Full Text Available This paper describes results of integrated precipitable water co-located measurements from two techniques: GPS solution and CIMEL-318 sunphotometer. Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW is an important meteorological parameter and is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions for GPS station at Central Geophysical Observatory (CGO, Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS, Belsk and compared with sunphotometer (CIMEL-318 device by Cimel Electronique data provided by Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET. Two dedicated and independent GPS solutions: network solution in the sub-network of European Permanent Network (EPN and precise point positioning solution have been made to obtain tropospheric delays. The quality of dedicated tropospheric solutions has been verified by comparison with EPN tropospheric combined product. Several IPW comparisons and analyses revealed systematic difference between techniques (difference RMS is over 1 mm. IPW bias changes with season: annual close to 1 mm IPW (and semi-annual term also present. IPW bias is a function of atmospheric temperature. Probable cause of this systematic deficiency in solar photometry as IPW retrieval technique is a change of optical filter characteristics in CIMEL.
Kruczyk, Michał; Liwosz, Tomasz; Pietruczuk, Aleksander
This paper describes results of integrated precipitable water co-located measurements from two techniques: GPS solution and CIMEL-318 sunphotometer. Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) is an important meteorological parameter and is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions for GPS station at Central Geophysical Observatory (CGO), Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Belsk and compared with sunphotometer (CIMEL-318 device by Cimel Electronique) data provided by Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Two dedicated and independent GPS solutions: network solution in the sub-network of European Permanent Network (EPN) and precise point positioning solution have been made to obtain tropospheric delays. The quality of dedicated tropospheric solutions has been verified by comparison with EPN tropospheric combined product. Several IPW comparisons and analyses revealed systematic difference between techniques (difference RMS is over 1 mm). IPW bias changes with season: annual close to 1 mm IPW (and semi-annual term also present). IPW bias is a function of atmospheric temperature. Probable cause of this systematic deficiency in solar photometry as IPW retrieval technique is a change of optical filter characteristics in CIMEL.
Full Text Available Measurements of the Linke turbidity factor (LTF were performed at Belsk (20.78°E, 51.83°N, Poland, since 1964. This data is used to retrieve broadband aerosol optical thickness normalized to the air mass equal to 2 (BAOT2. A linear analysis of the BAOT2 changes reveals an upward trend of 0.023±0.017(2σ in the 1964-1975 period, a downward trend of –0.051±0.017(2σ in the 1976-1991 period, and afterwards a statistically insignificant trend of –0.009 ± 0.014(2σ. Such pattern may be related to the economic changes in Poland (changing emissions and environmental policies. The elevated BAOT2 values, excluded from the trend, are found in 1984 and 1992 due to the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo, respectively. Past AOT values at 340 and 500 nm are reconstructed using a linear relationship found between AOT and BAOT2. The reconstructed data is used by the radiative transfer models to estimate a response of the total solar and erythemal radiation to the changes in the atmospheric aerosols at Belsk.
Posyniak, Michał; Szkop, Artur; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Podgórski, Jerzy; Krzyścin, Janusz
Measurements of the Linke turbidity factor (LTF) were performed at Belsk (20.78°E, 51.83°N), Poland, since 1964. This data is used to retrieve broadband aerosol optical thickness normalized to the air mass equal to 2 (BAOT2). A linear analysis of the BAOT2 changes reveals an upward trend of 0.023±0.017(2 σ) in the 1964-1975 period, a downward trend of-0.051±0.017(2 σ) in the 1976-1991 period, and afterwards a statistically insignificant trend of-0.009 ± 0.014(2 σ). Such pattern may be related to the economic changes in Poland (changing emissions and environmental policies). The elevated BAOT2 values, excluded from the trend, are found in 1984 and 1992 due to the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo, respectively. Past AOT values at 340 and 500 nm are reconstructed using a linear relationship found between AOT and BAOT2. The reconstructed data is used by the radiative transfer models to estimate a response of the total solar and erythemal radiation to the changes in the atmospheric aerosols at Belsk.
Czerwińska, Agnieszka E.; Krzyścin, Janusz W.; Jarosławski, Janusz; Posyniak, Michał
Specific aerosols and cloud properties over large urban regions seem to generate an island, similar to the well-known urban heat island, leading to lower ultraviolet (UV) radiation intensity compared to the surrounding less polluted areas, thus creating a shield against excessive human exposure to UV radiation. The present study focuses on differences between erythemal and UVA (324 nm) doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometers in Warsaw (52.3° N, 21.0° E) and Belsk (51.8° N, 20.8° E). The latter is a rural region located about 60 km south-west of the city. Ratios between erythemal and UVA partly daily doses, obtained during all-sky and cloudless-sky conditions for the period May 2013-December 2015, were analysed to infer a specific cloud and aerosol forcing on the surface UV doses over Warsaw. Radiative model simulations were carried out to find sources of the observed differences between the sites. It was found that Warsaw urban agglomeration induced 8 and 6 % attenuation of the erythemal and UVA doses respectively. This is mostly due to the lower sun elevation in Warsaw during the near-noon measurements and the larger optical depth of the city aerosols and increased cloudiness. It could be hypothesised that the expected stronger absorption of the solar UV radiation by urban aerosols is compensated for here by a higher surface reflectivity over the city.
J. W. Krzyścin
Full Text Available A new, powerful statistical technique, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, is applied to reproduce monthly fractional deviations of UV-B doses over Belsk, Poland, during the snowless (May–October part of the year in the period 1976–2000. Two kinds of regressors were used: local ones (total ozone, percentage of sky covered by low-, mid-, high-level clouds or total solar radiation over Belsk and non-local ones, i.e. those describing the long-distance forcings on the surface UV-B due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation. Standard indices of the Quasi-Biennial, North Atlantic, El Niño-Southern Oscillations, and the 11-year solar activity were used as non-local regressors. The results there indicate that the MARS procedure is able to reproduce the observed year-to-year and decadal oscillations in the UV data. The MARS model yields better model-observation agreement than an ordinary least-squares fit based on the same set of regressors. It is found that MARS is capable of handling interactions between the local and non-local regressors, suggesting a possible nonlinear nature of connections between variables characterizing the atmospheric transparency over Belsk and the long-distance forcings. MARS enables a reconstruction of the surface UV-B variations over any site based on the cloud and ozone data presently stored on web pages.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions
Zawadzka, O.; Markowicz, K. M.; Pietruczuk, A.; Zielinski, T.; Jaroslawski, J.
This paper presents the analyses of the long-term observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter CIMEL (Belsk) sun photometers. The PM10 concentrations were measured at three Warsaw stations as well as in Belsk. The ground-based observations, and the satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided information about the influence of Warsaw emissions on the AOT. The estimated effect is about 0.02 (at 500 nm) based on the sun photometers' comparisons and 0.03 (at 550 nm) based on the MODIS results. Relatively small impact of Warsaw emissions on the AOT (about 10-15%) is consistent with the PM10 data. The mean PM10 differences, estimated during the same time as sun photometer measurements, for Warsaw Ursynow (a residential area) and Belsk was only 5.7 μg m-3 (13%), and for Warsaw Targowek (a mixed shopping and residential area) and Belsk was about 9.8 μg m-3 (20%). For the station located in the central Warsaw, near to the street with the heavy traffic, the difference in the long-term mean of the PM10 was significantly larger and reached 22.1 μg m-3 (36%). Finally, an extreme smoke event observed on 4 April 2009, when favorable weather conditions led to the differences in the AOT between Warsaw and Belsk in a range of 0.11-0.2 (at 500 nm) has been described.
Dette kapitel sætter fokus på didaktik i dagtilbud. Med afsæt i børnehavens historiske grundlag tegnes en udviklingslinje fra den fröbelske børnehave og frem til 2004, hvor Lov om pædagogiske læreplaner blev vedtaget og dermed et officielt krav om didaktisk tænkning. En mulig didaktisk tilgang fr...
Markowicz, K. M.; Zielinski, T.; Pietruczuk, A.; Posyniak, M.; Zawadzka, O.; Makuch, P.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Petelski, T.; Kumala, W.; Sobolewski, P.; Stacewicz, T.
This work provides information on selected optical parameters related to volcanic ash produced during the eruption of the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland in 2010. The observations were made between 16 and 18 April 2010 at four stations representative for northern (Sopot), central (Warsaw, Belsk) and south-eastern (Strzyzow) regions of Poland. The largest ash plume (in terms of aerosol optical thickness) over Poland was observed at night of 16/17 April 2010 in the layer between 4 and 5.5 km a.s.l. The highest values of the aerosol extinction coefficient reached 0.06-0.08 km -1 at 532 nm (based on lidar observations in Warsaw) and 0.02-0.04 km -1 at 1064 nm (based on ceilometer observations in Warsaw). The corresponding optical thickness due to volcanic ash reached values of about 0.05 at 532 nm and about 0.03 at 1064 nm. These values are similar to those reported for the Belsk station based on lidar observations. The ash mass concentration estimated based on the maximum aerosol extinction coefficient reached 0.22 ± 0.11 mg m -3. This value is significantly lower than the limit (2 mg m -3) for the aircraft operation.
Szkop, Artur; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Posyniak, Michał
A cluster analysis is applied to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data obtained at Belsk, Poland, as well as three nearby Central European stations (Leipzig, Minsk and Moldova) for estimation of atmospheric aerosol types. Absorption Ångstrom exponent (AAE), aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and extinction Ångstrom exponent (EAE) parameters are used. Clustering in both 2D (AOT, EAE) and 3D (AOT, EAE, AAE) is investigated. A method of air mass backward trajectory analysis is then proposed, with the receptor site at Belsk, to determine possible source regions for each cluster. Four dominant aerosol source regions are identified. The biomass burning aerosol source is localized in the vicinity of Belarusian-Ukrainian border. Slovakia and northern Hungary are found to be the source of urban/industrial pollutants. Western Poland and eastern Germany are the main sources of polluted continental aerosols. The most differentiated source region of Scandinavia, Baltic Sea and Northern Atlantic, associated with lowest values of AOT, corresponds to clean continental and possibly maritime type aerosols.
Jankowski, J.; Marianiuk, J.; Ruta, A.; Sucksdorff, C.; Kivinen, M.
Conventional magnetometers of the Bobrov type were equipped with photoelectric converters and feedback loops having a feedback factor of 1000. Tests made at the Belsk and Nurmijärvi Observatories demonstrated that: (a) the long-term stability of the base-line values was the same or better than that in conventional magnetometers (e.g. at Nurmijärvi), i.e. the changes were less than 0.5 nT a month; (b) the short-term stability was the same as in the conventional magnetometers: (c) the reliability of the instrument was good, the time between failures in the instruments tested being more than a year: (d) the same instruments can be used simultaneously for normal recording and for recording magnetic pulsations.
J. W. Krzyscin
Full Text Available The daily doses of the erythemally weighted UV radiation are reconstructed for three sites in Central Europe: Belsk-Poland (1966–2001, Hradec Kralove-Czech Republic (1964–2001, and Tõravere-Estonia (1967–2001 to discuss the UV climatology and the long-term changes of the UV-B radiation since the mid 1960s. Various reconstruction models are examined: a purely statistical model based on the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS methodology, and a hybrid model combining radiative transfer model calculations with empirical estimates of the cloud effects on the UV radiation. Modeled long-term variations of the surface UV doses appear to be in a reasonable agreement with the observed ones. A simple quality control procedure is proposed to check the homogeneity of the biometer and pyranometer data. The models are verified using the results of UV observations carried out at Belsk since 1976. MARS provides the best estimates of the UV doses, giving a mean difference between the modeled and observed monthly means equal to 0.6±2.5%. The basic findings are: similar climatological forcing by clouds for all considered stations (~30% reduction in the surface UV, long-term variations in UV monthly doses having the same temporal pattern for all stations with extreme low monthly values (~5% below overall mean level at the end of the 1970s and extreme high monthly values (~5% above overall mean level in the mid 1990s, regional peculiarities in the cloud long-term forcing sometimes leading to extended periods with elevated UV doses, recent stabilization of the ozone induced UV long-term changes being a response to a trendless tendency of total ozone since the mid 1990s. In the case of the slowdown of the total ozone trend over Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes it seems that clouds will appear as the most important modulator of the UV radiation both in long- and short-time scales over next decades.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and
Kruczyk, M.; Liwosz, T.
Paper focuses on comprehensive investigation of the GPS derived IPW (Integrated Precipitable Water, also IWV) as a geophysical tool. GPS meteorology is now widely acknowledged indirect method of atmosphere sensing. First we demonstrate GPS IPW quality. Most thorough inter-technique comparisons of directly measured IPW are attainable only for some observatories (note modest percentage of GPS stations equipped with meteorological devices). Nonetheless we have managed to compare IPW series derived from GPS tropospheric solutions (ZTD mostly from IGS and EPN solutions) and some independent techniques. IPW values from meteorological sources we used are: radiosoundings, sun photometer and input fields of numerical weather prediction model. We can treat operational NWP models as meteorological database within which we can calculate IWV for all GPS stations independently from network of direct measurements (COSMO-LM model maintained by Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management was tried). Sunphotometer (CIMEL-318, Central Geophysical Observatory IGF PAS, Belsk, Poland) data seems the most genuine source - so we decided for direct collocation of GPS measurements and sunphotometer placing permanent GPS receiver on the roof of Belsk Observatory. Next we analyse IPW as geophysical parameter: IPW demonstrates some physical effects evoked by station location (height and series correlation coefficient as a function of distance) and weather patterns like dominant wind directions (in case of neighbouring stations). Deficiency of surface humidity data to model IPW is presented for different climates. This inadequacy and poor humidity data representation in NWP model extremely encourages investigating information exchange potential between Numerical Model and GPS network. The second and most important aspect of this study concerns long series of IPW (daily averaged) which can serve as climatological information indicator (water vapour role in climate system is hard to
Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.
In this study we analyze the frequency distribution of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs) for 5 long-term stations in the northern mid-latitudes in Europe (Belsk, Poland; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Hohenpeissenberg and Potsdam, Germany; and Uccle, Belgium). Further, the influence of these extreme events on annual and seasonal mean values and trends is analysed. The applied method follows the new "ozone extreme concept", which is based on tools from extreme value theory [Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007], recently developed by Rieder et al. [2010a, b]. Mathematically seen the decisive feature within the extreme concept is the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). In this analysis, the long-term trends needed to be removed first, differently to the treatment of Rieder et al. [2010a, b], in which the time series of Arosa was analysed, covering many decades of measurements in the anthropogenically undisturbed stratosphere. In contrast to previous studies only focusing on so called ozone mini-holes and mini-highs the "ozone extreme concept" provides a statistical description of the tails in total ozone distributions (i.e. extreme low and high values). It is shown that this concept is not only an appropriate method to describe the frequency and distribution of extreme events, it also provides new information on time series properties and internal variability. Furthermore it allows detection of fingerprints of physical (e.g. El Niño, NAO) and chemical (e.g. polar vortex ozone loss) features in the Earth's atmosphere as well as major volcanic eruptions (e.g. El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). It is shown that mean values and trends in total ozone are strongly influenced by extreme events. Trend calculations (for the period 1970-1990) are performed for the entire as well as the extremes-removed time series. The results after excluding extremes show that annual trends are most reduced at Hradec Kralove (about a factor of 3), followed by Potsdam
Ansmann, Albert; BöSenberg, Jens; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Comerón, Adolfo; Eckhardt, Sabine; Eixmann, Ronald; Freudenthaler, Volker; Ginoux, Paul; Komguem, Leonce; Linné, Holger; MáRquez, Miguel ÁNgel López; Matthias, Volker; Mattis, Ina; Mitev, Valentin; Müller, Detlef; Music, Svetlana; Nickovic, Slobodan; Pelon, Jacques; Sauvage, Laurent; Sobolewsky, Piotr; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Stohl, Andreas; Torres, Omar; Vaughan, Geraint; Wandinger, Ulla; Wiegner, Matthias
The spread of mineral particles over southwestern, western, and central Europe resulting from a strong Saharan dust outbreak in October 2001 was observed at 10 stations of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). For the first time, an optically dense desert dust plume over Europe was characterized coherently with high vertical resolution on a continental scale. The main layer was located above the boundary layer (above 1-km height above sea level (asl)) up to 3-5-km height, and traces of dust particles reached heights of 7-8 km. The particle optical depth typically ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 above 1-km height asl at the wavelength of 532 nm, and maximum values close to 0.8 were found over northern Germany. The lidar observations are in qualitative agreement with values of optical depth derived from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data. Ten-day backward trajectories clearly indicated the Sahara as the source region of the particles and revealed that the dust layer observed, e.g., over Belsk, Poland, crossed the EARLINET site Aberystwyth, UK, and southern Scandinavia 24-48 hours before. Lidar-derived particle depolarization ratios, backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, and extinction-to-backscatter ratios mainly ranged from 15 to 25%, -0.5 to 0.5, and 40-80 sr, respectively, within the lofted dust plumes. A few atmospheric model calculations are presented showing the dust concentration over Europe. The simulations were found to be consistent with the network observations.
Love, Jeffrey J.
The thirteenth biennial International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing was held in the United States for the first time on June 9-18, 2008. Hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Geomagnetism Program, the workshop's measurement session was held at the Boulder Observatory and the scientific session was held on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. More than 100 participants came from 36 countries and 6 continents. Preparation for the workshop began when the USGS Geomagnetism Program agreed, at the close of the twelfth workshop in Belsk Poland in 2006, to host the next workshop. Working under the leadership of Alan Berarducci, who served as the chairman of the local organizing committee, and Tim White, who served as co-chairman, preparations began in 2007. The Boulder Observatory was extensively renovated and additional observation piers were installed. Meeting space on the Colorado School of Mines campus was arranged, and considerable planning was devoted to managing the many large and small issues that accompany an international meeting. Without the devoted efforts of both Alan and Tim, other Geomagnetism Program staff, and our partners at the Colorado School of Mines, the workshop simply would not have occurred. We express our thanks to Jill McCarthy, the USGS Central Region Geologic Hazards Team Chief Scientist; Carol A. Finn, the Group Leader of the USGS Geomagnetism Program; the USGS International Office; and Melody Francisco of the Office of Special Programs and Continuing Education of the Colorado School of Mines. We also thank the student employees that the Geomagnetism Program has had over the years and leading up to the time of the workshop. For preparation of the proceedings, thanks go to Eddie and Tim. And, finally, we thank our sponsors, the USGS, IAGA, and the Colorado School of Mines.
Spaenkuch, D.; Schulz, E.; Feister, U.; Plessing, P. (Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium)
with other Central European stations revealed the decline of TCO during spring at Arosa since the midfifties already. The TCO decline during winter started earlier at the more northern stations than at Arosa and could be traced back at Potsdam till around 1964 by means of the backward extrapolated series. In summer, the ozone depletion began at Arosa and Potsdam about 8 years earlier than at Belsk and Hradec Kralove. These regional differences in the TCO depletion are the result of the interrelationship of TCO patterns with synoptic patterns, which are described in some detail. (orig.)