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Sample records for belt choosing foods

  1. Motivations for choosing various food groups based on individual foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Uyen T X; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Understanding "why people eat what they eat" is important for improving the lives of people around the world by helping provide industrial and social solutions for people to have greater pleasure and health from the foods they choose. The objective of this study was to investigate the motivations behind everyday choices of different food groups using a bottom-up approach that targeted the specific choices of foods and beverages people consumed at various times of a day. This study was conducted using an online survey included questions related to demographics, the most recent meal including specific food choices, and a slightly modified Eating Motivation Surveys (2 motivations were added, and Check-All-That-Apply procedure was used), which contained 50 sub-scales to measure 17 motivations including such topics as Liking, Pleasure, Convenience, Health, Price, Variety Seeking etc. A total of 198 participants have completed the surveys. Data were analyzed by Correspondence Analysis. Liking was found to be the strongest motivation that drove people to select all sorts of foods. Need and Hunger and Convenience were the main motivations for baked products, "fast" foods, sausages and meats, and snack foods while Health and Weight Control were found to be the main driving factors for vegetables, fruits & fruit juices, nuts, seeds, dairy & egg, and poultry products. Sweets were linked to Pleasure. For beverages, people were motivated most by Heath and Weight Control to choose water and tea. Coffee was used due to Habits; soda was because of Pleasure and alcoholic was for socialization purposes. This study provided developers, marketers, health educators, etc. With a new method to understand food choice in order to promote better eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  3. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  4. When fed foods with similar palatability, healthy adult dogs and cats choose different macronutrient compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Vondran, Jodi C; Vanchina, Melissa A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2018-05-17

    Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients. By choosing any combination of foods, dogs and cats could individually set their macronutrient intake. Plasma metabolomic profiles were determined at baseline and after animals had consumed their food intake of choice for 28 days. Based on food intake calculations over 28 days, dogs on average chose to consume most of their calories from fat (41.1±4.3%) and then carbohydrate (35.8±3.7%), whereas cats on average chose to consume most of their calories from carbohydrate (43.1±4.0%) and then protein (30.3±3.9%; all P foods with similar palatability, dogs and cats consume different macronutrient compositions, and concentrations of circulating metabolites in cats reflect food choices. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Store Tips for Every Aisle Understand the Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking ... whole grains into their favorite recipes, meals, and snacks. Find the fiber on label If the product ...

  6. Choose Health: Food, Fun, and Fitness Youth Curriculum Promotes Positive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Wendy S; Scott-Pierce, Michelle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2017-11-20

    Evaluate whether participation in Choose Health: Food, Fun, and Fitness (CHFFF), a hands-on, experiential curriculum aimed at third- to sixth-graders, resulted in improvements in the targeted obesity and chronic disease prevention behaviors. The researchers evaluated CHFFF in low-income youth participating in 2 federal programs in New York State during 2013-2015. Food and activity behaviors were assessed using the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program third- through fifth- and sixth- through eighth-grade pre-post surveys, along with 2 sets of added CHFFF-specific items completed by subsamples. Educators trained in CHFFF had youth complete the surveys as they delivered the curriculum, primarily in schools and after-school programs. Paired t tests showed significant (P < .01) positive changes before to after CHFFF education for consumption of vegetables, fruits, sweetened drinks, nutrition label reading, and other food and activity behaviors. Results provide practice-based evidence that CHFFF promotes positive behavior change in participating youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Choosing not to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2014-10-01

    Choice can be an extraordinary benefit or an immense burden. In some contexts, people choose not to choose, or would do so if they were asked. In part because of limitations of "bandwidth," and in part because of awareness of their own lack of information and potential biases, people sometimes want other people to choose for them. For example, many people prefer not to make choices about their health or retirement plans; they want to delegate those choices to a private or public institution that they trust (and may well be willing to pay a considerable amount to those who are willing to accept such delegations). This point suggests that however well accepted, the line between active choosing and paternalism is often illusory. When private or public institutions override people's desire not to choose and insist on active choosing, they may well be behaving paternalistically, through a form of choice-requiring paternalism. Active choosing can be seen as a form of libertarian paternalism, and a frequently attractive one, if people are permitted to opt out of choosing in favor of a default (and in that sense permitted not to choose); it is a form of nonlibertarian paternalism insofar as people are required to choose. For both ordinary people and private or public institutions, the ultimate judgment in favor of active choosing, or in favor of choosing not to choose, depends largely on the costs of decisions and the costs of errors.

  8. You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults' food selection behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, L; Chan, H N; Louie, J C; Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-08-01

    Young or 'emerging' adulthood (ages 18-24 years) is a life-stage characterised by rapid weight gain, particularly among those born in recent decades, when environments have become saturated with cheap, highly palatable, processed foods. Although intervening in the immediate food environments of emerging adults is indicated, little is known about the factors influencing their food selection. The present study aimed to: (i) measure the relative importance of different influences on foods selected by emerging adults for consumption from a tertiary education setting and (ii) examine whether these influences differ according to gender, adiposity status, perceived stress and dieting or physical activity behaviours. An online survey was administered with 112 emerging adults aged 19-24 years assessing demographics, perceived stress, dieting, physical activity and influences on food selection. Adiposity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference) were measured. Analyses compared the importance of influences on food selection by gender, adiposity, perceived stress, dieting and physical activity. Taste was the most important influence on food selection, followed by convenience (availability), cost, nutrition/health value, smell and stimulatory properties (alertness). Participants with an elevated waist circumference selected foods to help them cope with stress and control their weight. Those reporting a higher level of physical activity placed greater importance on nutritional/health value of foods but less importance on taste. Female dieters also placed less importance on taste and value for money. Health promotion strategies addressing tertiary education food environments of emerging adults should ensure the ready availability of tasty and nutritious foods at a low cost. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. With Protein Foods, Variety Is Key: 10 Tips for Choosing Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide 10 Tips: Vary Your Protein Routine You are here Home 10 Tips: Vary ... Protein Routine Print Share 10 Tips: Vary Your Protein Routine Protein foods include both animal (meat, poultry, ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE FOREST BELT OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K.M. Kuwornu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to examine the Food Security Status of Farming Households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents that were interviewed. In all 134 farming households were interviewed but 120 were selected for analysis after removing the questionnaires which were not properly administered. The households were selected from eight communities in two districts. Food consumption data of 851 individuals in 120 households were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the majority of the farming households (60% were found to be food insecure. Further, the Binary Logit Model results reveal that an increase in household's income, having access to credit as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production improve the food security status of farming households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. However, holding all other factors constant, increases in non-working member of households worsens the food security status of farming households. Most of the food insecurity coping strategies adopted by household's are not severe and can only be used to avert the impact of food insecurity on a temporal basis. These results have policy implications for Food Security Status of Farming Households in developing countries.

  11. The barriers that women face when choosing food for their primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean nutrition knowledge score for the group was 68.6%. Nutrition knowledge was significantly lower (p<0.01) in mothers from the lower quintile school (64.0%). Primary factors influencing food purchases were cost (60%), nutritional value (37%) and time constraints (29%). Primary sources of nutrition information ...

  12. Make to stock and mix to order : choosing intermediate products in the food-processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van der Meer, Dirk; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to discrete manufacturers, food-processing companies can sometimes produce the same end products in different ways: either mix first and then process, or process first and mix later. Moreover, a final product can be mixed from different raw materials or intermediates. That adds a new

  13. Choosing front-of-package food labelling nutritional criteria: how smart were 'Smart Choices'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Bragg, Marie A; Livingston, Kara A; Harris, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jackie M; Seamans, Marissa J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-02-01

    The 'Smart Choices' programme was an industry-driven, front-of-package (FOP) nutritional labelling system introduced in the USA in August 2009, ostensibly to help consumers select healthier options during food shopping. Its nutritional criteria were developed by members of the food industry in collaboration with nutrition and public health experts and government officials. The aim of the present study was to test the extent to which products labelled as 'Smart Choices' could be classified as healthy choices on the basis of the Nutrient Profile Model (NPM), a non-industry-developed, validated nutritional standard. A total of 100 packaged products that qualified for a 'Smart Choices' designation were sampled from eight food and beverage categories. All products were evaluated using the NPM method. In all, 64 % of the products deemed 'Smart Choices' did not meet the NPM standard for a healthy product. Within each 'Smart Choices' category, 0 % of condiments, 8·70 % of fats and oils, 15·63 % of cereals and 31·58 % of snacks and sweets met NPM thresholds. All sampled soups, beverages, desserts and grains deemed 'Smart Choices' were considered healthy according to the NPM standard. The 'Smart Choices' programme is an example of industries' attempts at self-regulation. More than 60 % of foods that received the 'Smart Choices' label did not meet standard nutritional criteria for a 'healthy' food choice, suggesting that industries' involvement in designing labelling systems should be scrutinized. The NPM system may be a good option as the basis for establishing FOP labelling criteria, although more comparisons with other systems are needed.

  14. Validity of a questionnaire measuring motives for choosing foods including sustainable concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautron, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1990s, sustainability of diet has become an increasingly important concern for consumers. However, there is no validated multidimensional measurement of motivation in the choice of foods including a concern for sustainability currently available. In the present study, we developed a questionnaire that measures food choice motives during purchasing, and we tested its psychometric properties. The questionnaire included 104 items divided into four predefined dimensions (environmental, health and well-being, economic and miscellaneous). It was administered to 1000 randomly selected subjects participating in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study. Among 637 responders, one-third found the questionnaire complex or too long, while one-quarter found it difficult to fill in. Its underlying structure was determined by exploratory factor analysis and then internally validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was also assessed by internal consistency of selected dimensions and test-retest repeatability. After selecting the most relevant items, first-order analysis highlighted nine main dimensions: labeled ethics and environment, local and traditional production, taste, price, environmental limitations, health, convenience, innovation and absence of contaminants. The model demonstrated excellent internal validity (adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residuals = 0.07) and satisfactory reliability (internal consistency = 0.96, test-retest repeatability coefficient ranged between 0.31 and 0.68 over a mean 4-week period). This study enabled precise identification of the various dimensions in food choice motives and proposed an original, internally valid tool applicable to large populations for assessing consumer food motivation during purchasing, particularly in terms of sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wild foods (plants and animals in the green famine belt of Ethiopia: Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daie Ferede Guyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA, a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5 % and 9 % of, gross and, net food available from all sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2 = 0.467 was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r = 0.174. Wild vegetables were the most collected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4 % of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6 % reported "reduced source of wild foods" as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2 % than the non-indigenous (34.1 % ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion: From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and

  16. Sensory-based food education in early childhood education and care, willingness to choose and eat fruit and vegetables, and the moderating role of maternal education and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Hujo, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Nuutinen, Outi

    2018-05-08

    To investigate the association between sensory-based food education implemented in early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres and children's willingness to choose and eat vegetables, berries and fruit, and whether the mother's education level and children's food neophobia moderate the linkage. The cross-sectional study involved six ECEC centres that provide sensory-based food education and three reference centres. A snack buffet containing eleven different vegetables, berries and fruit was used to assess children's willingness to choose and eat the food items. The children's parents completed the Food Neophobia Scale questionnaire to assess their children's food neophobia. ECEC centres that provide sensory-based food education and reference ECEC centres in Finland. Children aged 3-5 years in ECEC (n 130) and their parents. Sensory-based food education was associated with children's willingness to choose and eat vegetables, berries and fruit. This association was stronger among the children of mothers with a low education level. A high average level of neophobia in the child group reduced the children's willingness to choose vegetables, berries and fruit. No similar tendency was observed in the group that had received sensory-based food education. Children's individual food neophobia had a negative association with their willingness to choose and eat the vegetables, berries and fruit. Child-oriented sensory-based food education seems to provide a promising method for promoting children's adoption of vegetables, berries and fruit in their diets. In future sensory food education research, more focus should be placed on the effects of the education at the group level.

  17. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  18. Choosing Beauty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Reasoning that takes into account self-locating evidence in apparently plausible ways sometimes yields the startling conclusion that rational credences are such as if agents had bizarre causal powers. The present paper introduces a novel version of the Sleeping Beauty problem-Choosing Beauty-for

  19. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; van der Lans, Ivo A; van Rijnsoever, Frank J; van Trijp, Hans Cm

    2016-06-01

    Employing Rothschild's Motivation-Opportunity-Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. Furthermore, the study investigates which dominant barrier profiles can be discerned. Data were obtained from a survey about participants' motivation, opportunity and ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks and an FFQ that measured habitual consumption of snack foods and beverages. Data were analysed using R packages lavaan and NbClust, and IBM SPSS Statistics. A representative sample (n 1318) of the Dutch population based on gender (686 women), age and education level. For both snack foods and beverages, motivation to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks was associated strongest with proportions of low-calorie choices. The perceived ability and perceived opportunity were also associated with proportions of low-calorie choices, albeit to a lesser extent. Furthermore, three dominant profiles of barriers were identified: the no-barrier profile, the lack-of-opportunity profile and the lack-of-motivation profile. These profiles differed significantly on proportions of low-calorie snack choices, daily meal consumption and sociodemographic characteristics. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. By identifying and appreciating heterogeneity in barriers, the present study provides further incentives for the tailoring of intervention strategies.

  20. The barriers that women face when choosing food for their primary school children: A case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Smit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unhealthy food choices made by mothers can impact negatively on child health and may lead to unhealthy eating behaviours that persist into adulthood. Choosing food is a complex process influenced by many factors. Objectives. To determine the factors that influence mothers’ food choices and to investigate barriers to purchasing healthy food. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive study, with an analytical component, was conducted. Mothers (N=476 were recruited from three randomly selected primary schools, from a low, middle and high quintile. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers. Six focus groups (FG (two per school were conducted to investigate the factors that prevent mothers from making healthy dietary decisions. Results. The mean nutrition knowledge score for the group was 68.6%. Nutrition knowledge was significantly lower (p<0.01 in mothers from the lower quintile school (64.0%. Primary factors influencing food purchases were cost (60%, nutritional value (37% and time constraints (29%. Primary sources of nutrition information included magazines and health professionals at 62% and 44%, respectively. Time constraints resulted in mothers purchasing convenience foods more often (p=0.001. The main barriers identified were mixed media messages, the school environments and supermarket layouts. Conclusion. Nutrition education campaigns should include practical advice, e.g. the preparation of economical, wholesome meals. Policymakers should monitor increasing prices of healthy foods. School and supermarket environments, as well as the food industry, can play a pivotal role in facilitating mothers to make healthy food choices

  1. Hunger induced changes in food choice. When beggars cannot be choosers even if they are allowed to choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefling, Atilla; Strack, Fritz

    2010-06-01

    The present work was to examine the influence of food deprivation on food choice. For this purpose hungry versus satiated subjects were presented with a series of choices between two snacks in a complete block design of pairwise comparisons. Snacks systematically varied with respect to subjects' idiosyncratic taste preferences (preferred versus un-preferred snack), portion size (large portion versus very small portion), and availability in terms of time (immediately available versus available only after a substantial time delay). Food choices were analyzed with a conjoint analysis which corroborated the assumption that food deprivation decreases the relative importance of taste preference and increases the importance of immediate availability of food. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Hardman

    Full Text Available The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes. However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation. We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female, high pizza variability was associated with i poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion. For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  3. So Many Brands and Varieties to Choose from: Does This Compromise the Control of Food Intake in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Ferriday, Danielle; Kyle, Lesley; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise in obesity is widely attributed to changes in the dietary environment (e.g., increased availability of energy-dense foods and larger portion sizes). However, a critical feature of our "obesogenic environment" may have been overlooked - the dramatic increase in "dietary variability" (the tendency for specific mass-produced foods to be available in numerous varieties that differ in energy content). In this study we tested the hypothesis that dietary variability compromises the control of food intake in humans. Specifically, we examined the effects of dietary variability in pepperoni pizza on two key outcome variables; i) compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) expectations about the satiating properties of pepperoni pizza (expected satiation). We reasoned that dietary variability might generate uncertainty about the postingestive effects of a food. An internet-based questionnaire was completed by 199 adults. This revealed substantial variation in exposure to different varieties of pepperoni pizza. In a follow-up study (n= 66; 65% female), high pizza variability was associated with i) poorer compensation for calories in pepperoni pizza and ii) lower expected satiation for pepperoni pizza. Furthermore, the effect of uncertainty on caloric compensation was moderated by individual differences in decision making (loss aversion). For the first time, these findings highlight a process by which dietary variability may compromise food-intake control in humans. This is important because it exposes a new feature of Western diets (processed foods in particular) that might contribute to overeating and obesity.

  4. Choose your menu wisely: cuisine-associated food-poisoning risks in restaurants in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, F J; Rawal, N; Little, C L

    2012-06-01

    The food service sector continues to be the most common setting for reported foodborne disease outbreaks in England and Wales. Using restaurant-associated foodborne outbreaks reported in England and Wales from 1992 to 2009, cuisine-specific risk factors were examined. Of 677 restaurant outbreaks, there were 11 795 people affected, 491 hospitalizations, and seven deaths; and Chinese, Indian, British and Italian cuisines were the most commonly implicated (26%, 16%, 13% and 10%, respectively). Salmonella spp. accounted for most outbreaks of all cuisine types, and particularly Chinese (76%, 133/175) and Italian (55%, 38/69). Poultry meat was the most frequently implicated food vehicle in outbreaks associated with Indian (30%), Chinese (21%), and British (18%) cuisines while for Italian cuisine, desserts and cakes were more frequently implicated (33%). Rice dishes were also a common outbreak food vehicle in those restaurants serving Chinese (22%) and Indian (16%) cuisine. Cross-contamination was the biggest contributory factor associated with Chinese (46%), British (33%) and Indian (30%) cuisines whereas inadequate cooking (38%) and use of raw shell eggs in lightly cooked or uncooked food (35%) were more often associated with Italian cuisine. Over the surveillance period, the proportion of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 outbreaks in restaurants serving Chinese cuisine significantly decreased (Pcuisine type, specific evidence of food control failures can be used to target foodborne illness reduction strategies.

  5. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational...

  6. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. Methods An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Results Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p sales of healthy items did not differ across periods, whereas in the subsample, sales of healthy items increased by 30% when a signage + taste testing intervention was implemented (p promote healthier dietary behaviors. PMID:24450763

  7. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2014-01-22

    Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p nudging in cueing healthier dietary behaviors. Moreover, price reductions appeared ineffectual in this setting. Our findings point to complex, context-specific patterns of effectiveness and suggest that nudging should not supplant the use of other strategies that have proven to promote healthier dietary behaviors.

  8. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high loads of debris.

  9. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  10. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, van F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the

  11. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  12. An Evaluation of an eHealth Tool Designed to Improve College Students’ Label-Reading Skills and Feelings of Empowerment to Choose Healthful Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveCollege students are at risk for poor dietary choices. New skills can empower individuals to adopt healthful behaviors, yet eHealth tools designed to develop food-choice skills, such as label-reading skills, are uncommon. We investigated the effects of web-based label-reading training on college students’ perceptions of healthful food-choice empowerment.MethodsStudents completed label-reading training in which they practiced selecting the more healthful food using nutrition labels. We examined improvements in label-reading accuracy (correct healthfulness decisions and perceptions of empowerment, using a 6-item scale. Repeated measures ANOVAs and paired-samples t-tests were used to examine changes in accuracy and empowerment across the training session.ResultsIn addition to increases in label-reading accuracy with training, we found increases in healthful food-choice empowerment scores. Specifically, the proportion of correct (i.e., more healthful food choices increased across the three blocks of practice (p = 0.04 and food-choice empowerment scores were about 7.5% higher on average after training (p < 0.001.Conclusion and implicationsLabel-reading training was associated with increased feelings of empowerment associated with making healthful food choices. Skill focused eHealth tools may offer an important avenue for motivating behavior change through skill development.

  13. To Choose or Not to Choose Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In the literature, there is a general concern that a less number of students choose to study science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). This paper presents results from a Danish longitudinal study which examines students’ choice of whether or not to continue studying STEM after upper......-secondary school. In particular, this study focuses on students who held an STEM subject as one of their favourite subjects at secondary educational level, but who chose not to study STEM at the tertiary level. This paper explores how students’ perceptions of STEM relate to their identity work. The data used...

  14. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  15. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  17. The Customer Cannot Choose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPeople can choose and they make many choices each and every day. However, most people are unaware of how strong their environment influences the choices they make. In his inaugural address, Bas Donkers highlights the impact of what people see (and what they don’t see), what people

  18. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  19. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  20. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  1. Choosing a Family Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age or sex. This includes care for your physical, mental, and emotional health. Family doctors get to know their patients. They ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  2. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  3. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  4. Fast Food: Tips for Choosing Healthier Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 9, 2016. McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for popular menu items. http://fastfoodnutrition.org/mcdonalds. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016. Burger King USA Nutritionals. ...

  5. Choosing children: intergenerational justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila

    2005-03-01

    In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.

  6. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  7. Choosing the right technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. e aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  8. How couples choose vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schehl, M

    1997-01-01

    A study conducted by AVSC International between 1992 and 1995 found that couples around the world go through a highly similar decision-making process when they choose vasectomy as their family planning methods. Study findings are based upon in-depth, qualitative interviews with couples using vasectomy in Bangladesh, Mexico, Kenya, and Rwanda, where the prevalence of vasectomy is relatively low, and Sri Lanka and the US, where it is relatively high. 218 separate interviews were conducted with male and female partners. Concerns about the woman's health were cited by respondents in each country as reasons to cease childbearing and to opt for vasectomy as the means to achieving that end. Also, almost all respondents mentioned varying degrees of financial hardship as contributing to their decision to end childbearing. These findings highlight the concept of partnership in relationships and family planning decision-making, and demonstrate the importance of going beyond traditional stereotypes about gender roles in decision-making. Social influences and the potential risks of using other forms of contraception also contributed to the choice of using vasectomy. The decision-making process and lessons learned are discussed.

  9. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  10. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  11. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  12. Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices--the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to…

  13. Choose your doctorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The development of education options for nurses has been inexorable and it is increasingly the case that senior nurses are considering a doctorate as the logical next step in their educational career. Such individuals need to make important decisions as to whether they should embark on a taught doctorate, professional doctorate or a traditional PhD. Each of these options will necessitate a considerable investment in time and money as well as the sacrifice of quality time and spare time over a significant number of years. A doctorate is not for everyone. Those still reading this text may be asking 'could this possibly be for me'? This paper will try to help the reader decide which if any option to take. It is suggested that nurses will now turn to the doctoral degree as their next adventure in academic study. It is argued that this development is not being controlled by management forces and indeed cannot be controlled by them. This last is chiefly because the move towards doctoral education is led by individuals who choose to study for a doctorate simply because they can. The paper considers what choices are available to nurses who wish to pursue a doctoral programme of study. In particular, this paper considers what new developments in doctoral courses are becoming available and what advantage there may be in studying for one of the newer professional doctorates rather than a traditional PhD. The material here is the result of a review of the literature on recent developments in doctoral education for nurses. The existing provision by UK and other universities was also reviewed, the data being collected by an informal review of universities' advertising material. It is inevitable that some nurses who are already qualified to degree and masters degree will take advantage of the doctoral degree opportunities which now newly present themselves. For nurses in practice, the advantages of the professional doctorate is that it is more structured, enables more peer and

  14. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  15. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  16. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  17. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  19. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  20. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  1. ChooseMyPlate.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All about the Vegetable Group Nutrients and health benefits Tips to help you eat vegetables Beans and peas are unique foods VIEW FOOD GALLERY ... Out Our Online Tools EATING ON A BUDGET MYPLATE TIP SHEETS MYPLATE QUIZZES ...

  2. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  3. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  4. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  5. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  6. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  7. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  8. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  9. Choosing the Right Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péči Matúš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines systems integration and its main levels at higher levels of control. At present, the systems integration is one of the main aspects participating in the consolidation processes and financial flows of a company. Systems Integration is a complicated emotionconsuming process and it is often a problem to choose the right approach and level of integration. The research focused on four levels of integration, while each of them is characterized by specific conditions. At each level, there is a summary of recommendations and practical experience. The paper also discusses systems integration between the information and MES levels. The main part includes user-level integration where we describe an example of such integration. Finally, we list recommendations and also possible predictions of the systems integration as one of the important factors in the future.

  10. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  12. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  13. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  14. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  16. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  17. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  18. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  19. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at 37 °C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6 h at 10 °C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly...

  20. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  1. Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stroke Association’s Guide to Choosing Stroke Rehabilitation Services Rehabilitation, often referred to as rehab, is an important part of stroke recovery. Through rehab, you:  Re-learn basic skills such ...

  2. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Choosing a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility To use the sharing features ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. How to choose a health plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000861.htm How to choose a health plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... paperwork for tax purposes. How to Compare Health Plans Employers and government sites, such as the Marketplace , ...

  4. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  5. Cost of Convenience Food Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Sagers, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Making wise food choices is particularly important for families on limited incomes. Today’s supermarket has thousands of foods to choose from. Penny-wise shoppers consider many factors when selecting groceries.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  7. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  11. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  12. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000193.htm High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  13. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  14. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  15. WHY WOULD YOUNG STUDENTS CHOOSE ENTREPRENEURSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Andreea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship is widely considered as a solution for economic problems. The number of young people who start a new business is in increasing. The students’ motivation for choosing entrepreneurship is the research purpose of this paper. A survey developed in Alba Iulia, on a number of 100 students’ points out the relevant motivation why young people choose entrepreneurial alternative. The results showed that most of the actual students would choose to be entrepreneurs because they want to improve their life standards, to explore new business opportunities and to have a social status. In conclusion, the teachers, the governmental authorities and all the others interested in stimulating the entrepreneurial motivation should their words and actions affect potential entrepreneurs’ perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and net desirability.

  16. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  17. Cloud Computing and the Power to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Rob; Dodds, Ted; Northam, Richard; Plugge, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Some of the most significant changes in information technology are those that have given the individual user greater power to choose. The first of these changes was the development of the personal computer. The PC liberated the individual user from the limitations of the mainframe and minicomputers and from the rules and regulations of centralized…

  18. Choosing High School Courses with Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Steve; Sevier, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In choosing high school courses, students often seem to focus on everything except preparation for an intended major or career. They consider graduation requirements, weighted classes, easy classes...but rarely are these types of choices preparing students for postsecondary education. This article describes the "Career Companion Guide"…

  19. Wood preservatives : choosing the right one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Humphries; Stan Lebow; David Moses

    2009-01-01

    If you are having trouble choosing the right wood preservative system for your application, you are not alone. Dozens of products are available, some older types have gone out of use, others may be completely inappropriate for your application. As designers, specifiers and builders, you need to understand key information to be able to navigate through all of these...

  20. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  1. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  2. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  3. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  4. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  5. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  6. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  7. Choosing wisely-where is the choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A little over a year ago an editorial was posted in the Southwest Journal about the Choosing Wisely campaign from the American Board of Internal Medicine and Consumer Reports (1. You may remember that Choosing Wisely announced a list of procedures or treatments that patients should question (2. In the editorial we wondered why pulmonary organizations such as the American Thoracic Society (ATS and the American College of Chest Physicians authored none of the recommendations and offered 10 suggestions. We also openly questioned if the recommendations were intended to improve patient care or reduce costs, and thus improve the profits of third party carriers. We can now report that recommendations were announced at the recent ATS meeting in Philadelphia. Seven recommendations were made for critical care and seven for pulmonary disease. Five from the critical care list and five from the pulmonary list will eventually be chosen for inclusion in …

  8. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  9. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  10. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  11. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  12. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  13. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  14. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 °C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 °C, and better at 25 °C than at

  15. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  17. Diapers: What do Parents Choose and Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; James, William; Dulberg, Corinne

    1990-01-01

    Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...

  18. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  19. Research on development characteristics of railway logistics specialty under “the Belt and Road” strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proposed “the Belt and Road” strategy in China, the railway logistics specialty becomes one of the important links which draws more attention. Based on this, the paper studies transport route of railway logistics and sets up its model of the optimal route combining with ant colony algorithm. It carries out simulation analysis of each parameter of ant colony algorithm and chooses the optimal region of corresponding parameter. By taking railway logistics in Hubei Province as an example, the optimal transport route plan and its schematic drawing are required through calculation, which provides the important guidance on railway logistics transportation under “the Belt and Road” strategy in China

  20. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  1. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  2. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  5. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  6. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  7. Homo Ignorans: Deliberately Choosing Not to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Engel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Western history of thought abounds with claims that knowledge is valued and sought. Yet people often choose not to know. We call the conscious choice not to seek or use knowledge (or information) deliberate ignorance. Using examples from a wide range of domains, we demonstrate that deliberate ignorance has important functions. We systematize types of deliberate ignorance, describe their functions, discuss their normative desirability, and consider how they can be modeled. To date, psychologists have paid relatively little attention to the study of ignorance, let alone the deliberate kind. Yet the desire not to know is no anomaly. It is a choice to seek rather than reduce uncertainty whose reasons require nuanced cognitive and economic theories and whose consequences-for the individual and for society-require analyses of both actor and environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...... is one thing, recruiting men to ECE work is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECE hold very strong gender-associated expectations....... men still encounter incomprehension when stating their choice of career. The study is actualised by five new projects supported by the Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (MBLIS). These five projects are engaged to seek new ways within attraction and recruitment...

  9. Choosing a public-spirited leader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-robert

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, voters select a leader who can either act in the public interest, i.e. make efficient and equitable policy choices, or act in a corrupt way, i.e. use public funds for private gain. Voters can observe candidates⿿ pro-social behavior and their score in a cognitive ability test...... prior to the election, and this fact is known to candidates. Therefore, self-interested candidates have incentives to act in a pro-social manner, i.e. to pretend to be public-spirited leaders. We find that both truly pro-social and egoistic leaders co-exist, but that political selection is ineffective...... in choosing public-spirited leaders. The main reason is that egoistic candidates strategically pretend to be pro-social to increase their chances of winning the election....

  10. A thermodynamic approach to choosing pervaporatives membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes separating a mixture of several components obtained as a product of methyl polymethyl metha- crylate (PMMA thermo-degradation. It was aimed at purifying methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA obtained by 95% mass thermal degradation to reach 99.5% maximum pervaporation concentration. This work studied the theory of pervaporation and applying the main thermodynamic criteria for choosing suitable polymer membranes for separating the MMA/PRP/ISB mixture. Such thermodynamic criteria were based on monomer interaction with and solubility on the membrane. The advantage of using this separation technique lies mainly in the fact that this method has low energy consumption compared to other processes, such as distillation or crystallisation.

  11. The Identity of Students Choosing Marketing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto, Idaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to look deeply into the identity of young students interested in training professional in marketing programs in Bogotá, Colombia. This descriptive study was conducted with the application of multidimensional surveys to 262 young people from five universities that offer training in marketing. The results show that there are differences and similarities in the lifestyles of young people who choose to study Marketing. The first, relating mainly to the identities assumed by students of daytime and nighttime that differ in their activities and more income. The second, by the increasing use and development of academic and social activities through the Internet of interest to young people today. It is hoped that these results provide the administrative and academic management of marketing programs that result in better communication and care of students as consumers.

  12. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  13. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  14. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  15. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  16. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  17. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  18. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  19. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing.

  20. The freedom to choose: integrating communitybased reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's diverse marine ecosystems serve as critical biodiversity habitats and are also essential to the livelihoods, food security and culture of coastal people, including semi-nomadic Vezo fishers based along the southwest coast. Commercialisation of their traditional fisheries, rapid coastal population growth related ...

  1. Choosing crops for cultivation in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, T.A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Meinen, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2016-01-01

    Future space missions require bio-regenerative life-support systems. Eating fresh food is not only a fundamental requirement for survival but also influences the psychological wellbeing of astronauts operating on long duration space missions. Therefore the selection of plants to be grown in space is

  2. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  3. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Choosing Health and the inner citadel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    2006-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that the latest UK government white paper on public health, Choosing Health, is vulnerable to a charge of paternalism. For some years libertarians have levelled this charge at public health policies. The white paper tries to avoid it by constant reference to informed choice and choice related terms. The implication is that the government aims only to inform the public of health issues; how they respond is up to them. It is argued here, however, that underlying the notion of informed choice is a Kantian, "inner citadel" view of autonomy. According to this view, each of us acts autonomously only when we act in accord with reason. On such a view it is possible to justify coercing, cajoling, and conning people on the basis that their current behaviour is not autonomous because it is subject to forces that cause irrational choice, such as addiction. "Informed choice" in this sense is compatible with paternalism. This paternalism can be seen in public health policies such as deceptive advertising and the treatment of "bad habits" as addictions. Libertarians are bound to object to this. In the concluding section, however, it is suggested that public health can, nonetheless, find ethical succour from alternative approaches.

  5. Free to choose. The Buddhist view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanawimala, B

    1993-10-27

    This Buddhist view of family planning is presented by a lecturer at the Buddhist and Pali University in Colombo. Birth control was not mentioned in the earliest Buddhist teachings because there was no urgency for population control. Large families were honored, and the expectation was that as many children as possible should be produced. Buddha did not mention the merits of population increase. Buddha considered family size a personal family choice. Buddhist's disciples are expected to be celibate. Chastity is encouraged among men and women. The Dhammapada, a canonical work of Buddha, mentions not increasing population and teaches ways of keeping the mind free from lust. Reduction of births is recommended. Buddha placed importance on the right of human beings to exist and procreate peacefully. The right to life begins in the womb, and abortion is a violation of the rights of the unborn child. The formation of life is absolutely dependent upon a mother's physical fitness, sexual intercourse, and the arrival of "a being's dislocated transmigratory unit of fivefold energy (gandhabba)." Couples are free to choose a fetus from any energy body. Sterilization and the use of contraceptives, therefore, do not destroy life. Buddha commended abstinence, which is similar to chastity. The principle teachings of Buddha aim to end suffering. If procreation strains the ability of resources to support life, then procreation is against the basic principles of Buddha.

  6. Choosing Health and the inner citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P

    2006-01-01

    It is argued in this paper that the latest UK government white paper on public health, Choosing Health, is vulnerable to a charge of paternalism. For some years libertarians have levelled this charge at public health policies. The white paper tries to avoid it by constant reference to informed choice and choice related terms. The implication is that the government aims only to inform the public of health issues; how they respond is up to them. It is argued here, however, that underlying the notion of informed choice is a Kantian, “inner citadel” view of autonomy. According to this view, each of us acts autonomously only when we act in accord with reason. On such a view it is possible to justify coercing, cajoling, and conning people on the basis that their current behaviour is not autonomous because it is subject to forces that cause irrational choice, such as addiction. “Informed choice” in this sense is compatible with paternalism. This paternalism can be seen in public health policies such as deceptive advertising and the treatment of “bad habits” as addictions. Libertarians are bound to object to this. In the concluding section, however, it is suggested that public health can, nonetheless, find ethical succour from alternative approaches. PMID:16373514

  7. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  8. Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasser, Arian; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Goal-directed behavior and lifelong well-being often depend on the ability to control appetitive motivations, such as cravings. Cognitive reappraisal is an effective way to modulate emotional states, including cravings, but is often studied under explicit instruction to regulate. Despite the strong prediction from Self-Determination Theory that choice should enhance task engagement and regulation success, little is known empirically about whether and how regulation is different when participants choose (vs are told) to exert control. To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging. Participants were either instructed to view or reappraise (‘no-choice’) or chose freely to view or reappraise (‘yes-choice’). Choice increased activity in the frontoparietal control network. We expected this activity would be associated with increased task engagement, resulting in better regulation success. However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success. Follow-up multivariate functional neuroimaging analyses indicated that choice likely disrupted allocation of limited cognitive resources during reappraisal. While unexpected, these results highlight the importance of studying upstream processes such as regulation choice, as they may affect the ability to regulate cravings and other emotional states. PMID:29462475

  9. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  10. When I cut, you choose method implies intransitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.

    2014-12-01

    There is a common belief that humans and many animals follow transitive inference (choosing A over C on the basis of knowing that A is better than B and B is better than C). Transitivity seems to be the essence of rational choice. We present a theoretical model of a repeated game in which the players make a choice between three goods (e.g. food). The rules of the game refer to the simple procedure of fair division among two players, known as the “I cut, you choose” mechanism which has been widely discussed in the literature. In this game one of the players has to make intransitive choices in order to achieve the optimal result (for him/her and his/her co-player). The point is that an intransitive choice can be rational. Previously, an increase in the significance of intransitive strategies was achieved by referring to models of quantum games. We show that relevant intransitive strategies also appear in the classic description of decision algorithms.

  11. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  12. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  13. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  14. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  15. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  16. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How to choose a delegation for a peace conference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, Burak; Csóka, Péter; Ergin, Emre

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes how to choose a delegation, a committee to represent a society such as in a peace conference. We propose normative conditions and seek optimal, consistent, neutral and non-manipulable ways to choose a delegation. We show that a novel class of threshold rules are characterized by

  18. Hearing Aids: How to Choose the Right One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing aids: How to choose the right one Many types of hearing aids exist. So which is best for you? Find out what to consider when choosing a hearing ... used to the device and decide if it's right for you. Have the dispenser put in writing ...

  19. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  20. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  1. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  2. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  3. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  4. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  5. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  6. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  7. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  8. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  9. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  10. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  11. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  12. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  13. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  14. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  15. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  16. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  17. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  18. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  19. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  20. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  1. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  2. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  3. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  4. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  5. Choosing in Freedom or Forced to Choose? Introspective Blindness to Psychological Forcing in Stage-Magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Diego E.; de Sousa Serro, Maximiliano G.; Giaconia, Maximiliano; Martinez, Luis M.; Rieznik, Andres; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We investigated an individual ability to identify whether choices were made freely or forced by external parameters. We capitalized on magical setups where the notion of psychological forcing constitutes a well trodden path. In live stage magic, a magician guessed cards from spectators while inquiring how freely they thought they had made the choice. Our data showed a marked blindness in the introspection of free choice. Spectators assigned comparable ratings when choosing the card that the magician deliberately forced them compared to any other card, even in classical forcing, where the magician literally handles a card to the participant This observation was paralleled by a laboratory experiment where we observed modest changes in subjective reports by factors with drastic effect in choice. Pupil dilatation, which is known to tag slow cognitive events related to memory and attention, constitutes an efficient fingerprint to index subjective and objective aspects of choice. PMID:23516455

  6. Choosing in freedom or forced to choose? Introspective blindness to psychological forcing in stage-magic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E Shalom

    Full Text Available We investigated an individual ability to identify whether choices were made freely or forced by external parameters. We capitalized on magical setups where the notion of psychological forcing constitutes a well trodden path. In live stage magic, a magician guessed cards from spectators while inquiring how freely they thought they had made the choice. Our data showed a marked blindness in the introspection of free choice. Spectators assigned comparable ratings when choosing the card that the magician deliberately forced them compared to any other card, even in classical forcing, where the magician literally handles a card to the participant This observation was paralleled by a laboratory experiment where we observed modest changes in subjective reports by factors with drastic effect in choice. Pupil dilatation, which is known to tag slow cognitive events related to memory and attention, constitutes an efficient fingerprint to index subjective and objective aspects of choice.

  7. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  8. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  9. Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000596.htm Choosing the right health care provider for pregnancy and childbirth To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ...

  10. Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Choosing a doctor and hospital for your cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. When you seek cancer treatment, you want to find the best care possible. ...

  11. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Care Products How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Looking for a quick fix to erase wrinkles, ... available, the beauty aisle can be overwhelming. Some skin care products are overpriced and make claims they can’t ...

  12. Choosing the Right Fireplace or Fireplace Retrofit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page is about choosing a fireplace or fireplace retrofit device, including information on hang tags and a list of fireplaces and retrofits that have qualified under the voluntary fireplace program

  13. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  14. Study on the Withdrawal Way of Silk Road Fund under the Belt and Road Initiative Based on Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Fund is an important financial support of The Belt and Road Initiative, it has a strict investment operation process to realize the capital appreciation, so the withdrawal is crucial. This paper models the utility game and find the game mechanism between Silk Road Fund and target enterprise. And then we put forward some referential suggestions such as choosing suitable withdraw opportunity, perfecting talent team and information transmission mechanism,strengthening cooperation with local government, making effective use of gambling agreement and actively exploring new exit mode.

  15. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  16. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  17. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  18. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  19. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  20. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  1. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  2. Value of freedom to choose encoded by the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Juri; Usui, Nobuo; Park, Soyoung Q.; Williams, Tony; Iijima, Toshio; Taira, Masato; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals value the opportunity to choose by preferring alternatives that offer more rather than fewer choices. This preference for choice may arise not only from an increased probability of obtaining preferred outcomes but also from the freedom it provides. We used human neuroimaging to investigate the neural basis of the preference for choice as well as for the items that could be chosen. In each trial, participants chose between two options, a monetary amount option and a “choice option.” The latter consisted of a number that corresponded to the number of everyday items participants would subsequently be able to choose from. We found that the opportunity to choose from a larger number of items was equivalent to greater amounts of money, indicating that participants valued having more choice; moreover, participants varied in the degree to which they valued having the opportunity to choose, with some valuing it more than the increased probability of obtaining preferred items. Neural activations in the mid striatum increased with the value of the opportunity to choose. The same region also coded the value of the items. Conversely, activation in the dorsolateral striatum was not related to the value of the items but was elevated when participants were offered more choices, particularly in those participants who overvalued the opportunity to choose. These data suggest a functional dissociation of value representations within the striatum, with general representations in mid striatum and specific representations of the value of freedom provided by the opportunity to choose in dorsolateral striatum. PMID:23864380

  3. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  4. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  5. Identification of Genetically Modified Foods - problems and unsolved questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...

  6. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  7. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  8. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  9. Consumer preference not to choose: Methodological and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets

  10. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses.

  11. Sport, how people choose it: A network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Luca; Ivaldi, Marco; Daolio, Fabio; Giacobini, Mario; Rainoldi, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of athletes in choosing sports, we analyse data from part of the We-Sport database, a vertical social network that links athletes through sports. In particular, we explore connections between people sharing common sports and the role of age and gender by applying "network science" approaches and methods. The results show a disassortative tendency of athletes in choosing sports, a negative correlation between age and number of chosen sports and a positive correlation between age of connected athletes. Some interesting patterns of connection between age classes are depicted. In addition, we propose a method to classify sports, based on the analyses of the behaviour of people practising them. Thanks to this brand new classifications, we highlight the links of class of sports and their unexpected features. We emphasise some gender dependency affinity in choosing sport classes.

  12. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  13. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  14. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  15. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  16. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  17. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  18. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to ide...

  19. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  20. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  1. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  2. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  3. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  4. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2018-01-01

    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  5. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  6. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  7. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  8. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  9. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  10. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  11. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images

  12. Choosing the Future You Prefer. A Goal Setting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Edward B.; Lippitt, Ronald O.

    The guide, intended for group and organization leaders, presents activities and exercises to aid in personal and group goal-setting and planning for the future. The objective is to help groups choose goals which are sensitive to and oriented toward the evolving future with its rapid rate of change. The guide is presented in eight chapters.…

  13. Choosing of optimal start approximation for laplace equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate Dirichlet problem for a case of two-dimensional area with lime border, numerical scheme for solving this equation is widely knowns it finite difference method. One of the major stages in the algorithm for that numerical solution is choosing of start approximation, usually as the initial values of the unknown ...

  14. Choosing the Right Assessment for the Right Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Assessments used for both clinical practice and research should show evidence of validity and reliability for the target group of people. It is easy to agree with this statement, but it is not always easy to choose the right assessment for the right purpose. Recently there have been increasing numbers of studies which investigate further the…

  15. The Dilemma of Individual Autonomy versus Choosing Rightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkely, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Many important goals or values of education are tokens of either one of these two meta-goals-values: raising our children to be autonomous, or raising them to choose rightly. Thus, the conflicts between many educational goals-values are tokens of the meta-conflict between these two, and the questions of priority that such conflicts invite are…

  16. Why Do Patients Choose to Consult Homeopaths? | McIntosh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients are using homeopathy in increasing numbers and not telling their doctors about it. It is important as family physicians that we understand the reasons why patients choose to consult homeopaths. It is important to know what our patients are looking for that they do not find in Western medicine.

  17. Choosing early pregnancy termination methods in Urban Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Ellen M. H.; Kwizera, Amata; Usta, Momade; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about who chooses medication abortion with misoprostol and why. Women seeking early abortion in 5 public hospitals in Maputo, Mozambique were recruited in 2005 and 2006 to explore decision-making strategies, method preferences and experiences with misoprostol and vacuum aspiration

  18. Women Physicians: Choosing a Career in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Navarro, Anita M.; Grover, Amelia C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite recent efforts to understand the complex process of physician career development, the medical education community has a poor understanding of why, how, and when women physicians embark on a career in academic medicine. Method In 2010, the authors phone-interviewed women physicians in academic medicine regarding why, how, and when they chose an academic medicine career. Project investigators first individually and then collectively analyzed transcripts to identify themes in the data. Results Through analyzing the transcripts of the 53 interviews, the investigators identified five themes related to why women choose careers in academic medicine: fit, aspects of the academic health center environment, people, exposure, and clincial medicine. They identified five themes related to how women make the decision to enter academic medicine: change in specialty, dissatisfaction with former career, emotionality, parental influence, and decision-making styles. The authors also identified four themes regarding when women decide to enter academic medicine: as a practicing phyisican, fellow, resident, or medical student. Conclusions Choosing a career in academic medicine is greatly influenced by the environment in which one trains and by people—be they faculty, mentors, role models, or family. An interest in teaching is a primary reason women choose a career in academic medicine. Many women physicians entering acadmic medicine chose this after or during fellowship, which is when they became more aware of academic medicine as a possible career. For many women, choosing academic medicine was not necessarily an active, planned decision; rather it was serendipitous or circumstantial. PMID:22104052

  19. Choosing the right career: What approach? Implications for career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presentation made here accepts the thesis that the choice of career is not a simple matter. In fact, it asserts that more than ever before, the choice of a career on a training programme now requires a lot of thinking as well as taking into consideration several factors before choosing, planning and entering into a particular ...

  20. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering. Fo...

  1. Choosing the Best Enzyme Complex Structure Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine

    2018-04-03

    In this issue of Structure, Tyzack et al. (2018) present a study of enzyme-ligand complexes in the PDB and show that the molecular similarity of bound and cognate ligands can be used to choose the most biologically appropriate complex structure for analysis when multiple structures are available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. More Young Black Men Choosing Not to Go to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1987-01-01

    More and more young Black males are choosing to enlist in the military, attend vocational and technical schools, or take jobs instead of going to college. Many yield to peer pressure and stop studying; further, role models do not exist for young Black men. (MLW)

  3. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  4. Choosing Teaching Profession as a Career: Students' Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyer, Aydin; Özcan, Kenan

    2014-01-01

    The success of educational change inevitably depends on the quality and performance of teachers. Therefore, the importance of employing high quality teachers is crucial for educational systems. Choosing talented and committed brains to teaching career depends on making it an attractive profession. It is considered that there are some reasons why…

  5. Choosing a Wiki Platform for Student Projects--Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Ross A.

    2010-01-01

    Wikis offer many benefits, such as two-way flows of information, early and consistent feedback, and greater student group collaboration, in an educational setting. Some researchers have already reported on the use of Wikis in their classes. However, instructors must choose an appropriate Wiki platform in order to receive all of the benefits of…

  6. Ultrasonic cleaning of conveyor belt materials using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanén, Riina; Lunden, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Wirtanen, Gun

    2007-03-01

    Persistent Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food industry equipment is a difficult problem to solve. Ultrasonic cleaning offers new possibilities for cleaning conveyors and other equipment that are not easy to clean. Ultrasonic cleaning was tested on three conveyor belt materials: polypropylene, acetal, and stainless steel (cold-rolled, AISI 304). Cleaning efficiency was tested at two temperatures (30 and 45 degrees C) and two cleaning times (30 and 60 s) with two cleaning detergents (KOH, and NaOH combined with KOH). Conveyor belt materials were soiled with milk-based soil and L. monocytogenes strains V1, V3, and B9, and then incubated for 72 h to attach bacteria to surfaces. Ultrasonic cleaning treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts on stainless steel 4.61 to 5.90 log units; on acetal, 3.37 to 5.55 log units; and on polypropylene, 2.31 to 4.40 log units. The logarithmic reduction differences were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The logarithmic reduction was significantly greater in stainless steel than in plastic materials (P conveyor belt materials.

  7. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrum, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a 137 Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species

  8. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  9. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  10. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  11. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  12. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  13. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  14. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  15. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  16. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  17. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  18. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  19. Some factors contributing to protein-energy malnutrition in the middle belt of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighogboja, S I

    1992-10-01

    A number of risk factors leading to malnutrition were investigated among 400 mothers of malnourished children in the middle belt of Nigeria. Poverty, family instability, poor environmental sanitation, faulty weaning practices, illiteracy, ignorance, large family size and preventable infections are the main factors responsible for malnutrition. The strategies for intervention are in the area of health education emphasizing the importance of breastfeeding, family stability, responsible parenthood and small family sizes through culturally acceptable family planning methods. There is need to improve weaning methods through nutrition education, growth monitoring and food demonstration with community participation. Political will is needed to improve literacy status, farming methods and general living conditions.

  20. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  1. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  2. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  3. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  4. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  5. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1976-07-01

    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  6. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  7. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  8. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  9. Protect Your Heart: Check Food Labels to Make Heart-Healthy Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protein 15g Total Amounts To make heart-healthy food choices, look at the totals and cut back on • ... Toolkit No. 8: Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices • Toolkit No. 9: Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats ...

  10. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  11. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  12. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  13. Torque-transmitting mechanism of a metal CVT belt; Kinzoku CVT belt no torque dentatsu mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, D; Mabuchi, Y; Kato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The slip mechanism of a metal CVT belt which consisted of several hundred V-shaped elements and two sets of laminated metal rings was analyzed by focusing on the distribution of the gaps occurring between the elements, and a simulation which could predict the slip-limit torque at which the slip ratio increases sharply was developed. In this paper, the outline of the simulation is shown with some comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  15. Choosing the Path of Leadership in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Patrick Heard D.OT Reg. (Ont.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is vital to the success and sustainability of any group, organization, or profession. Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology, consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines why occupational therapists choose the path of leadership. Data was collected through the completion of semistructured interviews with 10 occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. This collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to establish trustworthiness. Results identify that a desire to influence the profession or care delivery, a need for personal or career development, and a need for change motivate those occupational therapists who might choose the path of leadership. Recommendations for supporting new or developing leaders include a focus on linking occupational therapy practice and leadership theory at the curriculum and professional levels. Moreover, application of novel approaches to mentorship for new and developing leaders, such as supportive communities of practice, are also considered.

  16. Choosing how to feel: emotion regulation choice in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Aleena C; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion regulation difficulties, even during remission, but are able to effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We hypothesized that this puzzling discrepancy might be due to their maladaptive emotion regulation choices. To test this hypothesis, we used a previously validated paradigm (Sheppes, Scheibe, Suri, & Gross, 2011; Sheppes et al., 2014), and asked remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 26) to view standardized positive and negative images of high and low intensity, and choose reappraisal or distraction to decrease their emotion intensity. Replicating and extending prior results, participants across both groups showed a pattern of choosing distraction more for high versus low intensity positive and negative images, but no between-groups differences were evident. These results suggest that emotion regulation choice patterns may be robust across samples, and add to growing evidence that several basic emotion regulation elements may remain intact in bipolar disorder. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    O. Smirnov; A. Borisenko

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  18. CHOOSING THE POWER OF TRACTION ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on choosing the power of the electric motor, depending on the weight of the vehicle, its speed and the run distance in the «only electricity» mode are developed. Based on mathematical modeling and a number of field tests of electric vehicles, a three-dimensional dependance of the power on the weight and the speed set is built and conclusions are presented.

  19. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  20. CHOOSING THE RIGHT CLOUD COMPUTING SOLUTION FOR YOU

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Smedescu

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to cloud computing and choosing a vendor. The first part includes definitions and service models while the body of the article lists pros and cons for specific service models and discusses the cost efficiency of implementing a cloud computing solution. In the last part, a general overview of cloud computing advantages and disadvantages further helps to inform the reader of opportunities and pitfalls.

  1. ALGORITHM TO CHOOSE ENERGY GENERATION MULTIPLE ROLE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STĂNESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm that is based on a complex analysis method that is used for choosing the configuration of a power station. The station generates electric energy and hydrogen, and serves a "green" highway. The elements that need to be considered are: energy efficiency, location, availability of primary energy sources in the area, investment cost, workforce, environmental impact, compatibility with existing systems, meantime between failure.

  2. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, M

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier LtdHuman performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions...

  3. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  4. I choose health (Elijo Salud: impacting youth through parish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Janet; Hoebeke, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) found that 34% of adolescents are overweight and 18% obese. The chance of an overweight/obese adolescent becoming an overweight/obese adult by age 35 is 60%. Hispanic youth are at risk for becoming obese related to eating habits. This paper describes an intervention, I Choose Health (Elijo Salud), with Hispanic church youth.

  5. Why are junior doctors deterred from choosing a surgical career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E; Creed, Peter A; Searle, Judy

    2012-05-01

    To identify the reasons why interns would not choose a surgical career. This qualitative study used semi-structured telephone interviews to explore the future career choices of 41 junior doctors (14 men, 27 women). Doctors were asked to identify specialties they would not take up, and state why this was the case. Thirty (73.2%) of the 41 interns nominated surgery as a specialty they would not choose. Themes relating to reasons for not wanting to pursue a surgical career included the lifestyle associated with surgery (66.7%), the culture within the surgical work environment (53.3%), the lack of interest in performing surgical work (36.7%), and the training requirements associated with surgery (33.3%). Both sexes had similar reasons for not wanting to choose a surgical career; but additionally, women referred to the male domination of surgery, and the difficulty and inflexibility of the training program as deterrents. Efforts are needed to promote interest in surgery as a career especially for women, to improve the surgical work environment so that medical students and junior doctors have exposure to positive role models and surgical placements, and to provide a more flexible approach to surgical training.

  6. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  7. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  8. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  9. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  10. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  11. When does food refusal require professional intervention?

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, Terence M.; Farrow, Claire V.; Martin, Clarissa I.; Isherwood, Elaine; Halford, Jason C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Food refusal can have the potential to lead to nutritional deficiencies, which increases the risk of a variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Deciding when food refusal requires professional intervention is complicated by the fact that there is a natural and appropriate stage in a child's development that is characterised by increased levels of rejection of both previously accepted and novel food items. Therefore, choosing to intervene is difficult, which if handled badly can ...

  12. Careers that Combine Culinary and Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, Michelle

    Imagine yourself perusing the aisles of your local grocery store. You head down the frozen food section and, being a cost-conscious shopper with little to no time to cook, you choose a seemingly delectable heat-and-serve meal of grilled chicken medallions and sautéed spinach doused in a mushroom sauce. Taking a closer look at the bag, you ask yourself, is this a delicious food concoction of culinary art or of food technology?

  13. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  14. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  15. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  16. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  17. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  18. Channel belt architecture formed by a meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Dijk, W.M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Stratification in channel belts is the key to reconstructing formative channel dimensions and palaeoflow conditions; this requires an understanding of the relation between river morphodynamics and set thickness. So far, theories for reconstruction of the original morphology from preserved

  19. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  20. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  1. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  2. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  3. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  4. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  5. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  6. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  7. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  8. Which IP Strategies Do Young Highly Innovative Firms Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veugelers, Reinhilde; Schneider, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the strategies of young highly innovative companies to appropriate the returns from their innovations. Upon controlling for other firm and industry characteristics, we show that firms combining a young age and small scale with a high R&D intensive profile are mor...... likely to use intellectual property (IP), specifically combining formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. They are especially more likely to choose secrecy in combination with formal IP. This holds primarily when they introduce more radical innovations new to the market....

  9. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    increases the employability of graduates, they do not sufficiently consider that study strategies differ substantially across social milieus and between the sexes. Failing to account for social distance to the educational system in choosing EMI can foster social inequality, and contribute...... by the Bourdieusian perspective, this relationship is not directly observable but rather operates through hidden mechanisms, such as cultural capital (relative English proficiency) and a better sense of gaming and positioning (career orientation). Business students from the lowest stratum self-select against EMI due...

  10. Choosing the Right Journal for a Scientific Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Save, Sushma

    2015-06-01

    Authors need to take the crucial decision of choosing the journal for their prospective manuscript before even starting to write it. Although, this choice is influenced by many factors, matching the intended recipients of the main message of the manuscript with a journal's readership should override all other consideration in journal selection. That done, availability of time-bound review process,journal's visibility, indexation in databases, regularity of publication, acceptance rate and expenses involved are some other factors that will help decide the choice.

  11. Motor heuristics and embodied choices: how to choose and act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus

    2017-08-01

    Human performance requires choosing what to do and how to do it. The goal of this theoretical contribution is to advance understanding of how the motor and cognitive components of choices are intertwined. From a holistic perspective I extend simple heuristics that have been tested in cognitive tasks to motor tasks, coining the term motor heuristics. Similarly I extend the concept of embodied cognition, that has been tested in simple sensorimotor processes changing decisions, to complex sport behavior coining the term embodied choices. Thus both motor heuristics and embodied choices explain complex behavior such as studied in sport and exercise psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Choosing the right M and A deal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The legal aspects of going into a merger and acquisition deal within the petroleum industry were reviewed for the benefit of non-lawyers. The types of acquisitions included are asset purchases and sale, a private share purchase and sale, a takeover bid, an amalgamation or a plan of arrangement. How to make the structure choice that is right in the circumstances was discussed. It was emphasized that choosing the right merger and acquisition deal structure depends on the objectives of the parties, the volume and quality of the information about the particular transaction, and proper analysis of alternative acquisition structures in the context of the objectives and information

  13. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  14. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  15. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  16. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Two Belts, One Road? - The role of Africa in Chinas's Belt & Road initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the EU-Africa Summit 2017 and of the G20 Summit 2017 with Africa being one of the focus areas, China’s engagement in Africa seems more relevant than ever. China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative (OBOR) or silk road initiative is often referred to as a Eurasian infrastructure network initiative, but it is in fact much more than that. The maritime silk road is supposed to go past the coast of East Africa, where several ports are being built and will be built. Furthermore, ports ...

  18. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  19. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  20. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  1. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  2. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  3. Choosing nuclear engineering: A survey of nuclear engineering undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shillenn, J.K.; Klevans, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining a reliable pool of qualified nuclear engineering graduates depends on the ability of nuclear engineering undergraduate programs to recruit students. With the prospect of declining enrollments in nuclear engineering it is important for nuclear engineering programs to know what factors influence students to choose nuclear engineering as an undergraduate major and why they choose a particular undergraduate program. This type of information can be very important to nuclear engineering programs that develop recruiting strategies. To provide some insight into this area, a questionnaire was designed and given to undergraduate nuclear engineering students at Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of the survey was to provide information on the reasons that students picked nuclear engineering as a career and chose to attend Penn State. The questionnaire was given to 27 students in their junior year during the spring semester of 1987 and again to 35 junior students during the spring semester of 1988. There was little difference except as noted between the two groups on their responses to the questionnaire. A partial listing of the survey results is provided

  4. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  5. Applying multicriteria analysis for choosing the best marination for pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto VMOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to choose a best marination solution using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Materials and methods. Pork meat samples were collected in a commercial slaughterhouse, and they were randomly distributed in four treatments with three different salt contents blend. Color, pH, retention of the solution, exudate and cooking loss, shear force and sensory attributes were assessed and evaluated. Multicriteria analysis using AHP was applied to the results in order to choose the best overall marination solution. Criteria used for selection were the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, and based on these criteria were classified solutions marination. Results. Results showed that the combination of the salts was the best alternative (Na2CO3+NaCl+Na5P3O10, followed by the solutions of (Na2CO3 + NaCl, and (Na5P3O10 + NaCl. Conclusions. All tested solutions with the salts used alone or in combination led to better physical and sensory attributes than the meat not marinated.

  6. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  7. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  8. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  9. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  10. Weight Loss: Choosing a Diet That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes, heart disease or allergies? Do you have cultural or ethnic requirements or preferences regarding food? It's tempting to buy into promises of rapid and dramatic weight loss, but a slow and steady approach is easier ...

  11. Choose More than 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go. 30. Make healthy choices at fast food restaurants. Try grilled chicken (with skin removed) instead of ... Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer ...

  12. [Strategies to choose scaffold materials for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which

  13. Geological characteristics of dike-structural belt in Taoshan orefield and its relationship to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Zou Maoqing; Shao Fei; Nie Bin

    2009-01-01

    Taoshan uranium field is occurred in the Taoshan composite batholith in the central Jiangxi Province. The main body of the batholith was formed in Triassic-Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous-Eogene, NE strike fault structure and dike belt were developed in the batholith. From the north to the south, there are successive Xiaobu-Matian dike-structural belt, Wangnitian dike- structural belt, Huangtan-Yueyuan dike-structural belt, Xibei-Shangluo dike-structural belt, Jipoling dike-structural belt, Wangce dike-structural belt and Shiyuanling dike-structural belt. These belts are controlled by the main fault, share the same space and similar time with the uranium mineralization, which is one of the important factors in positioning the uranium ore as well as the prospecting direction of exploration. (authors)

  14. Media Outlet and Consumer Reactions to Promotional Activities of the Choose Health LA Restaurants Program in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Montes, Christine; Robles, Brenda; Tyree, Rachel; Kuo, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess promotional activities undertaken to raise public awareness of the Choose Health LA Restaurants program in Los Angeles County, an environmental change strategy that recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size and healthier menu options. We used multiple methods to assess public awareness of and reactions to the promotional activities, including an assessment of the reach of core promotional activities, a content analysis of earned media, and an Internet panel survey. The study was conducted in Los Angeles County, home to more than 10 million residents. An online survey firm recruited participants for an Internet panel survey; to facilitate generalization of results to the county's population, statistical weights were applied to analyses of the survey data. Promotional activities to raise awareness of the program included community engagement, in-store promotion, and a media campaign. Outcomes included media impressions, the number of people who reported seeing the Choose Health LA Restaurants logo, and a description of the themes present in earned media. Collectively, paid media outlets reported 335 587 229 total impressions. The Internet panel survey showed that 12% of people reported seeing the program logo. Common themes in earned media included the Choose Health LA Restaurants program aims to provide restaurant patrons with more choices, represents a new opportunity for restaurants and public health to work together, will benefit participating restaurants, and will positively impact health. Promotional activities for the Choose Health LA Restaurants program achieved modest reach and positive reactions from media outlets and consumers. The program strategy and lessons learned can help inform present and future efforts to combine environmental and individually focused strategies that target key influences of consumer food selection.

  15. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  16. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  17. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbach, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. A study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority is summarized. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) legal considerations, (2) liability, (3) staffing and operations, (4) costs, (5) relationship to off-site forces, (6) management and control, and (7) transportation. (U.S.)

  18. Choosing the right system to manage electricity derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasey, G.

    1998-01-01

    The alternatives available and the considerations entering into the choice of the right system to manage electricity derivatives are reviewed. The choice of system will be influenced by a variety of factors, among them : (1) business issues, (2) business processes, (3) functionality, (4) technology, (5) integration into the enterprise, and (6) internal and external competition. The system chosen will need to be integrated into the enterprise. Beyond that,it will need executive commitment, dedicated internal resources, qualified assistance from the vendor, willingness to revisit the business processes and make changes when needed, and training and more training. Some factors to take into account when choosing a system vendor are also discussed. Among these good fit to business, system performance, flexibility, reliability, and customization capacity are the most important

  19. Issues related to choosing a guard force structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerback, C.; Cusack, J.; Green, L.; Higinbotham, W.; Indusi, J.; Marcuse, W.; Weinstock, E.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of a federal security force has been suggested as an additional step to protect nuclear material. The force would be given the responsibility for guarding nuclear facilities and shipments of nuclear materials. This paper summarizes a study to identify the issues that are relevant to choosing between the private guard forces that are presently employed by industry or a guard force under federal authority. To examine the issues which would be relevant, three possible types of security force structures were selected for comparison: a federal force under central authority, a private guard force employed by or under contract to a facility, and a private arrangement to employ local police officers similar to the arrangement for armed guards at airports. The issues were divided into seven categories: (1) Legal Considerations, (2) Liability, (3) Staffing and Operations, (4) Costs, (5) Relationship to Off-site Forces, (6) Management and Control, (7) Transportation

  20. Conscience and responsability in choosing the teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Căprioară

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the conditions of a society oriented towards material satisfaction, where the didactic profession is sometimes pushed to the limit of social respect, where the lack of motivation and interest for school and learning, in general, is increasingly invoked, there are young people who choose to dedicate their whole energy for training and educating the new generations. The basis of this choice is the consciousness of the role of the teacher in the life of a child and, at the same time, the responsability for the assumed mission: opening the way to knowledge. Vocation and talent are necessary conditions of a successful pedagogical model, but only complemented by the love for children, the desire to contribute to the formation of people, the joy of giving knowledge and love.

  1. On Choosing a Rational Flight Trajectory to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E. S.; Khudorozhkov, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The algorithm for choosing a trajectory of spacecraft flight to the Moon is discussed. The characteristic velocity values needed for correcting the flight trajectory and a braking maneuver are estimated using the Monte Carlo method. The profile of insertion and flight to a near-circular polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km of an artificial lunar satellite (ALS) is given. The case of two corrections applied during the flight and braking phases is considered. The flight to an ALS orbit is modeled in the geocentric geoequatorial nonrotating coordinate system with the influence of perturbations from the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon factored in. The characteristic correction costs corresponding to corrections performed at different time points are examined. Insertion phase errors, the errors of performing the needed corrections, and the errors of determining the flight trajectory parameters are taken into account.

  2. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  3. Choosing a suitable sample size in descriptive sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Choi, Dong Hoon; Cha, Kyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    Descriptive sampling (DS) is an alternative to crude Monte Carlo sampling (CMCS) in finding solutions to structural reliability problems. It is known to be an effective sampling method in approximating the distribution of a random variable because it uses the deterministic selection of sample values and their random permutation,. However, because this method is difficult to apply to complex simulations, the sample size is occasionally determined without thorough consideration. Input sample variability may cause the sample size to change between runs, leading to poor simulation results. This paper proposes a numerical method for choosing a suitable sample size for use in DS. Using this method, one can estimate a more accurate probability of failure in a reliability problem while running a minimal number of simulations. The method is then applied to several examples and compared with CMCS and conventional DS to validate its usefulness and efficiency

  4. Choosing to coose: reasons and expectations regarding marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Alves Macedo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the partner in adult life is considered one of the only choices that is made with freedom, however, loaded with social, personal, family expectations and also motivated by subjective aspects (ANTON, 2002. This paper seeks to describe how in the process of choosing the spouse, family aspects are directly or indirectly involved. A semi-structured interview was conducted to seven women in their first year of marriage. Data were analyzed according to Content Analysis. Three categories were chosen: Family of Origin; Marriage; and Religion. The participants have a vision of how their choice was made, with free choice, yet they were influenced by the beliefs and values of the families of origin. In their first year of marriage, they demonstrate good experience in marriage, and have built a relationship based on dialogues, despite the "sayings and no sayings" of the family of origin and society.

  5. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  6. Direct and indirect pathways for choosing objects and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Masaharu; Isoda, Masaki; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2018-02-23

    A prominent target of the basal ganglia is the superior colliculus (SC) which controls gaze orientation (saccadic eye movement in primates) to an important object. This 'object choice' is crucial for choosing an action on the object. SC is innervated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) which is controlled mainly by the caudate nucleus (CD). This CD-SNr-SC circuit is sensitive to the values of individual objects and facilitates saccades to good objects. The object values are processed differently in two parallel circuits: flexibly by the caudate head (CDh) and stably by the caudate tail (CDt). To choose good objects, we need to reject bad objects. In fact, these contrasting functions are accomplished by the circuit originating from CDt: The direct pathway focuses on good objects and facilitates saccades to them; the indirect pathway focuses on bad objects and suppresses saccades to them. Inactivation of CDt deteriorated the object choice, because saccades to bad objects were no longer suppressed. This suggests that the indirect pathway is important for object choice. However, the direct and indirect pathways for 'object choice', which aim at the same action (i.e., saccade), may not work for 'action choice'. One possibility is that circuits controlling different actions are connected through the indirect pathway. Additional connections of the indirect pathway with brain areas outside the basal ganglia may also provide a wider range of behavioral choice. In conclusion, basal ganglia circuits are composed of the basic direct/indirect pathways and additional connections and thus have acquired multiple functions. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The dynamic model of choosing an external funding instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena HONKOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision about using a specific funding source is one of the most important tasks of financial management. The utilization of external sources features numerous advantages yet staying aware of diverse funding options is not easy for financial managers. Today it is crucial to quickly identify an optimum possibility and to make sure that all relevant criteria have been considered and no variant has been omitted. Over the long term it is also necessary to consider the category of time as changes made today do not affect only the current variables but they also have a significant impact on the future. This article aims to identify the most suitable model of choosing external funding sources that would describe the dynamics involved. The first part of the paper considers the theoretical background of external funding instrument and of decision criteria. The making of financial decisions is a process consisted of weighing the most suitable variants, selecting the best variant, and controlling the implementation of accepted proposals. The second part analyses results of the research - decisive weights of the criteria. Then it is created the model of the principal criteria Weighted Average Cost of Capital (Dynamic model WACC. Finally it is created the Dynamic Model of Choosing an External Funding Instrument. The created decision-making model facilitates the modeling of changes in time because it is crucial to know what future consequences lies in decisions made the contemporary turbulent world. Each variant features possible negative and positive changes of varying extent. The possibility to simulate these changes can illustrate an optimal variant to a decision-maker.

  8. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, Ktl

    2007-03-09

    In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed.

  9. Choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of important methodological considerations that nurse researchers need to adhere to when choosing phenomenology as a guiding philosophy and research method. Phenomenology is a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts disciplines with a central goal of describing people's experiences. However, many nurse researchers continue to grapple with methodological issues related to their choice of phenomenological method. The author conducted online and manual searches of relevant research books and electronic databases. Using an integrative method, peer-reviewed research and discussion papers published between January 1990 and December 2011 and listed in the CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were reviewed. In addition, textbooks that addressed research methodologies such as phenomenology were used. Although phenomenology is widely used today to broaden understanding of human phenomena relevant to nursing practice, nurse researchers often fail to adhere to acceptable scientific and phenomenological standards. Cognisant of these challenges, researchers are expected to indicate in their work the focus of their investigations, designs, and approaches to collecting and analysing data. They are also expected to present their findings in an evocative and expressive manner. Choosing phenomenology requires researchers to understand it as a philosophy, including basic assumptions and tenets of phenomenology as a research method. This awareness enables researchers, especially novices, to make important methodological decisions, particularly those necessary to indicate the study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity. This paper adds to the discussion of phenomenology as a guiding philosophy for nursing research. It aims to guide new researchers on important methodological decisions they need to make to safeguard their study's scientific rigour and phenomenological validity.

  10. Choosing the right amount of healthcare information technologies investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2010-04-01

    Choosing and justifying the right amount of investment in healthcare information technologies (HITECH or HIT) in hospitals is an ever increasing challenge. Our objectives are to assess the financial impact of HIT on hospital outcome, and propose decision-helping tools that could be used to rationalize the distribution of hospital finances. We used a production function and microeconomic tools on data of 21 Paris university hospitals recorded from 1998 to 2006 to compute the elasticity coefficients of HIT versus non-HIT capital and labor as regards to hospital financial outcome and optimize the distribution of investments according to the productivity associated with each input. HIT inputs and non-HIT inputs both have a positive and significant impact on hospital production (elasticity coefficients respectively of 0.106 and 0.893; R(2) of 0.92). We forecast 2006 results from the 1998 to 2005 dataset with an accuracy of +0.61%. With the model used, the best proportion of HIT investments was estimated to be 10.6% of total input and this was predicted to lead to a total saving of 388 million Euros for the 2006 dataset. Considering HIT investment from the point of view of a global portfolio and applying econometric and microeconomic tools allow the required confidence level to be attained for choosing the right amount of HIT investments. It could also allow hospitals using these tools to make substantial savings, and help them forecast their choices for the following year for better HITECH governance in the current stimulation context. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Alan

    1987-04-07

    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through 90.degree. during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  13. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  14. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  15. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  16. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  17. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  18. Food consumption patterns in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Healthy eating during early childhood is important for growth and development. Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (CFG) provides dietary recommendations. We investigated patterns of food consumption among preschool children and attempted to determine whether these children's intakes met nutrition recommendations. Between 2005 and 2007, four- and five-year-old children (n=2015) attending 12 Edmonton-region public health units for immunization were recruited for a longitudinal study on determinants of childhood obesity. The children's dietary intake at baseline was assessed using parental reports. Overall, 29.6%, 23.5%, 90.9%, and 94.2% of the children met recommendations for vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, and meat and alternatives, respectively. In addition, 79.5% consumed at least one weekly serving of foods in the "choose least often" group. Significant differences existed in consumption of food groups across socioeconomic and demographic groups. For example, 82.9%, 84.7%, and 75.9% of preschool children from neighbourhoods of low, medium, and high socioeconomic status, respectively, consumed at least one food in the "choose least often" group (χ² =16.2, pConsumption of vegetables and fruit and grain products was low among participants, and intake of "choose least often" foods was high. Consumption of foods also differed among socioeconomic and demographic groups. To encourage healthy eating among children, public health professionals should target groups who do not meet the CFG recommendations.

  19. Estimation of Rheological Properties of Viscous Debris Flow Using a Belt Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, J.; Steinwendtner, H.

    2000-09-01

    Rheological parameters of viscous debris flows are influenced by a great amount of factors and are therefore extremely difficult to estimate. Because of this uncertainties a belt conveyor (conveyor channel) was constructed to measure flow behaviour and rheological properties of natural debris flow material. The upward movement of the smooth rubberised belt between fixed lateral plastic walls causes a stationary wave relative to these bends. This special experimental design enables to study behaviour of viscous ebris flow material with maximum grain diameters up to 20 mm within several minutes and to hold measuring equipment very simple. The conveyor channel was calibrated first with Xanthan, a natural polysaccharide used as thickener in food technology, whose rheological properties are similar to viscous debris flow material. In a second step natural debris flow material was investigated. Velocities and rheological parameters were measured with varying solid concentration and slope of the channel. In cases where concentration of coarse particles exceed around 15% by volume the conveyor channel obtains an alternative to expensive commercial viscometers for determination of rheological parameters of viscous debris flows.

  20. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Background Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. Objective This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Methods Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers’ thought processes, we instructed participants to “think aloud”, namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important

  1. Consumer Decision-Making Based on Review Websites: Are There Differences Between Choosing a Hotel and Choosing a Physician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Germeni, Evi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-06-16

    Web users are increasingly encouraged to rate and review consumer services (eg, hotels, restaurants) and, more recently, this is also the case for physicians and medical services. The resemblance in the setup and design of commercial rating websites (CRWs) and Web-based physician rating websites (PRWs) raises the question of whether choice-making processes based on the two types of websites could also be similar. This qualitative study sought to explore the extent to which consumer decision making based on Web-based reviews is the same for consumer services (ie, choice of a hotel) and health services (ie, choice of a pediatrician), while providing an in-depth understanding of potential differences or similarities. Between June and August 2015, we carried out a total of 22 qualitative interviews with young parents residing in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Participants were invited to complete 2 choice tasks, which involved (1) choosing a hotel based on the commercial Web-based rating website TripAdvisor and (2) selecting a pediatrician based on the PRW Jameda. To better understand consumers' thought processes, we instructed participants to "think aloud", namely to verbalize their thinking while sorting through information and reaching decisions. Using a semistructured interview guide, we subsequently posed open-ended questions to allow them to elaborate more on factors influencing their decision making, level of confidence in their final choice, and perceived differences and similarities in their search for a hotel and a physician. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Participants spent on average 9:57 minutes (standard deviation=9:22, minimum=3:46, maximum=22:25) searching for a hotel and 6:17 minutes (standard deviation=4:47, minimum=00:38, maximum=19:25) searching for a pediatrician. Although the choice of a pediatrician was perceived as more important than the choice of a hotel, participants

  2. TRENDS IN U.S. WHEAT-BASED FOOD CONSUMPTION: NUTRITION, CONVENIENCE, AND ETHNIC FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Moutou, Christele; Brester, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    This study identifies U.S. consumers' use of food nutrition labels on wheat-based foods; consumer attitudes toward the importance of taste, price, and nutrition in choosing wheat-based snack foods; and consumer knowledge of Middle-Eastern wheat-based foods. A survey of U.S. primary grocery shoppers indicated that most respondents believed it was important that their diets contained wheat-based food products. A majority of respondents indicated that fat content was the most important item on f...

  3. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  4. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  5. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn

    2017-10-20

    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.

  6. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  7. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study: Radiation Belt Seed Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.

    2017-01-01

    Using the Van Allen Probes data, we study the radiation belt seed population and it associated with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storm events. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of “non-preconditioned” and “preconditioned”. The statistical study shows that the storm intensity is of significant importance for the distribution of the seed population (336 keV electrons) in the outer radiation belt. However, substorm intensity can also be important to the evolution of the seed population for some geomagnetic storm events. For non-preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the peak fluxes and their L-shell locations of the seed population and relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1.0 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) is consistent with the energy-dependent dynamic processes in the outer radiation belt. For preconditioned storm events, the correlation between the features of the seed population and relativistic electrons is not fully consistent with the energy-dependent processes. It is suggested that the good correlation between the radiation belt seed population and ≤1.0 MeV electrons contributes to the prediction of the evolution of ≤1.0 MeV electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt during periods of geomagnetic storms.

  8. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  9. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  10. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  11. COMPREHENSIVE CHECK MEASUREMENT OF KEY PARAMETERS ON MODEL BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex measurements of characteristic parameters realised on a long distance model belt conveyor are described. The main objective was to complete and combine the regular measurements of electric power on drives of belt conveyors operated in Czech opencast mines with measurements of other physical quantities and to gain by this way an image of their mutual relations and relations of quantities derived from them. The paper includes a short description and results of the measurements on an experimental model conveyor with a closed material transport way.

  12. ALT-II toroidal belt limiter biasing experiments on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Edge electric fields have been related to H-mode-like behaviour. The experiments reported here are an attempt to control the SOL profiles by electrostatic biasing of the full toroidal-belt limiter ALT-II. The specific goals are: influencing the edge particle flows, particle removal, power deposition and the global confinement. The ALT-II pump limiter is a full toroidal belt located at 45 o below the outer midplane and consisting of eight graphite covered blades which can be independently biased. Particle scoops located behind the limiter neutralize and direct the incoming plasma into the pumping ducts. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuming; Dong Shiyuan; Li Furong; Wan Zemin

    1991-01-01

    Type QH-200 conveyor-belt nuclear scale is a reliable and on-line device that weighs solids mass flow continuously by γ-ray absorption and scattering. The operation principle and measuring method are described. And some factors influencing the accuracy are discussed. The full scale total weight of type QH-200 nuclear scale is 10 6 t. The result of calibration in the industrial field shows that the accuracy of QH-200 is better than ±1.0% for typical belt loading

  14. A technique for choosing an option for SDH network upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bulanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing data transmission technologies result in making the network equipment modernization inevitable. There are various options to upgrade the SDH networks, for example, by increasing the capacity of network overloaded sites, the entire network capacity by replacement of the equipment or by creation of a parallel network, by changing the network structure with the organization of multilevel hierarchy of a network, etc. All options vary in a diversity of parameters starting with the solution cost and ending with the labor intensiveness of their realization. Thus, there are no certain standard approaches to the rules to choose an option for the network development. The article offers the technique for choosing the SHD network upgrade based on method of expert evaluations using as a tool the software complex that allows us to have quickly the quantitative characteristics of proposed network option. The technique is as follows:1. Forming a perspective matrix of services inclination to the SDH networks.2. Developing the several possible options for a network modernization.3. Formation of the list of criteria and a definition of indicators to characterize them by two groups, namely costs of the option implementation and arising losses; positive effect from the option introduction.4. Criteria weight coefficients purpose.5. Indicators value assessment within each criterion for each option by each expert. Rationing of the obtained values of indicators in relation to the maximum value of an indicator among all options.6. Calculating the integrated indicators of for each option by criteria groups.7. Creating a set of Pareto by drawing two criteria groups of points, which correspond to all options in the system of coordinates on the plane. Option choice.In implementation of point 2 the indicators derivation owing to software complex plays a key role. This complex should produce a structure of the network equipment, types of multiplexer sections

  15. Realization methodology for optimal design of steel structures conveyors with hanging belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boslovyak P.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of optimum design of metal structures of the fixed conveyor with hanging belt. The analysis results optimum design of steel structures of stationary conveyor with hanging belt.

  16. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E

    2012-01-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  17. Effectiveness of media and enforcement campaigns in increasing seat belt usage rates in a state with a secondary seat belt law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Nambisan, Shashi S; Singh, Ashok K; Pearl, Traci

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, in terms of seat belt usage rates, Nevada ranked third nationally and first among states with secondary seat belt use enforcement laws in the United States. An effective combination of a media-based education and enforcement campaign helped in this regard. The objective of this article is to document the effectiveness of enforcement and media-based education and outreach campaigns on the seat belt usage rates in Nevada, a state with a secondary seat belt usage law. Observational data on seat belt usage and passenger fatality data are used to evaluate the effectiveness of enforcement campaigns and media-based education and outreach campaigns. Data based on observations of about 40,000 vehicles in each of the years 2003 to 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analyses show that a significant increase in seat belt usage rates among both drivers and passengers for both genders resulted from the accompanying the media and enforcement campaigns. The results from this study indicate that effective and well-planned media/enforcement campaigns can have a significant impact on seat belt usage rates even in a state where the enforcement of seat belt laws can only be as a secondary violation. They validate and expand on findings from other efforts documented in the literature. These results demonstrate that, if coordinated properly, media and enforcement campaigns work very effectively in increasing seat belt usage rates even in states with secondary seat belt laws.

  18. Choosing the negative: A behavioral demonstration of morbid curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined, with a behavioral paradigm, to what extent people choose to view stimuli that portray death, violence or harm. Based on briefly presented visual cues, participants made choices between highly arousing, negative images and positive or negative alternatives. The negative images displayed social scenes that involved death, violence or harm (e.g., war scene), or decontextualized, close-ups of physical harm (e.g., mutilated face) or natural threat (e.g., attacking shark). The results demonstrated that social negative images were chosen significantly more often than other negative categories. Furthermore, participants preferred social negative images over neutral images. Physical harm images and natural threat images were not preferred over neutral images, but were chosen in about thirty-five percent of the trials. These results were replicated across three different studies, including a study that presented verbal descriptions of images as pre-choice cues. Together, these results show that people deliberately subject themselves to negative images. With this, the present paper demonstrates a dynamic relationship between negative information and behavior and advances new insights into the phenomenon of morbid curiosity. PMID:28683147

  19. Patient choice modelling: how do patients choose their hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Honora; Currie, Christine; Chaiwuttisak, Pornpimol; Kyprianou, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    As an aid to predicting future hospital admissions, we compare use of the Multinomial Logit and the Utility Maximising Nested Logit models to describe how patients choose their hospitals. The models are fitted to real data from Derbyshire, United Kingdom, which lists the postcodes of more than 200,000 admissions to six different local hospitals. Both elective and emergency admissions are analysed for this mixed urban/rural area. For characteristics that may affect a patient's choice of hospital, we consider the distance of the patient from the hospital, the number of beds at the hospital and the number of car parking spaces available at the hospital, as well as several statistics publicly available on National Health Service (NHS) websites: an average waiting time, the patient survey score for ward cleanliness, the patient safety score and the inpatient survey score for overall care. The Multinomial Logit model is successfully fitted to the data. Results obtained with the Utility Maximising Nested Logit model show that nesting according to city or town may be invalid for these data; in other words, the choice of hospital does not appear to be preceded by choice of city. In all of the analysis carried out, distance appears to be one of the main influences on a patient's choice of hospital rather than statistics available on the Internet.

  20. Analysis Of Economic Motivation When Individuals Choose An Educational Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Anatolyevich Koksharov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the economic motivations when individuals choose an educational path. This line of research is relevant from both, the point of view of science — research of economic behavior of an individual, and the point of view of practice — allows to increase efficiency of investments in a human capital. The authors have developed the economic and mathematical model of choice of optimum educational paths by individuals. The model is realized in the software and approved on real data on more than 5,5 thousand students. For the analysis of the importance of rational economic expectations when an educational path has to be chosen, the paths chosen by students is compared and the educational paths optimum from the point of view of economic rationality are calculated. The analysis of the results has showed that mainly, the choice of educational paths happens according to the economic motivations. On the considered selection, 66 % of prospective students have chosen an optimum path from the point of view of economic preferences. The most significant factor providing development of optimum educational paths is an expectation of higher income upon completion of education — 22 % of all educational paths, and a possibility of cost-cutting of educating or state-subsidized education — 12 %. In our opinion, one of the most important practical results of the research of optimum educational path is the need to consider expectations of students and prospective student when developing a state policy of investment in human capital.

  1. Matrix Model for Choosing Green Marketing Sustainable Strategic Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Sitnikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing examines the symbiotic role played by marketing in ensuring sustainable business, exploring issues concerning the environment and the way strategic decisions can influence it. At present, the environmental issues concern more and more the competitive approach any organization can implement. Based on this approach, organizations can gain competitive advantage by managing environmental variables and by developing and implementing green marketing strategies. Considering the importance and impact of green marketing, by using theoretical concepts and defining a set of research directions, the paper and the research conducted were focused on creating a matrix model for choosing the optimal green marketing strategy, oriented towards competitive advantage. The model is based on the correlation that can be established among the generic strategies of competitive advantage, the variables of extended marketing mix (7Ps and the green marketing strategy matrix. There are also analyzed the implications that may be generated within a company by the adoption of a green marketing strategy and its role in promoting the environmental benefits of products.

  2. Choosing the right journal for your systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betini, Marluci; Volpato, Enilze S N; Anastácio, Guilherme D J; de Faria, Renata T B G; El Dib, Regina

    2014-12-01

    The importance of systematic reviews (SRs) as an aid to decision making in health care has led to an increasing interest in the development of this type of study. When selecting a target journal for publication, authors generally seek out higher impact factor journals. This study aimed to determine the percentage of scientific medical journals that publish SRs according to their impact factors (>2.63) and to determine whether those journals require tools that aim to improve SR reporting and meta-analyses. In our cross-sectional study showing how to choose the right journal for a SR, we selected and analysed scientific journals available in a digital library with a minimum Institute for Scientific Information impact factor of 2.63. We analysed 622 scientific journals, 435 (69.94%) of which publish SRs. Of those 435 journals, 135 (21.60%) provide instructions for authors that mention SRs. Three hundred journals (48.34%) do not discuss criteria for article acceptance in the instructions for authors section, but do publish SRs. Only 118 (27.00%) scientific journals require items to be reported in accordance with the specific SR reporting forms. The majority of the journals do not mention the acceptance of SRs in the instructions for authors section. Only a few journals require that SRs meet specific reporting guidelines, making interpretation of their findings across studies challenging. There is no correlation between the impact factor of the journal and its acceptance of SRs for publication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  4. Choosing Wisely: Opportunities for Improving Value in Cancer Care Delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Gabrielle B; Williams, Courtney P; Jackson, Bradford E; Wallace, Audrey S; Halilova, Karina I; Kenzik, Kelly M; Partridge, Edward E; Pisu, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Patients, providers, and payers are striving to identify where value in cancer care can be increased. As part of the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign, ASCO and the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology have recommended against specific, yet commonly performed, treatments and procedures. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Medicare claims data to examine concordance with CW recommendations across 12 cancer centers in the southeastern United States. Variability for each measure was evaluated on the basis of patient characteristics and site of care. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine differences in average costs per patient by concordance status. Potential cost savings were estimated on the basis of a potential 95% adherence rate and average cost difference. The analysis included 37,686 patients with cancer with Fee-for-Service Medicare insurance. Concordance varied by CW recommendation from 39% to 94%. Patient characteristics were similar for patients receiving concordant and nonconcordant care. Significant variability was noted across centers for all recommendations, with as much as an 89% difference. Nonconcordance was associated with higher costs for every measure. If concordance were to increase to 95% for all measures, we would estimate a $19 million difference in total cost of care per quarter. These results demonstrate ample room for reduction of low-value care and corresponding costs associated with the CW recommendations. Because variability in concordance was driven primarily by site of care, rather than by patient factors, continued education about these low-value services is needed to improve the value of cancer care.

  5. Rejecting a bad option feels like choosing a good one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Hannah; Galak, Jeff; Simmons, Joseph P; Nelson, Leif D

    2017-11-01

    Across 4,151 participants, the authors demonstrate a novel framing effect, attribute matching, whereby matching a salient attribute of a decision frame with that of a decision's options facilitates decision-making. This attribute matching is shown to increase decision confidence and, ultimately, consensus estimates by increasing feelings of metacognitive ease. In Study 1, participants choosing the more attractive of two faces or rejecting the less attractive face reported greater confidence in and perceived consensus around their decision. Using positive and negative words, Study 2 showed that the attribute's extremity moderates the size of the effect. Study 3 found decision ease mediates these changes in confidence and consensus estimates. Consistent with a misattribution account, when participants were warned about this external source of ease in Study 4, the effect disappeared. Study 5 extended attribute matching beyond valence to objective judgments. The authors conclude by discussing related psychological constructs as well as downstream consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Trends in characteristics of women choosing contraindicated home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafman, Kelly B; Stone, Joanne L; Factor, Stephanie H

    2018-04-12

    To characterize the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) contraindicated home births and the women who are receiving these births in hopes of identifying venues for intervention. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate records from 1990 to 2015 were used. "Planned home births" were defined as those births in which birthplace was coded as "residence" and birth attendant was coded as "certified nurse midwife (CNM)" or "other midwife". Contraindicated home births were defined as "planned home births" from 1990 to 2015 that had one or more of the ACOG risk factors for home births, which include vaginal birth after prior cesarean delivery (VBAC), breech presentation and multiple gestations. A review of trends in contraindicated home births from 1990 to 2015 suggests that they are increasing in number (481-1396) and as a percentage of total births (0.01%-0.04%, P95%), which is most frequently initiated in the first trimester. The majority of home births were paid out-of-pocket (65%-69%). The increasing number of contraindicated home births in the United States requires public health action. Home births are likely a matter of choice rather than a lack of resources. It is unclear if women choose home births while knowing the risk or due to a lack of information. Prenatal education about contraindicated home births is possible, as almost all women receive prenatal care.

  7. Evaluating rodent motor functions: Which tests to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Lisa-Maria; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Jahanshahi, Ali; Temel, Yasin; Hendrix, Sven

    2017-12-01

    Damage to the motor cortex induced by stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in chronic motor deficits. For the development and improvement of therapies, animal models which possess symptoms comparable to the clinical population are used. However, the use of experimental animals raises valid ethical and methodological concerns. To decrease discomfort by experimental procedures and to increase the quality of results, non-invasive and sensitive rodent motor tests are needed. A broad variety of rodent motor tests are available to determine deficits after stroke or TBI. The current review describes and evaluates motor tests that fall into three categories: Tests to evaluate fine motor skills and grip strength, tests for gait and inter-limb coordination and neurological deficit scores. In this review, we share our thoughts on standardized data presentation to increase data comparability between studies. We also critically evaluate current methods and provide recommendations for choosing the best behavioral test for a new research line. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  10. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-05

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  11. To walk or to fly? How birds choose among foraging modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Luis M.; Tinbergen, Joost; Kacelnik, Alejandro

    2001-01-01

    We test the predictive value of the main energetic currencies used in foraging theory using starlings that choose between two foraging modes (walking versus flying). Walking is low-cost, low-yield, whereas flying is the opposite. We fixed experimentally, at 11 different values, the amount of flight required to get one food reward, and for each flight cost value, we titrated the amount of walking until the birds showed indifference between foraging modes. We then compared the indifference points to those predicted by gross rate of gain over time, net rate of gain over time, and the ratio of gain to expenditure (efficiency). The results for the choice between modes show strong qualitative and quantitative support for net rate of gain over time over the alternatives. However, the birds foraged for only a fraction of the available time, indicating that the choice between foraging and resting could not be explained by any of these currencies. We suggest that this discrepancy could be accounted for functionally because nonenergetic factors such as predation risk may differ between resting and foraging in any mode but may not differ much between foraging modes, hence releasing the choice between foraging modes from the influence of such factors. Alternatively, the discrepancy may be attributable to the use of predictable (rather than stochastic) ratios of effort per prey in our experiment, and it may thus be better understood with mechanistic rather than functional arguments. PMID:11158599

  12. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...

  13. PROPOSALS ON IMPROVING THE EXCAVATION, TRANSPORT AND COAL DEPOSIT, USING THE RUBBER CONVEYOR BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  14. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  15. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  16. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Abiola

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study has identified high level of knowledge, positive attitude and reported use of seat belt. It is recommended that public awareness of the safety benefits of seat belts and strong enforcement are necessary to achieve optimal use of seat belt.

  17. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The status of isotopic investigations of the Limpopo mobile belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Limpopo Belt is a zone of multiple deformed metamorphic rocks situated between the Rhodesian and Kaapvaal Cratons of Southern Africa. During the duration of the International Geodynamics Project, geochronologic and isotopic investigations were undertaken in the nothern Transvaal of rocks of the Central Zone, Southern Marginal Zone and Soutpansberg Supergroup. Strontium 86, strontium 87 and lead isotopes were used in the isotopic investigations

  19. Patchy charnockites from Jenapore, Eastern Ghats granulite belt, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ∗Present address: Department of Geology, J. K. College, Purulia 723 101, West Bengal, India. The charnockite ... tor of the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, are disposed in a linear fashion and generally have sharp ... Subse- quently, many workers suggested that the 'patchy ..... bly represent two different frozen-in conditions, as.

  20. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  1. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which...

  2. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  3. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  4. Investigation of the preionization in the high voltage belt pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protz, R.

    1975-07-01

    The production of plasmas is investigated which are necessary for shock wave experiments. By optimization of a two-stage pre-ionization, an ignition can be initiated down to 0.5 m of Hg deuterium. The plasma is diagnosed with a 90 0 multichannel laser light scattering in the belt-pinch. (GG/LH) [de

  5. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  6. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  7. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing multiple data sources from the year 1997–2007, this study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... Center for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North–West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.

  8. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4263 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be...

  9. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  10. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision. S Bhattacharya. 1,∗ ... 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism. 1. Introduction ... tively, is described as a compressional orogen. Keywords. ... charnockite gneiss, around Naraseraopet, AP (b) Thin mafic ... Sometimes orthopyroxene also occurs at margin of.

  11. The charge transport in an electrostatic belt generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fluctuations in the charge transport system of an EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been investigated by means of a frequency spectrum analyser. Frequency spectra of the terminal ripple, the short-circuit current and the voltage at the belt charge screen have been measured. Also the

  12. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...

  13. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal.

  14. Asteroid Family Associations of Main-Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Novakovic, Bojan; Kim, Yoonyoung; Brasser, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    We present a population-level analysis of the asteroid family associations of known main-belt comets or main-belt comet candidates (which, to date, have largely just been analyzed on individual bases as they have been discovered). In addition to family associations that have already been reported in the literature, we have identified dynamical relationships between 324P/La Sagra and the Alauda family, P/2015 X6 (PANSTARRS) and the Aeolia family, and P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) and the Adeona family. We will discuss the overall implications of these family associations, particularly as they pertain to the hypothesis that members of primitive asteroid family members may be more susceptible to producing observable sublimation-driven dust emission activity, and thus becoming main-belt comets. We will also discuss the significance of other dynamical and physical properties of a family or sub-family as they relate to the likelihood of that family containing one or more currently active main-belt comets.

  15. Linking main-belt comets to asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, B.; Hsieh, H. H.; Cellino, A.

    2012-09-01

    Here we present our results obtained by applying different methods in order to establish a firm link between the main-belt comets (MBCs) and colisionally-formed asteroid families (AFs), i.e, to possibly find additional line of evidence supporting the hypothesis that MBCs may be preferentially found among the members of young AFs.

  16. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  17. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  18. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the features that ...

  19. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    ABSTRACT. Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the.

  20. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190km long, detached narrow, ... have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672±54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a .... ∼10.5kb pressure and 775◦ C temperature. They.

  1. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results ... Geological and geophysical layout map of the Gadwal schist belt area, Andhra Pradesh (after Ananda Murty and ... Observed gravity (Bouguer) values, regional, residual and inferred gravity models along traverse I of the Gadwal schist.

  2. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  3. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  4. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  5. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  6. Quantitative Simulation of QARBM Challenge Events During Radiation Belt Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Chu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Various physical processes are known to affect energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative effects at different times and locations in space need further investigation. This presentation focuses on discussing the quantitative roles of various physical processes that affect Earth's radiation belt electron dynamics during radiation belt enhancement challenge events (storm-time vs. non-storm-time) selected by the GEM Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling (QARBM) focus group. We construct realistic global distributions of whistler-mode chorus waves, adopt various versions of radial diffusion models (statistical and event-specific), and use the global evolution of other potentially important plasma waves including plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves from all available multi-satellite measurements. These state-of-the-art wave properties and distributions on a global scale are used to calculate diffusion coefficients, that are then adopted as inputs to simulate the dynamical electron evolution using a 3D diffusion simulation during the storm-time and the non-storm-time acceleration events respectively. We explore the similarities and differences in the dominant physical processes that cause radiation belt electron dynamics during the storm-time and non-storm-time acceleration events. The quantitative role of each physical process is determined by comparing against the Van Allen Probes electron observations at different energies, pitch angles, and L-MLT regions. This quantitative comparison further indicates instances when quasilinear theory is sufficient to explain the observed electron dynamics or when nonlinear interaction is required to reproduce the energetic electron evolution observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  7. Radiation Belt Transport Driven by Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mueller, H.

    2012-12-01

    The creation of the Earth's outer zone radiation belts is attributed to earthward transport and adiabatic acceleration of electrons by drift-resonant interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations in the magnetosphere. Three types of radial transport driven by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations that have been identified are: (1) radial diffusion [Falthammer, 1965], (2) significant changes in the phase space density radial profile due to a single or few ULF drift-resonant interactions [Ukhorskiy et al., 2006; Degeling et al., 2008], and (3) shock associated injections of radiation belt electrons occurring in less than a drift period [Li et al., 1993]. A progress report will be given on work to fully characterize different forms of radial transport and their effect on the Earth's radiation belts. The work is being carried out by computing test-particle trajectories in electric and magnetic fields from a simple analytic ULF field model and from global MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. Degeling, A. W., L. G. Ozeke, R. Rankin, I. R. Mann, and K. Kabin (2008), Drift resonant generation of peaked relativistic electron distributions by Pc 5 ULF waves, textit{J. Geophys. Res., 113}, A02208, doi:10.1029/2007JA012411. Fälthammar, C.-G. (1965), Effects of Time-Dependent Electric Fields on Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 70(11), 2503-2516, doi:10.1029/JZ070i011p02503. Li, X., I. Roth, M. Temerin, J. R. Wygant, M. K. Hudson, and J. B. Blake (1993), Simulation of the prompt energization and transport of radiation belt particles during the March 24, 1991 SSC, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 20}(22), 2423-2426, doi:10.1029/93GL02701. Ukhorskiy, A. Y., B. J. Anderson, K. Takahashi, and N. A. Tsyganenko (2006), Impact of ULF oscillations in solar wind dynamic pressure on the outer radiation belt electrons, textit{Geophys. Res. Lett., 33}(6), L06111, doi:10.1029/2005GL024380.

  8. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  9. Best Practices and Processes for Choosing Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Individuals, teams, departments, organizations, funding agencies, committees, and others all need to select desirable research priorities from many possible alternatives. One cannot do everything, one cannot afford everything, so what to select? Essays and reports since Weinberg (1963) have suggested criteria for choosing science topics. Popper et al (2000) reviewed and summarized all that had gone before in the subject of setting priorities; their main conclusions were that the underlying principles were the promotion of excellence and relevance. Sea Change (2015) from the NRC/OSB focused on four criteria. From most important to least important, they were transformative science, societal impacts, readiness, and partnership potential; these four criteria embodied the essence of the suggestions from Weinberg on, framed with the pragmatism of ORPISS (2007). Getting to the final set of priorities from many candidates involves a sequence of formal or informal processes, only the last of which is the application of the selected, weighted criteria. As developed by professional prioritization experts, the best-practice steps and processes are: Collection of input candidates from the community. Clustering and parsing/rephrasing of the input to eliminate redundancy and repetition and develop statements at a useful level of specificity. (NOTE:there is no counting of input to see how many times a particular topic was mentioned. The goal is diversity in the input, not a popularity contest.) Development of the selection criteria, and weighting the chosen criteria. Application of the selection criteria to the clustered/adjusted candidates. Finally, two more best practices: Do continuing sanity checks, to avoid losing sight of the goals of the effort. Resist the temptation to just sit around a table and talk about it to arrive at the priorities, which depends too much on who the specific members of the prioritization team are, and provides no transparency or explanation of why

  10. Consumer Behavior Modeling: Fuzzy Logic Model for Air Purifiers Choosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Dorokhov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning, the article briefly describes the features of the marketing complex household goods. Also provides an overview of some aspects of the market for indoor air purifiers. The specific subject of the study was the process of consumer choice of household appliances for cleaning air in living quarters. The aim of the study was to substantiate and develop a computer model for evaluating by the potential buyers devices for air purification in conditions of vagueness and ambiguity of their consumer preferences. Accordingly, the main consumer criteria are identified, substantiated and described when buyers choose air purifiers. As methods of research, approaches based on fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy modeling were chosen. It was hypothesized that the fuzzy-multiple model allows rather accurately reflect consumer preferences and potential consumer choice in conditions of insufficient and undetermined information. Further, a computer model for estimating the consumer qualities of air cleaners by customers is developed. A proposed approach based on the application of fuzzy logic theory and practical modeling in the specialized computer software MATLAB. In this model, the necessary membership functions and their terms are constructed, as well as a set of rules for fuzzy inference to make decisions on the estimation of a specific air purifier. A numerical example of a comparative evaluation of air cleaners presented on the Ukrainian market is made and is given. Numerical simulation results confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach and the correctness of the hypothesis advanced about the possibility of modeling consumer behavior using fuzzy logic. The analysis of the obtained results is carried out and the prospects of application, development, and improvement of the developed model and the proposed approach are determined.

  11. [Current issues regarding organic food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Cozma, A G T

    2005-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Large enhancement of highly energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its transport into the inner radiation belt inferred from MDS-1 satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, T.; Matsumoto, H.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined a large increase of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt and its penetration into the inner radiation belt over slot region using the MDS-1 satellite observations. Result of analyses demonstrates that a large increase took place in the spring and autumn seasons, and we have newly confirmed that the penetration of outer belt electrons to the inner radiation zone took place during the big magnetic storms by examining a pitch angle distribution of the penetrating electrons.

  14. Discrete Choice Model of Food Store Trips Using National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Amy; Smith, Tony E; Whiteman, Eliza D; Chrisinger, Benjamin W

    2017-09-27

    Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.

  15. Discrete Choice Model of Food Store Trips Using National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hillier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.

  16. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh

    2014-05-01

    Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non-food-allergic teenagers. One focus group discussion with non-food-allergic teenagers (n = 11) and 14 semistructured interviewers (7 with food-allergic and 7 with non-food-allergic teenagers) were performed (age range, 12-18 years). The focus group discussion and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Teenagers from both groups (food-allergic and non-food-allergic) named sensory characteristics of foods as the main reason for choosing them. Some food-allergic teenagers downplayed their allergy and frequently engaged in risk-taking behavior in terms of their food choices. However, they reported difficulties in trying new foods, especially when away from home. Parental control was experienced as protective by those with food allergies, whereas non-food-allergic teenagers felt the opposite. Most teenagers, including food-allergic ones, expressed the wish to eat similar foods to their friends. Other themes did not vary between the 2 groups. Food-allergic teenagers strive to be able to make similar food choices to their friends, although differences to non-food-allergic teenagers exist. It is important to address these differences to improve their dietary management. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  18. Plant trial of an under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter gauge for on-belt determination of moisture in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Rafter, P.T.; Abernethy, D.A.; Millen, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A non-contacting under-belt capacitance and gamma-ray backscatter technique has been developed for the on-line measurement of moisture in coal. In this technique, moisture was correlated with radio frequency susceptance and conductance, determined using an under-belt capacitance sensor in which a fringing electric field interrogates a layer of coal on the conveyor belt directly about the sensor. To compensate for variations in the density and thickness of the coal layer, an under-belt gamma-ray backscatter gauge was used to measure an equivalent volume of coal. A plant trial of the technique was conducted at Stockton Borehole Colliery, NSW Australia, where the gauges were installed on the coking coal product conveyor. Product moistures, in the range 7-14%, were determined with r.m.s errors of 0.50 and 0.25 wt% using on-belt and static off-belt gauges, respectively. The difference in the on-belt and off-belt gauge measurement accuracy was attributed to sampling errors in the calibration of the on-belt gauge. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  20. Evaluating the Impact of a Connecticut Program to Reduce Availability of Unhealthy Competitive Food in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael W.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article seeks to inform state and local school food policies by evaluating the impact of Connecticut's Healthy Food Certification (HFC), a program which provides monetary incentives to school districts that choose to implement state nutrition standards for all foods sold to students outside reimbursable school meals. Methods: Food…

  1. Brain potentials highlight stronger implicit food memory for taste than context associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the

  2. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Jolij, Jacob; Horst, ter Gert; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the

  3. Perspective: A Definition for Whole-Grain Food Products—Recommendations from the Healthgrain Forum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, A.B.; Kamp, J.W. van der; King, R.; Lê, K.A.; Mejborn, H.; Seal, C.J.; Thielecke, F.

    2017-01-01

    Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food

  4. Vejetaryen Olmayı Seçmek / Choosing to be Vegetarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra SAHTİYANCI ÖZTARHAN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Koreli yazar Han Kang Vejetaryen isimli romanına kadın kahraman Yonğhe’nin vejetaryen olmaya karar vermesi ile başlar. Bu kararı onu ve çevresindekileri de etkileyecek bir karardır. En başta sadece yemek seçimleriyle ilgili görünen bu durum, önce kahramanın ailesi ile ilişkilerini etkiler. Daha sonra ise Yonğhe, yemek yemeyi tamamen reddederek kendi kimliği ile ilgili bir karar verir. Oldukça basit gibi görünen yemek yemeyi seçmesi ya da yememeyi seçmesi onun kendini yok etmesine kadar giden süreci de anlatır. Yazar, romanda kadın kahramanın yemek seçimleri üzerinden yemeğin toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri ile olan ilişkisini sorgular. Romanda et yemek erkek egemen düzenin bir metaforudur. Yonğhe de önce et yemeyi reddederek sonra da bedenine alacağı bütün besinleri reddederek sisteme kendi bedeniyle karşı gelir. Böylelikle yemek yeme eyleminin ve seçimlerinin kimlikle olan ilişkisi de anlatılır. / Han Kang’s novel Vegetarian is the story of a woman heroine who refuses to eat meat and choses to be a vegetarian in medias res. This choice of her would be affecting not only her but also the people beside her. This situation at first seems like a personal choice. However the outcomes would also be affecting her relationship with her family as well. As the novel progresses, she who refuses to eat anything which would lead to her destruction. The novel questions the relationship between food consumption, food choices and gender roles. Meat consumption is regarded as a metaphor of the patriarchal system throughout the novel. Therefore, the woman heroine Yonğhe refuses the system and challenges with her own body. This way the novel analyses the act of eating and choosing food and its relation with identity.

  5. How to choose methods for lake greenhouse gas flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastviken, David

    2017-04-01

    Lake greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are increasingly recognized as important for lake ecosystems as well as for large scale carbon and GHG budgets. However, many of our flux estimates are uncertain and it can be discussed if the presently available data is representative for the systems studied or not. Data are also very limited for some important flux pathways. Hence, many ongoing efforts try to better constrain fluxes and understand flux regulation. A fundamental challenge towards improved knowledge and when starting new studies is what methods to choose. A variety of approaches to measure aquatic GHG exchange is used and data from different methods and methodological approaches have often been treated as equally valid to create large datasets for extrapolations and syntheses. However, data from different approaches may cover different flux pathways or spatio-temporal domains and are thus not always comparable. Method inter-comparisons and critical method evaluations addressing these issues are rare. Emerging efforts to organize systematic multi-lake monitoring networks for GHG fluxes leads to method choices that may set the foundation for decades of data generation and therefore require fundamental evaluation of different approaches. The method choices do not only regard the equipment but also for example consideration of overall measurement design and field approaches, relevant spatial and temporal resolution for different flux components, and accessory variables to measure. In addition, consideration of how to design monitoring approaches being affordable, suitable for widespread (global) use, and comparable across regions is needed. Inspired by discussions with Prof. Dr. Cristian Blodau during the EGU General Assembly 2016, this presentation aims to (1) illustrate fundamental pros and cons for a number of common methods, (2) show how common methodological approaches originally adapted for other environments can be improved for lake flux measurements, (3) suggest

  6. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST METHODS OF THE CONVEYOR BELTS USED IN ENVIRONMENTS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSION HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  8. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  9. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  10. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  11. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  13. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  14. Choose and Tell Cards: A 4-H Cloverbud Resource for Promoting Public Speaking and Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechschulte, Jill; Scheer, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Choose and Tell is a curriculum for 4-H Cloverbud members that introduces them to public speaking and life skill enhancement (communication and social interaction). Choose and Tell consists of activity cards analogous to a deck of cards. Activity card titles include Wash and Comb Your Hair, Plant a Seed, and Floss Your Teeth. The activities are…

  15. Acting on One's Attitudes: The Role of a History of Choosing Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Three investigations examined the contributions of a history of choosing attitudinally relevant situations to attitude-behavior relations. Results point to an interrelated set of mechanisms, such as behavior, by which situational choice is linked to attitude-behavior relations. By choosing attitudinally relevant situations, individuals increase…

  16. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  17. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  18. Food and nutrition security indicators: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie; Gerber, Nicolas; Torero, Maximo

    2013-01-01

    As the problems of food and nutrition insecurity are currently more complex, identifying and choosing relevant indicators is crucial. This paper identifies the need to go beyond the state-of-the-art because current FNS indicators do not account for the short-term economic shocks which have been identified as key factors for food and nutrition security. As the nature of food and nutrition security status is different between short- term and long-term causes, there is a need to differentiate be...

  19. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers...... at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to identify the demands the food industry can expect to meet in the future plus which research areas...... the public research should prioritise in order to support the development of competences within the food industry. The scenarios are isolated developments. In practise, the future is likely to be a combination of the different tendencies within the scenarios. The first scenario 'Naturalness' has focus...

  20. Food Science for the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra

    If you are interested in food science, looking for a meaningful career path, and are motivated by the desire to make a difference, you may find that a career working for the public good can be very rewarding. Often, such opportunities address issues of social responsibility, sustainability, public health, and/or economic development. Food scientists who choose this path typically have an interest in social and public health issues, and are usually driven by the achievement of some sort of social, health, or societal gain. As food science in itself is a very broad discipline, applying this knowledge for the public good can also take a variety of paths. Whether you're interested in manufacturing, food safety, nutrition, food policy, product development, quality control, marketing and sales, or any other discipline that makes up the diverse field of food science, various opportunities exist to make a difference to society.

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  2. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  3. Design of temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For difficult wiring and big measuring error existed in the traditional temperature detection method for drum of belt conveyor, a temperature detection device for drum of belt conveyor based on Radio Frequency(RF) communication is designed. In the device, detection terminal can collect temperature data through tire pressure sensor chip SP370 which integrates temperature detection and RF emission. The receiving terminal which is composed of RF receiver chip and microcontroller receives the temperature data and sends it to Controller Area Network(CAN) bus. The test results show that the device meets requirements of field application with measuring error ±3.73 ° and single button battery can provide continuous current for the detection terminal over 1.5 years.

  4. Food choices in the presence of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' eating partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-02-28

    Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods.

  5. Using Satellite Data to Unpack Causes of Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    India will face significant food security challenges in the coming decades due to climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Yields of wheat, one of India's staple crops, are already stagnating and will be significantly impacted by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be enhanced by implementing improved management in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 m resolution yield maps across India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), from 2000 to 2015. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data that rarely exist in smallholder systems. We find that yields can be increased by 5% on average and up to 16% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. However, if policies and technologies are put in place to improve management to current best practices in Punjab, the highest yielding state, yields can be increased by 29% in the eastern IGP. Considering which factors most influence wheat yields, we find that later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies that reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to India's current and future food security.

  6. Health impact assessment of the Atlanta BeltLine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine L; Leone de Nie, Karen; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Beck, Laurie F; Marcus, Michelle J; Barringer, Jason

    2012-03-01

    Although a health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool that can provide decision makers with recommendations to promote positive health impacts and mitigate adverse health impacts of proposed projects and policies, it is not routinely conducted on most major projects or policies. To make health a decision criterion for the Atlanta BeltLine, a multibillion-dollar transit, trails, parks, and redevelopment project. An HIA was conducted in 2005-2007 to anticipate and influence the BeltLine's effect on health determinants. Changes in access and equity, environmental quality, safety, social capital, and physical activity were forecast, and steps to maximize health benefits and reduce negative effects were recommended. Key recommendations included giving priority to the construction of trails and greenspace rather than residential and retail construction, making health an explicit goal in project priority setting, adding a public health professional to decision-making boards, increasing the connectivity between the BeltLine and civic spaces, and ensuring that affordable housing is built. BeltLine project decision makers have incorporated most of the HIA recommendations into the planning process. The HIA was cited in the awarding of additional funds of $7,000,000 for brownfield clean-up and greenspace development. The project is expected to promote the health of local residents more than in the absence of the HIA. This report is one of the first HIAs to tie specific assessment findings to specific recommendations and to identifiable impacts from those recommendations. The lessons learned from this project may help others engaged in similar efforts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  8. Migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the migmatitic rocks southwest of the Barberton greenstone belt. A table is given on the chemical analyses of components from migmatic outcrops in this area, as well as on the chemical analyses of some selected rock types found in greenstone xenoliths, together with leuco-biotite tomalite/tronomjemite gneisses in the area surrounding the Boesmanskop syenite pluton. Isotope dating was also used in the survey

  9. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  10. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  11. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B

    2017-09-01

    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yokoyama

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the auroral boundary index derived from DMSP electron precipitation data and the Dst index, changes in the size of the auroral belt during magnetic storms are studied. It is found that the equatorward boundary of the belt at midnight expands equatorward, reaching its lowest latitude about one hour before Dst peaks. This time lag depends very little on storm intensity. It is also shown that during magnetic storms, the energy of the ring current quantified with Dst increases in proportion to Le–3, where Le is the L-value corresponding to the equatorward boundary of the auroral belt designated by the auroral boundary index. This means that the ring current energy is proportional to the ion energy obtained from the earthward shift of the plasma sheet under the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. The ring current energy is also proportional to Emag, the total magnetic field energy contained in the spherical shell bounded by Le and Leq, where Leq corresponds to the quiet-time location of the auroral precipitation boundary. The ratio of the ring current energy ER to the dipole energy Emag is typically 10%. The ring current leads to magnetosphere inflation as a result of an increase in the equivalent dipole moment.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; storms and substorms

  14. Nonlinear Scattering of VLF Waves in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Ganguli, Guru; Mithaiwala, Manish

    2014-10-01

    Electromagnetic VLF waves, such as whistler mode waves, control the lifetime of trapped electrons in the radiation belts by pitch-angle scattering. Since the pitch-angle scattering rate is a strong function of the wave properties, a solid understanding of VLF wave sources and propagation in the magnetosphere is critical to accurately calculate electron lifetimes. Nonlinear scattering (Nonlinear Landau Damping) is a mechanism that can strongly alter VLF wave propagation [Ganguli et al. 2010], primarily by altering the direction of propagation, and has not been accounted for in previous models of radiation belt dynamics. Laboratory results have confirmed the dramatic change in propagation direction when the pump wave has sufficient amplitude to exceed the nonlinear threshold [Tejero et al. 2014]. Recent results show that the threshold for nonlinear scattering can often be met by naturally occurring VLF waves in the magnetosphere, with wave magnetic fields of the order of 50-100 pT inside the plasmapause. Nonlinear scattering can then dramatically alter the macroscopic dynamics of waves in the radiation belts leading to the formation of a long-lasting wave-cavity [Crabtree et al. 2012] and, when amplification is present, a multi-pass amplifier [Ganguli et al. 2012]. By considering these effects, the lifetimes of electrons can be dramatically reduced. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  15. Modeling of the outer electron belt during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desorgher, L.; Buehler, P.; Zehnder, A.; Daly, E.; Adams, L.

    1999-01-01

    The flux dropout of relativistic electrons in the earth's outer radiation belt, during the main phase of the 26 March 1995 magnetic storm is examined. Outer belt measurements by the Radiation Environment Monitor, REM aboard the STRV-1b satellite are presented to characterize this dropout. In order to simulate the dynamics of the electron belt during the storm main phase a particle tracing code was developed which allows to trace the trajectories of equatorially mirroring electrons in a dynamic magnetospheric electromagnetic field. Two simulations were performed in a non-stationary magnetic field, one taking only the induced electric field into account (fully adiabatic motion), and one with an additional non-stationary convection electric field. The simulations show, that adiabatic deceleration can produce the observed count rate decrease and also the observed inward motion of the count rate peak. The convection electric field causes diffusion, which can take particles from low L values out to the magnetopause and contribute to an additional loss of particles, which is suggested by the observations

  16. Statistical studies of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, A.D.; Rodgers, D.J.; Jones, G.H. E-mail: g.h.jones@ic.ac.uk

    1999-10-01

    The medium electron A (MEA) instrument aboard the CRRES spacecraft provided data on terrestrial radiation belt electrons in the energy range from 153 to 1582 keV, during 1990-91. These data have previously been used to produce an empirical model of the radiation belts from L=1.1 to 8.9, ordered according to 17 energy bands, 18 pitch angle bins, and 5 Kp ranges. Empirical models such as this are very valuable, but are prone to statistical fluctuations and gaps in coverage. In this study, in order to smooth the data and make it more easy to interpolate within data gaps, the pitch angle distribution at each energy in the model was fitted with a Bessel function. This provided a way to characterize the pitch angle in terms of only two parameters for each energy. It was not possible to model fluxes reliably within the loss cone because of poor statistics. The fitted distributions give an indication of the way in which pitch angle diffusion varies in the outer radiation belts. The two parameters of the Bessel function were found to vary systematically with L value, energy and Kp. Through the fitting of a simple function to these systematic variations, the number of parameters required to describe the model could be reduced drastically.

  17. Reconstructing the size distribution of the primordial Main Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirvoulis, G.; Morbidelli, A.; Delbo, M.; Tsiganis, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we aim to constrain the slope of the size distribution of main-belt asteroids, at their primordial state. To do so we turn out attention to the part of the main asteroid belt between 2.82 and 2.96 AU, the so-called "pristine zone", which has a low number density of asteroids and few, well separated asteroid families. Exploiting these unique characteristics, and using a modified version of the hierarchical clustering method we are able to remove the majority of asteroid family members from the region. The remaining, background asteroids should be of primordial origin, as the strong 5/2 and 7/3 mean-motion resonances with Jupiter inhibit transfer of asteroids to and from the neighboring regions. The size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the size range 17 size distribution slope q = - 1.43 . In addition, applying the same 'family extraction' method to the neighboring regions, i.e. the middle and outer belts, and comparing the size distributions of the respective background populations, we find statistical evidence that no large asteroid families of primordial origin had formed in the middle or pristine zones.

  18. A Computerized Tomography Study of Vocal Tract Setting in Hyperfunctional Dysphonia and in Belting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldias, Marcelo; Guzman, Marco; Miranda, Gonzalo; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2018-04-03

    Vocal tract setting in hyperfunctional patients is characterized by a high larynx and narrowing of the epilaryngeal and pharyngeal region. Similar observations have been made for various singing styles, eg, belting. The voice quality in belting has been described to be loud, speech like, and high pitched. It is also often described as sounding "pressed" or "tense". The above mentioned has led to the hypothesis that belting may be strenuous to the vocal folds. However, singers and teachers of belting do not regard belting as particularly strenuous. This study investigates possible similarities and differences between hyperfunctional voice production and belting. This study concerns vocal tract setting. Four male patients with hyperfunctional dysphonia and one male contemporary commercial music singer were registered with computerized tomography while phonating on [a:] in their habitual speaking pitch. Additionally, the singer used the pitch G4 in belting. The scannings were studied in sagittal and transversal dimensions by measuring lengths, widths, and areas. Various similarities were found between belting and hyperfunction: high vertical larynx position, small hypopharyngeal width, and epilaryngeal outlet. On the other hand, belting differed from dysphonia (in addition to higher pitch) by a wider lip and jaw opening, and larger volumes of the oral cavity. Belting takes advantage of "megaphone shape" of the vocal tract. Future studies should focus on modeling and simulation to address sound energy transfer. Also, they should consider aerodynamic variables and vocal fold vibration to evaluate the "price of decibels" in these phonation types. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  20. Creating and destroying mountain belts in a sandbox (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.

    2009-12-01

    M. Hernandez-1, L. Cruz-1, G. Hilley-1, J. Malinski-1, W.A. Take-2 1-Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2-Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada This study uses a new experimental approach to model the kinematic response of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt to erosion using a deforming sand wedge that is eroded according to a fluvial bedrock incision rule. Our objective is to thoroughly examine the impact that erosion may have had on the kinematics of this fold-and-thrust belt and test the applicability of our approach. Our experimental apparatus allows for a variety of boundary conditions to be applied to the wedge, including constant displacement rate, time-varying displacement rate, constant loading, and time-varying loading. This setting also includes three digital cameras that are connected to the apparatus to monitor the top and one side of the experimental sandbox. In this new experimental approach, as we deform the sand wedge, or mountain belt, we select specific time intervals to calculate, using a Matlab code, the topographic slope derived from our erosion rule. We then use a linear laser to project the calculated topographic slope into the sand wedge and remove any excess of sand with a vacuum cleaner. We then let the wedge continue to deform and repeat the above process. After the end of each experiment, we use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to analyze the movement of the sand particles throughout the experiment. The use of PIV requires the images from all three cameras to be corrected due to lens distortion. We use available software, such as Photoshop, to correct and crop the images. The results of our constant-displacement rate experiments indicate, based on geometric comparisons against natural topographic measurements, that our erosional rule could be satisfactorily applied to sandbox simulations. Each of the main deformational stages identified in the

  1. Development of high torque belt CVT with torque converter; Torque converter tsuki daiyoryogata belt CVT no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, M; Fujikawa, T; Yoshida, K; Kobayahi, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nissan has successfully developed a new belt CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with torque converter and has installed it 2L-class vehicle for the first time in the world. This paper describes about the technology of high torque transmission, the need of torque converter, the importance of electronic control and the introduce of driving mode. As the result the CVT has improved driving performance and fuel economy for current CVT and 4 speed automatic transmission. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The freedom to choose, eat, add and gain weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Cabrera-Gaytán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Commission for Protection Against Health Risks (COFEPRIS launched a regulation for new front nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic beverages, recommending that consumers add up their consumptions throughout the day without exceeding a hundred percentage points. The campaign has therefore been called “Add up and do not exceed 100%”. The policy established by the Federal Government is based on assumptions that encourage consumption and will not solve the problem in depth. Following is a descriptive and critical argument against said policy. Resumen: La Comisión Federal para la Protección Contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS, lanzó una regulación del nuevo etiquetado frontal nutrimental en los alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas, con la recomendación al consumidor sumar a lo largo del día los consumos sin exceder de cien puntos porcentuales, por lo que a la campaña se le ha denominado “Suma y no te pases de 100%”. La política instaurada por el Gobierno Federal, se basa en supuestos que fomentan el consumo y no resolverán de fondo el problema, por lo que se hace una argumentación descriptiva y crítica de esa política. Keywords: Obesity, Public policy, Consumption, Palabras clave: Obesidad, Política pública, Consumo

  3. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  4. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  5. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  6. An evaluation of a weightlifting belt and back injury prevention training class for airline baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, C R; Congleton, J J; Dale Huchingson, R; Montgomery, J F

    1992-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercially available weightlifting belt in relation to reduction of lumbar injury incident rate and severity of injuries over an 8-month period. The study used 642 baggage handlers working for a major airline company as participants. Four treatment groups were randomly selected: a group receiving the belt only, a group receiving a 1 h training class only, a group receiving both a belt and a 1 h training class, and a control group receiving nothing. Two treatment groups were added which contained participants who discontinued use of the belt prior to the end of an 8-month study period. Results indicated that there were no significant differences for total lumbar injury incident rate, restricted workday case injury incident rate, lost workdays and restricted workdays rate, and worker's compensation rates. There was, however, a marginal significant difference for lost workday case injury incident rate. Groups with participants who wore the belt for a while then discontinued its use had a higher lost day case injury incident rate than did either the group receiving training only or the control group. Compliance was an overriding factor as the belt questionnaire response indicated that 58% of participants in the belt groups discontinued use of the belt before the end of 8 months. Comments made on the survey forms indicated that the belt was too hot. Similarly, comments suggested that the belt rubbed, pinched, and bruised ribs. Based on these results, the weightlifting belt used for this study cannot be recommended for use in aid of lifting during daily work activities of baggage handlers. Results indicate that use of the belts may, in fact, increase the risk of injury when not wearing a belt following a period of wearing a belt. As industries are experimenting with the use of belts, it is recommended that great care be taken in any further evaluation and close attention directed towards injuries which occur when not wearing the

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  8. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  9. Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Chin; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun

    2018-01-01

    Composition claim, nutrition claim and health claim are often found on the commercial complementary food packaging. The introduction of complementary foods (CFs) to infants is a turning point in the development of their eating behavior, and their commercial use for Taiwanese infants is growing. In Taiwan, lots of the advertisements for CFs employed health or nutrition claims to promote the products, but the actual nutritional content of these CFs is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the food claims of commercial complementary food products with their actual nutrition facts. A sample of 363 commercial CFs was collected from websites, local supermarkets, and other food stores, and their nutrition-related claims were classified into composition, nutrition, and health categories. Although the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, 48.2% of the commercial CFs were targeted at infants younger than 6 months. Therefore, marketing regulations should be implemented to curb early weaning as a result of products targeted at infants younger than 6 months. More than 50% of Taiwanese commercial CFs have high sugar content and more than 20% were high in sodium. Products with health claims, such as "provides good nutrition to children" or "improves appetite," have higher sodium or sugar content than do those without such claims. Moreover, products with calcium or iron content claims did not contain more calcium or iron than products without such claims. Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of the products with "no added sugar" claims were classified as having high sugar content as compared to those without such claims. Parents cannot choose the healthiest food products for their children by simply focusing on food claims. Government should regulate the labeling of nutrition facts and food claims for foods targeted at infants younger than 12 months.

  10. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  11. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  13. Food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002434.htm Food safety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food. These practices prevent contamination and foodborne ...

  14. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  15. Number of conveyor belts optimization regarding to its type and logistical parameters in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Malindžák

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Material transportation by belt conveyers is widely used in many industrial branches including mining plants. Belt conveyingdevelopment during the last year was oriented mainly on construction of belts. The consequence of this is the improvement of itsmanufacture qualities bringing down the costs for their exchange and maintenance.Despite the fact that there are some theoreticalcalculations based on a standards it is common in the industry that the belt is not properly selected or it is overdesigned or number of itstypes is too large what can lead to increased costs for its storage. The paper describes the optimization of number of belt types in miningcompany SIDERIT, s. r. o. Nižná Slaná by the method of modernization and unification of belts under practical skills and projectingbased on theoretical calculations.

  16. Start-up of belt conveyors used for haulage of large lumps under difficult climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, J

    1979-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out by the Research and Development Center for Brown Coal in Most, Czechoslovakia into effects of climate, weather and mass of coal lumps on reliability of belt conveyors in surface mines. Dirt buildup on the driving drums reduces friction and increases belt sliding hazards. Belt wear increases. Driving drum diameter, increased by the buildup, negatively influences load distribution among the electric motors of the drive system. In extreme cases belt wear and irregular load distribution cause belt failures. Methods for buildup removal used in Czechoslovakia and methods for protection of the return side of a conveyor are described. Effects of large mass of coal lumps and ice buildup on large lumps on the risk of belt damage (cuts, punctures etc,) are discussed. Recommendations for design of coal transfer points are made. 2 refs.

  17. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  18. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi Thomas; Hiatt Mark; Ciaccio Edward J; Drzewiecki Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to op...

  19. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics... injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics... weightlifting (7,9). Both olympic and power lifters have used lifting belts for many years, yet virtually no research has been reported which examines

  20. Race, belief in destiny, and seat belt usage: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, I

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1063 individuals found that when belief in destiny was statistically controlled, differences in seat belt use by race disappeared. Thus, racial differences in seat belt use are statistically accounted for and might be explained by belief in destiny. Efforts to increase seat belt use should target minority groups rather than include them in broadbrush programs. Further, these efforts should take into account this important difference in motivation. PMID:1585969