics simulation by virtual prototyping. From the comparison of the results with respect to different velocities and loads, the MDO method can effectively reduce the transverse vibration amplitude. The law of the vibration displacement, the vibration frequency, and the influence of velocities on the transverse vibrations has been obtained. Results show that the MDO method is of great help to obtain the optimal structural parameters. Furthermore, the kinematics principle of the belt drive has been obtained. The belt drive design case indicates that the proposed method in this paper can also be used to solve other engineering optimization problems efficiently.

  19. FLEXOWELL conveyor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paelke, J.W.; Wilsher, M.

    1987-04-01

    The vertical conveying method based on the FLEXOWELL technology is introduced, which lends itself to vertical and steep inclined conveying in the mining industry. Applications for FLEXOLIFT systems are covered together with a feasibility study into vertical shaft conveying. 12 refs.

  20. New Horizons: The Exploration of the Pluto System and The Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Horizons is NASA's mission to explore the Pluto system and the Kuiper Belt (KB). New Horizons launched on 19 January 2006. It made the first exploration of the Pluto system in July 2015 and is now on a five year long extended mission to explore the Kuiper Belt and objects in it. The spacecraft carries a sophisticated payload of imagers, spectrometers, and other scientific instruments that have been used to study Pluto, its five moons, Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), and the heliosphere. The flyby of the Pluto system by New Horizons revealed a complex planet and satellite system. Beyond providing rich geological, compositional, and atmospheric datasets, New Horizons demonstrated that Pluto has been surprisingly geologically and climatologically active throughout 4+ Gyr, and that it exhibits a surprisingly complex range of phenomenology and geologic expression that rivals Mars in its richness. I will describe the mission's objectives, the capabilities of the payload, the flyby of the planet, and some major and some recent scientific discoveries made to date. Chief among the results I will discuss will be the evidence for various kinds of internal/geological/atmospheric/volatile transport activity at Pluto. I will close by briefly also outlining the extended mission flyby of KBO 2014 MU69 on 1 Jan 2019 and the cruise science studies of dozens of KBOs being performed en route to and after that flyby.

  1. Walking-Beam Solar-Cell Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled walking-beam conveyor moves cells between work stations in automated assembly line. Conveyor has arm at each work station. In unison arms pick up all solar cells and advance them one station; then beam retracks to be in position for next step. Microprocessor sets beam stroke, speed, and position.

  2. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Deflection Control in Composite Building by Using Belt Truss and Outriggers Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; T. Fatima

    2010-01-01

    The design of high-rise building is more often dictated by its serviceability rather than strength. Structural Engineers are always striving to overcome challenge of controlling lateral deflection and storey drifts as well as self weight of structure imposed on foundation. One of the most effective techniques is the use of outrigger and belt truss system in Composite structures that can astutely solve the above two issues in High-rise constructions. This paper investig...

  4. Eccentric Mounting and Adjustment System for Belt Driven Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, David N

    2008-01-01

    .... The system includes a housing fixed to the engine, a socket rotatable in pawl-and-ratchet fashion within the housing, and a socket aperture eccentrically disposed relative to the socket's axis...

  5. Plant trial of a fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission gauge for the on-belt determination of moisture in lump coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Rafter, P.T.; Sowerby, B.D.; Rainbow, M.T.; Jelenich, L.

    1990-01-01

    A fast neutron and γ-ray transmission (FNGT) gauge has been used to determine the moisture content of lump coke on the conveyor belt supplying the No. 3 blast furnace at the BHP Newcastle Steelworks. The gauge was operated on-line over the period June 1988-March 1989. Gauge moisture was compared with laboratory moisture, based on 30 increment composite samples taken from the belt, and with moisture determined by a second FNGT gauge on one of the hoppers feeding the conveyor belt. The r.m.s. difference between conveyor gauge moisture and laboratory moisture was 0.24 wt% during the calibration period for two hopper flow on the belt, which is normal plant condition. The accuracy of the conveyor belt gauge was maintained to within 0.37 wt% moisture over the full period of the plant trial. (author)

  6. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  7. A neutron moisture system on nickel mineral transport rubber belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin

    2000-01-01

    A method of density-thickness joint compensation was developed to make the on-line measurement of moisture for moving irregular mineral materials. At the same time, the materials' thickness, as a weighted factor, was chosen to modify the prompt moisture in a fixed time and improve the accuracy of measuring moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement accuracy is better than 5% for a thickness of > 2 cm and a moisture of > 6%. The system has been running on the spot for about three months, with a result accorded with that by the stoving-weighing method

  8. New Horizons Reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C. T

    2009-01-01

    The New Horizons mission provides the first in situ reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper belt, arguably the last frontier of solar system exploration. This book describes the mission, its objectives, expected results, and instruments in articles written by the scientists and engineers most closely involved. The New Horizons mission is expected to return unique observations and discoveries, which will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of the solar system. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in planetary science and space exploration, and all other potential users of data obtained by the instruments on board the New Horizons mission.

  9. FLEXOWELL vertical lift systems in underground mining and construction industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paelke, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Mining and quarrying companies are seeking improved and more continuous transport methods to reduce their costs. Frequently in the past the use of conveyors has been ruled out in steep mining applications but now the Scholtz FLEXOWELL belting which can be used at angles up to the vertical will enable many mines to consider complete belt conveyor systems for the first time. Applications will include steep conveyors for surface mines and quarries in order to eliminate the need for expensive and noisy fleets of trucks and the associated requirements to maintain haul roads. A further field is in the use of steep or vertical conveyors in underground mines to ensure improved continuity of output in existing shaft systems or reduced development costs in new mines. The Scholtz company, a member of the Nokia Group which had sales of about 3.5 billion U.S. Dollars in 1987, has more than 20 years experience with their FLEXOWELL belts. Over 40,000 units are operating around the world. These are already fully proven for vertical lifts of over 100 m (328ft) and up to 500 m (1,640 ft) is possible. Tonnage ratings of up to 4,000 t/h are achievable. Widespread acceptance of this technology has resulted in unique and major installations over the past few years. This paper reviews various applications - from the viewpoint of successfully proven vertical lift systems as well as the maintenance and downtime aspects. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbert, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

  11. Study and modeling of changes in volumetric efficiency of helix conveyors at different rotational speeds and inclination angels by ANFIS and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zareei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spiral conveyors effectively carry solid masses as free or partly free flow of materials. They create good throughput and they are the perfect solution to solve the problems of transport, due to their simple structure, high efficiency and low maintenance costs. This study aims to investigate the performance characteristics of conveyors as function of auger diameter, rotational speed and handling inclination angle. The performance characteristic was investigated according to volumetric efficiency. In another words, the purpose of this study was obtaining a suitable model for volumetric efficiency changes of steep auger to transfer agricultural products. Three different diameters of auger, five levels of rotational speed and three slope angles were used to investigate the effects of changes in these parameters on volumetric efficiency of auger. The used method is novel in this area and the results show that performance by ANFIS models is much better than common statistical models. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery in Urmia University. In this study, SAYOS cultivar of wheat was used. This cultivar of wheat had hard seeds and the humidity was 12% (based on wet. Before testing, all foreign material was separated from the wheat such as stone, dust, plant residues and green seeds. Bulk density of wheat was 790 kg m-3. The auger shaft of the spiral conveyor was received its rotational force through belt and electric motor and its rotation leading to transfer the product to the output. In this study, three conveyors at diameters of 13, 17.5, and 22.5 cm, five levels of rotational speed at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 rpm and three handling angles of 10, 20, and 30º were tested. Adaptive Nero-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is the combination of fuzzy systems and artificial neural network, so it has both benefits. This system is useful to solve the complex non

  12. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  13. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as models, based on the suggestions in the literature. The location and number of trusses and cross section of all structural elements are considered as design variables. After sizing of the structure for a specific topology and shape, weight and displacement of the structure are obtained and plotted in a diagram to illustrate trade-off between two objective functions. The results show the optimal Pareto-front solutions for different stories. Smooth trade-off and optimal number of trusses and their locations obtained.

  14. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. A large number of systems harboring a debris disk show evidence for a double belt architecture. One hypothesis for explaining the gap between the debris belts in these disks is the presence of one or more planets dynamically carving it. For this reason these disks represent prime targets for searching planets using direct imaging instruments, like the Spectro-Polarimetric High-constrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) at the Very Large Telescope. Aim. The goal of this work is to investigate this scenario in systems harboring debris disks divided into two components, placed, respectively, in the inner and outer parts of the system. All the targets in the sample were observed with the SPHERE instrument, which performs high-contrast direct imaging, during the SHINE guaranteed time observations. Positions of the inner and outer belts were estimated by spectral energy distribution fitting of the infrared excesses or, when available, from resolved images of the disk. Very few planets have been observed so far in debris disks gaps and we intended to test if such non-detections depend on the observational limits of the present instruments. This aim is achieved by deriving theoretical predictions of masses, eccentricities, and semi-major axes of planets able to open the observed gaps and comparing such parameters with detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Methods: The relation between the gap and the planet is due to the chaotic zone neighboring the orbit of the planet. The radial extent of this zone depends on the mass ratio between the planet and the star, on the semi-major axis, and on the eccentricity of the planet, and it can be estimated analytically. We first tested the different analytical predictions using a numerical tool for the detection of chaotic behavior and then selected the best formula for estimating a planet's physical and dynamical properties required to open the observed gap. We then apply the formalism to the case of one single planet on a

  15. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing

    2017-10-01

    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  16. Comparison of a pneumatic conveyor and bucket elevator on an energy and economic basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, T.M.; Southwell, P.H. (Agricultural and Energy Engineering Ltd., Moorefield, ON (Canada)); Vigneault, C. (Agricultural Canada Research Station, St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    Tests were performed at a commercial feed mill which was replacing an existing pneumatic conveyor with a bucket elevator, in order to compare the performance of the two types of conveyor on an energy and cost basis. The conveyors were used to transport ground corn from a hammermill at an average grinding rate of 8.5 tonnes/h. At the same conveying rate of ground product, the pneumatic conveyor required a power of 27.5 kW and an energy of 4.77 kWh/tonne while the bucket elevator required a power of 4.7 kW and an energy of 0.88 kWh/tonne. The financial costs of conveying energy were $8,350/y for the pneumatic system and $1,540/y for the bucket elevator, excluding peak demand charges for electricity. The tests therefore demonstrated that a bucket elevator is far more efficient than a pneumatic conveyor and should be considered in the design of new feed mills. For existing mills, a bucket elevator should be considered if there are problems with the pneumatic system already in place or if the capacity of the mill needs to be increased. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CONVEYOR LINE SPEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CONVEYOR LINE SPEED SYNCHRONISER FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF ... in bottles.Therefore a Proportional Integral Derivative(PID) controller was designed to act as a speed synchronizer in order to eliminate the above mentioned problems.

  18. Plant trial of an under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter gauge for on-belt determination of moisture in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Rafter, P.T.; Abernethy, D.A.; Millen, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has been developed for the on-line measurement of moisture in coal. In this technique, moisture was correlated with radio frequency susceptance and conductance, determined using an under-belt capacitance sensor in which a fringing electric field interrogates a layer of coal on the conveyor belt directly about the sensor. To compensate for variations in the density and thickness of the coal layer, an under-belt gamma-ray backscatter gauge was used to measure an equivalent volume of coal. A plant trial of the technique was conducted at Stockton Borehole Colliery, NSW Australia, where the gauges were installed on the coking coal product conveyor. Product moistures, in the range 7-14%, were determined with r.m.s errors of 0.50 and 0.25 wt% using on-belt and static off-belt gauges, respectively. The difference in the on-belt and off-belt gauge measurement accuracy was attributed to sampling errors in the calibration of the on-belt gauge. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Análisis estructural de un transportador de banda. // Structural analysis of a band conveyor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alvarez Barreras

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene el análisis de comprobación de la estructura de la cuna de una máquina transportadora debanda. En el mismo se determinan las cargas de servicio y las condiciones de apoyo, se efectúa el cálculo lineal por elmétodo de los elementos finitos, y finalmente se valoran los resultados en forma de:· Análisis de las tensiones.· Análisis de los desplazamientos.· Análisis de las deformaciones.Palabras claves: Transportador de banda, estructura, análisis de tensiones, elementos finitos.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe present work contains the structure analysis of a belt conveyor cradle. The operation loads and conditions of supportare determined, the lineal calculation is made by the Finite Element Method, and finally the results are valued in form of:· Analysis of tensions.· Analysis of displacements.· Analysis of deformations.Key words: Belt conveyor cradle, structure, tension analysis, finite element.

  20. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  1. Fracture behavior of rubber powder modified rubber blends applied for conveying belt top covers

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Stocek, Radek; Gehde, Michael; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is concentrated on the experimental investigation of wear resistance of rubber powder modified rubber blends. Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) blends applied for conveying belt top covers have been modified by ground rubber (rubber powder) based on SBR. We theoretically described the rubber wear mechanism due to loading conditions occurring at conveyor belts in the field, to simulate wear behavior of top cover rubber materials. An own developed testing equipment based on g...

  2. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  3. 3D MODELING OF DRIVE SHAFT OF A MONORAIL CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STĂNĂŞEL Iulian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The conveyors are used to transport various products in successive steps until they reach their destination and to ensure cargo volumes to balance the flow buffer. The conveyors monorail type are used for the transfer of the products, piece by piece and they can be suspended and can operate at heights and different tasks. In this paper is presented a method for the design of the drive shaft of a monorail conveyor, by using CAD-CAE applications.

  4. Robust control system for belt continuously variable transmission; Robust seigyo wo tekiyoshita mudan hensokuki no hensokuhi servo kei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, K; Wakahara, T; Shimanaka, S; Yamamoto, M; Oshidari, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The continuously variable transmission control system consists of generation of a desired gear ratio and a servo gear ratio system. The servo gear ratio system must provide the desired response at all times without being influenced by external disturbances. These include oil pressure as well as variation in performance due to operating conditions or changes occurring with us. We have developed the servo gear ratio system incorporating a robust model matching method, which enables the belt continuously variable transmission to satisfy this performance requirement. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Universal Voltage Conveyor and Current Conveyor in Fast Full-Wave Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Burian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals about the design of a fast voltage-mode full-wave rectifier, where universal voltage conveyor and second-generation current conveyor are used as active elements. Thanks to the active elements, the input and output impedance of the non-linear circuit is infinitely high respectively zero in theory. For the rectification only two diodes and three resistors are required as passive elements. The performance of the circuit is shown on experimental measurement results showing the dynamic range, time response, frequency dependent DC transient value and RMS error for different values of input voltage amplitudes.

  6. Sandvik's HM 150 roller in action on the world's largest conveyor bridge in the Lusatia region; Sandvik HM 150 auf der weltgroessten Foerderbruecke in der Lausitz im Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliczek, Sven; Raddatz, Ulrich [Sandvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Prince Herrmann Ludwig Heinrich von Pueckler-Muskau, a landscape gardening genius, built the Muskau Park in the Lusatia region in 1817 - it is part of a UNESCO world heritage site today. In the same era, 1850, the first lignite was mined in the region and still today, Vattenfall, the Swedish company, extracts lignite without subsidies - in Jaenschwalde among other places, one out of the five opencast mines currently in operation. As one of the largest employers and apprenticing companies in East Germany, Vattenfall currently employs almost 8000 employees and about 800 apprentices. Sandvik Mining and Construction also plays a leading role - in the literal sense. At the Jaenschwalde location there are 320 sets of 5-roller garlands of HM150 formed rollers in action on the overburden conveyor bridge AFB 60m (Figure 1) - on belt five, the main belt conveyor (belt type 3000 ST3000-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm) and on belt eight, the stockpile belt conveyor (belt type 2750 ST2500-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm). It all began in the spring of 2004. Bernhard Hofmayer, Production Manager at Sandvik, introduced the HM150 formed roller to Vattenfall. The engineers were impressed by the completely new design and the innovative assembly technique. The discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the component optimised formed roller were ready to begin. (orig.)

  7. Computer-Aided design of belt and pulley systems using Visual Basic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Visual Basic Code “DriveCad” was developed for analysis and design of flat and V-belt drives. The Code was used to solve design problems and the results compared favorably with data generated by manual computat-ions, with variation of less than 1.6 %. DriveCad was used to generate scaled 2-dimensional drawings ...

  8. Bulk density estimation using a 3-dimensional image acquisition and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyduk Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of dynamic bulk density estimation of a particulate matter stream using a 3-d image analysis system and a conveyor belt scale. A method of image acquisition should be adjusted to the type of scale. The paper presents some laboratory results of static bulk density measurements using the MS Kinect time-of-flight camera and OpenCV/Matlab software. Measurements were made for several different size classes.

  9. Comparison of a wire belt conveyor and cross auger conveyor for conveying burr cotton on a stripper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll, and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper-harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality including on average lower micronaire, length...

  10. Creation of the Project of a Logistic System for Transportation of Minerals - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the possibilities how to maintain the competitiveness of mining and processing undertakings on the minerals market is to increase the efficiency of the minerals recovery and processing process with the focus on the operating costs reduction. Intra-plant transportation plays an important role in this process. Optimization of minerals transportation and implementation of the logistic approach can result in significant saving of operating costs pertaining to the recovered number of valuable mineral. The article presents a logistic approach to the belt conveyor system designing, proposes possible modifications of selected parameters of belt conveyors in a particular processing plant, and monitors their impact on the improvement of operating, but mainly economic parameters of transportation of clay and limestone, while maintaining the required transportation capacity.

  11. Optimation of a Table Conveyor Type Grading Machine to Increase the Performance of Green Coffee Manual Sortation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee consumers request a good quality of green coffee to get a good coffee cup taste. Defective beans e.g. black bean, brown bean and broken bean are associated to low coffee quality which give negative effects to final taste. To meet the standard export requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is generally carried out manually. The method gives better product, so the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, improving the manual sorting by providing machine for grading of green coffee is good alternative to reduce the grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table conveyor type grading machine in order to improve the performance of the manual grading productivity and consistent quality and to reduce the grading cost. The conveyor belt has a dimension of 5700 mm of length, 610 mm of width and 6 mm of thickness. The rotating of belt conveyor powered by an electro motor 3 HP, 3 phase and 1420 rpm. The result showed that the optimum capacity of grading machine was 390 kg/hour reached when the speed 16 rpm and 3 kg/m 2 of green beans on belt conveyor with productivity 1870 kg/man-day compared to the productivity full manually process 743 kg/man-day. Percentage of product in outlet 1 was 4.2% as broken beans, 0.26% as brown beans, 0.68% as one hole in beans and 0.61% as more than one hole in beans. Percentage of product in outlet 2 was 39.54% as broken beans, 4.23% as brown beans 7.19% as black beans, 4.47% as one hole in beans and 4.43% as more than one hole in beans. Cost of grading process per kg of green coffee is Rp20,-. Key words : Coffee, Grading, Conveyor table, Quality

  12. A Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena During the Horizontal Single Belt Casting Process Using an Inclined Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2018-06-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system ( x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient ( ∂p total/ ∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.

  13. A Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena During the Horizontal Single Belt Casting Process Using an Inclined Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system (x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient (∂p total/∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.

  14. A Joint Positioning and Attitude Solving Method for Shearer and Scraper Conveyor under Complex Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fully mechanized coal-mining face, the positioning and attitude of the shearer and scraper conveyor are inaccurate. To overcome this problem, a joint positioning and attitude solving method that considers the effect of an uneven floor is proposed. In addition, the real-time connection and coupling relationship between the two devices is analyzed. Two types of sensors, namely, the tilt sensor and strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, are used to measure the shearer body pitch angle and the scraper conveyor shape, respectively. To improve the accuracy, two pieces of information are fused using the adaptive information fusion algorithm. It is observed that, using a marking strategy, the shearer body pitch angle can be reversely mapped to the real-time shape of the scraper conveyor. Then, a virtual-reality (VR software that can visually simulate this entire operation process under different conditions is developed. Finally, experiments are conducted on a prototype experimental platform. The positioning error is found to be less than 0.38 times the middle trough length; moreover, no accumulated error is detected. This method can monitor the operation of the shearer and scraper conveyor in a highly dynamic and precise manner and provide strong technical support for safe and efficient operation of a fully mechanized coal-mining face.

  15. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Zhang Qiujing; Liu Haiguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  16. The Application of a Piezo-Resistive Cardiorespiratory Sensor System in an Automobile Safety Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Talha Ali; Fernando, Anura

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG) in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied. PMID:25831088

  17. The application of a piezo-resistive cardiorespiratory sensor system in an automobile safety belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Talha Ali; Fernando, Anura

    2015-03-30

    Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG) in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied.

  18. The Application of a Piezo-Resistive Cardiorespiratory Sensor System in an Automobile Safety Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Talha Ali Hamdani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied.

  19. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  20. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  1. Investigation concerning the relative formation rate and half-life time of short-lived nuclides with a fast conveyor tube system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of the 'Ultrafast Rabbit System' at the FRN in end of 1974, some research was started concerning the possibility of neutron activation analysis of short-lived nuclides (0.02 1/2 < 1 s) and measurements of short-lived fission products of U-235 and Pu-239. One of the results of the investigations is a more exact gamma-energy determination of the 0.8 s Cl-38m with 671.33 keV. In NAA it was possible to reach a sensitivity for lead and boron near 2 μg per sample respectively 10 ppm. In measurements of light fission products 0.1 - 8s after a pulse irradiation some differences of the relative formation rate and half-life in the region of A approximately 100 were found in comparison to literature. For example a strong build-up could be seen measuring the gamma-energy of 276.1 keV that belongs to Nb-101. Therefore we suppose the existence of an isomeric state of Nb-101. In comparison to our own results of yield ratio of the Pu- and U-fission products a good agreement with known data was found. Furthermore the measuring method gives the possibility of coordination of unknown gamma-lines to nuclides using the rate of formation, the half-life, the yield ratio between U and Pu and the build-up factor. That could be verified in some cases, e.g. Nb-103 and Sr-96. (author)

  2. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  3. Contribution for geochronological evolution study of the Pianco-Alto Brigida fold belt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Basei, M.A.S.; Van Schmus, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic Painco-Alto Fold Belt is situated in the central portion of the Borborema Province and it probably is just a segment of a longer structural development encompassed between the Patos (N) and Pernambuco (S) lineaments. The geochronological study was carried out along a cross section in the central part of the belt (Paraiba State) where biotite-muscovite quartz schists are the predominating rock types, including intercalations of bi-modal volcanics, marbles and quartzites. These rocks were metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, and they display a complex history of folding. Zircons of the acid volcanics (meta-rhyolytes where analysed through U/Pb method and they plot in a discordia diagram with superior intercept indicating ages around 1100 Ma. Whole rocks Rb/Sr analyses on the same meta-volcanics are indicating isochrons of 950Ma. These data are being respectively interpreted as ages of sedimentation (and volcanism) and regional metamorphism associated to the main (D sub(2)) phase of folding. One of the main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the ages around 950Ma, in the central domain of the Borborema Province, as result of regional folding and metamorphism. Some other occurence of ages in the 1000-900Ma range will be discussed as support for this interpretation from now on adopted. (author)

  4. Full-wave current conveyor precision rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A circuit that provides precision rectification of small signal with low temperature sensitivity for frequencies up to 100 kHz without waveform distortion is presented. It utilizes an improved second type current conveyor based on current-steering output stage and biased silicon diodes. The use of a DC current source to bias the rectifying diodes provides higher temperature stability and lower DC offset level at the output. Proposed design of the precision rectifier ensures good current transfer linearity in the range that satisfy class A of the amplifier and good voltage transfer characteristic for low level signals. Distortion during the zero crossing of the input signal is practically eliminated. Design of the proposed rectifier is realized with standard components.

  5. Design Considerations for CMOS Current Mode Operational Amplifiers and Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    implementations of current mode opamps in CMOS technology are described. Also, current conveyor configurations with multiple outputs and flexible feedback connections from outputs to inputs are introduced. The dissertation includes several examples of circuit configurations ranging from simple class A and class......This dissertation is about CMOS current conveyors and current mode operational amplifiers (opamps). They are generic devices for continuous time signal processing in circuits and systems where signals are represented by currents.Substantial advancements are reported in the dissertation, both...... related to circuit implementations and system configurations and to an analysis of the fundamental limitations of the current mode technique.In the field of system configurations and circuit implementations different configurations of high gain current opamps are introduced and some of the first...

  6. A comprehensive sediment dynamics study of a major mud belt system on the inner shelf along an energetic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James T; Hsu, Ray T; Yang, Rick J; Wang, Ya Ping; Wu, Hui; Du, Xiaoqin; Li, Anchun; Chien, Steven C; Lee, Jay; Yang, Shouye; Zhu, Jianrong; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Yi; Huh, Chih-An

    2018-03-09

    Globally mud areas on continental shelves are conduits for the dispersal of fluvial-sourced sediment. We address fundamental issues in sediment dynamics focusing on how mud is retained on the seabed on shallow inner shelves and what are the sources of mud. Through a process-based comprehensive study that integrates dynamics, provenance, and sedimentology, here we show that the key mechanism to keep mud on the seabed is the water-column stratification that forms a dynamic barrier in the vertical that restricts the upward mixing of suspended sediment. We studied the 1000 km-long mud belt that extends from the mouth of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of China and ends on the west coast of Taiwan. This mud belt system is dynamically attached to the fluvial sources, of which the Changjiang River is the primary source. Winter is the constructive phase when active deposition takes place of fine-grained sediment carried mainly by the Changjiang plume driven by Zhe-Min Coastal Currents southwestward along the coast.

  7. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  8. Selección de cadenas para equipos de transporte continuo. // Chain selection software for continuous conveyors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2003-01-01

    ón, transportadores de tablillas, transportadores de rastrillos,elevadores de cangilones._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract:The design of conveyors and elevators that employ chains as driving member is commonly used in industry. An essentialelement for well functioning is the correct chain selection. There are a great variety of chains and attachments thataccomplish any requirements at manufacturers disposal. In order to supply these requirements there is a need to establish aprocedure that considers the following aspects:· Type of equipment (slat conveyor, flight conveyor, bucket conveyor, etc..· Transportation requirements (capacity, transportation velocity, material characteristics, etc..· Transportation conditions (overload, operation conditions, explotation time, etc..The resulting procedure is very annoying because there are stages in which a decision implies accommodation to latecalculations and as usual there is more than one solution. Therefore the SELCAD computation program is conceived for theuse by non experts in design and selection of continuous conveyors equipments. The program use data base from Link BeltIndustrial Chain Division catalog in which 14 types of chains are appraise with an average of 15 models for each and morethan 40 different attachments. Some of the program characteristics are:· User friendly environment (Visual Basic programation, version 5.· Help available at any moment.· Point out the characteristics of both driving member and gear.· Allows visualization of the selected real chain shape and attachment by photos.· Quick analysis of different variations.Key words: Transportation chain, slat conveyors, flight conveyor, bucket conveyor.

  9. City transport of the future - the high speed pedestrian conveyor. Part 1: ergonomic considerations of accelerators, decelerators and transfer sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A C

    1974-12-01

    In this article, an uncommon form of passenger transport is considered, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds of up to 16 km/h. There are very little relevant ergonomic data for such devices and some specific laboratory experiments have been carried out using 1000 subjects to represent the general public. It is concluded that whilst high speed pedestrian conveyors are quite feasible, stations along them are likely to be large. The most attractive type is a set of parallel surfaces moving at different speeds and with handholds provided in the form of poles. This type could be extremely convenient for certain locations but will probably have to be restricted in its use to fairly fit adults carrying little luggage, and would find applications in situations where a large number of people need to travel in the same direction. Part 2, Ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems, will follow.

  10. Floating Inductance and FDNR Using Positive Polarity Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized circuit based on five positive polarity second-generation current conveyors is introduced. The circuit simulates a floating inductance, capacitor floatation circuit and floating fdnr. All these circuits use grounded capacitors.

  11. Teleconnections from Tropics to Northern Extratropics through a Southerly Conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhuo; Chang, C.-P.; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-fei

    2005-01-01

    Rossby wave propagation theory predicts that Rossby waves in a tropical easterly flow cannot escape from the Tropics to the extratropics. Here the authors show that a southerly flow component in the basic state (a southerly conveyor) may transfer a Rossby wave source northward; thus, a forcing embedded in the deep tropical easterlies may excite a Rossby wave response in the extratropical westerlies. It is shown that the southerly conveyor determines the location of the effective R...

  12. Spectral Evidence for an Inner Carbon-rich Circumstellar Belt in the Young HD 36546 A-star System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 and Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States); Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Melis, C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Mittal, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McCone Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Song, I., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: ron.vervack@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: sitkoml@ucmail.uc.edu, E-mail: ray.russell@aero.org, E-mail: mmarengo@iastate.edu, E-mail: currie@naoj.org, E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu, E-mail: tmittal2@berkeley.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Using the NASA/IRTF SpeX and BASS spectrometers we have obtained 0.7–13 μ m observations of the newly imaged 3–10 Myr old HD 36546 disk system. The SpeX spectrum is most consistent with the photospheric emission expected from an L {sub *} ∼ 20 L {sub ⊙}, solar abundance A1.5V star with little to no extinction, and excess emission from circumstellar dust detectable beyond 4.5 μ m. Non-detections of CO emission lines and accretion signatures point to the gas-poor circumstellar environment of a very old transition disk. Combining the SpeX + BASS spectra with archival WISE / AKARI / IRAS / Herschel photometry, we find an outer cold dust belt at ∼135 K and 20–40 au from the primary, likely coincident with the disk imaged by Subaru, and a new second inner belt with a temperature ∼570 K and an unusual, broad SED maximum in the 6–9 μ m region, tracing dust at 1.1–2.2 au. An SED maximum at 6–9 μ m has been reported in just two other A-star systems, HD 131488 and HD 121191, both of ∼10 Myr age. From Spitzer , we have also identified the ∼12 Myr old A7V HD 148657 system as having similar 5–35 μ m excess spectral features. The Spitzer data allows us to rule out water emission and rule in carbonaceous materials—organics, carbonates, SiC—as the source of the 6–9 μ m excess. Assuming a common origin for the four young A-star systems’ disks, we suggest they are experiencing an early era of carbon-rich planetesimal processing.

  13. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  14. Hybrid Recurrent Laguerre-Orthogonal-Polynomial NN Control System Applied in V-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission System Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the V-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT system driven by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has much unknown nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, the better control performance design for the linear control design is a time consuming procedure. In order to overcome difficulties for design of the linear controllers, the hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial neural network (NN control system which has online learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors is proposed to control PMSM servo-driven V-belt CVT system under the occurrence of the lumped nonlinear load disturbances. The hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control system consists of an inspector control, a recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control with adaptive law, and a recouped control with estimated law. Moreover, the adaptive law of online parameters in the recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN is derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, the optimal learning rate of the parameters by means of modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is proposed to achieve fast convergence. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, comparative studies are demonstrated by experimental results.

  15. On Dynamic Range Limitations of CMOS Current Conveyors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    frequency band and for the situation where the conveyor is used over the full bandwidth achievable. Finally, the optimisation of the current input range is related to the distortion characteristics and it is pointed out that to a first order approximation the distortion is independent of the current range.......This paper is concerned with the dynamic range of continuous time CMOS current mode circuits. As a representative current mode device a class AB current conveyor is examined. First, the voltage input range of the high impedance Y input is investigated. Next, the current input range of the low...... impedance X input is investigated. It is compared to the thermal noise in the X to Z signal path in order to evaluate the dynamic range, and the dependencies of the dynamic range on the supply voltage and the transistor lay-out is derived, both for the situation where the conveyor is used over a narrow...

  16. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  17. Contribution of landfalling tropical system rainfall to the hydroclimate of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt 1981–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Kellner

    2016-09-01

    Landfalling tropical system rainfall accounts for approximately 20% of the observed monthly rainfall during the tropical storm season (June–November across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt (1981–2012. Correlation between the annual number of landfalling tropical systems and annual yield by state results in no relationship, but correlation of August monthly observed rainfall by climate division to crop reporting district annual yields has a weak to moderate, statistically significant correlation in Ohio districts 30–60 and Indiana CRD 90. ANOVA analysis suggests that landfalling tropical rainfall may actually reduce yields in some state's climate divisions/crop reporting districts while increasing yield in others. Results suggest that there is a balance between landfalling tropical storms providing sufficient rainfall or too much rainfall to be of benefit to crops. Findings aim to provide information to producers, crop advisers, risk managers and commodity groups so that seasonal hurricane forecasts can potentially be utilized in planning for above or below normal precipitation during phenologically important portions of the growing season.

  18. Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs: Junction and Position in the System of Mobile Belts of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, M. G.; Rybin, A. K.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Matyukov, V. E.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The position of the Pamirs and the Hissar-Alai mountainous system in the structure of Central Asia and features of their junction are considered. It is shown that their outer contours and tectonic infrastructure are significantly distinct in the planar pattern: latitudinally linear and arched for the Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs, respectively. These structures logically match those of the Central Asian and Alpine-Himalayan belts, respectively. The Pamir orogen is a relatively autonomous structural element of the crust, which is located discordantly relative to the country lithospheric blocks. Most of the Pamirs (at least, the Northern and Central) probably form a giant allochthon on the ancient basement of the Tarim and Afghan-Tajik blocks. The junction zone of these two "hard" crustal segments is reflected in the transverse Transpamir threshold, which is expressed in the relief, deep structure, and seismicity. The specific geological structure of the junction zone of the Pamirs and Hissar-Alai (systems of the Tarim, Alai, and Afghan-Tajik troughs) is shown. It suggested that this zone is a damper, which significantly neutralizes the dynamic influence of the Pamir and the southernmost elements of the Pamir-Punjab syntax on Hissar-Alai structures.

  19. Requerimientos tecnológicos del transportador de laterita hacia el molino de bolas, de la Empresa Productora de Níquel Comandante Ernesto Guevara; Technological Requirements of the Conveyor Belt which Carries Laterite to the Balls Mill in Nickel Producer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muñoz Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el flujo productivo existente en la Empresa Productora del Níquel Comandante Ernesto Guevara,hasta la etapa de la molienda seca, con énfasis en los detalles técnicos de mayor relevancia en el proceso.Se analiza la influencia de la cantidad de mineral en el sistema sobre el comportamiento energético de lamolienda. Finalmente se determinan los requerimientos tecnológicos impuestos por el transportador delaterita 215 - TR - 201 al accionamiento eléctrico, en función de las características y las necesidades delproceso. In the paper, the productive flow existing in the nickel producer enterprise Commandant Ernesto Guevarawas described until the stage of dry milling, with an emphasis on the technical details of greater relevancy inthe process. There was analyzed the influence of the amount of mineral in the system over the energyconsumption performance of the milling. Finally it were identified the technological requirements imposed bythe 215 - TR - 201 laterite carrier to the electric drive, according to the characteristics and needs of theprocess.

  20. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228...

  1. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  2. The Conveyor Belt Curriculum? Poetry Teaching in the Secondary School: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the effects of the British National Curriculum and the SATs on teaching and changes in how poetry is examined. States that some teachers view these changes as having a detrimental effect on student poetry experiences, while others see a positive advantage in the changes. (CMK)

  3. Bioavailable iron in the Southern Ocean: the significance of the iceberg conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Tranter, Martyn; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    2008-05-30

    Productivity in the Southern Oceans is iron-limited, and the supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine reservoir. Glacial sediment sources of iron have rarely been considered, as the iron has been assumed to be inert and non-bioavailable. This study demonstrates the presence of potentially bioavailable Fe as ferrihydrite and goethite in nanoparticulate clusters, in sediments collected from icebergs in the Southern Ocean and glaciers on the Antarctic landmass. Nanoparticles in ice can be transported by icebergs away from coastal regions in the Southern Ocean, enabling melting to release bioavailable Fe to the open ocean. The abundance of nanoparticulate iron has been measured by an ascorbate extraction. This data indicates that the fluxes of bioavailable iron supplied to the Southern Ocean from aeolian dust (0.01-0.13 Tg yr(-1)) and icebergs (0.06-0.12 Tg yr(-1)) are comparable. Increases in iceberg production thus have the capacity to increase productivity and this newly identified negative feedback may help to mitigate fossil fuel emissions.

  4. Stop the Conveyor Belt--The Kids Want to Get Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James P.

    1972-01-01

    Author proposes more freedom in all grades for pupils to exercise innate curiosity, make mistakes, help each other and experiment without constant evaluation. Teachers would become facilitators of self directed learning", participating (and making errors), suggesting ideas to put to practice and clarifying rather than judging from on high. (PD)

  5. Steady flow on to a conveyor belt - Causal viscosity and shear shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syer, D.; Narayan, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Some hydrodynamical consequences of the adoption of a causal theory of viscosity are explored. Causality is introduced into the theory by letting the coefficient of viscosity go to zero as the flow velocity approaches a designated propagation speed for viscous signals. Consideration is given to a model of viscosity which has a finite propagation speed of shear information, and it is shown that it produces two kinds of shear shock. A 'pure shear shock' corresponds to a transition from a superviscous to a subviscous state with no discontinuity in the velocity. A 'mixed shear shock' has a shear transition occurring at the same location as a normal adiabatic or radiative shock. A generalized version of the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions for mixed shear shocks is derived, and self-consistent numerical solutions to a model 2D problem in which an axisymmetric radially infalling stream encounters a spinning star are presented.

  6. Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the hawaiian islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Arnedo, Miquel; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2003-02-01

    Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent example of insular gigantism. We reconstructed the cladistic relationships of Orsonwelles species using a combination of morphological and molecular characters (both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) within a parsimony framework. We explored and quantified the contribution of different character partitions and their sensitivity to changes in the traditional parameters (gap, transition, and transversion costs). The character data show a strong phylogenetic signal, robust to parameter changes. The monophyly of the genus Orsonwelles is strongly supported. The parsimony analysis of all character evidence combined recovered a clade with of all the non-Kauai Orsonwelles species; the species from Kauai form a paraphyletic assemblage with respect to the latter former clade. The biogeographic pattern of the Hawaiian Orsonwelles species is consistent with colonization by island progression, but alternative explanations for our data exist. Although the geographic origin of the radiation remains unknown, it appears that the ancestral colonizing species arrived first on Kauai (or an older island). The ambiguity in the area cladogram (i.e., post-Oahu colonization) is not derived from conflicting or unresolved phylogenetic signal among Orsonwelles species but rather from the number of taxa on the youngest islands. Speciation in Orsonwelles occurred more often within islands (8 of the 12 cladogenic events) than between islands. A molecular clock was rejected for the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated by using the nonparametric rate smoothing method of Sanderson (1997, Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:1218-1231) and the available geological data for calibration. The results suggest that the oldest divergences of Orsonwelles spiders (on Kauai) go back about 4 million years.

  7. Conveyor belt of flesh: urban space and proliferation of the industrial labor practices

    OpenAIRE

    BALABAN, Utku Barış

    2011-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century witnessed the worldwide (re)emergence of the
    non-factory forms of industrial labor. Academic studies predominantly emphasize the
    economic and political globalization to explain this phenomenon. This thesis investigates
    the local urban dynamics of this „proliferation of the industrial labor practices‟ with a
    field research in Istanbul, Turkey. 
    The field research focused on the organiza...

  8. Structure Design and Realization of Rapid Medicine Dispensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    In this paper, the main components and function of rapid medicine dispensing system is analyzed, structure design of automatic feeding device, sloping storeroom, automatic dispensing device and automatic sorting device is completed. The system adopts medicine conveyer working in with manipulator to realize automatic batch supply of the boxed medicine, adopts sloping storeroom as warehouse of medicine to realize dense depositing, adopts dispensing mechanism which includes elevator, turning panel and electric magnet to realize rapid medicine dispensing, adopts sorting conveyor belt and sorting device to send medicine to designated outlet.

  9. Wide-beam sensors for controlling dual-delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. B.; Twemlow, J. K.

    1982-09-01

    A class of dual delay feedback systems of open loop transfer function G(s) = k exp(-Xs)/l - exp(-Ws) is shown to be unstable if ratio X/W is noninteger. By means of z-transform techniques it is shown that, by using a feedback transducer that senses over a substantial distance either side of its central axis, closed-loop stability may be restored. Such transducers, termed widebeam sensors, include transmission, backscatter and natural radiation types as well as electromechanical conveyor belt weighers. Designing transducers for very narrow beams may not be desirable from the overall system viewpoint.

  10. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  11. Kinematics and Dynamic Evaluation of the Screw Conveyor of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the vortex motion in a horizontal screw conveyor of a Cassava Centrifuge Dewatering Machine is presented. It is shown that the vortex motion is characterised by the tangential component of the absolute grain velocity being constant with the radial position of a point on the blade. On this basis, an expression ...

  12. Piezoelectric Driving of Vibration Conveyors: An Experimental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Bastos de Albuquerque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory feeders or vibratory conveyors have been widely used for the transport and orientation of individual parts and bulk materials in many branches of industrial activity. From the designer’s standpoint, the current endeavor is to conceive efficient vibratory feeders, satisfying constraints of power consumption, vibration transmission and noise emission. Moreover, the interest in the reduction of maintenance cost is always present. In this context, this paper investigates experimentally the concept of vibratory conveying based on the use of piezoelectric materials for motion generation. A small-size prototype of a linear conveyor, in which lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT patches are bonded to the resilient elements, is described. One of the main design goals is that the prototype is intended to be fed directly from the electric network, aiming at avoiding the use of electronic equipment for driving. To comply with this feature and, at the same time, enable to adjust the transport velocity, a mechanical device has been conceived in such a way that the first natural frequency of the conveyor can be changed. It is shown that the transport velocity is determined by the proximity between the excitation frequency and the first natural frequency of the conveyor. The experimental tests performed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the prototype are described and the range of transport velocities is determined.

  13. Piezoelectric Driving of Vibration Conveyors: An Experimental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rade, Domingos Alves; de Albuquerque, Emerson Bastos; Figueira, Leandro Chaves; Carvalho, João Carlos Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Vibratory feeders or vibratory conveyors have been widely used for the transport and orientation of individual parts and bulk materials in many branches of industrial activity. From the designer's standpoint, the current endeavor is to conceive efficient vibratory feeders, satisfying constraints of power consumption, vibration transmission and noise emission. Moreover, the interest in the reduction of maintenance cost is always present. In this context, this paper investigates experimentally the concept of vibratory conveying based on the use of piezoelectric materials for motion generation. A small-size prototype of a linear conveyor, in which lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) patches are bonded to the resilient elements, is described. One of the main design goals is that the prototype is intended to be fed directly from the electric network, aiming at avoiding the use of electronic equipment for driving. To comply with this feature and, at the same time, enable to adjust the transport velocity, a mechanical device has been conceived in such a way that the first natural frequency of the conveyor can be changed. It is shown that the transport velocity is determined by the proximity between the excitation frequency and the first natural frequency of the conveyor. The experimental tests performed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the prototype are described and the range of transport velocities is determined. PMID:23867743

  14. Case study: highly loaded MSE bridge supporting structure, Syncrude NMAPS conveyor overpasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherger, B.; Brockbank, B. [Reinforced Earth Company Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mimura, W. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A crusher and conveyor system was constructed at the Mildred Lake Oil Sands Mine near Fort McMurray, Alberta in order to facilitate ore delivery from Syncrude's North Mine. As part of this North Mine Auxiliary Production System (NMAPS), Syncrude Canada and their consultant Cosyn Technology identified the need for 3 overpasses over conveyors in the North Mine in order to provide unrestricted crossing over the operating conveyor system for the heavy hauler trucks and light vehicle mine traffic. The overpasses were designed to support the dead load of the granular fill and the live load of two loaded heavy hauler trucks, with a design load for each loaded hauler of 670 900 kg. This paper reviewed various aspects of the design from planning, structure selection, and overall stability and bearing capacity considerations. The different designs in the 3 new overpasses accommodated foundation and loading requirements. The designs ranged from the use of precast one-piece reinforced concrete arches, Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) bridge abutment technology, and a combination of the two. The MSE retaining walls directly supported the bridge superstructure without the use of piles or other deep structural foundations. The design was challenging because of the significant vertical stresses transferred onto the wall. All 3 overpasses also used MSE walls for the supporting end wing walls. The main focus of this paper was on the heavily loaded MSE walls supporting the bridge abutment style overpasses. This structure has illustrated the capability of properly designed MSE wall structures with steel soil reinforcement and reinforced precast concrete face panels to successfully carry bridge footing pressure loadings up to 545 kPa. It was concluded that this case has good potential for use in future bridge projects in both the industrial and highway sectors. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  15. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  16. Ripple Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars. Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  17. Kuiper belt analogues in nearby M-type planet-host systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. M.; Bryden, G.; Ardila, D.; Eiroa, C.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Marshall, J. P.; Matthews, B. C.; Moro-Martin, A.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a Herschel survey of 21 late-type stars that host planets discovered by the radial velocity technique. The aims were to discover new discs in these systems and to search for any correlation between planet presence and disc properties. In addition to the known disc around GJ 581, we report the discovery of two new discs, in the GJ 433 and GJ 649 systems. Our sample therefore yields a disc detection rate of 14 per cent, higher than the detection rate of 1.2 per cent among our control sample of DEBRIS M-type stars with 98 per cent confidence. Further analysis however shows that the disc sensitivity in the control sample is about a factor of two lower in fractional luminosity than for our survey, lowering the significance of any correlation between planet presence and disc brightness below 98 per cent. In terms of their specific architectures, the disc around GJ 433 lies at a radius somewhere between 1 and 30 au. The disc around GJ 649 lies somewhere between 6 and 30 au, but is marginally resolved and appears more consistent with an edge-on inclination. In both cases the discs probably lie well beyond where the known planets reside (0.06-1.1 au), but the lack of radial velocity sensitivity at larger separations allows for unseen Saturn-mass planets to orbit out to ˜5 au, and more massive planets beyond 5 au. The layout of these M-type systems appears similar to Sun-like star + disc systems with low-mass planets.

  18. Detailed Pictures of Multiple Asteroid Systems in the Main-Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Durech, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since their discovery less than 10 years ago, ~200 known multiple asteroid systems have been studied with a combination of observing techniques, including adaptive optics, lightcurve photometry, and mid-infrared spectrophotometry. Those observations show that ~15 large (D>100km) asteroids that are known to possess km-sized satellite(s) (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, ...) share common orbital characteristics, implying a common formation scenario: e.g. catastrophic disruption or ejection after an oblique impact. More than 70 smaller (10-15km) binary asteroid systems have been detected through anomalies in their lightcurves and are believed to have formed by fission due to the YORP effect. By comparison with meteorite analog densities, mid-IR data reveal that these systems have a significant porosity (larger than 30%) implying a rubble-pile interior. We will review these key results and discuss their implications for the interior of asteroids in the light of recent space mission results. Future explorations using new ground-based facilities and space mission concepts will be also discussed. This work is supported by the NSF grant AAG-0807468 and NASA grant NNX11AD62G

  19. 78 FR 69135 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... systems installed at conveyor belt drives. The petitioner states that: (1) A person trained in the testing... the deluge fire suppression systems installed at conveyor belt drives. The petitioner states that: (1... conveyor belt drives. The petitioner states that: (1) A person trained in the testing procedures specific...

  20. 20 CFR 655.520 - Special provisions regarding automated vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... longshore work consisting of the use of automated self-unloading conveyor belt or vacuum-actuated systems on... use of automated self-unloading conveyor belt or vacuum-actuated equipment at the particular port...-unloading conveyor belt or vacuum-actuated systems on a vessel is the prevailing practice at a particular...

  1. An Integrated MCDM Model for Conveyor Equipment Evaluation and Selection in an FMC Based on a Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy ARAS in the Presence of Vagueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Tho; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Nukman, Yusoff; P. Rifai, Achmad; Aoyama, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The conveyor system plays a vital role in improving the performance of flexible manufacturing cells (FMCs). The conveyor selection problem involves the evaluation of a set of potential alternatives based on qualitative and quantitative criteria. This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model of a fuzzy AHP (analytic hierarchy process) and fuzzy ARAS (additive ratio assessment) for conveyor evaluation and selection. In this model, linguistic terms represented as triangular fuzzy numbers are used to quantify experts’ uncertain assessments of alternatives with respect to the criteria. The fuzzy set is then integrated into the AHP to determine the weights of the criteria. Finally, a fuzzy ARAS is used to calculate the weights of the alternatives. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, a case study is performed of a practical example, and the results obtained demonstrate practical potential for the implementation of FMCs. PMID:27070543

  2. Reflectance spectrophotometry (about 0.5-1.0 micron) of oute-belt asteroids - Implications for primitive, organic solar system material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Smith, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The surface compositions of outer-belt asteroids were used to obtain information about the origin of these asteroids. High-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 21 asteroids, primarily P class, were examined for compositional information. Distinct slope changes are observed that suggest that these asteroids are the remnants of a compositional gradation of planetesimals in the outer solar system, which were retained selectively in location when other material was ejected from the solar system. Other data suggest that this gradation could extend through the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7143 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material is transferred to or from a belt conveyor. Vent means an opening through which there is... filter bag or other malfunction and sound an alarm. Belt conveyor means a conveying device that... another location within a plant. Conveying systems include but are not limited to feeders, belt conveyors...

  4. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  5. Comparison of sliding friction and wear behaviour of overhead conveyor steels tested under dry and lubrication conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Regal, G.; Fernandez-Vicente, A.; Martinez, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of different steel qualities were investigated with and without lubrication conditions. Steel qualities tested are normally used in the overhead conveyor system of many industrial fields, like the automotive sector. Sliding wear tests have been conducted by means of a pin-on-disk machine. A 100Cr6 steel similar to that used within the overhead conveyor trolleys has been employed as a pin. Friction coefficient values obtained under lubrication conditions were three times smaller than those obtained without lubrication. The mechanism that controls wear behaviour under lubrication conditions is an abrasive one and the wear values obtained are almost worthless. On the other hand, mechanism controlling wear during non lubrication tests, was a combination of abrasion and adhesion. (Author) 20 refs

  6. An under-belt capacitance and γ-ray backscatter gauge for on-line determination of moisture in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Roczniok, A.F.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and γ-ray backscatter technique has been developed for on-line measurement of moisture in coal. In this technique, moisture was correlated with radiofrequency susceptance and conductance, determined using an under-belt capacitance sensor in which a fringing electric field interrogates a layer of coal on the conveyor belt directly above the sensor. To compensate for variation in the density and thickness of the coal layer, an under-belt γ-ray backscatter gauge was used to measure an equivalent volume of coal. Laboratory measurements have shown that this technique compensates more accurately for density and thickness than does their direct physical measurement. (author)

  7. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  8. Identifying the bacterial community on the surface of Intralox belting in a meat boning room by culture-dependent and culture-independent 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Gale; Boerema, Jackie; Mills, John; Mowat, Eilidh; Pulford, David

    2006-05-25

    We examined the bacterial community present on an Intralox conveyor belt system in an operating lamb boning room by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of bacteria extracted in the presence or absence of cultivation. RFLP patterns for 16S rDNA clone library and cultures were generated using HaeIII and MspI restriction endonucleases. 16S rDNA amplicons produced 8 distinct RFLP pattern groups. RFLP groups I-IV were represented in the clone library and RFLP groups I and V-VIII were represented amongst the cultured isolates. Partial DNA sequences from each RFLP group revealed that all group I, II and VIII representatives were Pseudomonas spp., group III were Sphingomonas spp., group IV clones were most similar to an uncultured alpha proteobacterium, group V was similar to a Serratia spp., group VI with an Alcaligenes spp., and group VII with Microbacterium spp. Sphingomonads were numerically dominant in the culture-independent clone library and along with the group IV alpha proteobacterium were not represented amongst the cultured isolates. Serratia, Alcaligenes and Microbacterium spp. were only represented with cultured isolates. Pseudomonads were detected by both culture-dependent (84% of isolates) and culture-independent (12.5% of clones) methods and their presence at high frequency does pose the risk of product spoilage if transferred onto meat stored under aerobic conditions. The detection of sphingomonads in large numbers by the culture-independent method demands further analysis because sphingomonads may represent a new source of meat spoilage that has not been previously recognised in the meat processing environment. The 16S rDNA collections generated by both methods were important at representing the diversity of the bacterial population associated with an Intralox conveyor belt system.

  9. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  10. Nucleonic weighing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nucleonic weighing systems utilize the principle of the absorption or the scattering of nuclear radiation for a contactless measurement of the weight of material per unit length, the loading, of a conveyor. The load signal is processed in an electronic unit with a tachometer signal for the conveyor velocity to indicate the flow rate and the integrated flow of material. The different sources of error in nucleonic weighing using transmitted and forward scattered radiation are discussed, and the design of two nucleonic weighing systems is described. One is a conventional transmission gauge particularly suited for measuring rapid variation in belt loading due to a fast detection and linearizing unit. The other system consists of a forward scattering gauge, particularly suitable for measuring light inhomogeneous materials due to the linear relationship between the weight per unit area and the gauge response. Results from on-line trials with different materials are presented, and experiences from more than one year of operation for a batch weighing system for quick lime and a continuous weighing system for mineral wool are reported. (author)

  11. Material handling systems for use in glovebox lines: A survey of Department of Energy facility experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teese, G.D.; Randall, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study has recommended that a new manufacturing facility be constructed to replace the Rocky Flats Plant. In the new facility, use of an automated material handling system for movement of components would reduce both the cost and radiation exposure associated with production and maintenance operations. Contamination control would be improved between process steps through the use of airlocks and portals. Part damage associated with improper transport would be reduced, and accountability would be increased. In-process workpieces could be stored in a secure vault, awaiting a request for parts at a production station. However, all of these desirable features rely on the proper implementation of an automated material handling system. The Department of Energy Weapons Production Complex has experience with a variety of methods for transporting discrete parts in glovebox lines. The authors visited several sites to evaluate the existing technologies for their suitability for the application of plutonium manufacturing. Technologies reviewed were Linear motors, belt conveyors, roller conveyors, accumulating roller conveyors, pneumatic transport, and cart systems. The sites visited were The Idaho National Engineering laboratory, the Hanford Site, and the Rocky Flats Plant. Linear motors appear to be the most promising technology observed for the movement of discrete parts, and further investigation is recommended

  12. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  13. A new on-belt elemental analyzer for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Lim, C.S.; Tickner, J.R.; Manias, C.; Retallack, D.

    2001-01-01

    On-line control of raw mill feed composition is a key to the improved control of cement plants. Elements of primary importance to the industry are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron. Direct on-conveyor belt analysis of raw mill feed is required, independent of changes in belt loading, moisture content, and both horizontal and vertical segregation. A new and improved on-conveyor belt elemental analyzer for cement raw mill feed has been developed and tested successfully in Adelaide Brighton's Birkenhead cement plant. The analyzer utilizes two 241 Am-Be neutron sources and multiple BGO detectors to measure both neutron inelastic scatter and thermal neutron capture gamma rays. Dynamic tests in the plant on highly segregated material having depths in the range 100 to 200 mm have shown analyzer total RMS errors of 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.23 wt.% (on a loss free basis) for CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3 respectively, when 10-minute counting periods are used

  14. the screw-conveyor vane design for piece-wise construction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Summary. One of the long-used methods of conveying granular, Powdery or slurry material is by the screw conveyor. This method of transport is well suited to some at the needs of local processing Industries based on such local produce as millet, maize, cocoa-beans, rice, palm-kernels. The spiral vanes of such conveyors ...

  15. Use of the PZK system for pneumatic stowing along mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarevich, Yu S; Buzhin, N K; Churakov, V N

    1983-07-01

    The utilization of waste rock for pneumatic stowing in the Komsomolets Donbassa mine with coal seams to 1 m thick and dip angles from 3 to 11/sup 0/ is evaluated. Gate roads used for mine haulage by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working facese by belt conveyors are controlled by cribbings made of timber and of concrete blocks, particularly at junction of working faces with gate goads. Effects of pneumatic stowing on strata control cost and environmental protection are analyzed. Waste rock which has been dumped at spoil banks on the ground surface is crushed by the PZK system developed by Dongiproshakht. The PZK system is installed underground close to haulage roadways. Crushed rock material with size from 0 to 80 mm and compression strength coefficient from 3 to 5 degrees on the Protod'yakonov scale is hauled by mine cars to working faces and stowed by the DZM-2 pneumatic system. Strips of pneumatic stowing at each side of a gate road are from 12 to 15 m wide. Design of the PZM system and of a rock hopper used for accumulation of crushed rock as well as design of the DZM-2 system are shown in schemes. Economic analysis shows that use of pneumatic stowing reduces roof subsidence in the haulage gate road to 20% and eliminates cribbings. Use of pneumatic stowing for strata control in haulage gate roads economizes 65 rubles per 1 m of gate road.

  16. GFU-6/E 30mm Ammunition Loader for GAU-8A Gun System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    dropped onto the conveyor (See Figure 17) and transferred to the aircraft on these elements through flexible chuting which interfaces directly with the...14. Dwell Linkage 19 15. Horizontal Conveyor - Flex Chute Interface 20 16. Element Turnaround Sprocket 21 17. Horizontal Conveyor 22 18. Load Head... conveyor element mechanism for transport to the GAU-8/A loader unit. d. The contractor shall design the automated loading system to accept unfired

  17. Enhancing Eco-Efficiency of Agro-Products’ Closed-Loop Supply Chain under the Belt and Road Initiatives: A System Dynamics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study redesigns the supply chain of agricultural products in southwest China under the Belt and Road Initiative to improve its eco-efficiency by considering the associated agro-wastes flowing into bioenergy enterprise for energy production. Two scenarios are created, in which the first assumes that all waste flows into the enterprise, whereas the second only considers the inflow of agro-waste produced by farmers and the wholesale market. A system dynamics simulation is conducted by using carbon emissions per product as an indicator to obtain the optimal scenario for managerial practice and design an incentivizing mechanism to drive supply chain operations. A case study is provided to demonstrate application of the system dynamics. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed to lay the foundation for further improvement.

  18. Ocean array alters view of Atlantic conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornei, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Oceanographers have put a stethoscope on the coursing circulatory system of the Atlantic Ocean, and they have found a skittish pulse that's surprisingly strong in the waters east of Greenland—discoveries that should improve climate models. The powerful currents known as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are an engine in Earth's climate. The AMOC's shallower limbs—which include the Gulf Stream—move warm water from the tropics northward, warming Western Europe. In the north, the waters cool and sink, forming deeper limbs that transport the cold water back south—and sequester anthropogenic carbon in the process. Last week, at the American Geophysical Union's Ocean Sciences meeting, scientists presented the first data from an array of instruments moored in the subpolar North Atlantic, a $35 million, seven-nation project known as the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP). Since 2004, researchers have gathered data from another array, at 26°N, stretching from Florida to Africa. But OSNAP is the first to monitor the circulation farther north, where a critical aspect of the overturning occurs. The observations reveal unexpected eddies and strong variability in the AMOC currents. They also show that the currents east of Greenland contribute the most to the total AMOC flow. Climate models, on the other hand, have emphasized the currents west of Greenland in the Labrador Sea.

  19. Dynamic analysis of scraper conveyor operation with external loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świder Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A load to an armoured face conveyor (AFC during coal mining is changeable and very difficult or even impossible to be predicted. Changes of the load to the upper scraper chain affect the load of the driving motor and generate changes in a scraper chain tension. Impact of increasing the external load to the upper scraper chain on the operation of electric motors and on the scraper chain tension is presented. The developed numerical model of the Rybnik 850 conveyor enabled identifying the places of the scraper chain high tension or places of its loosening. An impact of changing frequency of driving motor voltage on AFC’s operational conditions was tested and analysed using the AFC’s numerical model. During tests, tension of the scraper chain on the discharge end and the return end was recorded. High tension of the scraper chain and its loosening during the changeable load were also recorded on upward and downward transportation of run-of-mine material.

  20. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  1. Determination of conveyor-flow parameters by gamma-ray transmission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanger, H.U.; Pepelnik, R.; Michaelis, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dual-beam γ-ray transmission analysis (Am 241 - Cs 137 ) is successfully applied for the rapid determination of individual space concentrations in triple-component flows. The principle of the method, transmission formulae, the attainable precision and accuracy are discussed with respect to practical application. For determining drift velocities, a dual γ-ray transmission gate has been developed. The velocity is derived from the two gate responses by cross-correlation analysis. Combination of space concentration and mean drift speed data yields the mass transport per unit time. Thus the most important flow parameters can be controlled without interference with the conveyor-flow. Such data are of considerable relevance in testing and operating hydraulic and air-lift mining systems. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  3. The fluid–solid coupling analysis of screw conveyor in drilling fluid centrifuge based on ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the centrifugal separations of drilling fluid, screw conveyor is a critical component to push and separate the sediment. The work performance and structural parameters of conveyor are immediately related to the production capability, the working life and the separating effect of the centrifuge. The existing researches always use the theoretical calculation of the approximate loads to analyze the strength of conveyor, and it cannot reflect the stress situations accurately. In order to ensure the precise mastery of the working performance, this article obtained pressure distribution under working conditions from CFX evaluation and gained equivalent stress and deformation under several load conditions by using the ANSYS Workbench platform to check the strength of conveyor. The results showed that the influence of centrifugal hydraulic pressure was less than that of centrifugal force on the strength and deformation of conveyor. Besides, the maximum equivalent stress occurred at the inside of the feed opening, while the maximum deformation occurred at the conveyor blade edge of taper extremity. Furthermore, whether considered the feed opening or not, the computing model had a great influence on the analysis results, and the simplified loads had a great influence on the deformation analysis results. The methods and results from this article can provide reference for the design and the improvement of screw conveyor.

  4. VIRTUAL MODEL OF A ROLLER CONVEYOR INTEGRATED INTO A LOGISTIC FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented, with the help of graphics, a logistic flow for palletizing and wrapping operations. The loaded pallets are transported by means of a roller conveyor. Creating the virtual model for the conveyer allows us to emphasize the compatibility elements between on the one hand the mechanical assemblies of the flow components and on the other hand the subassemblies of the conveyer structure. The paper has focused on the presentation of the conveyor specific assembly and how are placed the sensors on the mechanical structure of the conveyor. Finally, the main working phases are graphically presented within the flow, highlighting the loaded pallet positions in the flow.

  5. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  6. Enhancing the energy efficiency of elevators and conveyor systems by the development of a novel frequency converter; Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz von Aufzuegen und Foerderanlagen durch Entwicklung eines neuartigen Frequenzumformers - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanyo, P.; Bolla, M.

    2008-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done concerning the development of a new type of frequency converter for drive applications. The converter is free of the disadvantages incurred when using voltage converters, where it is difficult to reduce standby power consumption since much energy is stored in the intermediate circuit condensers. The new current converter completely provides the desired advantages (recuperation, standby). In addition, it is suited to industrial applications with costs that are comparable to or lower than the systems used today. The report discusses the technical solution chosen, its applications and the costs involved. Prototypes are described and the results of measurements made are discussed.

  7. Production of Copper as a Complex Mining and Metallurgical Processing System in Polish Copper Mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Geological and technological conditions of Cu production in the Polish copper mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt are presented. Cu production is recognized as a technological fractal consisting of subsystems for mineral exploration, ore extraction and processing, and metallurgical treatment. Qualitative and quantitative models of these operations have been proposed, including estimation of their costs of process production. Numerical calculations of such a system have been performed, which allow optimize the system parameters according to economic criteria under variable Cu mineralization in the ore deposit. The main objective of the study is to develop forecasting tool for analysis of production efficiency in domestic copper mines based on available sources of information. Such analyses are primarily of social value, allowing for assessment of the efficiency of management of local mineral resources in the light of current technological and market constraints. At the same time, this is a concept of the system analysis method to manage deposit exploitation on operational and strategic level.

  8. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  9. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  10. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  11. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  12. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  13. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  14. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  15. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  16. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  17. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  18. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, Robert K; Schulte, Lisa A; Hall, Richard B; Hallam, Arne; Heaton, Emily A; Gunther, Theo; Moore, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  19. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  20. The "Conveyor Belt Effect": A Re-Assessment of the Impact of National Targets for Lifelong Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil; Rees, Gareth

    Although the National Targets for Education and Training in England and Wales include indicators for lifelong learning, and the progress towards the targets set for these indicators has been lauded by politicians and other observers, much of this apparent progress is actually accounted for by changes in these same indicators. However, once the…

  1. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M.; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-01-01

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80–11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the g...

  2. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  3. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A study on an object transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sang Hwa; Kim, Gwang Ho; Choi, Suk Bong; Park, Jun Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae

    2007-01-01

    The development of information and telecommunication industries leads to the development of semiconductor and optical industries. In recent years, the demand of optical components is growing due to the demand of faster network. On the other hand, conventional transport systems are not adequate for transporting precision optical components and semiconductors. Because the conveyor belt can damage precision optical components with contact force and a magnetic system would destroy the inner structure of semiconductor with magnetic field, a new system for transporting optical components and semiconductors is required. One of the alternatives to the existing systems is a transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation since it can transport precision components such as semiconductors and optical components without damage. In this paper, a transport system using 2-mode ultrasonic wave excitation was developed for transporting optical components and semiconductor, and its performance was evaluated. The relationship between transporting characteristics and flexural beam shapes were evaluated

  5. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  6. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  7. Control de velocidad de una estera transportadora de caña con un controlador difuso; Speed Control of Sugar Cane Belt Conveyer with Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Domínguez Cardosa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las experiencias de los autores en el diseño de un controlador difuso para el control de velocidad deun motor de inducción en coordenadas de campo, que acciona una estera transportadora de caña, sin la necesidadde realizar las compensaciones en los ejes d-q, lo que simplifica sustancialmente el control. El controladordifuso implementado es del tipo Mamdani y utiliza como variables de entrada el error de la velocidad y el cambiodel error de la velocidad, y como variable de salida la corriente de mando del eje q. Para el desemborronado seempleó el método del centro de gravedad. Los resultados alcanzados muestran que el comportamiento delsistema de control sometido a cambios bruscos de carga y referencia son superiores a los obtenidos con un PIDclásico.  This paper describes the experience obtained by the authors in the design of a fuzzy controller for speed controlof an induction motor in field oriented, that drives a sugar cane belt conveyor, without carrying out the compensationsin the d-q axes. The Mamdani type fuzzy controller was implemented using speed error and the rate ofchange of the speed error as input variables and the current component in the q-axis as output variable. Thesimulation results reached show that the behaviour of the control system under suddenly load and referencechanges are better than those results obtained using PID classic.

  8. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    .5-8.5) and εHf(t) (10.2-16.8) values, as well as young isotopic model ages. These Devonian-Carboniferous intermediate-felsic volcanics are interpreted as the products of partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with some contributions from mantle components in an evolved island arc setting from immature to mature island arc. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of arc volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. In combination with previous work, we propose that the northern Junggar area comprises three arc-basin belts from south to north: the Darbut-Luliang-Karamaili, Wulungu-Yemaquan, and Saur-Fuhai-Dulate. Such tectonic subdivisions are consistent with the regional gravity and magnetic anomaly data. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the Junggar Basin is likely underlain by juvenile continental crust rather than ancient Precambrian basement, and also implies that the CAOB was built by amalgamation of multiple linear arcs and accretionary complexes.

  9. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  10. THE HUBBLE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 TEST OF SURFACES IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM: SPECTRAL VARIATION ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. Twelve targets were re-observed with the WFC3 in the optical and NIR wavebands designed to complement those used during the first visit. Additionally, all of the observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A re-analysis of the optical and NIR color distribution reveals a bifurcated optical color distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colors and has correlated optical and NIR colors, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on five targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point-spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have a broad range of dynamical classes and absolute magnitudes, exhibit a broad range of apparent magnitude variations, and are found in both compositional classes. The spectrally variable objects with sufficiently accurate colors for spectral classification maintain their membership, belonging to the same class at both epochs. 2005 TV189 exhibits a sufficiently broad difference in color at the two epochs that span the full range of colors of the neutral class. This strongly argues that the neutral class is one single class with a broad range of colors, rather than the combination of multiple overlapping classes

  11. P-T composition and evolution of paleofluids in the Paleoproterozoic Mag Hill IOCG system, Contact Lake belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarin, A. Karimzadeh; Mumin, A. Hamid

    2014-02-01

    The Echo Bay stratovolcano complex and Contact Lake Belt of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Northwest Territories, host a series of coalescing Paleoproterozoic hydrothermal systems that affected an area of several hundred square kilometers. They were caused by intrusion of synvolcanic diorite-monzodioritic plutons into andesitic host rocks, producing several characteristic hydrothermal assemblages. They include early and proximal albite, magnetite-actinolite-apatite, and potassic (K-feldspar) alteration, followed by more distal hematite, phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite), and propylitic (chlorite-epidote-carbonate±sericite±albite±quartz) alteration, and finally by late-stage polymetallic epithermal veins. These alteration types are characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold deposits, however, with distal and lower-temperature assemblages similar to porphyry Cu systems. Magnetite-actinolite-apatite alteration formed from high temperature (up to 560 °C) fluids with average salinity of 12.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The prograde propylitic and phyllic alteration stages are associated with fluids with temperatures varying from 80 to 430 °C and a wide salinity range (0.5-45.6 wt% NaCl equivalent). Similarly, wide fluid temperature (104-450 °C) and salinity (4.2-46.1 wt% NaCl equivalent) ranges are recorded for the phyllic alteration. This was followed by Cu-Ag-U-Zn-Co-Pb sulfarsenide mineralization in late-stage epithermal veins formed at shallow depths and temperatures from 270 °C to as low as 105 °C. The polymetallic veins precipitated from high salinity (mean 30 wt% NaCl equivalent) dense fluids (1.14 g/cm3) with a vapor pressure of 3.8 bars, typical of epithermal conditions. Fluid inclusion evidence indicates that mixed fluids with evolving physicochemical properties were responsible for the formation of the alteration assemblages and mineralization at Mag Hill. An early high temperature, moderate salinity, and magmatic fluid was subsequently modified variably by

  12. Effects of interaction between ultramafic tectonite and mafic magma on Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic systems in the Neoproterozoic Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri V.; Ritsk, Eugeni Yu.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    1997-04-01

    Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotopic systems have been studied in minerals and whole rocks of harzburgites and mafic cumulates from the Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt, eastern Siberia, in order to determine the relationship between mantle ultramafic and crustal mafic sections. Geological relations in the Chaya Massif indicate that the mafic magmas were emplaced into, and interacted with older solid peridotite. Hand picked, acid-leached, primary rock-forming and accessory minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase) from the two harzburgite samples show coherent behavior and yield 147Sm/ 144Nd- 143Nd/ 144Nd and 238U/ 204Pb- 206Pb/ 204Pb mineral isochrons, corresponding to ages of 640 ± 58 Ma (95% confidence level) and 620 ± 71 Ma, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from the crystallization age of the Chaya mafic units of 627 ± 25 Ma (a weighted average of internal isochron Sm-Nd ages of four mafic cumulates). The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the harzburgite whole-rock samples were disturbed by hydrothermal alteration. These alteration-related isotopic shifts mimic the trend of variations in primary isotopic compositions in the mafic sequence, thus emphasizing that isotopic data for ultramafic rocks should be interpreted with great caution. On the basis of initial Sr and Nd values, ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Chaya Massif can be divided into two groups: (1) harzburgites and the lower mafic unit gabbronorites withɛ Nd = +6.6 to +7.1 andɛ Sr = -11 to -16; and (2) websterite of the lower unit and gabbronorites of the upper mafic unit:ɛ Nd = +4.6 to +6.1 andɛ Sr = -8 to -9. Initial Pb isotopic ratios are identical in all rocks studied, with mean values of 206Pb/ 204Pb= 16.994 ± 0.023 and 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.363 ± 0.015. The similarity of ages and initial isotopic ratios within the first group indicates that the isotopic systems in the pre-existing depleted peridotite were reset by extensive interaction with

  13. Voltage-Controlled Square/Triangular Wave Generator with Current Conveyors and Switching Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Janecek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel relaxation oscillator based on integrating the diode-switched currents and Schmitt trigger is presented. It is derived from a known circuit with operational amplifiers where these active elements were replaced by current conveyors. The circuit employs only grounded resistances and capacitance and is suitable for high frequency square and triangular signal generation. Its frequency can be linearly and accurately controlled by voltage that is applied to a high-impedance input. Computer simulation with a model of a manufactured conveyor prototype verifies theoretic assumptions.

  14. Simply Adjustable Sinusoidal Oscillator Based on Negative Three-Port Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sotner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sinusoidal oscillator employing two controlled second-generation negative-current conveyors and two capacitors. The proposed oscillator has a simple circuit configuration. Electronic (voltage adjusting of the oscillation frequency and condition of oscillation are possible. The presented circuit is verified in PSpice utilizing macro models of commercially available negative current conveyors. The circuit is also verified by experimental measurements. Important characteristics and drawbacks of the proposed circuit and influences of real active elements in the designed circuit are discussed in detail.

  15. Current and Voltage Conveyors in Current- and Voltage-Mode Precision Full-Wave Rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new versatile precision full-wave rectifiers using current and/or voltage conveyors as active elements and two diodes are presented. The performance of these circuit solutions is analysed and compared to the opamp based precision rectifier. To analyze the behavior of the functional blocks, the frequency dependent RMS error and DC transient value are evaluated for different values of input voltage amplitudes. Furthermore, experimental results are given that show the feasibilities of the conveyor based rectifiers superior to the corresponding operational amplifier based topology.

  16. High-throughput measurement of rice tillers using a conveyor equipped with x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Xu, Xiaochun; Duan, Lingfeng; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits because the number of shoots per plant determines panicle number, a key component of grain yield. The conventional method of counting tillers is still manual. Under the condition of mass measurement, the accuracy and efficiency could be gradually degraded along with fatigue of experienced staff. Thus, manual measurement, including counting and recording, is not only time consuming but also lack objectivity. To automate this process, we developed a high-throughput facility, dubbed high-throughput system for measuring automatically rice tillers (H-SMART), for measuring rice tillers based on a conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) system and industrial conveyor. Each pot-grown rice plant was delivered into the CT system for scanning via the conveyor equipment. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the transverse section image of the rice culms. The number of tillers was then automatically extracted by image segmentation. To evaluate the accuracy of this system, three batches of rice at different growth stages (tillering, heading, or filling) were tested, yielding absolute mean absolute errors of 0.22, 0.36, and 0.36, respectively. Subsequently, the complete machine was used under industry conditions to estimate its efficiency, which was 4320 pots per continuous 24 h workday. Thus, the H-SMART could determine the number of tillers of pot-grown rice plants, providing three advantages over the manual tillering method: absence of human disturbance, automation, and high throughput. This facility expands the application of agricultural photonics in plant phenomics.

  17. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  18. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  19. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  20. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10 5 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  1. On Cyclic Plans for Scheduling a Smart Card Personalisation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.

    An industrial case study for scheduling the personalisation of smart cards is presented and analysed. Smart cards are personalised in several machines that are served by an underlying conveyor belt connecting these. As there are usually a very high number of smart cards to be personalised, the focus

  2. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  3. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  4. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  5. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  6. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  7. System Architecture For High Speed Sorting Of Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, J. A.; Onyango, C. M.; Street, M. J.

    1989-03-01

    This paper illustrates an industrial application of vision processing in which potatoes are sorted according to their size and shape at speeds of up to 40 objects per second. The result is a multi-processing approach built around the VME bus. A hardware unit has been designed and constructed to encode the boundary of the potatoes, to reducing the amount of data to be processed. A master 68000 processor is used to control this unit and to handle data transfers along the bus. Boundary data is passed to one of three 68010 slave processors each responsible for a line of potatoes across a conveyor belt. The slave processors calculate attributes such as shape, size and estimated weight of each potato and the master processor uses this data to operate the sorting mechanism. The system has been interfaced with a commercial grading machine and performance trials are now in progress.

  8. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  9. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  10. Monitoring Agricultural Drought Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shomrany, Adel

    The study aims to evaluate various remote sensing drought indices to assess those most fitting for monitoring agricultural drought. The objectives are (1) to assess and study the impact of drought effect on (corn and soybean) crop production by crop mapping information and GIS technology; (2) to use Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) as a technical approach to evaluate the spatial relationships between precipitation vs. irrigated and non-irrigated corn and soybean yield, using a Nebraska county-level case study; (3) to assess agricultural drought indices derived from remote sensing (NDVI, NMDI, NDWI, and NDII6); (4) to develop an optimal approach for agricultural drought detection based on remote sensing measurements to determine the relationship between US county-level yields versus relatively common variables collected. Extreme drought creates low corn and soybean production where irrigation systems are not implemented. This results in a lack of moisture in soil leading to dry land and stale crop yields. When precipitation and moisture is found across all states, corn and soybean production flourishes. For Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, irrigation management methods assist in strong crop yields throughout SPI monthly averages. The data gathered on irrigation consisted of using drought indices gathered by the national agricultural statistics service website. For the SPI levels ranging between one-month and nine-months, Kansas and Nebraska performed the best out of all 12-states contained in the Midwestern primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The reasoning behind Kansas and Nebraska's results was due to a more efficient and sustainable irrigation system, where upon South Dakota lacked. South Dakota was leveled by strong correlations throughout all SPI periods for corn only. Kansas showed its strongest correlations for the two-month and three-month averages, for both corn and soybean. Precipitation regression with irrigated and non-irrigated maize (corn) and

  11. General program of energy research: innovation in hard coal, 1974-1977. New logistical systems. Volume 2. Rahmenprogramm energieforschung: innovation steinkohle, 1976-1977. Neue logistische systeme. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Federal Ministry of Economy subsidized 22 research and development projects in the field of new logistic systems in underground coal mines. The Juelich energy research project management, as the representative of the ministry, examined and endorsed all projects before the financial aid of 50% of the total project cost was granted. The 22 projects included development of the following underground equipment: electrical motor brakes for belt conveyors, automatic operation of underground locomotive transportation, protected batteries for use in firedamp conditions, rack wheel drives for the rack rail train and suspended monorail trolley, electrical equipment for 10 kV power supply, flame proof electrical switches, capacitors, circuit breakers, transformers and vacuum contactors,a chair lift system for personnel transportation, and also computerized monitoring systems in the field of mine operation and mine safety.

  12. An Adaptable Robot Vision System Performing Manipulation Actions With Flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Fugl, Andreas R.; Jordt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    system should be viewed as a library of new technologies that have been proven to work in close to industrial conditions. As a rather basic, but necessary part, we provide a technology for determining the shape of the object when passing on, e. g., a conveyor belt prior to being handled. The main......This paper describes an adaptable system which is able to perform manipulation operations (such as Peg-in-Hole or Laying-Down actions) with flexible objects. As such objects easily change their shape significantly during the execution of an action, traditional strategies, e. g., for solve path......, operating in real-time. Simulations have been used to bootstrap the learning of optimal actions, which are subsequently improved through real-world executions. To achieve reproducible results, we demonstrate this for casted silicone test objects of regular shape. Note to Practitioners-The aim of this work...

  13. The importance of correct specification of tribological parameters in dynamical systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    When modelling the behaviour of dynamical systems, the friction phenomenon cannot be neglected. Dry and fluid friction may occur, but dry friction has more severe effects upon the behaviour of the systems, based on the fact that the introduced discontinuities are more important. In the modelling of dynamical systems, dry friction is the main cause of occurrence of the bifurcation phenomenon. These aspects become more complex if, in the case of dry friction, static and dynamic frictions are put forward. The behaviour of a simple dynamical system is studied, consisting in a prismatic body linked to the ground by a spring, placed on a conveyor belt. The theoretical model is described by a nonlinear differential equation which after numerical integration leads to the conclusion that the steady motion of the prism is an un-damped oscillatory motion. The system was qualitatively modelled using specialised software for dynamical analysis. It was impractical to obtain a steady uniform translational motion of a rigid, therefore the conveyor belt was replaced by a metallic disc in uniform rotation motion. The attempts to compare the CAD model to the theoretical model were unsuccessful because the efforts of selecting the tribological parameters directed to the conclusion that the motion of the prism is a damped oscillation. To decide which of the methods depicts reality, a test-rig was assembled and it indicated a sustained oscillation. The conclusion is that the model employed by the dynamical analysis software cannot describe the actual model and a more complex model is required in the description of the friction phenomenon.

  14. Quantitative control of belt weighing feeder quick loading system%定量控制皮带称重式给料机快速装车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of belt weighing feeder quantitative control technology, which realizes the bulk material rapid loading design and widely used in coal metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials industry.%本文介绍了一种对皮带称重式给料机进行定量控制技术,实现散状物料快速装车的设计方案,广泛适用于煤炭、冶金、化工和建材等行业。

  15. Product conveying system for 10 MeV electron beam accelerator for electron beam centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.; Lavale, D.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Assadullah, M.; Sabharwal, S.

    2003-01-01

    In industrial radiation processing applications using accelerators, product conveying system plays a vital role in exposing the product to high energy electron beam for imparting specified dose to the product and delivering required through puts. The speed of the conveyor corresponds to a definite time of exposure of the product in the radiation zone. Design of suitable conveyor system for a variety of products with differing dose requirements call for a conveyor with wide speed range. This paper discusses the design features of a suitable under beam conveyor system for 10 MeV, 10 kW accelerator for processing a range of products including medical and food products

  16. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    , annihilation, and nuclear interactions with the ambient matter. We have found that the Earth's antiproton belt possesses about 6-60 times larger antiproton fluxes compared to the galactic fluxes in interplanetary space during minimum and maximum solar activity at all energies in confinement zone. The radiation belt antiproton fluxes are spread into a wider L-shell range than its generation location around L=1.2. This is due to diffusion processes, and it demonstrates that radial diffusion as a relatively significant process for antimatter, even in the inner magnetosphere. Antimatter accumulated in the magnetospheres of solar system bodies may be of significance for space travel. It could be used as a propulsion for space missions to the outer planets and beyond. Antimatter has an energy density more than ten orders of magnitude higher than the best chemical propellants currently used in rocket systems. References: Basilova, R. N., A.A. Gusev, G.I. Pugacheva , Geom. and Aeronom. V. 22, p. 671-673, 1982.Chen, J., T. Dementyev, A.V., Sobolevsky, N.M. Radiation Measurements, 30, 553, 1999.

  17. On aspects of vibration of axially moving continua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageraats-Ponomareva, S.

    2009-01-01

    In axially moving structures like conveyor belt systems, magnetic tapes, and so on, vibrations occur due to the presence of different kinds of imperfections in the systems. For these structures internal resonances can lead to severe vibrations. Resonance free conveyor belt systems can be constructed

  18. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  19. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  20. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  2. Realization of Nth-Order Voltage Transfer Function using Current Conveyors CCII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vrba

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A universal method for the realization of arbitrary voltage transfer function in canonic form is presented. A voltage-controlled current-source using a plus-type second-generation current conveyor is here applied as the basic building element. Filters designed according to this method have a high input impedance and low sensitivity to variations of circuit parameters. All passive elements are grounded.

  3. 20 CFR 655.500 - Purpose, procedure and applicability of subparts F and G of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... automated self-unloading conveyor belt or vacuum-actuated system on a vessel and the Administrator has not... of the use of an automated self-unloading conveyor belt or vacuum-actuated system on a vessel. The...) The use of alien crewmembers is not during a strike or lockout nor designed to influence the election...

  4. Design, development and evaluation of an online grading system for peeled pistachios equipped with machine vision technology and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nouri-Ahmadabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an intelligent system based on combined machine vision (MV and Support Vector Machine (SVM was developed for sorting of peeled pistachio kernels and shells. The system was composed of conveyor belt, lighting box, camera, processing unit and sorting unit. A color CCD camera was used to capture images. The images were digitalized by a capture card and transferred to a personal computer for further analysis. Initially, images were converted from RGB color space to HSV color ones. For segmentation of the acquired images, H-component in the HSV color space and Otsu thresholding method were applied. A feature vector containing 30 color features was extracted from the captured images. A feature selection method based on sensitivity analysis was carried out to select superior features. The selected features were presented to SVM classifier. Various SVM models having a different kernel function were developed and tested. The SVM model having cubic polynomial kernel function and 38 support vectors achieved the best accuracy (99.17% and then was selected to use in online decision-making unit of the system. By launching the online system, it was found that limiting factors of the system capacity were related to the hardware parts of the system (conveyor belt and pneumatic valves used in the sorting unit. The limiting factors led to a distance of 8 mm between the samples. The overall accuracy and capacity of the sorter were obtained 94.33% and 22.74 kg/h, respectively. Keywords: Pistachio kernel, Sorting, Machine vision, Sensitivity analysis, Support vector machine

  5. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  6. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  7. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  8. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  9. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  10. The charge transport in an electrostatic belt generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fluctuations in the charge transport system of an EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been investigated by means of a frequency spectrum analyser. Frequency spectra of the terminal ripple, the short-circuit current and the voltage at the belt charge screen have been measured. Also the

  11. Emissies uit een vleesvarkensstal voorzien van een V-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a V-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, H.H.; Hol, J.M.G.; Mosquera, J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with V-shaped manure belts for separated removal of faeces and urine (the Kempfarm system).

  12. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  13. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  14. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  15. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  16. Cenozoic sedimentation and exhumation of the foreland basin system preserved in the Precordillera thrust belt (31-32°S), southern central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Mariya; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-09-01

    Andean retroarc compression associated with subduction and shallowing of the oceanic Nazca plate resulted in thin-skinned thrusting that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin fill in the Precordillera of west-central Argentina. Evolution of the central segment of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt is informed by new analyses of clastic nonmarine deposits now preserved in three intermontane regions between major east directed thrust faults. We focus on uppermost Oligocene-Miocene basin fill in the axial to frontal Precordillera at 31-32°S along the Río San Juan (Albarracín and Pachaco sections) and the flank of one of the leading thrust structures (Talacasto section). The three successions record hinterland construction of the Frontal Cordillera, regional arc volcanism, and initial exhumation of Precordillera thrust sheets. Provenance changes recorded by detrital zircon U-Pb age populations suggest that initial shortening in the Frontal Cordillera coincided with an early Miocene shift from eolian to fluvial accumulation in the adjacent foreland basin. Upward coarsening of fluvial deposits and increased proportions of Paleozoic clasts reflect cratonward (eastward) advance of deformation into the Precordillera and resultant structural fragmentation of the foreland basin into isolated intermontane segments. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of basin fill constrains to 12-9 Ma the most probable age of uplift-induced exhumation and cooling of Precordillera thrust sheets. This apparent pulse of exhumation is evident in each succession, suggestive of rapid, large-scale exhumation by synchronous thrusting above a single décollement linking major structures of the Precordillera.

  17. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  18. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  19. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  20. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonhuman primate must not be placed on unattended conveyor belts or on elevated conveyor belts, such as baggage claim conveyor belts and inclined conveyor ramps that lead to baggage claim areas, at any time... if an attendant is present at each end of the conveyor belt. (2) A primary enclosure containing a...