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Sample records for bellows

  1. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  2. A Parylene Bellows Electrochemical Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Po-Ying; Sheybani, Roya; Gutierrez, Christian A.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    We present the first electrochemical actuator with Parylene bellows for large-deflection operation. The bellows diaphragm was fabricated using a polyethylene-glycol-based sacrificial molding technique followed by coating in Parylene C. Bellows were mechanically characterized and integrated with a pair of interdigitated electrodes to form an electrochemical actuator that is suitable for low-power pumping of fluids. Pump performance (gas generation rate and pump efficiency) was optimized throug...

  3. Development of bellows for IHX in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows is installed at the outer side of the secondary sodium entrance nozzle of MONJU IHX as the absorber for the difference of thermal expansion between the pressure equipment and the piping. A research and development program on IHX bellows was performed in the field of experiment and analysis for establishing the feasibility of IHX bellows under high temperature conditions. This report consists of three sections, namely design profile, experimental tests and analysis of IHX bellows. In the design profile a calculation of temperature distribution of bellows and stress analysis using a half convolution model are included. Basic tests such as non-destructive tests on the raw metal sheet and selection tests of welding conditions were performed. Some results of these basic tests, fatigue tests and sodium exposure tests are described in the research and development section of this report. Furthermore, analytical calculations led the correlations on a maximum stress between axial and some other loads. (author)

  4. Resonant impedance of bellows above cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S

    1980-01-01

    The perturbation method of Chatard-Moulin and Papiernik is used to calculate the longitudinal and transverse impedances, Z(..omega..) and Z/sub perpendicular/(..omega..), of a bellows. The bellows shape is defined by its radius a(z) = a (1 + epsilons(z)), where a is the mean radius, epsilon a small parameter, and s(z) describes the convolution of the bellows. A finite wall conductivity is considered and the resonant contribution to the impedance above the cutoff frequency of the unperturbed chamber is determined, obtaining analytic approximations to the resonant frequencies, quality factors, and shunt impedances. The relation Z/sub perpendicular/(..omega..) = (2c/a/sup 2/)Z(..omega..)/..omega.., of course, does not hold as an identity, but it is found to be a useful relation for the shunt impedances, holding exactly for one family of transverse modes and providing an upper bound on the shunt impedances of the second set of transverse modes.

  5. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  6. Evaluation of characteristics of race-track bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the extraction part of J-PARC 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, a race-track bellows is required between the vacuum chamber of extraction septum magnet 1 and 2, because there is no space to install a circular bellows. However, formed titanium bellows with race-track shape have never been fabricated. Small size formed titanium race-track bellows were fabricated. Characteristics of them were measured and evaluated. Spring force measurements, expansion/contraction repetition life test, vacuum heating test and He-gas leak test were performed. The characteristics of the race-track bellows are satisfied with our use conditions. We obtained a prospect that actual size race-track bellows could be used. (author)

  7. Development of Dieless Compression Process for Fabrication of Metal Bellows

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Hung, Nguiyen

    2011-01-01

    Metal bellows have wide applications in many fields that are used as important elements in piping systems, micro-electromechanical systems, automotive and aerospace industries. In the bellows fabrication area, many methods have been suggested for metal bellows fabrication such as hydro-forming, bulge forming or press forming and so on. The general points of almost conventional methods are used dies and tools in the process. However, the conventional methods were not efficient to solve the pro...

  8. Prototype bellows sealed nuclear valve development -reliability through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in appraising bellows sealed valve performance, 10 tests were done on a ''1 in.'' prototype bellows sealed valve design. The tests simulated primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions for a 600 MWe CANDU-PHW. The design approach was to have all valve components outlast the bellows in endurance tests; this was achieved. The valve design meets the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited specification. For comparison, bellows fatigue failure data were fitted to both log-normal and Weibull distributions. A numerical example shows how to select valve stroke amplitude on the basis of valve flow requirement and the minimum acceptable fatigue life. (author)

  9. Bellows design and testing for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suetsugu, Y. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A bellows assembly with an RF-shield has been developed for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). The RF-shield is a usual finger-type but has a special spring-finger to press the contact-finger on to the beam tube without fail. The mechanical workings of the RF-shield is tested using a trial model and no mechanical problem is found except for the dust production. The necessary contact force, 50 g/finger, is obtained experimentally transmitting the 508 MHz microwave up to 80 kW through the trial model. (author)

  10. Development of bellows for intermediate heat exchanger in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows is installed at the outer side of the secondary sodium entrance nozzle of MONJU IHX as the absorber for the difference of thermal expansion between the pressure equipment and the piping. A research and development program on IHX bellows was performed in the field of experiment and analysis for establishing the feasibility of IHX bellows under high temperature conditions. This report consists of three sections, namely design profile, experimental tests and analysis of IHX bellows. In the design profile a calculation of temperature distribution of bellows and stress analysis using a half convolution model are included. Basic tests such as nondestractive tests on the raw metal sheet and selection tests of welding conditions were performed. Some results of these basic tests, fatigue tests and sodium exposure tests are described in the research and development section of this report. Furthermore, analytical calculations led the correlations on the maximum stress between axial and some other loads. (author)

  11. Specialists' meeting on bellows for sodium systems. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specialists' Meeting on Bellows for Sodium Systems was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by participants and observers from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide forum for exchanging views on application of bellows for FBR use, problems found in service in sodium systems, design and fabrication of bellows for sodium systems and studies necessary for estimation and improvement of reliability of bellows in long term use under the condition of high temperature sodium. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions, as follows: Experience of Bellows Applications for Sodium Systems; Design and Analysis; Fabrication; In-Service Inspection and Repair; Research Work

  12. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-Ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the VUV and 28 ports of the X-Ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb. reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support the load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur

  13. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodle, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  14. Superplastic forming gas pressure of titanium alloy bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 张凯锋; 陈军; 阮雪榆

    2004-01-01

    The complex superplastic forming (SPF) technology applying gas pressure and compressive axial load is an advanced forming method for titanium alloy bellows, whose forming process consists of the three main forming phases namely bulging, clamping and calibrating phase. The influence of forming gas pressure in various phases on the forming process was analyzed and the models of forming gas pressure for bellows were derived according to the thin shell theory and the plasticity deformation theory. Using the model values, taking a two-convolution DN250 Ti6Al-4V titanium alloy bellows as an example, a series of superplastic forming tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the variation of forming gas pressure on the forming process. According to the experimental results these models were corrected to make the forming gas pressures prediction more accurate.

  15. Rubber-coated bellows improves vibration damping in vacuum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, D. E.; Smith, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Compact-vibration damping systems, consisting of rubber-coated metal bellows with a sliding O-ring connector, are used in vacuum lines. The device presents a metallic surface to the vacuum system and combines flexibility with the necessary stiffness. It protects against physical damage, reduces fatigue failure, and provides easy mating of nonparallel lines.

  16. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15. Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagonist’s physical and psychological alienation. Furthermore, the resemblance of their lifestyles and attitudes indicates that their consciousness, sub-conscious, and psychologies follow the same routine. This study will therefore argue the novel’s psychoanalytic characteristics.Keywords: Mind Structure, Personality, Psychoanalysis, Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, Tommy Adler, Wilhelm Adler

  17. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Udupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental results. The actuator is fabricated using compression molding process that includes micromachining of the molds. Experiments conducted show the bending characteristics of the actuator at different pressures. The actuator shows excellent bending performance and the eccentricity in its design supports increased bending or curling motion up to a certain extent compared to normal bellows without eccentricity. The effects of profile shape and eccentricity on the actuator performance are analysed and the results are presented.

  18. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesha Udupa; Pramod Sreedharan; Sai Dinesh, P.; Doik Kim

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA) has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental...

  19. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15). Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagon...

  20. A method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accomodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-Ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port

  1. Principles and practice of a bellows-loaded compact irradiation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Li, Meimei; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Burchell, Timothy D.; McDuffee, Joel L.

    2013-08-01

    This article describes the key design principles and application of a mini-bellows loaded irradiation creep frame technology developed for use in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR). For this irradiation vehicle, the bellows, frame, sample, and temperature monitor are contained within a hydraulic or fixed "rabbit" capsule of a few inches in length. Of critical importance and key to this technology is the viability and stability of the metallic bellows under the elevated temperature irradiation environment. Conceptual design and supporting analysis have been performed for tension and compression specimens. Benchtop verification has substantiated the modeling regarding the ability of the bellows to produce sufficient stress to induce irradiation creep in subsize specimens. Discussion focuses on the possible stress ranges in specimens induced by the miniature gas-pressurized bellows and the limitations imposed by the size and structure of thin-walled bellows. A brief discussion of pre- and post-irradiation measurement of the integrity of load frames irradiated to 4.4 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) is presented. Following this protocol, the pre-irradiation loading to a sample is determined and post-irradiation loading inferred. An in-reactor creep testing technology using pressurized mini-bellows has been established for irradiation creep tests in tensile or compressive mode using the HFIR rabbit capsule design. Results from theoretical calculation and in-furnace tests confirmed that the pressurized bellows-loaded miniature creep frame can produce enough thrust force to induce irradiation creep in subsize specimens. Bellows materials, types and dimensions were selected considering in-reactor integrity, load transferring function, weldability, and in-reactor stability. Both stainless steel and IN 718 mini-bellows were proven to be capable of irradiation creep testing. A practical process for the testing and evaluation of applied stress has been developed and applied to in

  2. Prediction of dynamics of bellows in exhaust system of vehicle using equivalent beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong Dae; Lee, Nam Young; Lee, Sang Woo [Noise and vibration CAE Team, Hyundai Motor Company, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The exhaust system is one of the major sources of vibrations, along with the suspension system and engine. When the exhaust system is connected directly to the engine, it transfers vibrations to the vehicle body through the body mounts. Therefore, in order to reduce the vibrations transmitted from the exhaust system, the vibration characteristics of the exhaust system should be predicted. Thus, the dynamic characteristics of the bellows, which form a key component of the exhaust system, must be modeled accurately. However, it is difficult to model the bellows because of the complicated geometry. Though the equivalent beam modeling technique has been applied in the design stage, it is not sufficiently accurate in the case of the bellows which have complicated geometries. In this paper, we present an improved technique for modeling the bellows in a vehicle. The accuracy of the modeling method is verified by comparison with the experimental results.

  3. GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE OVERALL BENDING OF FLEXIBLE CIRCULAR RING SHELLS WITH MODERATELY SLENDER RATIO AND APPLICATIONS TO THE BELLOWS ( Ⅲ )- CALCULATION FOR C-SHAPED BELLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    This is one of the applications of Part (Ⅰ), in which the angular stiffness, the lateral stiffness and the corresponding stress distributions of C-shaped bellows were calculated.The bellows was divided into protruding sections and concave sections for the use of the general solution (Ⅰ), but the continuity of the stress resultants and the deformations at each joint of the sections were entirely satisfied.The present results were compared with those of the other theories and experiments, and are also tested by the numerically integral method.It is shown that the governing equation and the general solution (I) are very effective.

  4. Preliminary design of bellows for the DNB beam source by EJMA and FE linear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In piping system, U-shaped Bellows are widely used among flexible elements. In general, bellows are typically design for Fatigue behavior according to the EJMA standard based on empirically generated fatigue curves. The present work proposes a methodology in the design of bellows by design by analyses and validates its design by EJMA standard. A linear FE approach is chosen to in line with the EJMA standard. The proposed methodology is benchmarked with the available literatures. The same practice is implemented in the preliminary design of a U-shaped bellows in the water line circuits of DNB beam source. DNB Beam Source is a negative ion source-based neutral beam generator for ITER operates at 100KV. The beam divergence (intrinsic) and magnetic fields from ITER torus causes deflection of beams. This calls for beam optic alignment, which are assured by BS Movement mechanism system. To accomplish the above movement requirements, bellows, which is a stringent of its kind (± 22 mm axial, ± 45 mm lateral within 400mm available space with single ply), is designed between the beam source and possible rigid interface-cooling lines coming from HVB. The paper describes right from conceptual stage to preliminary design. Optimization tools are adopted in the selecting bellow dimensions using MATLAB. At the end a coordinated approach between FE based assessment (in ANSYS) and widely applied code, EJMA is implemented for the validation of design and found FE approach is a very conservative than later in the present case. (author)

  5. Study on Deformation of Miniature Metal Bellows in Cryocooler Following Temperature Change of Internal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Ha [LIGNex1 Co. Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Won [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A bellows is an important temperature control component in a Joule-Thomson micro-cryocooler. It is designed using a very thin shell, and the inside of the bellows is filled with nitrogen gas. The bellows is made of a nickel-cobalt alloy that maintains its strength and elastic properties in a wide range of temperatures from cryogenic to 300℃. The pressure of the gas and the volume within the bellows vary according to the temperature of the gas. As a result, the bellows contracts or expands in the axial direction like a spring. To explore this phenomenon, the deformation of the bellows and its internal volume must be calculated iteratively under a modified pressure until the state equation of the gas is satisfied at a given temperature. In this paper, the modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin state equation is adopted to describe the temperature-volume-pressure relations of the gas. Experiments were performed to validate the proposed method. The results of a numerical analysis and the experiments showed good agreement.

  6. Beam loss reduction by magnetic shielding using beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Ogiwara, N.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Kinsho, M.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of beam loss in high power accelerators is unwanted stray magnetic fields from magnets near the beam line, which can distort the beam orbit. The most effective way to shield such magnetic fields is to perfectly surround the beam region without any gaps with a soft magnetic high permeability material. This leads to the manufacture of vacuum chambers (beam pipes and bellows) with soft magnetic materials. A Ni-Fe alloy (permalloy) was selected for the material of the pipe parts and outer bellows parts, while a ferritic stainless steel was selected for the flanges. An austenitic stainless steel, which is non-magnetic material, was used for the inner bellows for vacuum tightness. To achieve good magnetic shielding and vacuum performances, a heat treatment under high vacuum was applied during the manufacturing process of the vacuum chambers. Using this heat treatment, the ratio of the integrated magnetic flux density along the beam orbit between the inside and outside of the beam pipe and bellows became small enough to suppress beam orbit distortion. The outgassing rate of the materials with this heat treatment was reduced by one order magnitude compared to that without heat treatment. By installing the beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials as part of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron beam line, the closed orbit distortion (COD) was reduced by more than 80%. In addition, a 95.5% beam survival ratio was achieved by this COD improvement.

  7. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed

  8. Interaction study between nuclear waste-glass melt and ceramic melter bellow liner materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pranesh

    2011-04-01

    Identification of proper materials for plant scale vitrification furnaces, engaged in immobilization of high level nuclear waste has always been a great challenge. Fast degradation of pour spout materials very often cause problem towards smooth pouring of waste-glass melt in canister and damages bellow kept in between. The present experimental study describes the various reaction products that form due to interaction between waste-glass melt and potential bellow liner materials such as copper, stainless steel and nickel based Superalloys (Alloy 690, 625). The results indicate that copper based material has lesser tendency to form adherent glassy layer.

  9. Interaction study between nuclear waste-glass melt and ceramic melter bellow liner materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pranesh, E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Identification of proper materials for plant scale vitrification furnaces, engaged in immobilization of high level nuclear waste has always been a great challenge. Fast degradation of pour spout materials very often cause problem towards smooth pouring of waste-glass melt in canister and damages bellow kept in between. The present experimental study describes the various reaction products that form due to interaction between waste-glass melt and potential bellow liner materials such as copper, stainless steel and nickel based Superalloys (Alloy 690, 625). The results indicate that copper based material has lesser tendency to form adherent glassy layer.

  10. Bakable aluminium vacuum chamber and bellows with an aluminum flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber and bellows (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the assemblies of the vacuum chambers in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings

  11. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  12. Application of Comb-Type RF-Shield to Bellows Chambers and Gate Valves

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Yusuke; Ohuchi, Norihito; Shibata, Kyo; Shirai, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    A comb-type RF-shield, which was recently proposed for high current accelerators, was experimentally applied to bellows chambers and gate valves. The comb-type RF-shield has a structure of nested comb teeth, and has higher thermal strength and lower impedance than usual finger-type RF shields. The shield is suitable for future high intensity accelerators, such as particle factories aiming a luminosity of 1·1035

  13. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  14. FINITE ELEMENT DISPLACEMENT PERTURBATION METHOD FOR GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR BEHAVIORS OF SHELLS OF REVOLUTION OVERALL BEDING IN A MERIDIONAL PLANE AND APPLICATION TO BELLOW (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    The finite-element-displacement-perturbation method (FEDPM)for thegeometric nonlinear behaviors of shells of revolution subjected to pure bending moments orlateral forces in one of their meridional planes ( Ⅰ ) was employed to calculate the stressdistributions and the stiffness of the bellows. Firstly, by applying the first-orderperturbation solution ( the linear solution ) of the FEDPM to the bellows, the obtainedresults were compared with those of the general solution and the initial parameter integrationsolution proposed by the present authors earlier, as well as of the experiments and the FEAby others. It is shown that the FEDPM is with good precision and reliability, and as it waspointed out in ( Ⅰ ) the abrupt changes of the meridian curvature of bellows would not affectthe use of the usual straight element. Then the nonlinear behaviors of the bellows werediscussed. As expected, the nonlinear effects mainly come from the bellows ring plate, andthe wider the ring plate is, the stronger the nonlinear effects are. Contrarily, the vanishingof the ring plate, like the C-shaped bellows, the nonlinear effects almost vanish. Inaddition, when the pure bending moments act on the bellows, each convolution has thesame stress distributions calculated by the linear solution and other linear theories, but bythe present nonlinear solution they vary with respect to the convolutions of the bellows. Yetfor most bellows, the linear solutions are valid in practice.

  15. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David; Ellis, William A H; Brumm, Jacqui; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  16. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  17. Arkeia网络备份保护Bellows Free Academy的物理和虚拟服务器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Arkeia Software近日宣布。Bellows Free Academy已经选用Arkeia网络备份用于物理和虚拟服务器的快速和安全备份。Bellows FreeAcademy作为福蒙特州学院城里的一个上级监督单位,它需要一个用户友好的解决方案来确保无忧备份和快速恢复。

  18. Proposal for the award of two contracts for the supply of bellows expansion joints for LHC cryomagnet interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the supply of bellows expansion joints for LHC cryomagnet interconnections. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in eight Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2630/LHC/LHC) was sent on 31 May 2000 to 14 firms in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from five firms in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of: - a contract with HANS SKODOCK (DE), the lowest bidder, for the supply of two packages of bellows expansion joints, namely the U-type package and the nested bellows package for a total amount of 2 796 785 euros (4 353 650 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for 20% extra bellows expansion joints for an additional amount of 559 357 euros (870 730 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, bringing the total amount to 3 356 142 euros (5 224 380 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rates of exchange which have been used are those stipulated in th...

  19. Cues to body size in the formant spacing of male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) bellows: honesty in an exaggerated trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Ellis, William A H; McKinnon, Allan J; Cowin, Gary J; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-10-15

    Determining the information content of vocal signals and understanding morphological modifications of vocal anatomy are key steps towards revealing the selection pressures acting on a given species' vocal communication system. Here, we used a combination of acoustic and anatomical data to investigate whether male koala bellows provide reliable information on the caller's body size, and to confirm whether male koalas have a permanently descended larynx. Our results indicate that the spectral prominences of male koala bellows are formants (vocal tract resonances), and show that larger males have lower formant spacing. In contrast, no relationship between body size and the fundamental frequency was found. Anatomical investigations revealed that male koalas have a permanently descended larynx: the first example of this in a marsupial. Furthermore, we found a deeply anchored sternothyroid muscle that could allow male koalas to retract their larynx into the thorax. While this would explain the low formant spacing of the exhalation and initial inhalation phases of male bellows, further research will be required to reveal the anatomical basis for the formant spacing of the later inhalation phases, which is predictive of vocal tract lengths of around 50 cm (nearly the length of an adult koala's body). Taken together, these findings show that the formant spacing of male koala bellows has the potential to provide receivers with reliable information on the caller's body size, and reveal that vocal adaptations allowing callers to exaggerate (or maximise) the acoustic impression of their size have evolved independently in marsupials and placental mammals.

  20. Dynamic considerations for composite metal-rubber laminate acoustic power coupling bellows with application to thermoacoustic refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    Many electrically driven thermoacoustic refrigerators have employed corrugated metal bellows to couple work from an electro-mechanical transducer to the working fluid typically. An alternative bellows structure to mediate this power transfer is proposed: a laminated hollow cylinder comprised of alternating layers of rubber and metal 'hoop-stack'. Fatigue and visoelastic power dissipation in the rubber are critical considerations; strain energy density plays a role in both. Optimal aspect ratios for a rectangle corss-section in the rubber, for given values of bellows axial strain and oscillatory pressure loads are discussed. Comparisons of tearing energies estimated from known load cases and those obtained by finite element analysis for candidate dimensions are presented. The metal layers of bellows are subject to an out-of-plane buckling instability for the case of external pressure loading; failure of this type was experimentally observed. The proposed structure also exhibits column instability when subject to internal pressure, as do metal bellows. For hoop-stack bellows, shear deflection cannot be ignored and this leads to column instability for both internal and external pressures, the latter being analogous to the case of tension buckling of a beam. During prototype bellows testing, transverse modes of vibration are believed to have been excited parametrically as a consequence of the oscillatory pressures. Some operating frequencies of interest in this study lie above the cut-on frequency at which Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) predicts multiple phase speeds; it is shown that TBT fails to accurately predict both mode shapes and resonance frequencies in this regime. TBT is also shown to predict multiple phase speeds in the presence of axial tension, or external pressures, at magnitudes of interest in this study, over the entire frequency spectrum. For modes below cut-on absent a pressure differential (or equivalently, axial load) TBT predicts decreasing resonance

  1. Influence of Micro-Damage on Reliability of Cryogenic Bellows in the LHC Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2008-01-01

    To achieve maximum beam energy in the LHC the accumulated length of the interconnections between LHC main magnets has been limited to around 3% of the total magnetic length in the Arcs and Dispersion Suppressors. Such a low ratio leads to a very compact design of components located in the LHC interconnections. This implies development and evolution of high intensity plastic strain fields in the stainless steel expansion bellows subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. These components have been optimised to ensure high reliability standards required for the LHC. Nevertheless, initial damage can occur and lead to a premature fatigue failure. For structures in which plasticity is not confined to the crack tip region, standard failure mechanics, based classically on the stress intensity factor or the strain energy density release rate, can not be used. In the present paper, a constitutive model taking into account plastic strain induced g->a' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage i...

  2. General Solution of the Overall Bending of Flexible Circular Ring Shells with Moderately Slender Ratio and Applications to the Bellows ( Ⅰ )—Governing Equation and General Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    The overall bending of circular ring shells subjected to bending moments and lateral forces is discussed. The derivation of the equations was based upon the theory of flexible shells generalized by E. L. Axelrad and the assumption of the moderately slender ratio less than 1/3 ( i. e. , ratio between curvature radius of the meridian and distance from the meridional curvature center to the axis of revolution ). The present general solution is an analytical one convergent in the whole domain of the shell and with the necessary integral constants for the boundary value problems. It can be used to calculate the stresses and displacements of the related bellows. The whole work is arranged into four parts: ( Ⅰ )Governing equation and general solution; ( Ⅱ ) Calculation for Omega-shaped bellows;( Ⅲ ) Calculation for C-shaped bellows; ( Ⅳ ) Calculation for U-shaped bellows. This paper is the first part.

  3. Development of the Water Thickness Gaging Technique in the Horizontal Tube by Immersion UT Technology with the Special Shoes Design of the Outside Shape of the Bellows Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most engineering materials can be measured ultrasonically, including metals, plastic, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, residual water level gaging in a bellow tube is measured by appling the immersion ultrasonic technique. The bellow tube is located in complex structures. Since it is located at far deep distance, it is difficult to approach from outside working area to the bellow tube, which has some residual water level after drainage of water in it, because the structure like the bellow has peak and mold shape.

  4. Ω形波纹管的轴向刚度研究%RESEARCH ON THE AXIAL STIFFNESS OF Ω-SHAPED BELLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宁; 欧开良; 王长路; 周峰; 贺宾; 贺艳娜

    2011-01-01

    为研究Ω形波纹管的刚度特性,用有限元方法分别建立轴对称单元以及轴对称单元与接触单元组合的有限元模型.对同种规格、同种材料的单层Ω形与U形波纹管的轴向刚度进行对比分析,表明单层Ω形波纹管的补偿能力更强;探讨波纹管开口量和壁厚对单层Ω形波纹管轴向刚度的影响,与相关文献的研究结果一致;研究不同层数以及存在层间摩擦的条件下,Ω形波纹管的轴向刚度变化情况,表明Ω形波纹管的压缩刚度呈现非线性特点.%In order to explore the stiffness characteristic of ft-shaped bellows, the finite element model of axisymmetric element and axisymmetric element combined with contact element were established separately based on the finite element method. The axial stiffness of monolayer ft-shaped and U-shaped bellows, which have the same specifications and material, were analyzed and compared, and the results show that monolayer ft-shaped bellows has better capacity of compensation; the axial stiffness of the monolayer ft-shaped bellows with different amount of openings and wall thickness of the bellows was studied, whose results is coincidence with related literature; and the axial stiffness of ft-shaped bellows with different number of layers and the presence of friction between layers was researched, which shows that compression stiffness of ft-shaped bellows is nonlinear.

  5. 波纹管焊缝跟踪检测技术%Tracking measurement technology for welding seam of bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段振云; 蒋卫卫; 赵文辉; 任仲伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the seam quality and welding speed for bellows, an automatic welding technique with real-time tracking measurement system was presented according to the welding seam characteristics of bellows.The infrared laser sensor was used for performing the non-contact and real-time detection of welded joint center.The profile data of welding seam was transmitted by IEEE-1384 fire wire communication.Through pre-processing the data and combining with least square method, the coordinates of welding points were storaged and forecasted.Then the data was transmitted to the moving control card to control the welding gun.The experimental results show that the present tracking measurement technology for welding seam is stable and reliable, and is effective for improving the welding quality and efficiency of bellows.%为了提高波纹管焊缝的焊接质量和焊接速度,根据波纹管焊缝的特点,提出了一种实时跟踪检测波纹管焊缝的自动焊接技术.采用红外激光传感器对焊缝中心进行非接触式实时检测,通过1394火线通讯传输焊缝轮廓数据,经焊缝数据点预处理后结合最小二乘法直线拟合原理对焊点坐标进行存储与预测,再向运动控制卡发送数据控制焊枪跟踪焊接.实验结果表明,此焊缝跟踪检测技术稳定可靠,能够有效地提高波纹管的焊接质量和生产效率.

  6. Report of the study on bellow gas meters; Rapportage naar aanleiding van het onderzoek naar balgenmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, T.; Van Liere, M.; Van der Meulen, B.; Te Velthuis, M.

    2008-07-15

    In March 2007, AnMar Research published a study on the (in)correct use of bellow gas measuring and the consequences for small users of gas. In this report, AnMar states that structural measuring errors have occurred with gas meters as well as a volume conversion error, causing the Dutch consumer to overpay millions of euros annually. This led to questions in the Dutch Lower House and the Minister of Economic Affairs consequently promised an inquiry into measuring and gas technical aspects as well as a study of the processing of possible measuring deviations by energy suppliers. This publication reports on the results of these studies. [mk]. [Dutch] In maart 2007 heeft AnMar Research Laboratories een onderzoek gepubliceerd over de (in)correcte gasmeting door balgenmeters en de gevolgen daarvan voor kleinverbruikers van gas. In dit rapport stelt AnMar dat sprake is van een structurele meetfout door gasmeters en een volumeherleidingsfout, waardoor de Nederlandse consument vele miljoenen euro's op jaarbasis teveel zou betalen. Volgend op vragen in de Tweede Kamer heeft de Minister van Economische Zaken een meet- en gastechnisch onderzoek en een onderzoek naar de verwerking van eventuele meetafwijkingen door energieleveranciers aan de Tweede Kamer toegezegd. In Hoofdstuk 2 zullen we zien dat sprake is van een structureel te hoog gemeten volume, met name door een te laag veronderstelde temperatuur van het gas. Afgaande op de daadwerkelijk gemeten temperatuur, blijkt voor de gemiddelde consument het volume ongeveer 3,25% te hoog uit te vallen. In Hoofdstuk 3 is te lezen dat dit te hoge volume tot een meetwinst voor de leveranciers leidt. Deze door de leverancier gemaakte meetwinst is echter lager dan 3,25%. Dat komt doordat tijdens het transport gas 'verloren' gaat. Zo resteert voor de leveranciers uiteindelijk nog ongeveer 1,5% meetwinst van de in potentie 3,25%. Deze meetwinst van 1,5% wordt door de leveranciers verdisconteerd in de leveringstarieven en

  7. Water level gauging in a bellows tube by a combination of a special shoe and a position control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness measurement for most engineering materials can be obtained ultrasonically, including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, by using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, a residual water level measurement in a bellows tube was obtained by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special probe attachment. There are two kinds of transducers according to a water depth. An enhanced S/N ratio could be obtained from a 25 MHz frequency transducer more so than that of a 15 MHz frequency transducer, because of a good resolution of the transducer as a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain a frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT function. It is possible to analyze the signal patterns and obtain some information by using the frequency domain. In this experiment, we prepared a position control system for an accurate measurement. This system was designed and fabricated for a convenient control in a water tank, which has a combination of a sensor and a position control function. The shoes were made by Lusite material which had the same shape as the bellows tube and the immersion transducers were controlled by a 3-axis position control system, which can be operated within a moving distance as small as 0.5 mm. Certain specialized applications such as an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion water tank. (authors)

  8. A specialized bird pollination system with a bellows mechanism for pollen transfer and staminal food body rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Agnes S; Penneys, Darin S; Staedler, Yannick M; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-07-21

    Bird pollination has evolved repeatedly among flowering plants but is almost exclusively characterized by passive transfer of pollen onto the bird and by nectar as primary reward [1, 2]. Food body rewards are exceedingly rare among eudicot flowering plants and are only known to occur on sterile floral organs [3]. In this study, we report an alternative bird pollination mechanism involving bulbous stamen appendages in the Neotropical genus Axinaea (Melastomataceae). We studied the pollination process by combining pollination experiments, video monitoring, and detailed analyses of stamen structure and metabolomic composition. We show that the bulbous stamen appendages, which are consumed by various species of passerines (Thraupidae, Fringillidae), are bifunctional during the pollination process. First, the appendages work as bellows organs in a unique pollen expulsion mechanism activated by the passerines. As the birds seize an appendage with their beaks in order to remove it from the flower for consumption, air contained in the appendage's aerenchymatous tissue is pressed into the hollow anther. The resulting air flow causes the expulsion of a pollen jet and the deposition of pollen on the bird's head and beak. Second, the stamen appendages provide a hexose-rich, highly nutritious (15,100 J/g) food body reward for the pollinating passerines. This discovery expands our knowledge of flowering plant pollination systems and provides the first report of highly specialized bellows organs for active pollen transfer in flowering plants. In addition, this is the only known case of a food body reward associated with reproductive structures in the eudicot clade of flowering plants.

  9. Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron

  10. Exploration of Bellow's Thematic Concern as Illustrated in The Victim%贝娄早期小说《受害者》思想命题探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钧; 隋晓莹

    2001-01-01

    贝娄在《受害者》一书中塑造了一个禁锢于个人狭隘意识、对他人与外界冷漠麻木的人物形象一赖温索。作者运用具体生动的现实描写向读者展示了主人公精神世界的变化与成长,阐明了自己的思想命题。%Confined within his perverted consciousness, Leventhal, the protagonist of The Victim by Saul Bellow, is apathetically callous to the outside world. With vividly realistic depiction, Bellow graphically demonstrated Leventhal's spiritual development and revelaed his thematic concem in this novel.

  11. Water level gauging in a bellows tube using special shoes and ultrasonic immersion transducers according to the diverse frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness measurement for most engineering materials can be obtained ultrasonically, including metals, composites, and glass, as well as liquid levels and certain biological specimens. In this experiment, a residual water level in a bellows tube was measured by using an immersion ultrasonic technique according to diverse frequency transducers with special UT (Ultrasonic Testing) shoes for a position control device. In that case, a diverse immersion transducer's band is a wide band from a low frequency to a high frequency where each range has 2.25MHz, 15MHz, 25MHz. Therefore, we can obtain a database for all kinds of frequency transducers and then it is possible to compare the S/N ratio according to the diverse frequency, which includes information on a sensitivity and resolution of the measured signals received from these ultrasonic transducers for a detectable water thickness gauging. Certain specialized applications such as special shoes and an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion water tank. As a result, a high frequency transducer could obtain an enhanced S/N ratio more so than that of a low frequency transducer from many kinds of diverse transducers according to the water depth, because of a good resolution of the transducer as a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain a frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT (Fourier Fast Transform) function. It is also possible to analyze the signal patterns and obtain some more information from the frequency domain. (author)

  12. Design of the stability of self-regulated crycooler with bellows%提高波纹管式制冷器稳定性的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩蓬磊; 李勉

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of poor stability of self-regulated crycooler with bellows,through the force analysis of self-regulated structure of bellows,the reserved displacement is optimally designed which is the core components of the self-regulated crycooler with bellows. Self-regulation ability of the crycooler is enhanced. Mis-function of self-regula-ting and flow rate changing of the crycooler are avoided by design. The phenomenon of intermittent hydrojet of the self-regulated crycooler is improved. The stability of this crycooler is improved observably,which is verified through experiments.%针对波纹管式自调节流制冷器普遍存在稳定性差的问题,通过对此类制冷器最核心的部件---波纹管自调机构的受力分析,对制冷器的预留位移量这个核心参数进行优化设计,增强了制冷器的自调能力,从设计上避免制冷器不自调或流量变化现象的发生,改善了长期困扰自调式制冷器的间歇性喷液现象,提高了制冷器的稳定性,并通过实验得到了论证。

  13. Effects of Waveform on Welded Metal Bellows Stiffness%波片波形对焊接金属波纹管刚度的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭金; 马咏梅; 王庆

    2015-01-01

    焊接金属波纹管是密封件中重要部件,波纹管刚度对密封件的密封性能有显著影响。以2种S型波形DN70波纹管为研究对象,建立波纹管的单波有限元模型,确定适合的边界条件,分别研究波片波形直线段、圆弧段几何尺寸对其刚度的影响,通过优化分析获得与设计公式偏差较小的波形尺寸。研究结果表明,波片波形尺寸对波纹管的刚度有明显影响,内圆斜边波形的波片刚度比内圆直边波形的刚度大,直线段波形对刚度的影响比圆弧段波形大。%Welded metal bellows are the important parts of seal components, whose stiffness has a significant effect on sealing performance� Taking two kinds of DN70 bellows with S⁃type waveform as the research objects, the finite element model of single⁃wave bellows was set up, the suitable constraints were established, and the influences of the waveform geo⁃metrical sizes of the wave plate with line segments and circular arc segments on the stiffness were studied� The waveform size which has a smaller deviation with the design formula was got by the optimization analysis� The results show that the waveform size has aobvious effect on the stiffness of bellows;The wave plate with inner circle bevel edge waveform has lar⁃ger stiffness than that with inner circle straight edge waveform;The influence of straight segment waveform on the stiffness is larger than the arc segment waveform.

  14. 沥青泵波纹管密封失效分析与处理措施%Analysis of asphalt pump bellow seal failure and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘从锦; 范良学; 张伟; 木合塔尔

    2011-01-01

    The frequent leaking occurred in the operation of metal bellow seal in asphalt pump ( double screw pump) in propane deasphalting unit, the analysis concluded that the seal wearing and coking on the bellow seal are the culprits of failure. The optimization of operation has effectively solved the problems of evacuation of asphalt pumps due to the propane carry-over in asphalt, operating environment of bellow seal has been greatly improved, and revamping of seal installation has reduced the work load of screw pump maintenance. The installation of back steam cooling has lowered the seal cover temperature to 160 ℃ from 210 ℃, and the back-pressure steam has effectively reduced the heat transfer from high-temperature shaft of meshing gear in the bearing box and bearing lube oil. As the result, the working temperature of the bearing and gear is reduced , the service life is extended and the long-term operation of metal bellow seal is ensured.%丙烷脱沥青装置沥青泵(双螺杆泵)金属波纹管密封在使用中频繁出现泄漏,分析密封摩擦副和波纹管结焦是造成泄漏的主要原因.生产工艺优化有效地解决了沥青携带丙烷造成沥青泵半抽空的难题,金属波纹管密封运行环境得到了很大的改善;密封集装式改造使螺杆泵维修劳动强度明显降低;安装蒸汽背冷使密封压盖处温度从210 ℃降低到了 160℃,同时,背冷蒸汽有效减少了高温轴对轴承箱内啮合齿轮和轴承润滑油的传热,降低了轴承和齿轮的工作温度,延长了工作寿命,使金属波纹管密封得以长周期平稳运行.

  15. 饱和蒸汽压式波纹管疏水阀热动元件实验研究%Experimental study on the saturated vapor pressure type thermostatic bellows for steam traps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树勋; 徐登伟; 把桥环

    2011-01-01

    针对液体膨胀式波纹管蒸汽疏水阀排量不稳定、漏汽率高等问题,分析波纹管热动元件的热工特性.基于Riedel蒸汽压方程和气液平衡方程,建立饱和蒸汽压式波纹管热动元件的热力学模型,设计相应实验系统,进行不同参数下的实验研究.结果表明,饱和蒸汽压式波纹管热动元件伸长量是相变温度的单值函数,近似呈指数关系;采用不同混合比、刚度及填充方式,可调节疏水阀的排水过冷度.%In view of the instabilities of displacement and high steam leakage rate for the liquid-expansion type ther-mostatic bellows steam traps, thermodynamic characteristical of thermostatic bellows was analyzed. Based on the Riedel equation and the vapor-liquid equilibrium equation, thermodynamic model of the saturated vapor pressure type thermostatic bellows was set up, corresponding experimental system was designed, and experimental studies with different parameters was carried out. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The results show that the elongation A/I of the saturated vapor pressure type thermostatic bellows is monodrome function of phase transition temperature T, and relationship between the elongation A/I and the phase change temperature t is an exponential function. The subcooled temperature of steam trap can be adjusted by using different mixture ratio, different bellows' stiffness and different sufficient attire method. This paper establishes theoretical and experimental foundation for improving the performance of thermostatic bellows steam traps.

  16. 套管式换热器波纹管的数值模拟及结构参数优化%Numerical Simulation and Structural Parameter Optimization for Double-tube Heat Exchanger Bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀娟; 王尊策; 孔令真; 李森

    2013-01-01

    The numerical model for fluid flow and heat transfer within bellows was established and the parametric model for the structure of tube heat exchanger bellows was achieved. Taking the heat exchange quantity, the internal tube resistance and annular gap as evaluation indexes, the scheme of bellows' orthogonal test which including 3 factors and 3 levels was designed to simulate bellows' 9 different structures respectively; basing on difference and variance analysis of orthogonal testing results, the effect of different structural parameters on the bellows was achieved to determine an optimal combination of structural parameters with a balance method, and this provides a reference for the design or improvement on the tube heat exchanger bellows.%建立了波纹管流动和传热的数值模型,实现了换热器波纹管结构的参数化建模;以换热量、内管阻力和环隙阻力为评价指标,制定了波纹管4因素3水平正交试验,对9种结构的波纹管分别进行了数值模拟;对正交试验的结果进行了极差和方差分析,得到了各结构参数对波纹管的换热和阻力性能的影响规律,并用综合平衡的方法确定最优的波纹管结构参数组合,可为套管式换热器波纹管的设计和改进提供有价值的参考.

  17. 基于FLUENT的内插扭带波纹管内流场分析%Flow Field Analysis of Bellows with Twist Tape Inserts Using FLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静; 李文艳; 孙启蒙

    2016-01-01

    利用流体力学软件FLUENT对波纹管与扭带结合时的流场及传热进行了数值模拟,结合场协同原理考察了不同结构参数和操作参数对流动和传热的影响。结果表明:在入口雷诺数5000~60000,内插扭带波纹管由于扭带的螺旋导流作用,使壁面边界层减薄,在流动区域形成漩涡产生二次流,强化了对流传热过程;插入扭带后的波纹管内的流动仍具有周期性的特点,压降比普通的波纹管增加了2~3倍,且扭率较小时压降较高;场协同角在管子入口处较小,随流动的进行逐渐增大并趋于稳定;协同角随入口速度的增大呈递增趋势;有扭带的波纹管较光管协同角减小了约10%,较普通波纹管减小了约2%,场协同程度随扭率减小而增强。%The object of the study is using CFD software FLUENT to numerically analyze the flow and heat transfer characteristics of bellows with twisted tape inserts within a Reynolds number range of 5000-60000. The convective heat transfer enhancement with different structurals and operating parameters were also investigated by combining field synergy principle. The results show that the velocity boundary layer is thinner and vortexes appear in the vicinity of the twisted tape due to its spiral effect. The secondary flows in the flow regime contribute to the convective heat transfer performance. The periodic flow is also found in bellows with twisted tape inserts. However, its pressure drop is 2~3 times higher than ordinary bellows, and the pressure drop increases with the decrease of twist ratio. The average intersection angle is small at the entrance, and it increases with the development of flow and then becomes stable. The average intersection angle also increases with the increase of entrance velocity. Compared with smooth tubes and normal bellows, the average intersection angle of bellows with twisted tape inserts decreases by about 10% and 2%, respectively, and

  18. Design and Finite Element Analysis on Bellows of Combination Rotary Seal%井下组合动密封波纹管设计及有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琴; 亓京波; 胡远彪

    2012-01-01

    井下导向工具的组合动密封由机械密封、波纹管等组成,其中波纹管起角位移补偿和静密封作用,要求有足够的强度、轴向刚度和角位移补偿能力.根据导向工具的工作环境和空间结构设计角位移补偿波纹管的结构及参数.采用控制变量法对U型波纹管进行刚度计算,得出刚度的变化规律,确定波纹管的最终结构参数;并用有限元方法研究在内压载荷与径向弯曲载荷共同作用下,波纹管的结构参数变化对波纹管性能的影响,验证波纹管最终结构参数的合理性.%Combination rotary seal of steerable rotary drilling device is composed of mechanical seal and bellow, and the bellow plays the role of angular displacement compensation and static seal, which is required to have adequate strength, ax ial stiffness and angular displacement capability. The bellows which are applied to angle displacement compensation was designed to meet the seal demand of environment and space of the steerable tool. The control variable method was adopted to calculate the stiffness of U-shape bellows, the rules of stiffness change were educed and the final structure parameters were established. The bellows performances of two different structures were studied by finite element analysis under the loads of press and bend,and reliable results were obtained.

  19. 三峡电站封闭母线铝波纹管的有限元设计和分析%The finite element design for the aluminium-bellow of sanxia power-plant closed generatrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟光; 陈修祥; 马履中

    2011-01-01

    The parametric model of aluminium bellow of SanXia Power-Plant Closed Generatrix is built based on ANSYS,the relation of the geometric parameters such as wave height,wave pitch to the stress are analyzed,and the optimized design for bellow is proceeded by ANSYS. Finally the stiffness 、modal andysis and inhere fiequency of the bellow are calculated,and the results are finely used to SanXia project.%利用ANSYS软件对三峡地下电站封闭母线的波纹管建立了参数化模型,分析了结构参数波高、波距对强度的影响,利用ANSYS对波纹管进行了优化设计,计算了波纹管的刚度,并分析了波纹管的振动模态的振型和固有频率,其结果满足了工程的要求.

  20. A System for a Water Thickness Gauging in a Bellows Tube was Developed, by using a Special UT Probe Attachment and an Immersion Ultrasonic Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness gauging for most engineering materials can be measured ultrasonically, including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, by using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, a residual water level gauging in a bellow tube is measured by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special UT probe attachment. There are two kinds of transducers according to the water thickness. In this case, the enhanced S/N ratio could be obtained from the 15 MHz frequency transducer more than a 2.25 MHz frequency transducer, because of the good resolution of the transducer with a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain the frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT function. It is possible to analyze the signal patterns and some information from the frequency domain. (authors)

  1. Study on Tired Life Test of Mental-Bellows in Electrical Vacuum Device%电真空器件用金属波纹管的疲劳寿命试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兆祥; 陈小红; 姚拴科

    2013-01-01

    Metal-bellows play a very important role in instrument and meter valve and electrical vacuum device as elastic sensitive device,compensate device and sealed device.It is always in a state of stretching and compressing back and forth.In order to test the number of times with no failure under continuing stretching and compressing,the tired life test of mental-bellows is introduced.With some specific examples,the paper give several main parameters which affect the metal-bellows life and show how to select these parameters properly.%金属波纹管作为仪器、仪表、阀门、电真空器件中的弹性敏感元件、补偿元件、密封元件起到很重要的作用,仪器、仪表、阀门、电真空器件在工作时,其中的波纹管经常处于往复拉伸和压缩的工作状态,为了考核波纹管能够承受往复拉伸和压缩不失效的次数,引入了金属波纹管的机械疲劳寿命试验,本文结合具体实例,介绍了影响波纹管机械疲劳寿命的参数和在实践中这些参数的合理选择.

  2. Structure design and finite element analysis on system of balance and bellows%天平与波纹管系统结构设计与有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 林俊; 殷国富; 彭云; 郭旦平; 王玉花

    2013-01-01

    To meet wind tunnel test demands for an aircraft's afterbody,a novel measuring device,a balance airproofed with metal bellows,is developed.Utilizing sealing principle,this device can keep stable pressure in its inner cavity by blocking pressure fluctuations of wind tunnel flow field with the bellows,and can accurately measure the aerodynamic loads acting on the airplane's afterbody with the balance.The appropriate structural designs and full analysis on static and dynamic mechanics performance for the balance and bellows are studied based on finite element method,which lead an ideal design.The results of static calibration and wind tunnel tests show that the interference to force balance from the flow pressure fluctuations is little with the good airproof-effect of the bellows,and the test demands are realized in term of the expectation.%为满足某飞机后机身风洞试验需求,研制了一种用金属波纹管密封测力天平的新型测力装置.利用密封原理,该装置的波纹管结构能有效地隔断风洞流场压力波动,使其内腔压力平衡,确保天平精确测量作用在飞机后机身上的气动载荷.通过对天平与波纹管系统进行合理的结构设计,以及应用有限元方法进行详尽的静态和动态力学分析,该装置得到了较为理想的设计结果.天平地面校准和风洞试验结果表明,波纹管密封效果好,对天平测力干扰小,达到了预期的试验要求.

  3. 贝娄小说《雨王汉德森》的个体心理学解读%An Interpretation of Bellow' s Henderson the Rain King from the Perspective of Individual Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁东

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing Henderson the Rain King by Saul Bellow who is a winner of Nobel Prize for Literature from the perspective of Adler' s theory of individual psychology will reveal the fact that the protagonist of the novel, Henderson, is a character with inferior complex and his trip to Africa is a spiritual journey of overcoming the feelings of inferiority and achieving perfection.%借助阿德勒的个体心理学理论解读诺贝尔文学奖获得者索尔·贝娄的小说,可以发现小说中的主人公汉德森是一个有着自卑情结的人物,而他的非洲之行是其超越自卑和走向自我完善的精神成长之旅.

  4. 内压—压缩位移载荷作用下U形波纹管平面失稳判据的应用研究%Research on Application of Criterion in the In-Plane Instability of Non-Reinforced U-Shape Bellows under Internal Pressure and Displacement Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晔; 李永生; 顾伯勤; 刘艳江; 段玫; 常谦

    2001-01-01

    The diagram and fitted model is presented to simplify the critical behaviour curve in the in-plane instability of stainless steel bellows under internal pressure and displacement loads,in accordance with the research on criterion in the in-plane instability of non-reinforced U-shape bellows.%本文在U形无加强波纹管平面失稳判据研究的基础上,对内压和轴向位移载荷作用下不锈钢波纹管的平面失稳临界工况线,采用了作图法和参数拟合方法加以简化,使之能够应用于工程设计。

  5. 不锈钢截止阀波纹管组件腐蚀开裂失效分析%Failure Analysis of Corrosion Cracking of Bellows Subassembly in Stainless Steel Sealed Valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明卫平; 张怡悦; 王传志; 许元; 刘欣芳; 熊金平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To find out the causes for corrosion cracks by failure analysis in the condition that the bellows subassem-bly made of 06Cr19Ni10 stainless steel in the sealed valves cracked which resulted in the failure of sealed valves. Methods The appearance of the failed bellows subassembly was examined by naked eyes, the metallographic structure and the chemical compo-nents were analyzed respectively by the metallographic microscope and direct reading spectrometer;the morphology and fracture of the failed subassembly were observed by SEM. Results Cleavage plane, cleavage steps and corrosion products were seen on the fracture of the outer wall, which was the typical feature for stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel. Some dimples were observed on the inner wall fracture, which indicated that the inner wall had ductile fracture. The analysis showed that the quality of microstructure and chemical composition of the bellows subassembly met the requirements on design and usage. The medium test results showed that the content of harmful ions was relatively high in the heat transfer fluid ( HTF) which contained 55 mg/kg chlo-ride ion and over 350 mg/kg sulfur. Conclusion The main fracture causes of outer and inner wall of the double-layer bellows subas-sembly were different;the failure of outer wall was due to the stress corrosion related to the high content of chloride ion, while the fracture of inner wall was ductile fracture, which was due to the significant decrease in compressive strength in the result of the plane instability cause by the failure of outer wall. It is proposed that the content of harmful ions should be reduced in HTF and the stainless steel with better corrosion resistance should be used.%目的:针对某炼油厂波纹管截止阀中双层不锈钢304波纹管组件发生开裂,造成截止阀失效的现况,通过失效分析,寻找腐蚀开裂的原因。方法对失效开裂的不锈钢截止阀双

  6. 中国实验快堆典型钠阀温度分布研究%Study on temperature distribution in bellows seal sodium valve assembly of China Experimental Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生; 张东辉; 刘云焰

    2012-01-01

    The typical bellows seal sodium valves, as the important equipment in the sodium systems of China Experimental Fast Reactor, have a significant effect on the safety of fast reactors. The typical valves caused some problems in the test stage. The paper is to get the results of temperature distribution in the sodium valve assembly on stable heat transfer condition, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The paper also analyses the results computed under the condition of fixed thickness and the different height of thermal insulation materials. It gets a good conclusion through the comparison of measured and simulated results and the numerical simulation result is logical and meaningful.%中国实验快堆典型钠阀作为系统重要的涉钠设备,直接影响着反应堆系统的安全运行.中国实验快堆工程在调试和运行阶段面临着钠阀门带来的一系列问题.本文应用CFD软件计算了两种运行工况下典型钠阀稳态温度场分布,分析了保温层厚度一定、高度不同的情况下,钠阀门的温度场分布结果,并与实验结果进行了对比,证明结果是合理的有意义的.

  7. Research on Deformation-induced Martensite Content of Austenite Stainless Steel Bellows Based on Magnetism Testing Method%基于磁性测定法研究奥氏体不锈钢波纹管的形变马氏体含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛水平; 陈海云; 伍红军; 王飞

    2012-01-01

    根据形变诱发马氏体磁性的变化,针对SUS304和SUS316L奥氏体不锈钢分步机械胀压成型波纹管以及未经固溶处理与经固溶处理SUS304奥氏体不锈钢液压成型波纹管,采用MP30E—S型铁素体测定仪定量测定了波纹管母材区及焊缝区的形变马氏体含量。结果表明:形变马氏体含量的大小与波纹管材料、相对变形量以及热处理状态等均有很大关系;在相同变形量条件下SUS316L不锈钢的形变马氏体含量比SUS304不锈钢要小得多;相对变形量越大,形变马氏体含量也越大,且波峰处的形变马氏体含量较波谷处的要大得多;与未固溶处理波纹管相比,经固溶处理后波纹管的形变马氏体含量显著减小。%According to magnetism variety of the deformation-induced martensite, the deformation-induced martensite content was tested with MP30E-S type ferrite measurement instrument, for the bellows made of SUS304 and SUS316L austenite stainless steel separately formed by machine-bulge method, and bellows made of SUS304 austenite stainless steel formed by hydraulic pressure with or without solution treatment respectively. The results show that the deformation-induced martensite content greatly depended on the material, relative deformation amount and heat treatment state. The deformation-induced martensite content of SUS316L stainless steel was much less than that of SUS304 stainless steel under the same deformation condition. The deformation-induced martensite content increased with the increase of relative deformation amount, and the deformation-induced martensite content at the wave crest was much more than that at the wave trough. Solution treatment could greatly reduce the deformation-induced martensite content of the bellows.

  8. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, George A.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  9. Service experience and stress corrosion of Inconel 600 bellows expansion joints in turbine-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 Inconel 600 single and 2-ply expansion joints exposed to less than 3800C high purity water for times up to 12 years at 100 to 250 psig have experienced failures in only 7 cases. Mill annealed sheets are gas tungsten welded and may or may not be stress relieved. Design and structural details are given; statistics on number of joints and service times are listed. Details of 7 failures include pressures, boiler type, water treatment, turbine inlet conditions, temperatures and other parameters. Steam was greater than 3150C and 140 psig. Deposits from failed joints showed magnetite, various carbonates, calcium, silicates, and sodium orthophosphate. The sulfate anion was found also in some locations. Microscopic examination of failed zones showed carbide aggregations. Hydroxide and sodium ions were found in cracks. Failures were attributed to caustic stress corrosion cracking resulting from excursions of water treatment chemicals. Laboratory tests were made of stressed samples in high purity, low oxygen water, boiling ferric sulfate, inhibited sulfuric acid, potassium-sodium hydroxide; in 2700C air with fused caustic-steam environments was 25 ksi. Silicon dioxide promoted cracking in K-NaOH. Annealed specimens did not crack in 3300C high purity water even after pickling in nitric-hydrofluoric acid. Caustic concentrations over 50 percent were necessary for cracking

  10. Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Vieira B. de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin. As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin.

  11. Standards Comparison for Bellows Expansion Joint%波形膨胀节常用标准比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小龙; 段瑞

    2012-01-01

    Comparison between several expansion joint codes is made from the aspect of applicable range, stress calculation, squirm pressure, fatigue hie, fabrication and inspection. Issues need to be focused in subsequent research is advised.%以表格形式,详细对比了几个常用膨胀节标准在适用范围、应力计算、失稳压力计算、疲劳设计、制造、检验及验收等方面的异同,并提出了膨胀节后续研究中应重点关注的问题.

  12. Material and structural mechanical modelling and reliability of thin-walled bellows at cryogenic temperatures. Application to LHC compensation system

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric; Skoczen, Blazej

    The present thesis is dedicated to the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The plastic strain induced martensitic transformation and ductile damage are taken into account in an elastic-plastic material modelling. The kinetic law of →’ transformation and the evolution laws of kinematic/isotropic mixed hardening are established. Damage issue is analysed by different ways: mesoscopic isotropic or orthotropic model and a microscopic approach. The material parameters are measured from 316L fine gauge sheet at three levels of temperature: 293 K, 77 K and 4.2 K. The model is applied to thin-walled corrugated shell, used in the LHC interconnections. The influence of the material properties on the stability is studied by a modal analysis. The reliability of the components, defined by the Weibull distribution law, is analysed from fatigue tests. The impact on reliability of geometrical imperfections and thermo-mechanical loads is also analysed.

  13. Application of Non-homogeneous Solution for Equations of Slender Ring Shells to Overall-Bending Problem of Ω-Shaped Bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    NomenclaturebradiusoftheringsectionhthicknesofringshelsRradiusoftheparalelcircleR1,R2radioftheprincipalcurvature,R2=bRmaverag...

  14. State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch Special Surveys for Bellow Beach, Oahu, Hawaii 1992-1999 (NODC Accession 0014264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Monitoring Section of the State of Hawaii, Department of Health, Clean Water Branch collected water quality samples at six sites near the mouth of streams and...

  15. EFFLUENT - DISCHARGE DESCRIPTION and Other Data from BELLOWS and Other Platforms From Gulf of Mexico from 19651115 to 19780225 (NODC Accession 8600141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a collection of three kinds of data. First data set consists of of files of Fish Histopathology data from the South Texas Outer Continental Shelf...

  16. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  17. 威胜利塑料波纹管的应用与其摩阻系数的测定%Application of VSL Plastic Bellow and Determination of Its Friction Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯平

    2004-01-01

    VSLPT-PLUSH塑料波纹管,因其摩阻系数明显较小,故在大跨度桥梁预应力钢束应用中,可适当减少配筋,节约预应力钢材.本文介绍应用实例及其摩阻系数的测定.

  18. 索尔·贝娄创作中的“大屠杀”阴影及其反思%The Shadows of the Holocaust and the Introspection on It in Saul Bellow's Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武跃速; 蒋承勇

    2015-01-01

    索尔·贝娄在其创作中多次表达了他对纳粹大屠杀的诸多思考.文章通过散点透视,从其表现大屠杀的《受害者》《赛姆勒先生的行星》《贝拉罗莎暗道》《拉维尔斯坦》等几部重要小说中,分阶段地阐述其从20世纪40年代的“恐惧”和“受害”隐喻,到60、80年代直接的回忆性控诉和对历史记忆的反复强调,一直到21世纪最后一部作品中的类似遗嘱,阐明和缕析作家立足西方文化、普遍人性和人类历史维度书写“大屠杀”灾难所显示出来的深厚内涵和警示意义.这种具有宏阔视野的反思方式也是贝娄在文学上的贡献.

  19. Multibeam collection for USF2002Fla: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 2002-04-17 to 2002-07-14, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  20. Multibeam collection for USF2001Mudhole: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 2001-03-01 to 2002-04-13, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  1. ASTM F1120管道用圆形金属波纹膨胀节标准介绍%Introduction of the ASTM F1120 Standard Specification for Circular Metallic Bellows Type Expansion Joints for Piping Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱庆南; 冯敏雯; 陈立苏

    2008-01-01

    概略地介绍了美国材料试验协会的标准ASTM F1120--2004管道用圆形金属波纹膨胀节标准,并就与其相近的GB/T 12777--1999金属波纹管膨胀节通用技术条件及EJMA--2005美国膨胀节制造商协会标准进行了比较,以方便业内人士选用.

  2. Multibeam collection for USF1999: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 1999-02-17 to 1999-10-08, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. 人之自我的寻找——加缪与贝娄对读一种%On Man's Searching for Self——A Parallel Reading of Albert Camus and Saul Bellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙

    2009-01-01

    20世纪,西方的两位文学家加缪和贝娄对人之自我的寻找这一现代著名命题都进行了精深的描述和思考.加缪以形而上的体验确认人之自我与世界、与他者之间存在"荒诞的墙",故强调坚持自我,承认并坚守人生自我的限度,可以说悲剧性地触及了人生存在的真实底线;贝娄则在社会文化层面注意到人之自我总会不期而遇他者的介入,寻找自我这一行动在精神上常常会演变成对他者的寻求,从而树立起某种超越自我的终极性追求.二者相参照,呈现出人生存在的复杂处境.

  4. Long range plan for flexible joint development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective is to develop bellows expansion joints into CDS and subsequent LMFBR and liquid metal applications. An assessment was performed on the use of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 718 as bellows materials

  5. Technical Note: Development of a tidal volume surrogate that replaces spirometry for physiological breathing monitoring in 4D CT

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, René; White, Benjamin; Handels, Heinz; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Spirometry exhibits baseline drift and frequent measurement errors so it cannot be used by itself to provide tidal volume-based image sorting or breathing motion modeling. Other breathing surrogates, in this study an abdominal bellows system, are drift free but do not measure tidal volume. Simultaneously using spirometry and the bellows system allows the user to convert the recorded bellows signal to tidal volume but still relies on spirometry measurements. The authors therefore prop...

  6. Uniformidade de irrigação em microaspersor operando abaixo da pressão de serviço em diferentes simulações de espaçamentos Irrigation uniformity for micro-sprinkler operating bellow of the working head in diff erent distances simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lourenço de Freitas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution uniformity evaluation of an irrigation system would have to be an essential element to the project and irrigation management. Some data of hydraulic characterization normally are supplied by manufacturers; however, generally, the number of information is very limited, diminishing the capacity of use of the equipment. What is normally found are recommendations of distances for determined service pressures. These recommendations are based in laboratory analysis, that is, with absence of winds. A previous evaluation of the sprinkler, to the fi eld, can determine other possibilities of use. The present work evaluated the uniformity and application potential effi ciency of a micro-sprinkler in three pressures of service below of the recommended ones for the manufacturer, for
    diff erent distances, in intention to inquire the possibility
    of use with lesser expense of energy. The results show that
    some are viable alternatives tested.A avaliação da uniformidade de distribuição de um sistema de irrigação deveria ser um elemento imprescindível ao projeto e manejo da irrigação. Alguns dados de caracterização hidráulica são normalmente fornecidos por fabricantes, no entanto, geralmente, o número de informações é bastante limitado, diminuindo a capacidade de uso do equipamento. O que normalmente se encontra são recomendações de espaçamentos para determinadas pressões de serviço. Essas recomendações são embasadas em ensaios de laboratório, ou seja, com ausência de ventos. Uma prévia avaliação do aspersor a campo pode determinar outras possibilidades de uso. O presente trabalho avaliou alguns parâmetros hidráulicos de um microaspersor em três pressões de serviço abaixo das recomendadas pelo fabricante, em diferentes espaçamentos, o intuito de averiguar a possibilidade de uso com menor gasto de energia. Os resultados obtidos demonstram viabilidade de uso dentro das alternativas ensaiadas.

  7. Viscous damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. C.

    1968-01-01

    Damping device exhibiting no hysteresis effect and capable of preload is used in place of a preload spring in an aneroid bellows to provide viscous damping. It operates about the action of a pressure sensing outer bellows attached to an active header above and a static header below.

  8. Saul Bellow’s Adherence and Breakthrough to Jewish Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most significant American Jewish writers in the 20th century, Saul Bellow was influenced by the Jewish tradition and American mainstream thoughts in his writing creations. The conflicts and amalgamation between these two different cultures in his novels indicate that Bellow not only adheres to the Jewish traditional culture, but also breaks through the narrow-mindedness of it.

  9. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  10. Thermal evaluation of the mean fatigue limit of a complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Olivier; Bremond, Pierre; Hild, Francois

    2005-03-01

    The study deals with the long-term reliability of a high precision pressure sensor using bellows mainly made of electroplated Ni. Bellows are expected to stay in service for many decades. Their high cycle fatigue behavior has to be known to assess the probability of airtightness loss. A specific high cycle fatigue setup, put in a resonant machine that is displacement-controlled, has been designed. An infrared thermographic technique is used to determine the mean fatigue limit of bellows. Increases in the mean temperature of the bellows with the displacement range are monitored. Several authors empirically relate the mean fatigue limit of a flat specimen to a rapid temperature change. A similar analysis is performed in the present case by using the bellows mean temperature. Finite element computations allow us to estimate a mean fatigue stress threshold for electroplated Ni. This result is compared with those obtained mechanically in a Woehler diagram.

  11. Benthic organism data from the South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) and the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida (MAFLA) Outer Continental Shelf studies from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978 (NODC Accession 8500179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts BELLOWS and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978....

  12. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  13. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... groin, this really offers the patient a tremendous advantage over having his bellow open. The recovery time ... just this type of work. One of the advantages we have at the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular ...

  14. Report of the SSC impedance workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-28

    This workshop focused attention on the transverse, single-bunch instability and the detailed analysis of the broadband impedance which would drive it. Issues discussed included: (1) single bunch stability -- impact of impedance frequency shape, coupled-mode vs. fast blowup regimes, possible stopband structure; (2) numerical estimates of transverse impedance of inner bellows and sliding contact shielded bellows; (3) analytic estimates of pickup and kicker impedance contributions; and (4) feasibility studies of wire and beam measurements of component impedance.

  15. A novel mechanical lung model of pulmonary diseases to assist with teaching and training

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Geoffrey M; Mulligan Kerry J; Yuta Toshinori; Chase J Geoffrey; Horn Beverley

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation with accurate volumes and compliances, while connected directly to a ventilator. Methods The lung is modelled with multiple units, represented by rubber bellows, with adjustable weights placed on bellows to simulate compartments of different superimposed pressure and co...

  16. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus: acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  17. High-Reynolds Number Active Blowing Semi-Span Force Measurement System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Rhew, Ray D.; Acheson, Michael J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent wind-tunnel tests at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility utilized high-pressure bellows to route air to the model for evaluating aircraft circulation control. The introduction of these bellows within the Sidewall Model Support System significantly impacted the performance of the external sidewall mounted semi-span balance. As a result of this impact on the semi-span balance measurement performance, it became apparent that a new capability needed to be built into the National Transonic Facility s infrastructure to allow for performing pressure tare calibrations on the balance in order to properly characterize its performance under the influence of static bellows pressure tare loads and bellows thermal effects. The objective of this study was to design both mechanical calibration hardware and an experimental calibration design that can be employed at the facility in order to efficiently and precisely perform the necessary loadings in order to characterize the semi-span balance under the influence of multiple calibration factors (balance forces/moments and bellows pressure/temperature). Using statistical design of experiments, an experimental design was developed allowing for strategically characterizing the behavior of the semi-span balance for use in circulation control and propulsion-type flow control testing at the National Transonic Facility.

  18. Experience with one-layer high-strength ferrite and austenite bellous of pipe joint compensators in 20 ata hot steam pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous signs of damage have occured on one-layer high-strength ferrite and austenite bellows of pipe joint compensators in 20 ata superheated-steam pipelines. From a precise analysis of the damage cases, it was found that in ferrite material, the high creep-alternating stress lead to damage, whereas in the austenite material, above all the difficult workability and the slight ductility at operational temperature were determining factors. An attempt was made to prolong the lifetime of the compensators equipped with ferrite bellows by increasing the bellow wall thickness from 3 to 4 mm. These new compensators have so far achieved an operational time of about 10,000 hours with 50 drives without visible deformations or damage. (orig./LH)

  19. Structural Analysis of an Integrated Model of Short Straight Section, Service Module, Jumper Connection and Magnet Interconnects for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S; Kumar, A; Skoczen, B; Soni, H C

    2004-01-01

    The Short Straight Section (SSS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may undergo relative displacements between cold-mass and cryostat for the following three reasons: - Fabrication tolerance of interconnection bellows - Global smoothing after pre-alignment - Ground motion in a sector of the LHC tunnel The forces responsible for such displacements stem from finite stiffness of interconnect bellows & metal hoses of the internal piping of the jumper connection and from relatively flexible 'glass fibre reinforced epoxy' (GFRE) composite supports of the cold mass. In addition, the vacuum jacket of the jumper connection and the large sleeves attached to both ends of SSS produce elastic deformations of the cryostat vessel. A unified finite element model consisting of cryostat, large sleeves, vacuum jacket of jumper, interconnection bellows, internal piping of jumper, composite cold supports and alignment jacks has been prepared. The knowledge of the position of the cold mass with respect to its cryostat under va...

  20. TheUniversalJewishnessintheViewofEthnology--AThematicStudyofHerzog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡潇霖

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Herzog from the view of ethnology and finds that the novel has a deeper meaning of universality and that it surpasses the concern of Jewishness and reaches a broader theme of humanistic care. By studying the Jewishness and universality in Herzog, it can be concluded that Saul Bellow embedded his anxiety and unique perceiving in his works. In this way, Bellow announced to the world that he was a Jew, an American, an ordinary human being and that a writer should not be the writer of a nation or a race, but of all human beings, he should not care about his own people, but about the whole human world.

  1. A flow-transfer device with nonmetallic diaphragms for propulsion wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Price, Barry L.

    1988-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has developed a new flow-transfer device for powered wind tunnel models in which the traditional metal bellows have been replaced with nonmetallic diaphragms. Two complete flow transfer assemblies have been fabricated and installed within a twin-jet propulsion simulation system. Calibrations of the force balance have been performed over a range of nozzle mass flow rates up to 15 lbs/sec in order to validate the nonmetallic diaphragm design concept. Results from these calibrations are compared to those obtained with flow-transfer devices utilizing metal bellows.

  2. Study of the thorium incorporation by inhalation in individuals occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model describing the metabolism of inhaled thorium in the human body was developed. Through this model theoretical limits of excretion were calculated for workers of a monazite plant (Usina Santo Amaro). This limits were based on International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 30, 1979. Excreta samples from twelve workers of Usina Santo Amaro were collected and analysed for thorium. All samples were bellow the theoretical limits of excretion indicating that Usina Santo Amaro workers are exposed to thorium levels bellow the Annual Limits of Intake recommended by ICRP, publication 30. (author)

  3. Lessons Learnt and Mitigation Measures for the CERN LHC Equipment with RF fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Assmann, R W; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Berrig, O E; Bertarelli, A; Bregliozzi, G; Calatroni, S; Carra, F; Caspers, F; Day, H A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallilee, M A; Garion, C; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Jimenez, J M; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Losito, R; Nougaret, J L; Parma, V; Redaelli, S; Salvant, B; Strubin, P; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    Beam-induced RF heating has been observed in several LHC components when the bunch/beam intensity was increased and/or the bunch length reduced. In particular eight bellows, out of the ten double-bellow modules present in the machine in 2011, were found with the spring, which should keep the RF fingers in good electrical contact with the central insert, broken. Following these observations, the designs of all the components of the LHC equipped with RF fingers have been reviewed. The lessons learnt and mitigation measures are presented in this paper.

  4. Multiple homoclinic orbits in conservative and reversible systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Homburg; J. Knobloch

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We study dynamics near multiple homoclinic orbits to saddles in conservative and reversible flows. We consider the existence of two homoclinic orbits in the bellows configuration, where the homoclinic orbits approach the equilibrium along the same direction for positive and negative times.

  5. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  6. A method to determine methylmethacrylate in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Gottlieb, J; Nielsen, P M;

    1988-01-01

    To determine the air concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer and thus obtain information about the safety in the operating theater, a methylmethacrylate Dräger tube was used in connection with a bellows pump. This method gives an instantly readable value correlated with more complicated gas...

  7. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that because we’re doing this with such holes in the groin, this really offers the patient a tremendous advantage over having his bellow open. The recovery time for what we’re doing here is going ...

  8. Leptotrachelus dorsalis: the prodigal son returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticides are well established as a production practice that can de-stabilize agricultural ecosystems. This occurs because insecticides frequently control not only the pest, but they also kill beneficial insects. These beneficial insects help to maintain the pests bellow economic levels and if th...

  9. CMS and CERN teams perform delicate surgery on the beamline at –18 m

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Over the Christmas period, teams from CMS and CERN worked on replacing a bellows unit using a very delicate method that ensured the beam pipe vacuum wasn’t affected during the task. Read more in the Technical Coordination contribution in this CMS Bulletin.

  10. Suzbijanje korova i ostaci herbicida u proizvodnji princa

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Hrlec, Goran; Tomeva, Elizabeta

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of herbicides activity on rice weeds and the herbicides residues in soil, water and rice has been researched. The best biological efficiency were given by the following combinations: Sofit plus 500 EC+ Basagran and Sofit combi 600EC+ Basagran. Herbicide residues in rice are bellow the allowed maximum.

  11. Suzbijanje korova i ostaci herbicida u proizvodnji pirinca

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Hrlec, Goran; Tomeva, Elizabeta

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of herbicides activity on rice weeds and the herbicides residues in soil, water and rice has been researched. The best biological efficiency were given by the following combinations: Sofit plus 500 EC + Basagran and Sofit combi 600 EC + Basagran. Herbicide residues in rice are bellow the allowed maximum.

  12. ANALYSIS OF MONOPOLE ANTENNA ON CIRCULAR DISC BY MODE MATCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baohua; Zhang Fushun; Liu Qizhong

    2001-01-01

    Mode matching is used for the analysis of monopole antenna on circular disc, which is achieved by developing a novel model consisting of two artificial ground planes above and bellow the monopole antenna. Using this model, the input impedance is computed and compared with measured data reported in literatures, and excellent agreement is observed.

  13. Development of the SCRF Power Coupler for the APT Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmierer, E.N.; Lujan, R.E.; Rusnak, B.; Smith, B.; Haynes, W.B.; Gautier, C.; Waynert, J.A.; Krawczyk, F.; Gioia, J.

    1999-03-01

    The team responsible for the design of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) superconducting (SC) radio frequency (RF) power coupler has developed two 700-MHz, helium gas-cooled power couplers. One has a fixed inner conductor and the other has an adjustable inner conductor (gamma prototype and alpha prototype). The power couplers will be performance tested in the near future. This paper discusses the mechanical design and fabrication techniques employed in the development of each power coupler. This includes material selection, copper coating, assembly sequences, and metal joining procedures, as well as the engineering analyses performed to determine the dynamic response of the inner conductors due to environmental excitations. A bellows is used in both prototype inner conductors in the area near the ceramic RF window, to compensate for thermal expansion and mechanical tolerance build-up. In addition, a bellows is used near the tip of the inner conductor of the alpha prototype for running the power coupler after it is installed on the accelerator. Extensive analytical work has been performed to determine the static loads transmitted by the bellows due to thermally induced expansion on the inner conductor and on the RF window. This paper also discusses this analysis, as well as the mechanical analysis performed to determine the final geometric shape of the bellows. Finally, a discussion of the electromagnetic analysis used to optimize the performance of the power couplers is included.

  14. The Acoustic Structure and Information Content of Female Koala Vocal Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Determining the information content of animal vocalisations can give valuable insights into the potential functions of vocal signals. The source-filter theory of vocal production allows researchers to examine the information content of mammal vocalisations by linking variation in acoustic features with variation in relevant physical characteristics of the caller. Here I used a source-filter theory approach to classify female koala vocalisations into different call-types, and determine which acoustic features have the potential to convey important information about the caller to other conspecifics. A two-step cluster analysis classified female calls into bellows, snarls and tonal rejection calls. Additional results revealed that female koala vocalisations differed in their potential to provide information about a given caller's phenotype that may be of importance to receivers. Female snarls did not contain reliable acoustic cues to the caller's identity and age. In contrast, female bellows and tonal rejection calls were individually distinctive, and the tonal rejection calls of older female koalas had consistently lower mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency. In addition, female bellows were significantly shorter in duration and had higher fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, and formant frequency spacing than male bellows. These results indicate that female koala vocalisations have the potential to signal the caller's identity, age and sex. I go on to discuss the anatomical basis for these findings, and consider the possible functional relevance of signalling this type of information in the koala's natural habitat.

  15. The Acoustic Structure and Information Content of Female Koala Vocal Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Determining the information content of animal vocalisations can give valuable insights into the potential functions of vocal signals. The source-filter theory of vocal production allows researchers to examine the information content of mammal vocalisations by linking variation in acoustic features with variation in relevant physical characteristics of the caller. Here I used a source-filter theory approach to classify female koala vocalisations into different call-types, and determine which acoustic features have the potential to convey important information about the caller to other conspecifics. A two-step cluster analysis classified female calls into bellows, snarls and tonal rejection calls. Additional results revealed that female koala vocalisations differed in their potential to provide information about a given caller's phenotype that may be of importance to receivers. Female snarls did not contain reliable acoustic cues to the caller's identity and age. In contrast, female bellows and tonal rejection calls were individually distinctive, and the tonal rejection calls of older female koalas had consistently lower mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency. In addition, female bellows were significantly shorter in duration and had higher fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, and formant frequency spacing than male bellows. These results indicate that female koala vocalisations have the potential to signal the caller's identity, age and sex. I go on to discuss the anatomical basis for these findings, and consider the possible functional relevance of signalling this type of information in the koala's natural habitat.

  16. Method of encapsulating radioactive or other dangerous waste and a container for this waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The matter is made insoluble for water, placed in a gasstight container and isostatically compacted to a solid body. The container has a bellow-formed outer wall and an inner capsule which is gas-permeable. The top and the bottom are plain and gas-tight. (G.B.)

  17. Cross-platform Software Defined Networking controller v multi-vendor prostředí

    OpenAIRE

    NEBÁZNIVÝ, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with software defined network and with protocol which supports this technology. In the text bellow is a brief OpenFlow functionality description. Thesis also contains instructions on how to deploy OpenFlow controller which manages active network devices from different vendors and with different operating systems.

  18. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  19. On the Lost Trust in Saul Bellow’s Novella A Theft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高惠; 尤广杰

    2014-01-01

    The changes of international status and society of America left deep impact on common people after two world wars. In such an environment, people gradually lost trust and faith. This paper analyzes why and how Saul Bellow reveals distrust in hu-man relations between lovers, family members, friends, employers and employees.

  20. An Archetypal Reading of Henderson the Ring King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时静

    2009-01-01

    Henderson the Rain King (1959) is one of Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow's major and mature novels. Like many great works, this novel can be traced hack to some ancient archetypes. This thesis attempts to use axchetypal the-ories to probe into the archetypal quest theme in Henderson the Rain King.

  1. Leak-tightness technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter on the leak-tightness of welded joints a study is made of welding and bonding technology (metals, glass-metals, ceramic-metals), the welding of flanges and collars, the welding of end pieces, the welding of an electric crossover and a bellows

  2. Mitmevärvilised mõtisklused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Doris Lessing. Kuldne märkmeraamat; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Italo Calvino. Palomar; Saul Bellow. Vihmakuningas Henderson; Danielle Steel. Rantsho; Margareta Strömstedt. Astrid Lindgren; Nicholas Davies. William - tulevane kuningas; Guntars Godinsh. Öö päike

  3. A Lower Rigid Support Structure for the HT—7U Vacuum Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云涛; 姚达毛; 等

    2002-01-01

    acuum vessel of the HT-7U is a fully welded toroidal structure with a nonicrcular cross-section nested in the bore of the TF coils.According to the requirement of the physics design,sixteen horizontal ports on outboard mid-plane and thirty-two vertical ports on the top and bottom are designed for diagnostics,plasma heating ,current driving,vacuum pumping and gas puffing,Bellows on these port necks are used for flexible components to absorb the relative displacement in radial and vertical directions due to external load,thermal expansion or contraction and assembly tolerance,and also used for isolation of mechanical vibration.For the support system of vacuum vessel it should be not only strong enough to withstand forces acting on the vessel interior components and the vessel itself due to the dead weight and electromagnetic interactions during plasma disruption.but also sufficiently flexible to be suited to thermal expansion during baking In order to solve this contradiction a new kind of low rigid support has been designed,which has a perfectly rigid in vertical direction and perfectly soft in radial direction. Some three-dimension finite element COMSMOS models were performed to analyze their structural strength,stiffness and fatigue life,with an emphasis on the static stress analysis.The load spectra during vacuum vessel operation were also simulated on these models in the view of fatigue design.It was confirmed that the bellows and support had sufficient strength in the designed range of the load conditions.The results showed that the peak stress on bellows was 87MPa and on the support system was 97MPa.Now all kinds of bellows and support system have been designed.In order to accumulate some engineering,experiences and probe into some molding die and welding technologies,prototypical bellows and support system have been fabricated.At the same time a mechanical testing apparatus was designed for proof tests on the prototypical bellows and support to verify their

  4. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  5. A Lower Rigid Support Structure for the HT-7U Vacuum Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云涛; 姚达毛; 武松涛; 翁佩德

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum vessel of the HT-7U is a fully welded toroidal structure with a noncircular cross-section nested in the bore of the TF coils. According to the requirement of the physics design, sixteen horizontal ports on outboard mid-plane and thirty-two vertical ports on the top and bottom are designed for diagnostics, plasma heating, current driving, vacuum pumping and gas puffing. Bellows on these port necks are used for flexible components to absorb the relative displacement in radial and vertical directions due to external load, thermal expansion or contrac tion and assembly tolerance, and also used for isolation of mechanical vibration. For the support system of vacuum vessel it should be not only strong enough to withstand forces acting on the vessel interior components and the vessel itself due to the dead weight and electromagnetic inter actions during plasma disruption, but also sufficiently flexible to be suited to thermal expansion during baking. In order to solve this contradiction a new kind of low rigid support has been designed, which has a perfectly rigid in vertical direction and perfectly soft in radial direction.Some three-dimension finite element COSMOS models were performed to analyze their structural strength, stiffness and fatigue life, with an emphasis on the static stress analysis. The load spectra during vacuum vessel operation were also simulated on these models in the view of fatigue design.It was confirmed that the bellows and support had sufficient strength in the designed range of the load conditions. The results showed that the peak stress on bellows was 87 MPa and on the support system was 97 MPa. Now all kinds of bellows and support system have been designed. In order to accumulate some engineering experiences and probe into some molding die and welding technologies, prototypical bellowvs and support system have been fabricated. At the same time a mechanical testing apparatus was designed for proof tests on the prototypical bellows and

  6. 迷你南瓜银叶病的发生与防治%Occurrence and Control of Squash Silverleaf Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 陈国元; 林惠鸣

    2013-01-01

    迷你南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)银叶病典型症状表现为叶面银灰色,主要由银叶粉虱(Bemisia argentifolii Bellows&Perring)传播,发病程度因受光照、温度、湿度的影响而有所变化,据此提出迷你南瓜银叶病的有效防治措施.%Typical symptoms of squash silverleaf disease was silver-gray foliage.The disease was mainly transmited by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring).The incidence is affected by light,temperature,humidity change.Accordingly,effective prevention and control measures about squash silverleaf disease were proposed.

  7. Experimental Study Of Precipitation Competition Of Ca(OH)2 And Mg(OH)2 On MSF Desalination Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competition study has been carried out by using sea water simulation containing of 142 on deposit ppm of bicarbonate ion, 400 ppm of calcium ion and 1272 ppm of magnesium ion. Experiment was performed by heating sample at temperature 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C for 30 minutes. Precipitation competition of Ca(OHh and Mg(OHh was analyzed by reduction of calcium and magnesium ion. Experiment data showed information that at the temperature bellow 800oC CaCO3 precipitation was more dominant, meanwhile above than 80oC precipitation Mg(OH)2 was more dominant. This competition occurred because at temperature more than 80oC rate of hydroxyl ion formation and Mg(OH)2 recipitation was greater than CaCO3 precipitation and at temperature bellow 80oC rate of hydrolysis carbonate ion was less than thermal decomposition bicarbonates ion

  8. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peksa, L.; Gronych, T.; Řepa, P.; Wild, J.; Tesař, J.; Pražák, D.; Krajíček, Z.; Vičar, M.

    2008-03-01

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Pa×m3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement.

  9. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Paxm3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement

  10. New mechanical testing equipment for testing in real and simulated service environments (HIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, P.; Holmstroem, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to introduce the application areas of the multifunctional high precision pneumatic loading system (HIPS), based on VTT developed and patented technology. The HIPS has been utilized in a number of different challenging environments, among others laboratory simulated nuclear power plant water environments such as the BWR, PWR and SCW, high temperature gas environment and actual nuclear reactor inpile testing. The test palette is also large, i.e. tensile testing, stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, creep fatigue, radiation impact on tensile and fatigue, and many variants with combined environmental impact. The HIPS has also successfully been used as mover system in a version of the contact electrode resistance measurement. The wide spectrum of tests enabled by the flexible concept is shortly described together with some test results from the different types of tests. The technological development path from single bellows tensile loading devices towards the more demanding double bellows fatigue and combined tension/compression/internal pressure system is described. (orig.)

  11. Thermal Calculations Of Input Coupler For Erl Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Sobenin, N P; Bogdanovich, B Yu; Kaminsky, V I; Krasnov, A A; Lalayan, M V; Veshcherevich, V G; Zavadtsev, A A; Zavadtsev, D A

    2004-01-01

    The thermal calculation results of input coupler for ERL injector cavities are presented [1]. A twin coaxial coupler of TTF-3 type was chosen for 2×75 kW RF power transfer. TTF-3 coupler was intended for high pulse and not high average power transmission, so there were revisings proposed in its design. New coupler configuration provides thermal leakage not more than 0.2 W at temperature 2.0K, 2 W at the temperature 4,0K and 50 W at temperature 80K. Construction revising was made at "cold" and "warm" bellows. In particularly, bellows separating was proposed to install additional heat sink. Coupler configuration with "warm" window of choke type was examined. It provides mechanical uncoupling of input waveguide and ceramic insulator. Electrodynamics simulations were carried out by MicroWaveStudio and HFSS codes, thermal analysis was maid using ANSYS.

  12. Testing device for fuel element samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device described is for testing samples for behavior at high temperature in heavy gamma radiation. The whole device is designed to be maintained in the high neutron flux of a nuclear reactor channel. It comprises two co-axial envelopes with cylindrical side walls and with convex truncated bottom and head walls, these truncated walls being maintained in pairs at a small distance and as constant as possible owing to the inner envelope being designed to accept the fuel element or other sample for testing and to be connected to an intake pipe and a return pipe for a sample environmental gas. The truncated head wall of the outer envelope is joined by a sealed thermal expansion bellows to the cylindrical wall of this same envelope. The restricted annular space between the inner envelope and the outer envelope with its bellows is designed to be coupled to an intake pipe and a return pipe for a variable thermal conductivity gas

  13. Breathing zone concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer during joint replacement operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Jørgensen, L G; Vedel, P;

    1992-01-01

    By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during cementat......By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during...... cementation of the acetabular cups with conventional polymethylmethacrylate cement. Such exposure could be eliminated by the use of personal protection equipment, local punctual field suction or change to a MMA/n-decylmethacrylate/isobornylmethacrylate bone cement....

  14. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-09-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system.

  15. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GHz ERL main linac. Component test at 30 kW IOT test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We started to develop an input coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity. Required input power is about 20 kW for the cavity acceleration field of 20 MV/m and the beam current of 100 mA in energy recovery operation. The input coupler is designed based on the STF-BL input coupler and some modifications are applied to the design for the CW 20 kW power operation. We fabricated input coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a 30 kW IOT power source and a test stand constructed for the highpower test. In this report, we mainly describe the results of the high-power test of ceramic window and bellows. (author)

  16. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  17. High sensitivity fiber Bragg grating pressure difference sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiwei Fu(傅海威); Junmei Fu(傅君眉); Xueguang Qiao(乔学光)

    2004-01-01

    Based on the effect of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure difference sensitivity enhancement by encapsulating the FBG with uniform strength beam and metal bellows, a FBG pressure difference sensor is proposed, and its mechanism is also discussed. The relationship between Bragg wavelength and the pressure difference is derived, and the expression of the pressure difference sensitivity coefficient is also given. It is indicated that there is good linear relation between the Bragg wavelength shift and the pressure difference of the sensor. The theoretical and experimental pressure difference sensitivity coefficients are 38.67 and 37.6 nm/MPa, which are 12890 and 12533 times of that of the bare FBG, respectively. The pressure difference sensitivity and dynamic range can be easily changed by changing the size, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio of the beam and the bellows.

  18. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  19. Ventilatory function test values of health adult Jordanians.

    OpenAIRE

    Sliman, N A; Dajani, B M; Dajani, H M

    1981-01-01

    A sample of 144 male, and 117 female healthy adults was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions for Jordanians. Forced vital capacity, FEV1, and FMF 25-75% were determined using a dry bellows spirometer. Linear regression curves and nomograms were constructed for predicted values. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the western hemisphere.

  20. THE BRAND EQUITY OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS - THE MEANING OF THE VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi Simona; Popa Luminita; Ban Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    In today's global economy, each place competes with other places for economic benefits. Destination has become a product that has to be promoted and sold in the most advantageous terms. The work bellow is an analysis of "brand equity" concept for touristic destinations, as found in the specific literature. Destination brands differ from product brands, major distinction being given by their stability/ instability. Brands of products are stable; this constant is maintained by the use of qualit...

  1. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  2. A novel fast helical 4D-CT acquisition technique to generate low-noise sorting artifact-free images at user-selected breathing phases

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D.; Lamb, J.; White, B.; Jani, S.; Gaudio, S.; P. Lee; Ruan, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) technique that exploits standard fast helical acquisition, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a breathing motion model to remove sorting artifacts. Methods and Materials Ten patients were imaged under free-breathing conditions 25 successive times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low-dose fast helical protocol. An abdominal bellows was used as a breat...

  3. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    María Berenice González Maldonado; Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (...

  4. Predictive Modelling of Cardiac 2D Multi-Slice MRI with Simultaneous Resolution of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darkner, Sune;

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to modelling of volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with simultaneous resolution of cardiac and respiratory motion. The major challenge is that the inherent slow nature of MRI prevents obtaining real-time volumetric images of the heart with...... respiratory bellow and a vectorcardiogram, and utilizes a combination of deformation modelling and pixel intensity modelling. We demonstrate that this approach reliably models volumetric cardiac MRI for any combination of cardiac and respiratory phase....

  5. Allergie affections of the larynx in children-a clinico pathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Gobind Chandra

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal manifestation of allergy though less common than, Rhinosinusitis, tubotympanitis and bronchopulmanary allergy but it is not that uncommon which is usually misdiagnosed and mistreated in children. Hence the importance of larynx as the allergic shock organ in children with spasmodic croup and laryngotracheo bronchits. In the present study in children bellow five years, presenting with stridor and/or hoarsness were evaluated regarding the history of allergy, direct laryngoscopic findin...

  6. Pulmonary function in normal Jordanian children

    OpenAIRE

    Sliman, Naif A; Dajani, Basem M; Shubair, Kandil S

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 204 male and 224 female healthy Jordanian children was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions of this Arab population. Forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FMFR 25-75%) were determined with a dry bellows spirometer. Multiple linear regression formulae and correlation coefficients were computed for the group. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the We...

  7. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    CERN Document Server

    Höhne, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  8. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  9. WATER QUALITY OF DUG WELLS OF MAYYANAD PANCHAYAT IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RESHMA S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive study on well water characteristics of Mayyanad Panchyat in Kerla was carried out during 2004-05 by analyzing samples from all the wards. All the water characteristics except colour, iron, and coliforms were found within the quality tolerance limits of drinking water as per BIS. The amount of flouride was bellow desirable level. WQI revealed that the water was partially clean; however, proper treatment and mass community action plan are suggested as remedial measures.

  10. Adaptive vector quantization in SVD MIMO system backward link with limited number of active sub channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaniš Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents combination of Channel Optimized Vector Quantization based on LBG algorithm and sub channel power allocation for MIMO systems with Singular Value Decomposition and limited number of active sub channels. Proposed algorithm is designed to enable maximal throughput with bit error rate bellow some tar- get level in case of backward channel capacity limitation. Presence of errors effect in backward channel is also considered.

  11. Radon in the Hotels in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m3, with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m3. This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)

  12. Modelling and Experimental Investigation of an Active Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luís Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation methodology of the dynamic behavior of an active viscous damper. The damper has two flexible metallic bellows connected to a rigid reservoir filled with fluid. When one of the bellows is connected to a vibrating structure a periodic flow passes through a variable internal orifice and the damping effect is produced. The size of the orifice is adjusted by a controlled linear piezoelectric actuator that positions the conical core into a conical cavity. The device finite element structural model consists of the valve body and its conical core that are assumed rigid and the flexible bellows are represented by two pistons with elastic suspensions. The flow developed inside the damper is modeled considering the fluid-structure interation, using the Lagrangean-Eulerian formulation. To validate the proposed model a prototype was constructed and experimental tests and numerical simulations are accomplished in the time domain, applying harmonic excitations. The results are compared using curves that relate the damping coefficient with the orifice size and with the input velocity applied at the bellows face. However, for the proper control design and system operation, the direct use of the finite element model becomes unviable due to its high computational time. Then, a reduced second order discrete dynamic model for the damper was developed. The model parameters are identified by analysis in the frequency domain, using impulsive excitation force, for constant and variable orifice sizes. At low excitation frequencies, the damper prototype behaves like a single degree of freedom system which damping factor changes with the orifice size A fuzzy controller was designed and it generates the orifice reference size associated to the desired damping factor. The active system presented better performance when compared to the passive one.

  13. Comparison of three trap types for adult catching of whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus in tomato greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nombela, Gloria; Chu, CC.; Heneberry, T.; Muñiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of three trap types to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (= Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet adult was compared in two choice experiments in a greenhouse at the Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, Spain.  Yellow sticky cards equipped with light-emitting-diodes (LED-YC) caught more adults per trap per day than yellow sticky card (YC) traps.YC traps caught significantly more B. tabaci and E. mundus adults than plastic cup traps...

  14. Abnormal grain growth effects on the mechanical behavior of Ni electrodeposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, O. [LMT-Cachan, ENS Cachan/CNRS-UMR 8535/Univ. Paris VI, Cachan (France); Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Univ. Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Hubert, O.; Hild, F. [LMT-Cachan, ENS Cachan/CNRS-UMR 8535/Univ. Paris VI, Cachan (France)

    2004-07-01

    The study deals with the long-term reliability of a high precision pressure sensor using bellows. They are mainly made of electroplated Ni whose thermal stability is investigated by DSC. EBSD measurements and SEM observations give some evidence for an abnormal grain growth mechanism whose effects on the elasto-plastic properties of the Ni deposit are experimentally investigated. Abnormal grain growth leads to an increase in the elastic modulus and a strong decrease in the yield strength. (orig.)

  15. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India)

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time.

  16. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  17. Taking Lawyering Skills Training Seriously

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, David A.; Bergman, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The lawyering skills so thoroughly explored in Gary Bellow and Bea Moulton's The Lawyering Process continue to be a major focus of clinical legal education. Distinguishing between case-centered and skill-centered clinical programs, this essay explores whether clinical courses provide a sufficient foundation for students to "transfer" the lawyering skills they are exposed to in law school to the practice of law. Drawing on the recent work of educational researchers and medical school educators...

  18. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  19. Zemědělská farma a její vliv na venkovský prostor

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtl, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Summary Agricultural farm and its impact on rural areas Permanent residents and regular visitors of countryside are exposed to farmer's activities. The object of this diploma thesis is a farm in the village Skalsko, located in the district of Mladá Boleslav. Very good agricultural conditions are specific for this region. The agricultural farm in Skalsko bellows with a high intensity of farming to the best enterprises in the branch. The aim of this thesis was to assess the impact of the ...

  20. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  1. Pump design for High Temperature Sulfuric acid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sulfuric acid concentration / decomposition section, consequent issues handling material corrosion and the coupling with high temperature energy source were generated, as well as the study of catalyst activity and stability. And Onuki et al., mentioned that material resistance issues are also important for the development of the hydriodic acid concentration/decomposition section. Moreover, the transfer of high temperature H2SO4 is a very important factor considering safety in successive reaction process and efficiency. As mentioned above, the pump to carry sulfuric acid is very important in SI process, but this study is insufficient. After forced cooling of high temperature H2SO4, reduction of safety and process efficiency which is caused by transfer, re-heating, and pressurization is one of the weaknesses in H2SO4 transfer system. Therefore, in this study, we proposed the newly designed H2SO4 transfer system for SI thermo-chemical cycle and the proposed H2SO4 transfer system was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis in order to investigate thermodynamic /hydrodynamic characteristics. As the results, we identify as follows as: By the thermal analysis result of bellows in developed transfer system, it is verified that continuous operation is possible within the deformation temperature limit of Teflon 430 K. Physical/chemical environment of inside the bellows box and performance of bellows in continuous operation condition were evaluated. It is verified that not only the bellows, but also the end-plate made of STS can provide reliability and durability during continuous operation. The CFD results on thermohydrodynamic characteristics show good performance for the proposed H2SO4 transfer system. It is evaluated that it will be efficient in actual manufacturing process because it can provide quantitative transfer and prevent heat loss

  2. Das novas possibilidades do trabalho coletivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Campregher

    2004-01-01

    This article attempts to show that more recent dinamics of capitalism based in flexible accumulation (in both dimensions technical and social) puts again the question about another kind of work, not pay by wages, and not inconscient about its power. In this way, work is yet 'a key category' to think society (in the oposite view of Claus Offe). Bellowing Marx, we believe that the combination of social activity is the power of productivity. And nowadays, this combination of social activity exis...

  3. ALEGEREA MIJLOACELOR DE COMUNICARE

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Vit

    2011-01-01

    In the material bellow are presented promotional materials that can be used for theadvertising of organizations, products and services offered by them. Also there aredisplayed the advantages and disadvantages of each one. There is a wide range ofcomunication mediums, that can be used by the organizations that wish to promote theirown products and services. These include external mediums of comunication: the printedpress, television, radio, cinematografy, and also internal means like direct co...

  4. Novel Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Huge Value Penalty for Solving Engineering Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ying; YU Xiaochun; LI Yongsheng

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of solving the engineering constrained discrete optimization problem, a novel discrete particle swarm optimization(DPSO) is proposed. The proposed novel DPSO is based on the idea of normal particle swarm optimization(PSO), but deals with the variables as discrete type, the discrete optimum solution is found through updating the location of discrete variable. To avoid long calculation time and improve the efficiency of algorithm, scheme of constraint level and huge value penalty are proposed to deal with the constraints, the stratagem of reproducing the new particles and best keeping model of particle are employed to increase the diversity of particles. The validity of the proposed DPSO is examined by benchmark numerical examples, the results show that the novel DPSO has great advantages over current algorithm. The optimum designs of the 100-1 500 mm bellows under 0.25 MPa are fulfilled by DPSO. Comparing the optimization results with the bellows in-service, optimization results by discrete penalty particle swarm optimization(DPPSO) and theory solution, the comparison result shows that the global discrete optima of bellows are obtained by proposed DPSO, and confirms that the proposed novel DPSO and schemes can be used to solve the engineering constrained discrete problem successfully.

  5. Contributions to modeling functionality of a high frequency damper system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, E. A.; Horga, S.; Vrabioiu, G.

    2016-08-01

    Due to the necessity of improving the handling performances of a motor vehicle, it is imperative to understand the suspensions properties that affects ride and directional respons.The construction of a fero-magnetic shock absorber is based on two bellows interconnected by a pipe-line. Through this pipe-line the fero-magnetic fluid is carried between the two bellows. The damping characteristic of the shock absorber is affected by the viscosity of the fero-magnetic fluid. The viscosity of the fluid, is controlled through a electric coil mounted on the bellows connecting pipe-line. Modifying the electrical field of the coil, the viscosity of the fluid will change, finally affecting the damping characteristic of the shock absorber. A recent system called „CCD Pothole Suspension” is implemented on Ford vehicles. By modifying the dampning characteristic of the shock absorbers, vehicle daynamics can be improved; also the risk of damaging the suspension will be decreased. The approach of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of the fero magnetic damper, thus determining how it will affect the performances of the vehicle suspensions. The experimental research will provide a better understanding of the behavior of the fero-magnetic shock absorber, and the possible advantages of using this system.

  6. Major and trace element vertical distribution in Matita lake - Danube Delta sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 25 elements in Matita lake sediments was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The obtained results were correlated with the core mineralogical composition determined by X-ray diffraction. The concentrations of microelements Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Lu, Ru, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Yb and of the major element Fe present similar vertical profiles and put in evidence three distinct regions, corresponding to the three types of sediments: lacustrine, brackish and loess-continental. The profiles of Sr and Ca, the major elements, are very well correlated with calcite content. Th, Hf and Na concentrations monotonously increase with depth and remain constant bellow 70 cm and reflect the change of sediment origin from lacustrine to brackish. They also could be correlated with feldspar fraction. Sb, Zn and As vertical profiles present a maximum near the sediment surface and fall steeply to their naturally appearing values bellow 20 cm. These profiles could not be correlated with any other major minerals, suggesting their pollutant origin. Bromine profile presents a high concentration at the surface of sediment and decreases at about 5 μg/g bellow 50 cm depth, suggesting its marine origin. U and Ba concentrations do not correlate with any major mineral and remain almost constant across the core. The research is in progress. (authors)

  7. The J.E.T (Joint European Torus) vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large vacuum vessel of the J.E.T. (Joint European Torus) experiment has been designed as an all metal composite torus of non-circular cross-section. To comply with mechanical stability and ultra high vacuum requirements it has been designed as a completely welded fabrication. The metal structure consists of 32 rigid sectors of box type construction suitably ribbed to withstand the stresses imposed upon them by the external forces. The bellows linking these rigid sectors determine the electrical resistance of the metallic vacuum vessel the long way around the torus, since currents which are induced in parallel with the plasma current should be kept as low as possible. All forces acting on the vacuum vessel are absorbed by the rigid sectors which also incorporate the openings to the interior of the machine, such as ports for pumping, diagnostics, auxiliary plasma heating, etc... This toroidal vacuum vessel is a double walled structure with the bellows linking the rigid sectors being fitted as pairs, and it is proposed to circulate hot inert gas through out this interspace in order to raise the temperature of the whole vacuum vessel to 500 degres C to achieve bakeout conditions which will assist in reaching the required base pressure of 10-10 torr, the outside of the vacuum vessel will be thermally insulated. The final choice of materials to construct this vacuum vessel was to use Inconel 600 or Nicrofer 7216 for the rigid sectors and Inconel 625 (Nicrofer 6020) for the bellows, the latter material having the required electrical resistivity

  8. Tratamento da superdosagem de anticoagulantes orais Reversal of excessive oral anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Maria Lourenço

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a resposta de 73 pacientes com superdosagem de droga anti-vitamina K (AVK a 3 esquemas de tratamento. MÉTODOS: Os 73 pacientes foram avaliados em 94 ocasiões e divididos em 3 grupos: grupo A (N=32 , suspensão do AVK por 2 dias e introdução de dose menor; grupo B (N=37, suspensão do AVK e reavaliação em 4 dias; grupo C (N=25, vitamina K por via oral. A razão normalizada internacional (RNI final foi considerada adequada quando entre 2,0 e 4,0. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos (chi²=2,352, p=0,671 para 61 pacientes com RNI inicial 8. Cinco dos 7 pacientes do grupo B que continuaram com superdosagem tinham RNI PURPOSE: To evaluate the response of 73 patients with antivitamin K (AVK overdose to 3 different therapeutic regimens. METHODS: Seventy three patients were evaluated in 94 occasions: group A (N=32, consisted of drug withdrawal for 2 days followed by reduced dosage; group B (N=37, drug withdrawal and reassessment within 4 days; group C (N=25, oral administration of vitamin K. Therapeutic range was set between INR-values of 2 and 4. RESULTS: Reversal regimens did not result in differences among 61 patients who had initial INR 4, but 5 of them were bellow 4.5, without increased bleeding risk. There were 10 patients in group C bellow therapeutic range, 6 of them with INR < 1.6, with risk of thromboembolism. Thirteen patients bled, but none required transfusion. CONCLUSION: Reversal of excessive oral anticoagulation can be safely performed by initial withdrawal of the drug, followed by lower doses. Vitamin K administration may lead to INR bellow the therapeutic range. This should be reserved for patients with high INR or in the presence of bleeding.

  9. 基于有限元的波纹管疲劳寿命影响因素分析%Analysis of Factors of Bellow’s Fatigue Life Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李上青

    2016-01-01

    基于ANSYS的AP DL参数化编程语言,在热-应力耦合的复杂工况下,对波纹管进行有限元建模。同时在充分考虑了波纹管非线性特点的前提下,确定了其疲劳破坏的危险位置,计算了疲劳寿命,进而探究得出影响因素与波纹管疲劳寿命之间的关系。研究表明:波纹管疲劳寿命随壁厚、直壁段倾斜角的增大而增大,随波数、波高、受载的增大而减小,不同材料类型适用于不同疲劳寿命要求的场合。这些结论有助于波纹管的疲劳寿命设计。%Based on ANSYS APDL parametric programming language, in the couple and complex condition of thermal-stress, finite element models of bellow was established. At the same time, under the premise of consideration of nonlinear feature of bellow, hazardous locations of fatigue were ensured and fatigue life was also calculated. Furthermore, the relationship between factors and fatigue life was probed emphatically. The results show that bellow’ s fatigue life increases when wall thickness or tilt angle increases, and decreases when wave number, wave height or load increases. Different kinds of material type apply to differ-ent fatigue life requirement’ s occasion. These results can be used to instruct fatigue design of bellow comprehensively.

  10. Calibration and Data Analysis of the MC-130 Air Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Dennis; Ulbrich, N.

    2012-01-01

    Design, calibration, calibration analysis, and intended use of the MC-130 air balance are discussed. The MC-130 balance is an 8.0 inch diameter force balance that has two separate internal air flow systems and one external bellows system. The manual calibration of the balance consisted of a total of 1854 data points with both unpressurized and pressurized air flowing through the balance. A subset of 1160 data points was chosen for the calibration data analysis. The regression analysis of the subset was performed using two fundamentally different analysis approaches. First, the data analysis was performed using a recently developed extension of the Iterative Method. This approach fits gage outputs as a function of both applied balance loads and bellows pressures while still allowing the application of the iteration scheme that is used with the Iterative Method. Then, for comparison, the axial force was also analyzed using the Non-Iterative Method. This alternate approach directly fits loads as a function of measured gage outputs and bellows pressures and does not require a load iteration. The regression models used by both the extended Iterative and Non-Iterative Method were constructed such that they met a set of widely accepted statistical quality requirements. These requirements lead to reliable regression models and prevent overfitting of data because they ensure that no hidden near-linear dependencies between regression model terms exist and that only statistically significant terms are included. Finally, a comparison of the axial force residuals was performed. Overall, axial force estimates obtained from both methods show excellent agreement as the differences of the standard deviation of the axial force residuals are on the order of 0.001 % of the axial force capacity.

  11. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  12. 60Co γ-ray irradiation effect on germination and seedling growth of dry Buchloe dactyloides seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry seeds of Buchloe dactyloides were irradiated by γ-ray at dose of 25-300 Gy. Seed germination and seedling characters were surveyed in laboratory and field. The results indicated that radiation could promote seed germination, and the optimum dose was 100 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy was the up limit to germination rate, root length and seedling height in field. When the radiation dose was bellow 100 Gy, the fresh weight of stems, leaves and roots of seedlings were increased. From this study, the recommended radiation does for Buchloe dactyloides dry seeds treatment was between 100-150 Gy for the purpose of promoting germination. (authors)

  13. The Review of The Development of Business English in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绚

    2004-01-01

    the purposes of this paper are to overview and evaluate the development of Business English in China. It will firstly cover what is known about BE in present China from school campus to training courses, and secondly reveal what are problems posed in Business English Education here. In doing this, the description of BE characteristics will be followed, the relationship between BE and EAP will be folded and even the history of Business English will be summarized bellowed to support the review of BE in China today.

  14. Looking for Hope-An Analysis of Grebe’s Search in “Looking for Mr.Green”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhi

    2014-01-01

    “Looking for Mr.Green” is a famous short story written by the renowned Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow.Grebe, the main character in“Looking for Mr.Green”, confronts many difficulties in delivering relief checks to the residents who were in need in the South Side of Chicago.With the analysis of Mr.Grebe and his finding Mr.Green, this paper will take Grebe’s looking for hope in his life as the main reason for his chase.What Grebe does represents the predicament of Americans and their attitudes towards life during the depression time.

  15. Miniature Low-Mass Drill Actuated by Flextensional Piezo Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments with a flextensional piezoelectric actuator have led to the development of a sampler with a bit that is designed to produce and capture a full set of sample forms including volatiles, powdered cuttings, and core fragments. The flextensional piezoelectric actuator is a part of a series of devices used to amplify the generated strain from piezoelectric actuators. Other examples include stacks, bimorphs, benders, and cantilevers. These devices combine geometric and resonance amplifications to produce large stroke at high power density. The operation of this sampler/drill was demonstrated using a 3x2x1-cm actuator weighing 12 g using power of about 10-W and a preload of about 10 N. A limestone block was drilled to a depth of about 1 cm in five minutes to produce powdered cuttings. It is generally hard to collect volatiles from random surface profiles found in rocks and sediment, powdered cuttings, and core fragments. Toward the end of collecting volatiles, the actuator and the bit are covered with bellows-shaped shrouds to prevent fines and other debris from reaching the analyzer. A tube with a miniature bellows (to provide flexibility) is connected to the bit and directs the flow of the volatiles to the analyzer. Another modality was conceived where the hose is connected to the bellows wall directly to allow the capture of volatiles generated both inside and outside the bit. A wide variety of commercial bellows used in the vacuum and microwave industries can be used to design the volatiles capture mechanism. The piezoelectric drilling mechanism can potentially be operated in a broad temperature range from about-200 to less than 450 C. The actuators used here are similar to the actuators that are currently baselined to fly as part of the inlet funnel shaking mechanism design of MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The space qualification of these parts gives this drill a higher potential for inclusion in a future mission, especially when considering its

  16. Saturated steams pressure of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows null pressure gauge and the dynamic method were used to measure the total and partial pressures of saturated vapors of individual components of molten HfCl4-KCl mixtures, as a function of temperature (260 to 1000 deg C) and composition (1.9 to 64.3 mol.% HfCl4). Empirical equations expressing the relationship between pressure and temperature are presented. It is shown that in molten mixtures of hafnium tetrachloride with chlorides of alkaline metals its partial pressure dramatically increases when potassium chloride substitutes for cesium chloride

  17. ISCOOL RFQ (HRS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the ISCOOL RFQ after the ISOLDE HRS40 separator sector. The RFQ tank / vessel can be seen with the RF amplifier on it and different electrical, He gas and vacuum connections. The triplets at injection and ejection are shown as well as the He gas bottle position. All vacuum chambers and interconnections such as the insulators, flanges and bellows can be seen. Some of the mechanical and electrical parts of the scanners and faraday cups before and after the RFQ can be spotted: HRS SC680, FC690 before the RFQ and HRS SC748 and FC749 after the RFQ.

  18. ISCOOL RFQ (HRS) HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the ISCOOL RFQ after the ISOLDE HRS40 separator sector. The RFQ tank / vessel can be seen with the RF amplifier on it and different electrical, He gas and vacuum connections. The triplets at injection and ejection are shown as well as the He gas bottle position. All vacuum chambers and interconnections such as the insulators, flanges and bellows can be seen. Some of the mechanical and electrical parts of the scanners and faraday cups before and after the RFQ can be spotted: HRS SC680, FC690 before the RFQ and HRS SC748 and FC749 after the RFQ.

  19. Development of beam diagnostic devices for characterizing electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron guns for the DC accelerators and RF Linacs are designed and developed at EBC/APPD/BARC, Kharghar. These electron guns need to be characterized for its design and performance. Two test benches were developed for characterizing the electron guns. Various beam diagnostic devices for measuring beam currents and beam sizes were developed. Conical faraday cup, segmented faraday cup, slit scanning bellows movement arrangement, multi-plate beam size measurement setup, multi- wire beam size measurement setup, Aluminum foil puncture assembly etc. were developed and used. The paper presents the in-house development of various beam diagnostics for characterizing electron guns and their use. (author)

  20. Limitations in controlling white mold on common beans with Trichoderma spp. at the fall-winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effectiveness of application of Trichoderma spp. in controlling white mold on common beans at the fall-winter crop in the Zona da Mata region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was no effect of the antagonist in reducing the disease severity, which could be explained by the low temperatures and the high inoculum pressure in the field. We concluded that Trichoderma applications are not recommended for control of white mold on common beans at the fall-winter season in regions with average temperature bellow 20 °C, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist.

  1. Looking for Hope——An Analysis of Grebe’s Search in “Looking for Mr.Green”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie; Zhi

    2014-01-01

    "Looking for Mr.Green"is a famous short story written by the renowned Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow.Grebe,the main character in"Looking for Mr.Green",confronts many difficulties in delivering relief checks to the residents who were in need in the South Side of Chicago.With the analysis of Mr.Grebe and his finding Mr.Green,this paper will take Grebe’s looking for hope in his life as the main reason for his chase.What Grebe does represents the predicament of Americans and their attitudes towards life during the depression time.

  2. Laser frequency offset locking scheme for high-field imaging of cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Puentes, Graciana

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and flexible frequency offset locking scheme developed for high-field imaging of ultra-cold atoms which relies on commercially available RF electronics only. The main new ingredient is the use of the sharp amplitude response of a home-made RF filter to provide an error signal for locking the lasers. We were able to offset lock two independent diode lasers within a capture range of 200 MHz, and with a tuning range of up to 1.4GHz. The beat-note residual fluctuations for offset locked lasers are bellow 2MHz for integration times of several hundreds of seconds.

  3. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...... masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup...

  4. Buckling Characteristics of Cylindrical Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the buckling pattern of the body frame by energy absorbed efficiency of crashworthiness related toresearch of the buckling characteristics of aluminum cylindrical pipes with various diameters formed mechanical tools. Experimentswere performed by the quasi-static test without lubrication between specimen and equipment. According to the change in the radiusversus thickness of the specimen, the buckling phenomena are transformed from folding to bellows and the rate of energy absorptionis understood. In crashworthiness, frames are characterized by the folding among three patterns from the absorbed energy efficiencypoint of view and weight reduction. With the development of new types of transport such as electric vehicles, innovated bodystructure should be designed.

  5. Mechanical optimisation of a high-precision fast wire scanner at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, Sebastian; Veness, Raymond

    Wire scanners are instruments used to measure the transverse beam prole in particle accelerators by passing a thin wire through the particle beam. To avoid the issues of vacuum leakage through the bellows and wire failure related to current designs of wire scanners, a new concept for a wire scanner has been developed at CERN. This design has all moving parts inside the beam vacuum and has a nominal wire scanning speed of 20 m/s. The demands on the design associated with this together with the high precision requirements create a need for\

  6. Avaliação por SAXS e DSC das interações entre H2O e Renex-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Dias Palombino de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation behavior of the non-ionic surfactant Renex-100 in aqueous solutions and mesophases was evaluated by SAXS in a wide range of concentrations, between 20 and 30 °C. Complementary, water interactions were defined by DSC curves around 0°C. SAXS showed that the system undergoes the following phase transitions, from diluted to concentrated aqueous solutions: 1 isotropic solution of Renex aggregates; 2 hexagonal mesophase; 3 lamellar mesophase; and 4 isotropic solution. DSC analysis indicated the presence of interfacial water above 70wt%, which agreed with the segregation of free water to form the structural mesophases observed by SAXS bellow this concentration.

  7. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GH ERL main linac. High power test of the renewed ceramic window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We started to develop an input power coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity for main linac. We fabricated power coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a CW 30 kW IOT power source. During this test, the ceramic window was broken by the sudden heat load. We found that this heat load occurred by the unexpected dipole mode. We renewed the ceramic window and successfully carried out the high power test up to CW 27 kW input power. (author)

  8. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Efimov, V. B.; Griffiths, O. J.; Hendry, P. C.; Kolmakov, G. V.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Skrbek, L.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. A...

  9. The measurement of linear and angular displacements in prototype aircraft - Instrumentation, calibration and operational accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm van Leeuwen, Sam

    The design and development of angular displacement transducers for flight test instrumentation systems are considered. Calibration tools, developed to meet the accuracy requirements, allowed in situ calibration with short turn around times. The design of the control surface deflection measurement channels for the Fokker 100 prototype aircraft is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that a bellows coupling provides accurate results, and that the levers and push-pull rod drive mechanisms perform well. The results suggest that a complex mechanical drive mechanism reduces the system accuracy.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  11. In pile creep measuring rigs for metallic specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of creep rigs are described using stainless steel or zircaloy specimens. First, a tensile creep rig allowing continuous length measurement of tubular or solid specimens. The measurement of the specimen length is compared with that of a reference specimen, situated as close as possible to the tensile one. The second rig is used for continuous measurement of the radial strain of pressurised tubes. The measurement is made by a cone and ball system, transforming diameter changes into axial displacements. These rigs are made in two parts: a capsule with NaK, including: specimens, loading bellows microwave measuring system, and a standard 'CHOUCA' furnace with electrical heating

  12. The absolute recommendation of chamber Neubauer method for platelets counting instead of indirect methods in severe thrombocytopenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Raimundo Antônio Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and precise platelet counting is crucial for recommending platelets transfusion for thrombocytopenic patients, principally when platelet counts are bellow 30,000/µl. As most laboratories still use the indirect methods for confirming low automated platelet counts, this work compared two indirect methods used in practice (Fonio and Nosanchunk et al. with the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology recommended direct method (Brecher and Cronkite. The obtained data show that the indirect methods present low precision and accuracy, and that the direct method should always be employed in severe thrombocytopenic samples thanks to its high precision.

  13. Courses on emergency preparedness and medical procedures in case of a nuclear accident organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb, different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the Croatian doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialised courses of the I. category, offered and described bellow, are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  14. A Review of the Courses on Emergency Preparedness and Medical Procedures in Case of a Nuclear Accident Organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialized courses of the I. category offered and described bellow are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  15. Destruction and Redemption in Seize the Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊

    2014-01-01

    In the novella Seize the Day Saul Bellow compacts the significance of the whole life of a person into one day ’s experi-ence. In just one day the protagonist experiences despair and obtains redemption. The force of destruction causing one to the de-spair situation interweaves with that of redemption producing hope. With effort one can recognize his or her true self and survive the absurd and crazy world and lead a new spiritual life without burdens of secular confusions.

  16. Thermal-Structural Coupled Analysis of ITER Torus Cryo-Pump Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松可; 宋云涛; 谢韩; 雷明准

    2012-01-01

    An ITER torus cryo-pump housing (TCPH), which encloses a torus cryo-pump, is connected to a vacuum vessel (VV) by a set of associated double bellows. There are complicated loads due to two different operating states (pumping and regeneration) and foreseeable accidents with the cryo-pump. This paper describes a thermal-structural coupled analysis of the present TCPH according to tho allowatfle stress criteria of RCC-MR, in which the worst cases and outcomes of various load combinations are obtained. Meanwhile, optimization of the structure has been carried oul, to obtain positive analysis results and an adequate safety margin.

  17. Morphing skins to improve local flow behavior in a hydroturbine context: Adaptive overflater for forbedring av lokal strømning i vannturbinsammenheng

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanger, Jarle Vikør

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of morphing skin and structure technology in a hydroturbine context. The work has been divided into two parts; construction of a demonstration rig and CFD calculations assessing the concept of camber morphing of guide vanes.Five rubber 'morphing bumps' reduce the intensity of vortex shedding behind a cylinder in an open flow of water. The bumps are made by a rubber bellows placed in a perforated stainless steel pipe. Their size is controlled by...

  18. Tests of dry mechanical forepumps for use in the ITER vacuum pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the design and construction of FORTE (Forepumps Test Facility) which has been built in order to enable testing of the pumping speeds of prototypical mechanical forepumps connected in series, as proposed for the ITER forepump system. Three NORMETEX pumps (1300, 600, 60 m3/h) and one METAL BELLOWS pump (6m3/h) have been integrated into the test bench. Measurements of the pumping characteristics were performed, both with the single pumps and with trains of series connected pumps, using the gases N2, H2, D2, He as well as ITER typical gas mixture. The results of the tests are presented. (orig.)

  19. Design and development of neutral beam module components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) injection system consists of twenty 20 keV start-up, and twenty-four 80 keV sustaining neutral beam source modules. The neutral beam modules are mounted in four clusters equally spaced around the waist of the vacuum vessel which contains the superconducting magnets. A module is defined here as an assembly consisting of a beam source and the interfacing components between that beam source and the vacuum chamber. Six major interfacing components are the subject of this paper. They are the magnetic shield, the neutralizer duct, the isolation valve, mounting gimbals, aiming bellows and actuators

  20. Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and Negative Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pavšič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We review the occurrence of negative energies in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. We point out that in the absence of interactions negative energies are not problematic, neither in the classical nor in the quantized theory. However, in the presence of interactions that couple positive and negative energy degrees of freedom the system is unstable, unless the potential is bounded from bellow and above. We review some approaches in the literature that attempt to avoid the problem of negative energies in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  1. Vibration test report on crossover piping system in seismic isolation nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Tomita, Tsuneo; Kondo, Toshinari

    1999-03-01

    In a seismic isolation nuclear facility, crossover piping system is subjected to large relative displacement and inertia forces during earthquakes. Hinged bellows expansion joints are utilized for accommodation to such the large displacement. This report describes tests for validation of developed simulation code with analytical models. Seismic experiments by a vibration test machine were conducted using actual size piping system models. A comparison between test results and analytical results showed a favorable agreement. The vibration test demonstrated that the structural integrity of this piping system would be maintained during earthquakes. (H. Itami)

  2. DAFNE Interaction Regions upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Milardi, C; Biagini, M E; Biscari, C; Boni, R; Boscolo, M; Bossi, F; Buonomo, B; Clozza, A; Delle Monache, G; Demma, T; Di Pasquale, E; Di Pirro, G; Drago, A; Gallo, A; Ghigo, A; Guiducci, S; Ligi, C; Marcellini, F; Mazzitelli, G; Murtas, F; Pellegrino, L; Preger, M; Quintieri, L; Raimondi, P; Ricci, R; Rotundo, U; Sanelli, C; Serio, M; Sgamma, F; Spataro, B; Stecchi, A; Stella, A; Tomassini, S; Vaccarezza, C; Zobov, M; Koop, I; Levichev, E; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Smaluk, V; Bettoni, S; Schioppa, M; Valente, P; Ohmi, K; Arnaud, N; Breton, D; Roudeau, P; Stocchi, A; Variola, A; Viaud, B.F; Esposito, M; Paoloni, E; Branchini, P

    2008-01-01

    DAFNE, the Frascati F-factory, has recently completed experimental runs for the three main detectors, KLOE, FINUDA and DEAR achieving 1.6x10E+32 cm-2s-1 peak and 10 pb-1 daily integrated luminosities. Improving these results by a significant factor requires changing the collision scheme. For this reason, in view of the SIDDHARTA detector installation, relevant modifications of the machine have been realized, aimed at implementing a new collision scheme based on a large Piwinski angle and crab-waist, together with several other hardware modifications involving injection kickers, bellows and beam pipe sections.

  3. An Anaylsis of Two Marriages of Herzog from the Perspective of Erich Fromm’s Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹静婕

    2014-01-01

    Herzog is one of the most successful novels written by the Jewish Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow. Herzog, the protag-onist of the novel, has experienced a spiritual and emotional collapse, triggered by the breakup of his second marriage and his con-templation of the wasteland of modern life. In the novel, he has divorced twice respectively because he is bored and boring. The characteristics of the two ex-wives are in sharp contrast. Deep analysis of the two women and their marital relationships with Er-ich Fromm’s theory can facilitate our understanding of the novel, the writer as well as the modern world.

  4. Irrigation, a Component of the Sustainable Agriculture in North Western Romania in the Context of the Climate Change UDK 631. 67 : 551. 583 (498

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Domuţa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the researches carried out during 1976-2010 in the long term trial placed on the prelvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea. The main field crops of the area (wheat, maize, sunflower, soybean, bean, potato, sugarbeet, alfalfa were studied. Based on the soil moisture determination ten to ten days, the soil water reserve was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity on the watering depth. Pedological and strong pedological drought (the decrease of the soil water reserve on watering depth bellow easily available water content, bellow wilting point respectivelly were registered every year. The use of the irrigation determined the improve of the water/temperature+light (Domuta climate index report, the increase of the daily and total water consumption, yield gains very significant statistically, the improve of the yields stability and yields quality, the increase of the water use efficiency. The use of the good soil management didn’t worsen the soil structure and the chemical  and biological parameters of the soil were improved. The researches sustain the irrigation opportunity for sustainable agriculture in the North-Western Romania.

  5. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments of Hongfeng Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhongqing; LIU Congqiang; LIANG Xiaobing; WANG Fushun; WANG Shaofeng

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the distribution of organic carbon, DNA and lipids in the sediments of Hongfeng Reservoir were described in addition to SO42- Profile in pore water. The contents of organic carbon in the sediments range from 23.3 to 76.8 mg·g-1, with the peak value appearing at the depth of 8 cm bellow the sediments water interface (SWI), and tend to decrease gradually with sedimentation depth. The concentrations of SO42- Decreased from 40.50 mg·L-1 to 12.00 mg·L-1 at SWI in top 4 cm sediment, and was kept at 12.0 mg·L-1 bellow that depth. Newly produced organic carbon can be conserved as long as 14 years in the sediments. The contents of DNA were relatively high in top 9 cm surface sediments, as revealed by agarose gel images, close to those of organic carbon and sulphate reduction index (SRI). This study shows that bacteria played an important role in organic matter degradation; SO42- is the primary electron acceptor under anaerobic condition in this reservoir; DNA in the lake sediments can provide important information for the study of cycling of nutrient elements in the lake.

  6. Metabolic alkalosis in children: Study of patients admitted to pediatrics center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhani A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by high HCO3- as it is seen in chronic respiratory acidosis, but PH differentiates the two disorders. There is no characteristic symptom or sign. Orthostatic hypotension may be encountered. Weakness and hyporeflexia occur if serum K+ is markerdly low. Tetany and neuromuscular irritability occur rarely. We report the results of retrospective data analysis of metabolic alkalosis in 15463 patients hospitalized Pediatric Medical Center in Tehran during years 1995-1997. We found 50 cases of metabolic alkalosis (rate of 0.32 percent. 64 precent male and 36 percent female. Most of them had growth failure (40% were bellow 3 percentile of height by age, 44% bellow 5 percentile of weight by height. More than 60 percent had hypokalemia, hypocloremia and hyponatremia. The most common cause of Metabolic alkalosis was cystic fibrosis and pyloric stenosis. Fifty percent of cystic fibrosis patients and Bartter cases had metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis should be considered in every pediatric patient presented with projectile vomitting.

  7. LS1 Report: the SMACC consolidation train is almost at its destination

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC, the remaining replacement magnets are now installed in their correct positions and awaiting reconnection. The SMACC project continues to advance and three quarters of the interconnect W bellows are now open. In sector 5-6 almost all the SMACC consolidation activities have been completed and the bellows are being closed again ready for testing.   The area around the PSB beam dump. The main part of the SMACC consolidation train is now completing the work on the interconnects in sector 6-7 and starting work in sector 7-8. In the LSS (Long Straight Sections), new equipment is being installed, such as the TCDQs at point 6 and collimators at point 1, and the first kicker at point 8 will be installed in September. The R2E activities at the LHC are also progressing well. At point 5 the new cable ducts have been successfully drilled and the installation of the new safe rooms is in progress. An important milestone was reached in mid-August when the clearance of the magnet transport vehicl...

  8. Interconnections 180

    CERN Multimedia

    180

    2013-01-01

    The LHC's main magnets operate at a temperature of 1.9 K (-271.3°C), colder than the 2.7 K (-270.5°C) of outer space. This ensures that the cables supplying power to the magnets operate in a superconducting state; they conduct electricity with no resistance. The cold magnets are insulated from the surrounding tunnel – kept at room temperature – with multiple layers of thermal insulation. Over the next 18 months, 1695 interconnections between LHC magnets will be opened and their insulation consolidated. In the video above, narrated by Jean-Philippe Tock of the Technology department, technicians demonstrate the process on an interconnection between spare LHC magnets. A "W bellows" system slides out of the way to reveal accelerator components inside. The technicians add aluminium sheeting and further insulating material before closing the W bellows for a leak-proof connection. The section is then brought to a pressure of 10-6 mbar, to further limit the possibility of heat leaks from the cold magnets. Insul...

  9. Water Level Gauging in a Tube by Using a Special Ultrasonic Shoe in an Immersion Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic pulse travels through the thickness of a material, then finally it is reflected by the back or inside surface, and it can be returned to a transducer. In most applications this time interval is only a few microseconds or less. The measured two-way transit time is divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path, and then multiplied by the velocity of the sound in a test material. The result is expressed by a well-known relationship as equation. In this experiment, a residual water level measurement in a bellow tube is obtained by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special UT probe attachment. This system was designed and fabricated for a convenient control in a water tank, which has a combination of a sensor and a position control function. The shoes are specially made with Lusite material which has the same shape as the bellows tube and then the immersion transducers are controlled by a 3-axis position control system, and it can be operated within a moving distance as small as 0.5mm. Certain specialized applications such as an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion tank

  10. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  11. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel

  12. Using Aerogel-Based Insulation Material To Prevent Foam Loss on the Liquid-Hydrogen Intertank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Uninsulated areas on cryogenic propellant tanks and feedlines cause moisture in the air to condense or ice to form. Flange joints, bracket supports, expansion bellows, and other cavities are uninsulated by design. These areas cannot be sealed because conventional thermal insulation materials would restrict mechanical articulations. Aerogel-based thermal insulation systems are able to seal critical locations such as the liquid-oxygen (LO2) feedline bellows. A new thermal insulation system was also necessary between the intertank wall, flange, and the liquid-hydrogen (LH2) tank dome, where there is a cavity (or crevice) with an exposed 20-K surface. When nitrogen gas is used for purging within the intertank volume, it condenses on this cold surface. Some solid nitrogen may also form on the colder side of the crevice. Voids or discontinuities within the foam can pressurize and cause areas of foam to weaken and break off, reducing thermal efficiency and creating potentially dangerous debris. To prevent this foam loss, we developed a thermal insulation system using bulk-fill aerogel material and demonstrated it with a one-tenth-scale model of the LH2 intertank flange area

  13. A novel mechanical lung model of pulmonary diseases to assist with teaching and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Geoffrey M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation with accurate volumes and compliances, while connected directly to a ventilator. Methods The lung is modelled with multiple units, represented by rubber bellows, with adjustable weights placed on bellows to simulate compartments of different superimposed pressure and compliance, as well as different levels of lung disease, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. The model was directly connected to a ventilator and the resulting pressure volume curves recorded. Results The model effectively captures the fundamental lung dynamics for a variety of conditions, and showed the effects of different ventilator settings. It was particularly effective at showing the impact of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP therapy on lung recruitment to improve oxygenation, a particulary difficult dynamic to capture. Conclusion Application of PEEP therapy is difficult to teach and demonstrate clearly. Therefore, the model provide opportunity to train, teach, and aid further understanding of lung mechanics and the treatment of lung diseases in critical care, such as ARDS and asthma. Finally, the model's pure mechanical nature and accurate lung volumes mean that all results are both clearly visible and thus intuitively simple to grasp.

  14. LS1 Report: working night and day

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC tunnel, the first underground activities of the SMACC (Superconducting Magnet And Circuit Consolidation) project have begun. In sector 5-6, the opening of the W bellows, which form the outer shell around the circuit connections between each of the cryo-magnets, is underway.   On 18 April, CERN Director General, Rolf Heuer, assisted in opening of the first interconnection in sector 5-6 of the LHC tunnel. By 15 April, 22 interconnection bellows had been opened. Elsewhere in the LHC, the warming up of the different sectors to room temperature continues. Sector 4-5 should be at room temperature by the end of April, with sector 6-7 not far behind. At the SPS, 16 magnets (12 dipoles and 4 quadrupoles) have been removed from the machine. These magnets will be equipped with specially coated vacuum chambers in order to measure the effectiveness of this coating in reducing the build-up of electron cloud phenomena around the LHC beam during acceleration in the SPS. The removal of ...

  15. Saul Bellow’s Response to Nietzsche’s Ideas on Nihilism in The Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Farshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to expound Saul Bellow’s response to Nietzsche’s ideas on nihilism. The latter contends that the life-denying morality of Christianity has ultimately resulted in modern nihilism to solve which he propounds “active nihilism”. While “passive nihilism”, he argues, has darkened human life, the active one can save modern human, because it enables them to go beyond infertile moral judgments. In his second novel The Victim (1947 which portrays human anxieties in the modern era, Bellow comparatively asks his readers to confront nihilism, instead of ignoring it, and then make efforts to prevail over it, nevertheless the path he suggests differs from the one offered by Nietzsche. He depicts modern human’s predicament in The Victim by posing its central character in a disheartening situation, but concurrently shows his perturbed endeavors to discern a way to surmount that situation. Eventually he realizes that to divest himself out of that quandary, he must overcome his fear of death to salute life, and also to acknowledge the bond of human beings that creates in them a sense of responsibility toward each other. It is here that Bellow parts with Nietzsche who holds that elevation is only gained by the egotistic Overman. Keywords: modern predicament, the will to power, active nihilism, humanity  

  16. OmniTread OT-4 serpentine robot: new features and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Hansen, Malik

    2007-04-01

    Serpentine robots are slender, multi-segmented vehicles designed to provide greater mobility than conventional wheeled or tracked robots. Serpentine robots are thus ideally suited for urban search and rescue, military intelligence gathering, and for surveillance and inspection tasks in hazardous and hard-to-reach environments. One such serpentine robot, developed at the University of Michigan, is the "OmniTread OT-4." The OT-4 comprises seven segments, which are linked to each other by 2-degree-of-freedom joints. The OT-4 can climb over obstacles that are much higher than the robot itself, propel itself inside pipes of different diameters, and traverse even the most difficult terrain, such as rocks or the rubble of a collapsed structure. The foremost and unique design characteristic of the OT-4 is the use of pneumatic bellows to actuate the joints. These bellows allow simultaneous control of position and stiffness for each joint. Controllable stiffness is of crucial importance in serpentine robots, which require stiff joints to cross gaps and compliant joints to conform to rough terrain for effective propulsion. Another unique feature of the OmniTread design is the maximal coverage of all four sides with driven tracks. This design makes the robot indifferent to roll-overs, which are happen frequently when the slender bodies of serpentine robots travel over rugged terrain. This paper describes the OmniTread concept as well as its latest technical features, and an extensive Experiment Results Section documents the abilities of the OT-4.

  17. Enhancement of EAP actuated facial expressions by designed chamber geometry in elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.; Bergs, R.; Tadesse, Y.; White, V.; Priya, S.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the authors explore various ways that designed chambering of elastomers can enhance electroactive polymer (EAP) actuation. Such enhancements include structuring of chambers for various mechanical functions and advantages, boosting of surface area of a polymer for enhanced ionic migration, construction of advanced electret foams for sensing and for tunable hydrophobicity for micro/pumping action, and distribution of composite EAP devices throughout the chambered elastomer to achieve discrete controllability of electroactive polymer actuators. The authors also discuss the chambering of EAP materials themselves for enhanced actuation effects. With varied design of the chambers of the elastomer, the mechanical and structural properties of the elastomer can be tuned to greatly enhance EAP actuation. The chambers can be designed in accordion-like bellows to achieve extreme elongation with low forces, in spiral geometries to effect negative or neutral poisson's ratio under actuation, and with embedded fluidic bellows for fluidic actuation or sensing. These are but a few examples of the advantages that can be achieved via designed chambering of elastomers. The authors also discuss various application uses of the described chambering technologies. Such chambered elastomers, combined with advanced muscle-like actuators, can substantially benefit facelike robots (useful for entertainment and education etc), prosthetics, and numerous modalities of bio-inspired locomotion. In the efforts of the authors to generate facial expression robots with low-power lightweight actuators is described.

  18. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemkens, Bjorn, E-mail: b.stemkens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tijssen, Rob H.N. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, Baudouin D. de [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); L' Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5251, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Heerkens, Hanne D.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Berg, Cornelis A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  19. Comparison of Inconel 625 and Inconel 600 in resistance to cavitation erosion and jet impingement erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.X. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zheng, Y.G., E-mail: ygzheng@imr.ac.c [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qin, C.P. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Liquid droplet erosion (LDE), which often occurs in bellows made of nickel-based alloys, threatens the security operation of the nuclear power plant. As the candidate materials of the bellows, Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 were both tested for resistance to cavitation erosion (CE) and jet impingement erosion (JIE) through vibratory cavitation equipment and a jet apparatus for erosion-corrosion. Cumulative mass loss vs. exposure time was used to evaluate the erosion rate of the two alloys. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies before and after the erosion tests were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the inclusions were analyzed by an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and the surface roughness was also measured by surface roughness tester to illustrate the evolution of erosion process. The results show that the cumulative mass loss of CE of Inconel 625 is about 1/6 that of Inconel 600 and the CE incubation period of the Inconel 625 is 4 times as long as that of the Inconel 600. The micro-morphology evolution of CE process illustrates that the twinning and hardness of the Inconel 625 plays a significant role in CE. In addition, the cumulative mass loss of JIE of Inconel 625 is about 2/3 that of Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 90{sup o}, and almost equal to that of the Inconel 600 at impacting angle of 30{sup o}. Overall, the resistance to CE and JIE of Inconel 625 is much superior to that of Inconel 600.

  20. Ultrahigh vacuum system with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakeable vacuum chamber (1500C continuous) consists of aluminum alloy beam pipe (6063-T6) and bellows (5052-F) with an aluminum alloy flange (2219-T87) and a metal seal [Helicoflex-HN: pure aluminum (1050) O-ring with an elastic core (Ni base super alloy Inconel 750) which supplies the sealing force] has been constructed. The beam pipe and the flange (6063-T6/2219-T87), and the bellows and the flange (5052-F/2219-T87) were welded by an alternate current (50 Hz) TIG process using an aluminum alloy filler wire (4043). The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy (2219-T87) is suitable for using the Helicoflex O-ring but the groove surface for the gasket is weak for scratching. Cromium-nitride coating by ion plating method was carried out on the aluminum surface of the gasket groove [thickness: 16 μm, micro Vickers hardness: 1800]. Ordinary stainless steel vacuum system can be replaced by the aluminum vacuum system in an accelerator. (author)

  1. System for ultra high vacuum made of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the system for ultra high vacuum made of aluminum alloys for proton and electron synchrotron. This is the first system for ultra high vacuum in which bakable metal seal flange and small diametral bellows of aluminum alloys have been put to practical use. The system consists of the flange protected by a CrN thin film and made of 2219-T87 alloy, the chamber made of 6063-T6 alloy, the aluminum metal gasket of Helico Flex and the bellows made of 5052 alloy. As a result of experiments at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), it had been confirmed that this system shows the special qualities of ultra high vacuum operation, resistance to hard radiation and baking and cooling operations. Up to now, this system has been widely used for the beam lines of the booster synchrotron utilization facility, K1, K2, linac, PI 1 and EP2-B extension of the KEK proton synchrotron. We investigate that this system is applicable to nuclear energy utilization facility and general vacuum apparatus. (author)

  2. The latest from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    All replacement magnets required for Sectors 3-4, 1-2 and 6-7 have now been cryostated. Work is continuing to cryostat six additional spare dipoles as a precautionary measure. In the tunnel work is well underway to open the W bellows - the large bellows between the magnets - in order to start cutting and welding work for installation of the new pressure release ports. In Sector 3-4 the campaign to repair the damaged ‘QRL jumpers’ is going ahead. The QRL line is the network of cryogenics piping that distributes the liquid helium throughout the tunnel. Every 100 m the distribution line is connected to the magnets through pipes known as ‘jumpers’. During the incident in Sector 3-4 last September, four ‘jumpers’ were damaged. One has now been completely repaired and the remaining three jumpers are currently being repaired and should be completed at a rate of one per week. The replacement magnet for the faulty dipole removed from Sector 1-2 has now been installed i...

  3. Non-standard vacuum hardware for an accelerator vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal sealed demountable joints of the LEP vacuum system have been proposed and designed in such a way that well-proven stainless steel components like pumps, valves, gauges or bellows could be joined without transition pieces onto the aluminium vacuum chambers. Important boundary conditions which were imposed by the operation parameters were corrosion and temperature resistance with the general demand for a high standard of reliability which had to be assured despite the considerable differential expansion caused by the dissimilar flange materials at elevated temperature. 2800 bellows compensate alignment tolerances and the length increase of the aluminium chambers during bake-outs. Their circular aperture would create 2800 cavities of an inadmissible transverse impedance. An inner screen has therefore been designed which provides a reliable electrical contact under all working conditions of LEP and which keeps the elliptical aperture of the beam path quasi-constant, such eliminating higher order mode losses, which would otherwise be induced by the passage of charged particles. The report describes the design and technology of these components and their performance in the ultra-high vacuum system of LEP. (author)

  4. Continuous Flow - Cavity RingDown Spectroscopy Using a Novel Universal Interface for High-Precision Bulk 13C Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Nabil; Richman, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the world's first optical spectroscopy-based system for bulk stable isotope analysis of 13C. The system is based on a novel universal interface, named LIAISON, capable of coupling to almost any CO2-generating sample preparation front-end ranging from an elemental analyzer to any dissolved carbon analysis module, which are of significant use in geochemical, ecological and food authentication studies. In one specific application, we have coupled LIAISON to an elemental analyzer (EA) and to a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) for 13C isotopic analysis of adulterated honey samples. Another application was developed to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in water samples. LIAISON is suited for handling a high-throughput sample analysis process by running three different gas handling operations in parallel: Admitting combustion gas from the EA into a first gas bellows, analyzing the previous sample collected into a second gas bellows with CRDS, and flushing and purging a third gas bellows in preparation for the upcoming sample collection operation. The sample-to-sample analysis time is 10 minutes and the operation is completely automated for the whole front-end auto-sampler tray capacity, requiring no operator intervention. The CRDS data are collected, tabulated and saved into an output text file. The memory effect between the USGS L-Glutamic acid standard at natural abundance and the moderately enriched USGS L-Glutamic acid standard is excluded by the selection of the adequate number and duration of flush and purge cycles of the gas sample bags. The system's proven accuracy was cross-checked with EA-IRMS and its achieved precision was typically less than 0.2 permil, including the 13C-enriched tested samples. The LIAISON-CRDS system presented here provides a fully automated solution for 13C bulk stable isotope analysis with unprecedented ease-of-use and possible field portability and application with the availability of a compact front-end. In

  5. 美国当代文明的一面镜子:《洪堡的礼物》%Mirror of American Modern Civilization:Humboldt’s Gift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喆

    2014-01-01

    While material highest doctrine and mental degeneration are criticized in Humboldt’s Gift,life value and friend-ship emotion are also considered rationally in the novel.As a human spiritual product,Humboldt’s Gift by Saul Bellow presents to us a whole gallery of fame and fortune seeking.Bellow created heroes who,in anxiety,hoard their spiritual val-uables.On the one hand,it lets us realize the dreadful reality of civilization;on the other hand,it shows us the way of life on which we can not only reconcile ourselves with the reality,but we can also maintain our dignity.With a realistic touch and contemporary civilized eyesight,Bellow has excellently produced a real life of America in the 20th century.%小说《洪堡的礼物》在批判当代物质至上和精神堕落的同时,也对人生价值、友谊情感等作了富于哲理性的思考。作为人类精神文明的产品,索尔·贝娄的这一代表作成功地把一群追逐名利者典型展现在了读者的面前,他笔下的主人公们,在焦虑中都能把精神的宝贵处囤积在各自的心中。这一扛鼎之作一方面让人们看到了文明现实的可怕,一方面又给人们指明了一条既与现实和解,又保持个人尊严的生活道路。作者以现实主义的手法,以一种带有当代文明的目光,完美再现了美国20世纪的生活图画。

  6. Flow-induced vibration signal analysis of the FIV test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibration spectrums of the test loop according to flow conditions were analyzed in order to identify the sources of vibration at peak frequencies. While a flow condition of the sweep test was changed by varying pump rotational speed from 450 rpm to 1500 rpm by the step 150 rpm, mid span acceleration of the test section in width-direction and dynamic pressure perturbation in the test section were measured. Other sources of vibration due to the flow structure interactions, such as acoustic resonance, blade pulsing frequency and bellows wrinkles, were investigated. Pressure perturbation in the section and acoustic resonance due to branch pipe give major effects to the vibration of the test section in high frequency range of 1.5 kHz to 2.8 kHz

  7. Pickering NGS A: Assessment of calandria tube integrity following a sudden pressure tube failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of calandria tube integrity following a sudden rupture of the pressure tube in Pickering NGS A reactor is addressed. Based on operating experience, only fish-mouth ruptures of the pressure tube are considered to be credible. The calandria tube response to the pressure tube break is delineated into three distinct stages, i.e. the initial transient response during the annulus filling stage, transient overpressurization and the final steady-state loading after bellows failure. The annulus response in the second stage is dominated by a waterhammer type overpressure transient with attenuation of this transient due to plastic straining of the calandria tube. The annulus pressure transients for various breaks and the sensitivity of the results to various parameters are presented. The strength margins of the calandria tube are evaluated to be relatively large. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  9. Beam Vacuum Interconnects for the LHC Cold Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R J M; Gröbner, Oswald; Lepeule, P; Reymermier, C; Schneider, G; Skoczen, Blazej; Kleimenok, V; Nikitin, I N

    1999-01-01

    The design of the beam vacuum interconnect is described in this paper. Features include a novel RF bridge design to maximise lateral flexibility during cryostat Cold arcs of the LHC will consist of twin aperture dipole, quadrupole and corrector magnets in cryostats, operating at 1.9 K. Beam vacuum chambers, along with all connecting elements require flexible 'interconnects' between adjacent cryostats to allow for thermal and mechanical offsets foreseen during machine operation and alignment. In addition, the beam vacuum chambers contain perforated beam screens to intercept beam induced heat loads at an intermediate temperature. These must also be connected with low impedance RF bridges in the interconnect zones.alignment and so-called 'nested' bellows to minimise the required length of the assembly.

  10. Reducing the SPS Machine Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Paul; Guinand, R; Jiménez, J M; Rizzo, A; Spinks, Alan; Weiss, K

    2002-01-01

    The SPS as LHC Injector project has been working for some time to prepare the SPS for its role as final injector for the LHC. This included major work related to injection, acceleration, extraction and beam instrumentation for the LHC beams [1]. Measurements carried out with the high brightness LHC beam showed that a major improvement of the machine impedance would also be necessary [2]. In addition to removing all lepton related components (once LEP operation ended in 2000), the decision was made to shield the vacuum system pumping port cavities. These accidental cavities had been identified as having characteristic frequencies in the 1-1.5GHz range. Since the SPS vacuum system contains roughly 1000 of these cavities, they constitute a major fraction of the machine impedance. As removal of the ports and associated bellows is not possible, transition shields (PPS) had to be designed to insert within the pumping port cavities.

  11. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations

  12. Tritium processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS): Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortman, M.S.; Heung, L.K.; Nobile, A.; Rabun, R.L. III.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium handling equipment and methods at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities have been continually improved since tritium processing operations began in 1955. Several new technologies were introduced into the Tritium Facilities in the 1980's. One of these is the use of fluidless, mechanical pumps (Normetex and Metal Bellows) to replace mercury pumps. A second is the use of metal hydride technology to store, purify, isotopically separate, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. Metal hydrides, such as La-Ni-Al alloys and Pd loaded on kieselguhr, offer significant flexibility and size advantages compared with conventional tritium handling technology, such as gas tanks, thermal diffusion columns, and mechanical compressors. Metal hydrides have been used in the Tritium Facilities since 1984 with the most important application of this technology being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility scheduled for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  14. Graphite high temperature creep rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of two high temperature tensile creep rigs, for irradiating pyrocarbon and graphite specimens. PIRITHOOS is a creep rig operating at 1100 deg C and utilizing three in line pyrocarbon specimens. These have different cross sections giving three stress values. Unstressed specimens are placed close to the tensile ones. Dimensional measurements: length, thickness, width are made in hot cells, after each reactor shut down. FLACH is a graphite creep rig allowing continuous length measurement, to be made in comparison with the length of two reference specimens. These rigs consists of two main parts: the creep capsule including: specimens, loading bellow, microwave measuring apparatus, which is introduced into a standard gas gap furnace regulating the temperature by gas mixture and electrical heating

  15. o caso Kalunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Alves Marinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attitude and practices of each actor of the ethnic-maroon field generate possibilities and institutional constraints that guide the senses of the residents of the Kalunga community, based upon the will of their respective habitus that have been formed historically, but circumvented by the knowledge accessed throughout the ontogenetic development. It is these networks of interdependence that will be analyzed below in order to understand how knowledge is acquired and settled in an environment of struggles between guidelines that either aim to satisfy the rationalist and interested markets’ demands of the liberal mold, generating false recognition in a formalistic perspective of equality, or that seek to enhance the particularity of these groups in an attempt to generate recognition and autonomy of their identity, in a communitarian perspective of multiculturalism, which supports the creative economy. The struggles between these two approaches bring challenges to the management of this emergent sector, which will be analyzed bellow.

  16. Vorticity production and survival in viscous and magnetized cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dosopoulou, F; Tsagas, C G; Brandenburg, A

    2011-01-01

    We study the role of viscosity and the effects of a magnetic field on a rotating, self-gravitating fluid, using Newtonian theory and adopting the ideal magnetohydrodynamic approximation. Our results confirm that viscosity can generate vorticity in inhomogeneous environments, while the magnetic tension can produce vorticity even in the absence of fluid pressure and density gradients. Linearizing our equations around an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, we find that viscosity adds to the diluting effect of the universal expansion. Typically, however, the dissipative viscous effects are confined to relatively small scales. We also identify the characteristic length bellow which the viscous dissipation is strong and beyond which viscosity is essentially negligible. In contrast, magnetism seems to favor cosmic rotation. The magnetic presence is found to slow down the standard decay-rate of linear vortices, thus leading to universes with more residual rotation than generally anticipated.

  17. A Theoretical investigation on HC Mixtures as Possible Alternatives to R134a in Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a theoretical comparison of the performance of refrigerants in use in a vapor comparison cycle. It is about the phase-out of R134a from actual refrigeration system, comparison being performed for this chemical and two more ecological mixtures: R290/R600a described as (30/70 and (40/60. Were investigated effects of condensation temperatures and evaporation temperatures on performance measures as COP (Coefficient of Performance and VCC (volumetric cooling capacity. COP is a measure of the performance of the refrigeration cycle, while VCC is an indicator of compressor size. Results of this study will reveal that R290/R600a (30/70 is a good option when it is about substitution of R134a, from energy efficiency point of view, in terms of COP. R290/R600a (40/60 has VCC values bellow the ones of R134a, but comparable.

  18. ALEGEREA MIJLOACELOR DE COMUNICARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Vit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the material bellow are presented promotional materials that can be used for theadvertising of organizations, products and services offered by them. Also there aredisplayed the advantages and disadvantages of each one. There is a wide range ofcomunication mediums, that can be used by the organizations that wish to promote theirown products and services. These include external mediums of comunication: the printedpress, television, radio, cinematografy, and also internal means like direct corespondence.An efficient comunication program of an organization takes notice of the strenghts ofcertain products and services, promotes the brand and creates and edge for the organization.The comunication medium that the organization chooses depends on budget, the targetedaudience and chosen objectives.

  19. EXPERIENCE OF UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY BANKS AND SCHEMES OF FREQUENCY REGULATION IN MUNICIPAL CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM OF CHISINAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNEI M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper provides a brief summary of the district heating system of the municipality Chisinau, including heat power sources, heat distribution network, production and consumption development over the past two decades and other data. Also, the priority investment projects realized by JSC "Termocom" are being presented. The company had implemented an automated monitoring system for the heat power production, transportation and distribution. For many years, the company used bellows pipes with polyurethane insulation, ball valves and plate heat exchangers. 14 out of 21 district heating boiler stations were upgraded 10 were completely automated having as a result no further need in full-time duty personnel there. The experience gained in the implementation of capacity banks and frequency inverters, summarizing the benefits and achieved results, is also presented in the current paper. It is to be underlined that in 2011 the company achieved decrease in electricity consumption by about 30% in comparison with 2005.

  20. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  1. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  2. The detailed mechanism of the eta production in pp scattering up to the Tlab = 4.5 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ceci, S; Zauner, B

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to very early beliefs, the experimental cross section data for the eta production in proton-proton scattering are well described if pi and only eta meson exchange diagrams are used to calculate the Born term. The inclusion of initial and final state interactions is done in the factorization approximation by using the inverse square of the Jost function. The two body Jost functions are obtained from the S matrices in the low energy effective range approximation. The danger of double counting in the p-eta final state interaction is discussed. It is shown that higher partial waves in meson-nucleon amplitudes do not contribute significantly bellow excess energy of Q=100 MeV. Known difficulties of reducing the multi resonance model to a single resonance one are illustrated.

  3. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  4. Electronic structure of ZnO and its defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electronic structure of ZnO and its native point defects has been calculated using full potential linear Muffin_tin orbital (FP_LMTO) method for the first time. The results show that Zn3d electrons play an important role in the bonding of ZnO. Vacant Zn (VZn) and interstitial O (Oi) produce the shallow acceptor levels at 0.3 eV and 0.4 eV above the top of the valence band (VB), while interstitial Zn (Zni) produces a shallow donor level at 0.5 eV bellow the bottom of the conduction band (CB). However, Vacant O (Vo) produces a deep donor level at 1.3 eV below the bottom of CB. On the basis of these results, we confirm that Zni is the main factor to induce the native n_type conductivity in ZnO.

  5. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage to light water reactor metal containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a generic procedure for estimating aging damage, evaluating structural integrity, and identifying mitigation activities for safe operation of boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I metal containments and ice-condenser type pressurized water reactor (PWR) cylindrical metal containments. The mechanisms of concern that can cause aging damage to these two types of containments are corrosion and fatigue. Assessment of fatigue damage to bellows is also described. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage described in this paper include: containment design features that are relevant to aging assessment, several corrosion and fatigue mechanisms, inspection of corrosion and fatigue damage, and mitigation of damage caused by these mechanisms. In addition, synergistic interaction between corrosion and fatigue is considered. Possible actions for mitigating aging include enhanced inspection methods, maintenance activities based on operating experience, and supplementary surveillance programs. Field experience related to aging of metal containments is reviewed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented

  6. Determinação de resíduos de cloranfenicol em amostras de leite e mel industrializados utilizando a técnica de espectrometria de massas em "tandem" (CLAE-EM/EM Determination of chloramphenicol residues in industrialized milk and honey samples using LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Alves Martins Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP antibiotic in milk, powder milk and honey. The solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction were applied as a clean-up and pre-concentration strategies followed by LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The recovery was studied for different fortification levels from 0.05 to 1.00 µg L-1 in milk, showing values between 91 101% and RSD bellow 8.0%, while honey was spiked with a concentration of 0.20 µg kg-1 yelding a mean recovery of 83% and RSD of 6.5%. The quantification transition 321>152 showed a LOD of 0.52 ng kg-1 and LOQ of 1.85 ng kg-1.

  7. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  8. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  9. Current Status of the KSTAR Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. S. Bak; K. Kim; C. H. Choi; Y. K. Oh; B. C. Kim; N. I. Her; H. L. Yang; G. S. Lee; the KSTAR Team

    2004-01-01

    As there is substantial progress in the KSTAR tokamak engineering, all the major structures and sub-systems are under fabrication and in procurement phase. The vacuum vessel,port, cryostat cylinder, lid, and bellows are being rigorously fabricated in the factory. The lower part of the KSTAR such as cryostat base and gravity support has been almost finished in its fabrication. There are also great progresses and significant results in manufacturing of the superconducting magnet, including four Toroidal Field (TF) coils, lower and upper PF7 coils which are the largest Poloidal Field (PF) coils. The TF00 coil, which has been made for test and back-up of the TF magnet system, was successfully tested in the cool-down and current charging. As the fabrications and procurements of major structures have been actively proceeded, assembly works were also launched from Aug. 2003. More detailed description on these status, results, and plans will be described in this paper.

  10. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. A research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y.2006. Four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. (author)

  11. EPS Confidentiality and Integrity mechanisms Algorithmic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Orhanou, Ghizlane; Bentaleb, Youssef; Laassiri, Jalal

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Evolution of UMTS is one of the latest steps in an advancing series of mobile telecommunications systems. Many articles have already been published on the LTE subject but these publications have viewed the subject from particular perspectives. In the present paper, a different approach has been taken. We are interested in the security features and the cryptographic algorithms used to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data. A closer look is taken to the two EPS confidentiality and integrity algorithms based on the block cipher algorithm AES: the confidentiality algorithm EEA2 and the integrity algorithm EIA2. Furthermore, we focused on the implementation of both algorithms in C language in respect to the specifications requirements. We have tested our implementations according to the testsets given by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) implementation document. Some examples of the implementation tests are presented bellow.

  12. Anaesthesia for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Bilateral Bullous Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sahajanandan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS has become an accepted modality for chronic pulmonary emphy-sema. Bilateral involve excision of emphysematous alveoli, which results in a 20% to 30% reduction in the volume of each lung. The goal of LVRS is to improve the respiratory mechanics in severe emphysema by re-expanding func-tional lung tissue that has been compressed by over-distended emphysematous alveoli, thus restoring diaphragmatic mobility and improving the bellows function of the chest wall structures. Anaesthesia for LVRS is a significant challenge to the anaesthetist as a result of high risk patient population and the nature of surgery. Management requires good understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and surgical procedure. Close co-ordination be-tween the anaesthetist, surgeon and other support staff are of paramount importance.

  13. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station——Technical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2007-01-01

    This is the 3 rd topic of "A series dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station", which focuses on the technical characteristics. The type of this Nuclear Power Station is a Russian AES-91 (WWER-1000/V428) pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power unit. It is an improved concept by the Russian Saint Petersburg Nuclear Power Research and Design Institute based on the experiences in design, construction and operation of WWER-1000/V320 units. Since WWER-1000/V320 is a mature type which has more than 260reactor-year operation experiences, the author guesses the technical characteristics of WWER-1000/V320 are well known, thus the comparison of their technical characteristics is described bellow.

  14. Wave Damping over a Perforated Plate with Water Chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shutang

    2006-01-01

    The movement of waves propagating over a horizontally submerged perforated plate with waterfilled chambers bellow the plate was investigated by using linear potential theory. The analytical solution was compared with laboratory experiments on wave blocking. The analysis of the wave energy dissipation on the perforated bottom surface shows that the effects of the perforated plate on thewave motion depend mainly on the plate porosity, the wave height, and the wave period. The wave number is a complex number when the wave energy dissipation on the perforated plate is considered. The real part of the wave number refers to the spatial periodicity while the imaginary part represents the damping modulus. The characteristics of the wave motion were explored for several possible conditions.

  15. Success in the pipeline for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The very heart of any LHC experiment is not a pixel detector, nor a vertex locator but a beam pipe. It is the site of each collision and the boundary where the accelerator and experiment meet. As an element of complex design and manufacture the CMS beam pipe was fifteen years in the making and finally fully installed on Tuesday 10 June. Watch the video! End cap beam pipe installation in the CMS detector. Central beam pipe installation.The compensation modules were the final pieces to take their places in the cavern at Point 5: "These are like bellows," says Wolfram Zeuner, Deputy Technical Co-ordinator for CMS. "They allow us to compensate for the change in length when we heat or cool the beam pipe. And they are the very last elements; beam pipe installation, which began last year, is now complete." The beam pipe is neither too fragile nor too bulky, but just right to satisfy the conflicting n...

  16. Inner Structure of Black Holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: the role of mass inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interior dynamics of accreting black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum, showing that accretion can have an enormous impact on their inner structure. We find that, unlike in general relativity, there is a minimum accretion rate bellow which the mass inflation instability, which drives the centre-of-mass streaming density to exponentially high values in an extremely short interval of time, does not occur. We further show that, above this threshold, mass inflation takes place inside black holes very much in the same way as in general relativity, but is brought to a halt at a maximum energy density which is, in general, much smaller than the fundamental energy density of the theory. We conjecture that some of these results may be a common feature of modified gravity theories in which significant deviations from general relativity manifest themselves at very high densities.

  17. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  18. Phase Behaviour of the System Propene/Polypropene at High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ruhl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase behaviour of mixtures of supercritical propene and a number of polypropenes, which have a similar density but significantly different molecular weights and tacticities, was investigated in a broad range of polymer weight fractions and temperatures at high pressures. The cloud-point pressures were measured optically, using a view cell which was equipped with two windows made of synthetic sapphire and a metal bellows to accurately adjust the pressure. The cloud-point pressures were found in the range from 29 to 37 MPa decreasing with increasing polymer weight fraction and increasing with increasing temperature and polymer molecular weight. The critical weight fraction was found below 2 to 6 wt.-%. Whereas the cloud-point pressures of atactic and syndiotactic samples were high and very similar, the isotactic species exhibit distinctly lower values. The results, extrapolated to lower temperatures, show good agreement with the literature data.

  19. Development of input power coupler for ERL main linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing the 1.3GHz 9-cell superconducting cavities for realizing the ERL under the collaboration between KEK, JAEA, ISSP, and other institutes. A power coupler is designed for the ERL main linac superconducting cavity. Estimated input power is about 20kW for 20MV/m ERL operation. This coupler is based on the STF-BL input coupler, which adopts the TRISTAN type coaxial coupler, and some modifications are applied for the CW 20kW power operation. Now we are developing the high power coupler test stand to carry out the components test of the ceramic windows and bellows by using a 30kW IOT. In this paper, we report the design strategy of the input power coupler for ERL main linac and the recent status of the high power coupler test stand. (author)

  20. Elastoplastic fracture mechanics approach for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural materials used for LMFBR are austenitic steels from Type AISI 304, 316, or steels which are similar. Investigations show that a leak-before-break concept can be established for LMFBR piping systems and components, due to the ductile behaviour of these steels and operating conditions. A major element of this concept is the knowledge of fatigue crack growth patterns. The experiments which were carried out show that initial flaws will only grow slowly during the lifetime. The investigations should be extended into the plastic range. A test facility is under construction, where components such as nozzles, elbows and bellows can be tested under operational conditions with specified flaws in stress concentration areas. (author)

  1. Simulation of VUV electroluminescence in micropattern gaseous detectors: the case of GEM and MHSP

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, C A B; Schindler, H; Ferreira, A L; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M F dos; Biagi, S; Veenhof, R; Veloso, J F C A

    2012-01-01

    Electroluminescence produced during avalanche development in gaseous avalanche detectors is an useful information for triggering, calorimetry and tracking in gaseous detectors. Noble gases present high electroluminescence yields, emitting mainly in the VUV region. The photons can provide signal readout if appropriate photosensors are used. Micropattern gaseous detectors are good candidates for signal amplification in high background and/or low rate experiments due to their high electroluminescence yields and radiopurity. In this work, the VUV light responses of the Gas Electron Multiplier and of the Micro-Hole Strip Plate, working with pure xenon, are simulated and studied in detail using a new and versatile C++ toolkit. It is shown that the solid angle subtended by a photosensor placed bellow the microstructures depends on the operating conditions. The obtained absolute EL yields, determined for different gas pressures and as functions of the applied voltage, are compared with those determined experimentally...

  2. Excited charmonium states from Bethe-Salpeter equation

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    We solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a system of a heavy quark-antiquark pair interacting with a screened linear confining potential. First we show the spinless QFT model is inadequate and fail to describe even gross feature of the quarkonia spectrum. In order to get reliable description the spine degrees of freedom has to be considered. Within the approximation employed we reasonably reproduce known radial excitation of vector charmonium. The BSE favors relatively large string breaking scale $\\mu\\simeq 350MeV$ . Using free charm quark propagators we observe that $J/\\Psi$ is the only charmonium left bellow naive quark-antiquark threshold $2m_c$, while the all excited states are situated above this threshold. Within the numerical method we overcome obstacles related with threshold singularity and discuss the consequences of the use of free propagators for calculation of excited states above the threshold.

  3. Incorporation of high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from recent process-engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisioned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository

  4. Pressure and temperature fluctuation simulation of J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Ohtsu, K.; Aso, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system provides supercritical cryogenic hydrogen to the moderators at a pressure of 1.5 MPa and temperature of 18 K and removes 3.8 kW of nuclear heat from the 1 MW proton beam operation. We prepared a heater for thermal compensation and an accumulator, with a bellows structure for volume control, to mitigate the pressure fluctuation caused by switching the proton beam on and off. In this study, a 1-D simulation code named DiSC-SH2 was developed to understand the propagation of pressure and temperature propagations through the hydrogen loop due to on and off switching of the proton beam. We confirmed that the simulated dynamic behaviors in the hydrogen loop for 300-kW and 500-kW proton beam operations agree well with the experimental data under the same conditions.

  5. City gates: commissioning and start-up; Comissionamento e pre-operacao de estacoes de entrega de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Cipriano Homem; Roz, Fabio da; Batista Filho, Jaire Medeiro; Pinto, Jose Eduardo Christovao [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Owner and sole operator in Brasilian territory of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL), the largest of its kind in South America, TBG started operations on July 1 st, 1999. Since then, it has ensured transportation of Bolivian natural gas into Brazil swiftly and safely. This paper relates the TBG experiences on Natural Gas City Gates commissioning and pre-operation. It describes the maintenance and operation vision from the phases of the implementation project since the documents analysis and going through the risks analysis, works permissions, area liberation to gasification, calibration, and equipment adjusts. The special conditions related to the beginning of operation is also described: Consumption bellow the City Gate specification and relationship with the distribution concessionaire. (author)

  6. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  7. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  8. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpízar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the intervention between 2000 and 2007. Results: The effectiveness in Stomatology services improved in more than 100% in 2007 compared with 2005; the good use of prosthesis increased in 100%; the assistance covering and resolution index for persons over 60 years and bellow 19 increased lineally, reaching values similar to those of the first years of the studied period. Conclusions: The impact of the Revolution’s Programs was positive since the performance of the studied markers was superior after the intervention.

  9. Estudo ultra-estrutural do esôfago de Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega (Pisces, Siluriformes, Trichomicteridae Ultrastructural study of the oesophagous of Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega (Pisces, Siluriformes, Trichomicteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Lima Pinheiro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega, 1983 is a leather fish restricted to the rivers on the shore in the southeast of Brazil. In this work, the oesophagous structure is being showed. The oesophagous appears itself short, dorsally inclinated toward pericardium and ventrally covered by liver lobe. By electron microscopy we can observe a mucosa layer formed by stratified squamous epithelium and lamina propria with stratum compactum. The epithelium is composed by three types of cells: superficial squamous cells; mucous cells, similar to the globet cells and polyhedric cells. The stratification of this epithelium provides a complete basal layer of proliferation polyhedric cells. The cells in the intermediate region of the epithelium are also polyhedric. These cells are just bellow the superficial squamous cells and packed among mucous cells.

  10. First photon-shutter development for APS insertion device beamline front ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Nian, H. L. Thomas; Wang, Zhibi; Collins, Jeffrey T.; Ryding, David G.; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1993-02-01

    One of the most critical components on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device (ID) beamline front ends is the first photon shutter. It operates in two modes to fully intercept the high total power and high-heat-flux ID photon beam in seconds (normal mode) or in less than 100 ms (emergency fast mode). It is designed to operate in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The design incorporates a multi-channel rectangular bar, bent in a `hockey stick' configuration, with two-point suspension. The flanged end is an articulated bellows with rolling hinges. The actuation end is a spring-assisted, pneumatic fail-safe flexural pivot type. The coolant (water) channels incorporate brazed copper foam to enhance the heat transfer, a tube technology particular to the APS. The design development, and material aspects, as well as the extensive thermal and vibrational analyses in support of the design, are presented in this paper.

  11. Two Primary Standards for Low Flows of Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F; Tison, Stuart A

    2004-01-01

    We describe two primary standards for gas flow in the range from 0.1 to 1000 μmol/s. (1 μmol/s ≅ 1.3 cm(3)/min at 0 °C and 1 atmosphere.) The first standard is a volumetric technique in which measurements of pressure, volume, temperature, and time are recorded while gas flows in or out of a stainless steel bellows at constant pressure. The second standard is a gravimetric technique. A small aluminum pressure cylinder supplies gas to a laminar flow meter, and the integrated throughput of the laminar flow meter is compared to the weight decrease of the cylinder. The two standards, which have standard uncertainties of 0.019 %, agree to within combined uncertainties with each other and with a third primary standard at NIST based on pressure measurements at constant volume.

  12. Development of an in vitro bioassay method to determine the intake q natural thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and economic method for analytical determination of the Th-232 concentration in excreta samples (urine and feces) was developed, using Th-229 as a tracer. Solvent extraction followed by alpha spectrometry was employed. The minimum activity detectable for urine samples was (0,36 ± 0,05) mBq/dm3 and for fecal samples (0,52 ± 0,12) mBq/dm3. Two groups of persons were analyzed. The first one, A, contituted by persons non ocupationally exposed and the second one, B, by workers ocupationally exposed. The results of thorium concentration in excreta samples from group A were compared with the daily excretion due to alimentary diet of thorium and the results obtained from the second group were compared with the limits of excretion derived from the annual limits of intake recommended by the ICRP. All the samples analyzed showed thorium concentration levels bellow the limits recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  13. Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Bordalo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26‰ and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90‰ and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have delta87Sr‰ around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.

  14. Constitutive modelling of stainless steels for cryogenic applications. Strain induced martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2001-01-01

    The 300-series stainless steels are metastable austenitic alloys: martensitic transformation occurs at low temperatures and/or when plastic strain fields develop in the structures. The transformation influences the mechanical properties of the material. The present note aims at proposing a set of constitutive equations describing the plastic strain induced martensitic transformation in the stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The constitutive modelling shall create a bridge between the material sciences and the structural analysis. For the structures developing and accumulating plastic deformations at sub-zero temperatures, it is of primary importance to be able to predict the intensity of martensitic transformation and its effect on the material properties. In particular, the constitutive model has been applied to predict the behaviour of the components of the LHC interconnections, the so-called bellows expansion joints (the LHC mechanical compensation system).

  15. Properties of Ag2O Grown in PLD System

    CERN Document Server

    Agasti, Souvik; Mitra, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We deposited Ag_2O films in PLD system on glass substrate for a fixed oxygen pressure (70 mili Torr) with the variation of laser energy from 75 to 215 mJ/Pulse. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the films have well crystallinity and deposited as hexagonal lattice. The particle size of the films is measured from field emission scanning electron microscope images. The composition of the films is analyzed from energy dispersive X-ray spectra which confirms about the formation of silver oxide. The optical characterization shows that the films are highly absorbent in visible optical range. We also calculated optical band gaps from Tauc plot and confirmed that the band gaps appeared bellow the visible optical range. Our analysis concludes that the Ag_2O films deposited with these parameters can be considered as a good absorbent layer for solar photovoltaic application.

  16. Design of Stiffness for Air Spring Based on ABAQUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an axisymmetric finite element (FE model of an air spring was carried out with the software ABAQUS to design its target vertical stiffness. The bellows was simulated by the reinforced surface element. The compressed gas in the cavity of the air spring was represented by the hydrostatic fluid element. The target stiffness is obtained by modifying the valid area of the cross section. At last, the results of experiment coincided well with the simulation data. The study shows that the static stiffness of air spring is sensitive to the effective area of the cross section. The conclusion has certain practical significance for the design and the optimization of the same kind of air spring.

  17. Rupture of endotracheal tube cuff during robot-assisted endoscopic thyroidectomy -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Chul; Yun, Mi-Ja; Goo, Eui-Kyoung; Bahk, Jae-Hyon; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Lee, Sang Chul

    2010-12-01

    We encountered a case of a rupture of an endotracheal tube cuff during robot-assisted thyroid surgery in a 35-year-old male patient. Two hours after commencing surgery, the bellows of the ventilator were not filled and a rupture of the endotracheal tube cuff was suspected. Once the robot-manipulator is engaged, the position of the operating table cannot be altered without removing it from the patient. Reintubation with direct laryngoscopy was performed with difficulty in the narrow space between the patient's head and robot-manipulator without moving the robot away from the patient. The rupture of the endotracheal tube cuff was confirmed by observing air bubbles exiting from the balloon in water. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery without complications. In robot-assisted thyroid surgery, a preoperative arrangement of the robot away from the patient's head to obtain easy access to the patient is essential for safe anesthetic care.

  18. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Anodic Functionalities and Processes in LSCM-CGO-Ni Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2015-07-17

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize anode compositions made of (La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) and gadolinia doped ceria (CGO) with and without additional submicron Ni, or exsoluted Ni nanoparticles. In addition, the effects of the anode gas flow rate and the working temperature were investigated. Higher content of the ionic conductor leads to a decrease of the impedance in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 Hz. The effect of the catalyst component was investigated while keeping the electronic conductivity unchanged in the tested materials. Enhanced catalytic activity was demonstrated to considerably decrease the impedance especially in the frequency range between 100 Hz to 1 Hz. The change in the gas flow rate affects mainly the impedance bellow 1 Hz. © The Electrochemical Society.

  19. Thermal control of electronic equipment by heat pipes; Controle thermique de composants electroniques par caloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Schneider, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Sartre, V.; Chaker Zaghdoudi, M.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Upresa CNRS

    1998-05-01

    In the frame of the BRITE-EURAM european programme (KHIEPCOOL project), a literature survey on the main beat pipe and micro heat pipe technologies developed for thermal control of electronic equipment has been carried out. The conventional heat pipes are cylindrical, flat or bellow tubes, using wicks or axial grooves as capillary structures. In the field of micro heat pipes, the component interconnection substrate. The best performances were achieved with Plesch`s axially grooved flat miniature heat pipe, which is able to transfer a heat flux of about 60 W.cm{sup -2}. Theoretical models have shown that the performance of micro heat pipe arrays increase with increasing tube diameter, decreasing tube length and increasing heat pipe density. The heat pipe technologies are classified and compared according to their geometry and location in the system. A list of about 150 references, classified according to their subjects, is presented. (authors) 160 refs.

  20. Step brazing a multi-target TRAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of a target holder for a multi-target transmission anode x-ray tube (TRAX) involved joining of five different materials. The TRAX will generate a nearly mono-energetic x-ray beam useful for instrument calibration and dosimetry studies. Each of three different targets will provide a different energy. The design will allow the experimenter to place a different target in front of the electron beam without breaking vacuum each time. The procedure is described for attaching three 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) diameter targets - made of tungsten, gold and uranium 238 (D-38) - to an OFHC copper support bar. The joining of the copper bar to a welded stainless steel bellows and flange is also described

  1. LHC Vacuum Upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M; Chiggiato, P; Cruikshank, P; Gallilee, M; Garion, C; Gomes, P

    2012-01-01

    The last two years of LHC operation have highlighted concerns on the levels of the dynamic vacuum in the long straight sections in presence of high intensity beams. The analysis of the existing data has shown relationship between pressures spikes and beam screen temperature oscillations or micro-sparking in the RF fingers of the bellows on one side and coincidence of pressure bumps with stimulated desorption by electron cloud, beam losses and/or thermal out gassing stimulated by higher order modes (HOM) losses. The electron cloud mitigation solutions will be adapted to the different configurations: cold/warm transitions, non-coated surfaces in direct view of beams, photoelectrons, etc. All scenarios will be presented together with their efficiencies. Additional pumping and reengineering of components will reduce the sensitivity of the vacuum system to beam losses or HOM inducing out gassing. The expected margin at nominal intensity and energy resulting from these consolidations will be summarized. Finally, th...

  2. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  3. HRS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  4. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  5. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Frank [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  6. GO-DEVILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-01-28

    This patent relates to a device normally termed a godevil for use in clearing pipes of sludge, and in particular describes an arrangement for housing a radioactive source within a go-devil whereby the source is removed from a radioactivity shield for detection purposes only when the go-devil is in use. In the described go-devil the radioactive source is housed in a member attached to a piston. Under normal pressure conditions the piston is forced in a direction to position the source within a lead shield. A bellows senses the pressure external to the go-devil and acts through a hydraulic line to force the piston in a direction to remove the source from the shield as long as the pressure is above a pre-set value.

  7. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the 3He solute in a superfluid 3He--4He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid 4He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the 3He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the 3He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the 3He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs

  8. Development and testing of a rotary solar engine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaly, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary solar engine has been constructed and tested. By sealing Freon (having the environmentally safe composition rather than the conventionally used harmful composition) in its bellows instead of air, sufficiently consistent operation can be achieved to serve the purely mechanical rotary light-load or no-load markets. Although its power efficiency is not sufficient to make it competitive as a prime power generator, even for power outputs as low as a few ounce inches per minute, it simplicity and reliability make it an attractive self-powered source of mechanical control power for critical slow speed actuators. Its simplicity and low cost make it particularly attractive for the small (less than 10 in/sup 3/) display markets. Other markets may now be identified, now that its strength/limitations are known.

  9. Development of a controlled-distance electrochemistry arrangement to be used in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the state-of-the-art of the controlled-distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement developed at VTT. Due to the possibility to control accurately the distance between two electrodes, the CDE arrangement makes possible electrochemical measurements in poorly-conductive media such as simulated coolants of light water reactor systems. This experimental arrangement has now been developed into a versatile electrochemical tool, which can be used for thin-layer electrochemistry (TLEC), wall-jet ring-disc and contact electric impedance (CEI) as well as contact electric resistance (CER) measurements. This report comprises results from the years 1997-1999 and summarises the different possible TLEC configurations and electrode locations as well as the development of a bellows-driven CDE system. (orig.)

  10. A semi-automatic method for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing commercial software often inadequately determines respiratory peaks for patients in respiration correlated computed tomography. A semi-automatic method was developed for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms. First the waveform is separated into breath cycles by identifying intercepts of a moving average curve with the inspiration and expiration branches of the waveform. Peaks and valleys were then defined, respectively, as the maximum and minimum between pairs of alternating inspiration and expiration intercepts. Finally, automatic corrections and manual user interventions were employed. On average for each of the 20 patients, 99% of 307 peaks and valleys were automatically detected in 2.8 s. This method was robust for bellows waveforms with large variations

  11. ANALYZING THE SILVER COINS FROM POTAISSA LEGIONARY FORT VS. ANCIENT TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bogdan Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is centered on the study of Roman silver coins from the archaeological site of Potaissa using as its main source M. Pîslaru’s book “The Roman coins from Potaissa: legionary fortress and ancient town”.The book focuses on the presentation of analysis results of monetary finds coming from Potaissa area while the article presents a different approach to the subject, by integrating part of the results in graphs that show a close-up perspective for the monetary evidence in chronological periods.How this task was accomplished is explained bellow, in two chapters, one dedicated for the study of the two areas from Potaissa, legionary fortress and civilian town, and another dedicated for the study of private coin collections from all of Potaissa.

  12. 自我·他者·责任--《受害者》中的伦理思想之管见%Self,Others,Responsibility-On Ethical Ideas in The Victim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀兰

    2014-01-01

    In The Victim ,Saul Bellow dramatically represented the conflicts between Asa Leventhal and Kirby Allbee ,reflected the plight in human life ,explored the meaning of life ,displayed such ethi-cal ideas as the moral choices ,loving others and social responsibilities of the individual .%在《受害者》中,贝娄通过戏剧性地展现主人公阿萨·莱文撒尔(Asa Leventhal)和科比·阿尔比(Kir-by Allbee)之间的冲突,揭示人类生活的困境,探索人生的意义,表现出贝娄坚信人本善良、爱人类和个人负有社会责任等积极入世的伦理思想。

  13. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  14. MRI of ventilated neonates and infants: respiratory pressure as trigger signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: motivated by the difficulties often encountered in the setup of respiratory trigger in MR imaging of mechanical ventilated pediatric patients, a simplified approach in terms of time and reliability was sought. Method: with the help of a male-to-male Luer-Lock adapter in combination with a 3-way adapter the tube of the respiratory compensation bellow was fixed to the output channel for capnography of the airway filter. Ten patients (age 4 months to 6 years) were tested with spin echo imaging and either respiration compensation (T1-weighted imaging) or respiratory triggered (T2-weighted imaging). Results: a clear trigger signal was achieved in all cases. No negative influence on the quality or security of the mechanical ventilation of the patients was observed. Summary: the proposed adapter is safe, efficient and fast to install in patients undergoing MR imaging in general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  15. Crescimento econômico e liquidez externa no Brasil após 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Assis C. Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and foreign liquidity in Brazil after 1970. This paper assesses the relationship between the capital account and the Brazilian economic growth according to balance-of-payments constraint approach. The Thirlwall (1979's simple rule is extended to take into consideration capital account and several empirical evidence using time series analysis are shown. Conversely to the simple rule when fitted rates of balance-of-payment equilibrium economic growth average bellow the observed ones, fitted rates of growth using the rule extended to international liquidity are consistently greater than the observed ones. It is fair to conclude that, first, the Brazilian economy grows better during abundant international liquidity and, second, the economy sub utilizes such advantage growing far less than it could grow.

  16. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  17. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  18. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  19. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stephan A; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-08-01

    Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians. PMID:26246611

  20. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  1. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  2. The OmniTread serpentine robot: design and field performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Granosik, Grzegorz; Hansen, Malik

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of the OmniTread serpentine robot, developed at the University of Michigan. Serpentine robots are mobile robots that comprise of multiple rigid segments, connected by actuated joints. The segments usually have drive elements, such as wheels or tracks. To date, we have developed two versions of the OmniTread. The larger version, called OT-8, has five rigid segments and four 2-Degree-of-Freedom (2-DOF) joints, and it can drive through an 8-inch diameter opening. The OT-8 is fully functional and this paper documents experimental results for the OT-8. The smaller and newer version, called "OT-4," will have seven segments, six 2- DOF joints, and it will fit through a 4 inch diameter hole. The OT-4 is not yet completely built, but its design is mostly completed and key improvements over the OT-8 have been bench tested. The foremost and unique design characteristic of the OmniTread is the use of pneumatic bellows to actuate the joints. The pneumatic bellows allow the simultaneous control of position and stiffness for each joint. Controllable stiffness is of crucial importance in serpentine robots, which require stiff joints to cross gaps and compliant joints to conform to rough terrain for effective propulsion. Another unique feature of the OmniTread design is the maximal coverage of all four sides of each segment with driven tracks. This design makes the robot indifferent to roll-overs, which are bound to happen when the long and slen-der bodies of serpentine robots travel over rugged terrain.

  3. Aids to decision in selection of valve stem seals in accordance with the ''TA Luft'' requirements, 2002 edition; Entscheidungshilfen fuer die Auswahl von Spindelabdichtungen nach TA-Luft-Anforderungen - Ausgabe 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodara, G. [Phoenix Armaturen Werke Bregel GmbH, Volkmarsen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    ''TA Luft'' (''Technical Directive for Prevention of Air Pollution''), 2002, specifies high-quality-sealing metal bellows with a downstream safety gland, or equivalent sealing systems, for the sealing of valva stems. According to ''TA Luft'', sealing systems may be considered equivalent provided the temperature-specific rates of leakage are met in the VDI 2440 (November, 2000 edition) test and detection procedure. ''High-quality metal bellows with downstream safety gland'' and various ''spring-load gland packings'' are examined in this article on the criterion of the requirements of ''TA-Luft'', on the bases of testing in accordance with TA Luft 2002 VDI 2440 and a test in accordance with DIN EN ISO 15 848, Part 1. The result: There is, for the bello with downstream safety gland, no alternative which fulfills all the requirements of ''TA Luft''. The spring-loaded gland packing and, according to the relevant literature, the double gland packing with barrier fluid and exhausting, which is not examined here, do provide a potential alternative for lower load-cycle numbers. The fact that design specifications and the packing and valve manufacturers' installation instructions were taken into account for valve stem surfaces, gap tolerances, packing-ring arrangement, and tightening torques for precompression and final compression, was decisive for fulfillment of the requirements of TA Luft, VDI 2440 in the tests examined in this article. (orig.)

  4. 索尔·贝娄的生态观--小说《院长的十二月》的启示%SauL BeLLow’s EcoLogy View ReVeLation of Dean’s December

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍晓红; 李政文

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow voices his sound ecological criticism in his novels which displays his strong sense of urgency towards hu_man environment and his harmonious ecological view. His novel Dean’s December is an excellent example. The novel presents not only the alienation between man and nature,but also the profound alienation human being themselves in their confrontation and antagonism with nature. In the novel,Bellow calls for the establishment of a harmonious relationship between men and nature which helps to fundamentally change the natural and social environment,so that the relation between men and nature,men and society will enter into the track of healthy development,thus men can ultimately realize the“romantic return”to nature as well as the beautiful encounter between men and nature.%贝娄在其小说中发出了生态批评的声音,其作品呈现了他的和谐生态观以及他对人类生存环境所具有的强烈的忧患意识。小说《院长的十二月》就是一个极好的例证。小说不仅表现了人与自然关系的异化,而且表现了人在与自然的对抗中自我的深刻异化。贝娄在小说中呼唤通过建立一种人与自然的和谐关系,使得人与自然、人与社会关系走上良性发展的轨迹,实现人对自然的“浪漫式回归”、人与自然的美好相遇。

  5. The accurate simulation of the tension test for stainless steel sheet: the plasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The overall aim of this research project is to achieve the accurate simulation of a hydroforming process chain, in this case the manufacturing of a metal bellow. The work is done in cooperation with the project group for numerical research at the computer centre of the University of Karlsruhe, which is responsible for the simulation itself, while the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart is responsible for the material modeling and the resulting differential equations to describe the material behavior. Hydroforming technology uses highly compressed fluid media (up to 4200 bar) to form the basic, mostly metallic material. One hydroforming field is tube hydroforming (THF), which uses tubes or extrusions as basic material. The forming conditions created by hydroforming are quite different from those originated by other processes as for example deep drawing. That's why today's available simulation software is not always able to show satisfying results when a hydroforming process is simulated. The partners of this project try to solve this problem with the FDEM simulation software, developed by W. Schoenauer at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was designed to solve systems of partial differential equations, which in this project are delivered by the IFU. The manufacturing of a metal bellow by hydroforming leads to tensile stress in longitudinal and tangential direction and to bend load due to the shifting and rollforming process. Therefore as a first step, the standardized tensile test is simulated. For plastic deformation a material model developed by D. Banabic is used. It describes the plastic behavior of orthotropic sheet metal. For elastic deformation Hooke's law for isotropic materials is used. In permanent iteration with the simulation the used material model has to be checked for its validity and must be modified if necessary. Refs. 3 (author)

  6. On the Theme of “Father and Son” in A Silver Dish%论《银碟》的“父与子”主题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤广杰

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of“father and son” has been constantly written about and interpreted by American Jewish novelist Saul Bellow. Based on the profound cultural connotation and signif-icance of the theme of “father and son”, the paper analyzes not only the deep love between the father and the son but also the conflict between the father and the son caused by their different religious beliefs and values in Bellow’ s novella A Silver Dish. It points out that Bellow expres-ses cosmopolitan significance by means of analyzing the motif of “father and son”, which ena-bles his works both to have Jewish cultural connotation and to transcend Jewish nationality to have universal importance.%“父与子”关系一直是美国犹太作家索尔·贝娄不断书写和阐释的主题。依据“父与子”主题所具有的深刻文化内涵和意义,剖析贝娄的短篇小说《银碟》中父与子之间深沉的爱以及由于宗教信仰和价值观的不同而产生的冲突。贝娄借用“父与子”母题去表现更具普遍意义的主题,这使他的作品不仅具有犹太文化内涵,而且超越了犹太民族属性,具有了世界性的普遍意义。

  7. 不同氮、磷、钾肥配施对辽单565光合特性和产量的影响%Effects of Different Fertilizers on Photosynthetic Characters and Yield of Maize Hybrid Liaodan565

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖万欣; 赵海岩; 刘晶; 史磊; 常程; 张书萍

    2011-01-01

    以耐密型玉米辽单565为试验材料,研究不同氮、磷、钾肥配施对其光合特性和产量的影响.结果表明,氮肥试验中,辽单565穗上叶和穗位叶叶面积、穗位叶和穗下叶光合速率均以施氮量为135 kg/hm2时达到较高值,叶面积指数较高,穗位层叶片消光系数较小,产量较高;磷肥试验中,辽单565穗上叶和穗位叶叶面积、穗下叶光合速率均以施磷量为120 kg/hm2时达到较高值,穗位层叶片消光系数较小,产量较高;钾肥试验中,辽单565穗上叶光合速率和穗下叶叶面积均以施钾量为90 kg/hm2时处理较高,穗位层叶片消光系数较小,产量较高.不同氮、磷、钾肥配施试验中,以施氮量180 kg/hm2、施磷量75 kg/hm2、施钾量为90kg/hm2时辽单565的产量最高.相关分析表明,穗上叶和穗位叶叶面积、穗下叶光合速率与产量均呈极显著正相关,穗位层消光系数与产量呈负相关.%Effects of different fertilizers on photosynthetic characters and yield of high density tolerant hybrid maize Iiaodan565 were studied. The results showed that leaf area of leaf top ear and leaf ear, photosynthetic rate of leaf ear and leaf bellow ear was relatively high under 135 kg/ha of nitrogen rate. Leaf area of leaf top ear and leaf ear, photosynthetic rate of leaf bellow ear was relatively high under 120 kg/ha of phosphorus rate, yield of Liaodan565 were relatively high and extinction coefficient of that was relatively low under 120 kg/ha of phosphorus rate in the phosphorus fertilizer trail. Photosynthetic rate of leaf top ear, leaf area of leaf bellow ear was relatively high under 90 kg/ha of potassium rate, yield of Liaodan565 were relatively high and extinction coefficient of that was relatively low under 90 kg/ha of potassium rate in the potassium fertilizer trail. The highest yield of Liaodan565 was under 90 kg/ha of potassium rate in the potassium fertilizer trail, compared with the other fertilizer trails. Correlation

  8. Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Sereno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia ("stomach ribs", which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1 Phase I-Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2 Phase II-Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac and caudal (abdominal air sac divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3 Phase III-Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4 Phase IV-Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic

  9. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  10. Qualidade de híbridos de melão após a aplicação de imidacloprid para controle de mosca-branca Fruit quality of hybrid melons after application of imidacloprid to control whitefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geomar G. da Silva

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de diferentes híbridos de melão após a aplicação do inseticida imidacloprid via fertirrigação e pulverização para o controle da mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, foi conduzido um ensaio na região agrícola de Mossoró-Açú-RN. As características avaliadas foram: população de insetos, produtividade, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis, acidez, pH, açúcares totais, redutores e não redutores. O delineamento experimental foi blocos completos em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos métodos de aplicação do inseticida (fertirrigação, pulverização e controle sem aplicação de inseticidas. As subparcelas foram ocupadas pelos três híbridos utilizados no experimento (Orange Flesh, AF 682 e Hy-Mark. O método de aplicação do inseticida teve efeito significativo na produção dos híbridos e o conteúdo de açúcares redutores. Houve aumento na produção do melão de 20,52% (fertirrigação e 13,54% (pulverização, quando comparados à testemunha.With the objective of evaluating fruit quality of hibrid melons after application of imidacloprid by fertirrigation and spraying to control whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, a research was carried out at the agricultural region of Mossoró-Açu, Brazil. A randomized complete block design in a split-plot scheme with four replications was used. The methods of application of imidacloprid (fertirrigation, spraying and control were used in the plots and in the split-plot the melon hibrids (Orange Flesh, AF 682 and Hy-Mark were planted. Evaluation of insect population, melon fruit yield, pulp firmness, soluble solids contents, acidity, pH, total and, reducing and non reducing sugar content were analyzed. The methods of insecticide application of imidacloprid had a significant effect on fruit and in reducing sugar contents. There was an increasing on melon fruit yield of

  11. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and 238 U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. 226 Ra and 210 Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO4 was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the target environmental

  12. Characteristics of outage radiation fields around various reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Activity monitoring surveys, consisting of gamma spectroscopy and dose rate measurements, of various CANDU station components such as the reactor face, feeder cabinet, steam generators and moderator heat exchangers are often performed during shutdown in order to trend the transport of activity around the primary heat transport and moderator systems. Recently, the increased dose expenditure for work such as feeder inspection and replacement in the reactor vault has also spurred interest in improved characterization of the reactor face fields to facilitate better ALARA decision making and hence a reduction in future dose expenditures. At present, planning for reactor face work is hampered by insufficient understanding of the relative contribution of the various components to the overall dose. In addition to the increased dose expenditure for work at the reactor face, maintenance work associated with horizontal flux detectors and liquid injection systems has also resulted in elevated dose expenditures. For instance at Darlington, radiation fields in the vicinity of horizontal flux detectors (HFD) and Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) nozzle bellows are trending upwards with present contact fields being in the range 16-70 rem/h and working distance fields being in the range 100-500 mrem/h. This paper presents findings based on work currently being funded by the CANDU Owners Group. Measurements were performed at Ontario Power Generation's Pickering and Darlington nuclear stations. Specifically, the following are addressed: Characteristics of Reactor Vault Fields; Characteristics of Steam Generator Fields; Characteristics of Moderator Heat Exchanger Fields. Measurements in the reactor vault were performed at the reactor face, along the length of end fittings, along the length of feeders, at the bleed condenser and at the HFD and LISS nozzle bellows. Steam generator fields were characterized at various elevations above the tube sheet, with and without the

  13. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  14. COMPATIBILIDADE DO INSETICIDA THIAMETHOXAM COM FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE FEIJOEIRO COMPATIBILITY OF THE INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM WITH FUNGICIDES APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring tem causado sérios prejuízos em muitas áreas produtoras de feijão no Brasil. O dano indireto através da transmissão do vírus do mosaico dourado é um dos fatores limitantes na produção do feijão, podendo causar perdas de até 100%. Uma das medidas recentemente desenvolvidas para o controle desta praga é o tratamento das sementes com inseticida. Neste trabalho foi testada a compatibilidade do inseticida thiamethoxam com alguns dos fungicidas utilizados para tratamento de sementes de feijão destinadas ao plantio (difenoconazole, fludioxonil e carboxin. As variáveis utilizadas na avaliação foram: porcentagens de germinação, de sanidade das sementes e de eficiência de controle da mosca-branca. Considerando todas as variáveis, constatou-se que não houve incompatibilidade do inseticida com os fungicidas utilizados. Os tratamentos thiamethoxam+carboxin e thiamethoxam+fludioxonil foram os que apresentaram maior eficiência no controle de fungos incidentes em sementes e da mosca-branca em plântulas até os onze dias após a emergência.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mosca-branca; Bemisia argentifolli; fungos de sementes; controle químico.

    The white fly (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring causes serious damage to the common bean crop in Brazil. The indirect damage through the transmission of bean gold mosaic virus can cause losses of up to 100%. One measure recently developed to control this pest is insecticide seed dressing. In this study, the compatibility of the insecticide thiamethoxam with the fungicides used for dry beans seed dressing was tested. These treatments included the fungicides difenoconazole, fludioxonil and carboxin. The variables evaluated were

  15. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil; Caracterizacao dos processos geoquimicos atuantes na mobilizacao de radionuclideos e metais na bacia de rejeitos do complexo minero-industrial de Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Patricia Freitas

    1995-08-01

    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and {sup 238} U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. {sup 226} Ra and {sup 210} Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO{sub 4} was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the

  16. Rheological and dynamical characterization of blood analogue flows in a slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study blood analogue potential of H2O/glycerine/xanthan mixtures through viscosity. • Water/glycerine (35% w/w)/xanthan (0.02% w/w) solution mimics well blood viscosity. • We characterize dynamics of blood analogue flows in open slits with μPIV and CFD. • Results refer to flow rates 4.3 ⩽ Q ⩽ 25.3 L/h. • Wall shear stresses are bellow haemolysis threshold but may trigger thrombus formation. - Abstract: Thrombus formation and haemolysis are blood destructive phenomena depending on the flow hydrodynamics, particularly the shear stresses. This work addresses this issue by characterizing experimentally (using the micro-PIV technique) and numerically (using CFD) steady-state Newtonian (water and water/glycerine solutions) fluid flows and non-Newtonian (water/glycerine/xanthan) blood analogue flows, in a slit with a height of 1.3 mm and a width of 30 mm. The results obtained may provide useful information in the design of extracorporeal devices manipulating blood for diagnosis and therapeutics. Results from CFD showed that the Herschel–Bulkley viscosity model yields velocity predictions in excellent agreement with the experimental data obtained with the micro-PIV. Viscosity measurements evidenced that the water/glycerine (35% w/w)/xanthan (0.02% w/w) solution mimics well the blood global viscosity, exhibiting velocity profile shapes in fully developed flows flattened at the centre, typical of shear-thinning fluids. The maximum shear stresses obtained experimentally (1.39–3.11 Pa) for the blood analogue flows at the studied rates (6.7–25.3 L/h) evidence that haemolysis is unlikely to occur since lysis threshold values are 150 Pa for erythrocytes, 10 Pa for leucocytes and 7.5 Pa for platelets. However, the smallest flow rate cases may be of concern in blood circulation by yielding clot formation near the walls since the shear stresses there are bellow the thrombus/coagulation threshold (1.0–1.8 Pa)

  17. Growing Pains

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  18. Design of a micro-robot with an electro-pneumatic servo-actuator for the intra-pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated in many current products and are not only the concern of military defence or medicine. Nowadays micro actuators are diversified by using different kind of energy, and creating different motions. Several applications require small systems to inspect confined and hostile places. Vapour generators in nuclear plants are composed with 3000 to 5000 vertical pipes of 17 mm diameter. These pipes endure high mechanical constraints and have to be inspected to detect eventual cracks. Our study is based on the design, modelling and implementation of a micro-robot enable to move up and carry sensors in these pipes. It moves as an inchworm and then is composed by 2 blocking modules that brace the robot on the pipe sides, and one stretching module that creates a step. This actuator is pneumatic and composed by metal bellows. By this original design, the micro-robot have a good power to volume ratio and thus it can carry a load higher than 1 kg. Its good positioning accuracy is proved with a 90 mm course where the error of positioning is less than 60μm. A PID control law is used to control the robot but state feed back control law is planed. (author)

  19. Component tests for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Transmission Line and Matching System - Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Deibele, C. E.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Campbell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2015-11-01

    New Z0 = 50 Ω gas-cooled component designs for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System have been successfully tested at high RF power levels. They include two types featuring spoke-ring assembly (SRA) inner conductor supports: 20° elbows, and variable length assembly bellows, both achieving RF voltages > 35 kV peak, and currents ~ 760 A peak during quasi-steady state operation. The SRA utilizes mechanically preloaded fused quartz spokes, increasing lateral load handling capability. Components with SRA supports have been seismically tested, with no variation in low power electrical performance detected after testing. A 3 MW four-port switch has also been successfully tested at high RF power, and tests of a 6 MW hybrid power splitter are planned in the near future. Latest results will be presented. Plans for arc localization tests in a 60 m SRA transmission line run, and RF tests of Z0 = 50 Ω and Z0 = 20 Ω matching components with water-cooled inner conductors will also be discussed. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Master-slave micromanipulator method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

    1999-12-14

    A method is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be remotized by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  1. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  2. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  3. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas. PMID:26154295

  4. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  5. Research on Design,Manufacturing and Inspection of Large-diameter Multi-wave Nuclear Expansion Joint%大直径多波核用金属膨胀节设计、制造与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢江; 高利霞; 冯吉建; 周景蓉; 张倩; 黄雪

    2015-01-01

    研究某核电厂高温气冷堆金属堆内构件用金属波纹膨胀节,由核电站工程建设中连接管路系统的柔性补偿装置,补偿由于热胀冷缩等原因引起的金属堆内构件、陶瓷堆内构件和反应堆压力容器之间尺寸变化。介绍了大直径多波核用金属波纹膨胀节的设计、制造与检验关键点,为核电产品同类金属波纹膨胀节制作提供经验。%The effect of high temperature of a nuclear power plant expansion joint for corrugated metal re-actor internals gas cooled reactor was studied,which is a flexible compensation device for connecting with the pipeline system engineering in nuclear power plant construction and compensating the size variation between the cause of expansion and contraction of the reactor internals such as metal,ceramic reactor in-ternals and reactor pressure vessel.The keys of design,manufacturing and inspection of large-diameter multi-wave nuclear expansion joint were introduced.It provided inspection section for the production of similar products of metal bellows expansion of nuclear power.

  6. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  7. Influence of the gate edge on the reverse leakage current of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHe Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By comparing the Schottky diodes of different area and perimeter, reverse gate leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high mobility transistors (HEMT at gate bias beyond threshold voltage is studied. It is revealed that reverse current consists of area-related and perimeter-related current. An analytical model of electric field calculation is proposed to obtain the average electric field around the gate edge at high revers bias and estimate the effective range of edge leakage current. When the reverse bias increases, the increment of electric field is around the gate edge of a distance of ΔL, and perimeter-related gate edge current keeps increasing. By using the calculated electric field and the temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements, the edge gate leakage current mechanism is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at gate bias bellows -15V caused by the lateral extended depletion region induced barrier thinning. Effective range of edge current of Schottky diodes is about hundred to several hundred nano-meters, and is different in different shapes of Schottky diodes.

  8. Structural analysis and manufacture for the vacuum vessel of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Anhui, Hefei 230031 (China)]. E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn; Yao Damao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Anhui, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Songata [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Anhui, Hefei 230031 (China); Weng Peide [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Anhui, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2006-02-15

    The experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) is an advanced steady-state plasma physics experimental device, which has been approved by the Chinese government and is being constructed as the Chinese national nuclear fusion research project. The vacuum vessel, that is one of the key components, will have to withstand not only the electromagnetic force due to the plasma disruption and the Halo current, but also the pressure of boride water and the thermal stress due to the 250 deg. C baking out by the hot pressure nitrogen gas, or the 100 deg. C hot wall during plasma operation. This paper is a report of the mechanical analyses of the vacuum vessel. According to the allowable stress criteria of American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee (ASME), the maximum integrated stress intensity on the vacuum vessel is 396 MPa, less than the allowable design stress intensity 3S {sub m} (441 MPa). At the same time, some key R and D issues are presented, which include supporting system, bellows and the assembly of the whole vacuum vessel.

  9. A conceptual design of a low resistance vacuum vessel for the Steady State Tokamak Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamada, Masao; Tomita, Mitsuru (Mitsubishi Fusion Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Nishio, Satoshi; Seki, Yasushi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    A design study on the vacuum vessel of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor has been performed in order to provide a realistic structural concept for a fusion reactor. The vacuum vessel and shield are integrated to form a double-thin-wall structure filled with stainless steel and water resulting in a low one-turn electric resistance of {proportional to}4 {mu}{Omega} without insulating breaks or bellows. The reinforcement plates are welded between the inner and outer skins of the double-thin-wall structure, and shielding units are installed in every chamber with electrical insulation from these skins and plates. As a result, the requirements for the vacuum vessel can be realized by this simple structure alone. Transient electromagnetic and structural analysis has been performed for a three-dimensional shell model in the plasma disruption condition of plasma current 12 MA and current decay time 20 ms. An eddy current, about 95% of plasma current, is induced on the vacuum vessel, and a maximum magnetic pressure {proportional to}5.8 MPa is caused by the coupling with the toroidal field. The maximum stress intensity for the magnetic pressure is about 216 MPa. This low resistance vacuum vessel is extremely effective in shielding the change of the magnetic field in the superconducting toroidal and poloidal field coils during a plasma disruption. In summary, the feasibility and features of this new type of vacuum vessel concept have been shown in this study. (orig.).

  10. A study for disaster prevention in the case of the underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    There are three categories of possible disaster or hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating. 1) Disasters by exhaust pollutants: The equipment specially designed for underground use are strongly recommended. Workings using diesel equipment should be properly ventilated all the time to maintain the gas concentration bellow the permissible level. The fume diluter is recommended as the most practical after treatment device in Korean mines. 2) Underground fire: The main cause of diesel fire is over heated engine and spillage of hydraulic liquid. Therefore, protecting the over heat of engine, using fire resistive hydraulic liquid and high flash point fuel is requested. Fuel and the other oils are recommended to be stored at surface. To protect the smoke return in case of underground fire, the ventilation velocity must be kept more than 1.5m/sec. The fire smoke starts to return on 1.5m/sec and stops to return on 2.0m/sec. The fire smoke flows through upper half of the tunnel and it`s temperature is 10 degrees higher than ventilation air flow. For taking an immediate measure on fire, keeping the updated simulation is essential matter. 3) Other disasters. (author). 9 tabs., 15 figs.

  11. A new method of controlling the falling body in absolute gravimeter design%绝对重力仪设计中的一种新型落体控制方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 郭有光; 滕云田; 池顺良; 黄大伦; 方永源; 安海力

    2011-01-01

    For the convenience of repair and maintenance by the achievement of controlling the falling body under the atmospherics condition which was always accomplished in vacuum system during the design of the absolute gravimeter, we propose a completely new method to control the falling body: Welded Bellows. From the curves of the computed velocity and displacement and the result of the experiment, we can get the conclusion that this kind of control method not only attains the servo tracking of the falling body, but satisfies the requirement of the time of the free fall of the falling body.%为了将绝对重力仪在真空筒中自由下落落体的运动传动控制结构在大气压条件下实现,便于检修和维护,我们提出了一种全新的落体控制方法:焊接波纹管法.从理论计算上升段和下降段电机对拖架控制过程的速度、位移曲线以及试验结果可以看出,这种焊接波纹管驱动拖架的方法实现了对落体伺服跟踪的同时,也满足了对落体自由下落时间的设计要求.

  12. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  13. Mirror movement mechanism in ultra high vacuum for synchrotron radiation mirror box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a synchrotron radiation (SR) beamline pre and post mirrors are important optical components for precisely focussing SR on a monochromator and on the target in an experimental station. These mirrors are mounted in the ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) along with high precision mirror movement mechanism. The mirror movement mechanism provides backlash free six degrees of freedom to the mirror. Three precision motions are linear in nature and three are rotational. Two rotational precision motions are performed by elastic movement of spring steel fork with a backlash free resolution of 10 arc seconds and with a range of 0 to +/-1 degree. The another rotational motion has been performed by angular displacement of a plate through precision high tensile bolts with backlash free resolution of 10 arc seconds and with a range of 0 to +/-1 degree. Three linear motions have been performed by linear displacement of a plate through precision high tensile bolts with backlash free resolution of 10 microns with a range of 0 to +/- 10 mm. Two rotational precision motions are transferred to the mirror in UHV through a bellow and other four precision motions are transferred through the UHV chamber. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  14. Precision motion and control for the plane grating monochromator at SRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nearly stigmatic Plane Grating Monochromator (PGM) under commissioning for the new undulator beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center will provide a resolving power > 10,000 as it scans from 8 to 240 eV. Scanning requires the precise, simultaneous rotation of a plane mirror and a combined rotation-translation of a plane grating in close proximity to one another inside a UHV chamber. The required scanning motions are significant due to the large energy range covered by a single grating. The mirror and grating rotate nearly 23 and 33 degrees respectively and the grating translates approximately 200 mm. Sub-arcsec angular resolution allows several steps to be taken across the monochromator's energy resolution. Both rotations utilize a combination stepping motor-piezoelectric actuator scan drive that is controlled with a feedback loop using a laser interferometer to measure the in-situ rotation of the optics. The grating mechanism is supported via bellows to an external stepping motor driven stage that travels directly on an inspection grade granite block. The stage position is controlled with a feedback loop using a precision linear encoder. A positional accuracy and vertical stability of a few micrometers is achieved on the grating translation which prevents the image from shifting at the exit slit and introducing energy calibration errors

  15. Modeling and dynamic properties of dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture vibration isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F. S.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    The dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture (SALiM) vibration isolator, mainly proposed for vibration isolation of heavy machines with low frequency, consists of four principle parts: SALiM working media including elastic elements and incompressible oil, multi-layers bellows container, rigid reservoir and the oil tube connecting the two vessels. The isolation system under study is governed by a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) nonlinear equation including quadratic damping. Simplifying the nonlinear damping into viscous damping, the equivalent stiffness and damping model is derived from the equation for the response amplitude. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation reveal that the isolator's stiffness and damping have multiple properties with different parameters, among which the effects of exciting frequency, vibrating amplitude, quadratic damping coefficient and equivalent stiffness of the two chambers on the isolator's dynamics are discussed in depth. Based on the boundary characteristics of stiffness and damping and the main causes for stiffness hardening effect, improvement strategies are proposed to obtain better dynamic properties. At last, experiments were implemented and the test results were generally consistent with the theoretical ones, which verified the reliability of the nonlinear dynamic model.

  16. 逃出牢笼的新女性--试析《赫索格》中马德琳的形象%New woman escape from prison--the typical image Madelin in Herzog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉莉

    2015-01-01

    Herzog plays an important role in the 20th century literature in America. The author, Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the work. The author has shown great prejudice for such a modern new woman who tries to escape the authority of husband and find her own value. This paper would analyze the typical image Madelin in Herzog and criticize the stereotypical thoughts towards women of the author.%《赫索格》在20世纪美国文坛中占有重要地位。作者索尔贝娄也因此于1976年获得诺贝尔文学奖。但是,作者却对马德琳这样一个冲出夫权牢笼的现代妇女,寻找自我价值的新女性展现出了种种的偏激。本文就贝娄先生的代表作《赫索格》中的典型人物马德琳进行分析,进而对贝娄先生保守的女性观进行评论。

  17. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 μg kg-1 for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg-1 for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 μg kg-1 for the predator species and 1000 μg kg-1 for the predator species)

  18. Development of new transport line (TL-1) for Indus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport Line-1 (TL-1) is a part of pre-injector system of Synchrotron Radiation Sources Indus-1 and Indus-2. In order to insert more number of diagnostic devices, especially Beam Slit Monitors for observing the beam position at various locations on TL-1, and to study the angular divergence etc., one new UHV system for TL-1 was designed and developed. Total length of TL-1 is ∼ 13.6 metres. This line transports the electron beam from the Microtron to the Booster Synchrotron. TL-1 comprises of Stainless Steel (SS grade: AISI 316) chambers, with ports for pumps, gauges, bellows for mechanical flexibility, isolation valves, and different Beam Diagnostic Devices like Beam Slit Monitors (BSM), Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Secondary Emission Wire Monitors (SEWM) and Fast Current Transformers (FCT). All the associated UHV components were fabricated and qualified for UHV, individually in the UHV Lab. Vacuum in the range of 10-9-10-8 mbar was achieved. Ultimately all the components, (including the Beam Diagnostic Devices), are assembled in a mock assembly as per their original positions and tested. The aim of this exercise is to resolve the various unforeseen minor problems, in assembly, well in advance, so that the final assembly in actual position can be completed within minimum time period, (minimum down period of Indus facility), with more efficiency. This paper describes the testing procedures and the results of this exercise. (author)

  19. LS1 Report: operations on the right track

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    The SMACC interconnection train continues to progress in Sector 5-6 of the LHC, where the re-soldering of the opened M-lines has started (see picture 2). The interconnection teams are now also starting work in Sector 6-7, preparing and opening the interconnection bellows etc.   Picture 1: Work in progress on Route Goward. In addition, the SMACC special intervention team, which looks after specific individual magnet and circuit-related jobs, has started disconnecting the individual magnets that are to be removed from the tunnel. The first of these, quadrupole Q5L8, was moved out of the tunnel by EN/HE overnight on 27 May. Picture 2: Magnet interconnection - the M-lines are the pipes containing the main bus bars. At the PS Booster (PSB), the preparations for the removal of the existing extraction beam dump are in full swing. The current beam dump has to be replaced as part of the upgrade programme to improve PSB beam performance. This programme involves using H- ion injection from LINAC4...

  20. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungdae [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hyoungdo; Schroeder, Allan; Shih, Chih-Kang, E-mail: shih@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Qin, Shengyong [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Kim, Sang-ui [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Daejin [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  1. Twin Rotating Coils for Cold Magnetic Measurements of 15 m Long LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Billan, J; Buzio, M; D'Angelo, G; Deferne, G; Dunkel, O; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Siemko, A; Sievers, P; Schloss, S; Walckiers, L

    2000-01-01

    We describe here a new harmonic coil system for the field measurement of the superconducting, twin aperture LHC dipoles and the associated corrector magnets. Besides field measurements the system can be used as an antenna to localize the quench origin. The main component is a 16 m long rotating shaft, made up of 13 ceramic segments, each carrying two tangential coils plus a central radial coil, all working in parallel. The segments are connected with flexible Ti-alloy bellows, allowing the piecewise straight shaft to follow the curvature of the dipole while maintaining high torsional rigidity. At each interconnection the structure is supported by rollers and ball bearings, necessary for the axial movement for installation and for the rotation of the coil during measurement. Two such shafts are simultaneously driven by a twin-rotating unit, thus measuring both apertures of a dipole at the same time. This arrangement allows very short measurement times (typically 10 s) and is essential to perform cold magnetic ...

  2. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  3. The SPATE 8000 Thermo-Elastic Camera For Dynamic Stress Measurement On Nuclear Plant Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bream, R. G.; Gasper, B. C.; Lloyd, B. E.; Page, S. W. J.

    1987-04-01

    Structural dynamics for integrity assessment and condition monitoring of electrical power station plant can be approached using a variety of methods combining theoretical modelling with experimental measurements. In recent years experimental approaches have broadened to include non-contacting full-field response measurement techniques using laser holography and more recently, stress pattern analysis from thermal emission (SPATE) to obtain dynamic stress information. This paper presents two examples of the application of a SPATE 8000 camera system to the determination of the dynamic stress distributions on nuclear reactor components. In the first project a Magnox reactor compensating bellows unit was dynamically tested in the laboratory using an electromagnetic shaker to excite resonances in the frequency range 300 to 400Hz. The dynamic stress data collected is compared with finite element model prediction. The second example describes a similar modal response investigation performed on an AGR gas circulator inner casing ring which is designed to isolate the stress concentrations present. This test was carried out in the power station maintenance facility during a routine reactor overhaul.

  4. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  5. Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

  6. Calcine production and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process technology related to calcination of power reactor wastes is summarized. The primary calcination processes developed are spray calcination, fluidized-bed calcination, and rotary kiln calcination. Calcines from the spray calciner and rotary kiln are fed directly to a glassification process. The fluidized-bed product can either be fed to a waste form conversion process or stored. The major process steps for calcinations are feed preparation, calcination and product handling, and off-gas cleanup. Feed systems for the three processes are basically similar. Gravity flow and pump pressurized systems have been used successfully. The major problems are fatigue failure of feed valve bellows, plugging by undissolved solids, and calibration of flowmeters. Process heat input is by electrical resistance heating for the spray and rotary kiln calciners and in-bed combustion or in-bed heat exchange for the fluidized-bed system. Low-melting solids which can cause scaling or solids agglomeration in any of the processes is a major calcination problem; however, feed blending, process operating conditions, and equipment design have successfully controlled solids agglomeration. Primary off-gas cleanup devices for particulates are cyclones, sintered metal filters, venturi scrubbers, and HEPA filters. Scrubbers, condensers, and solid adsorbents are used successfully for volatile ruthenium removal. The years of pilot-plant and plant-scale calcination testing and operation of the three systems have shown that reactor wastes can be calcined safely and practically. 11 figures, 2 tables

  7. Hybrid magnetic mechanism for active locomotion based on inchworm motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic robots have been studied in the past. Insect-type micro-robots are used in various biomedical applications; researchers have developed inchworm micro-robots for endoscopic use. A biological inchworm has a looping locomotion gait. However, most inchworm micro-robots depend on a general bending, or bellows, motion. In this paper, we introduce a new robotic mechanism using magnetic force and torque control in a rotating magnetic field for a looping gait. The proposed robot is controlled by the magnetic torque, attractive force, and body mechanisms (two stoppers, flexible body, and different frictional legs). The magnetic torque generates a general bending motion. In addition, the attractive force and body mechanisms produce the robot’s looping motion within a rotating magnetic field and without the use of an algorithm for field control. We verified the device’s performance and analyzed the motion through simulations and various experiments. The robot mechanism can be applied to active locomotion for various medical robots, such as wireless endoscopes.

  8. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sérgio da Costa Braga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUTION: A major concern with the visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its high lethality rate, even with proper treatment. Low age, prior malnutrition, disease duration prior to diagnosis, severe anemia, fever for more than 60 days, diarrhea and jaundice are known poor prognostic factors. The goals of this study are to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of VL among children under 12 years of age and to identify the factors associated with VL poor outcome. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty children under 12 years of age with confirmed VL admitted to Hospital João Paulo II (FHEMIG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between January 2001 and December 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. The primary outcome was the poor clinical evolution: sepsis, and/or pneumonia, and/or urinary tract infection, and/or of bleeding (expect epistaxis, and/or severe neutropenia (neutrophil RESULTS: Average age was 3.3 years (3.6 months-11.6 years, 71.2% were younger than 5 years and 47.2% lived in Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte. The mean fatality rate was 3.6%. Sixty-six (26.4% patients presented poor evolution. After a multivariate analysis, age CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients aged between 12 and 18 months, with platelet counts bellow 85,000/mm3, and respiratory abnormalities at admission should be considered potentially severe.

  9. Experimental study on upward bubble velocity and pierce length distributions in a water model of copper converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Du; Jiayun Zhang; Tuping Zhou; Qifeng Shu

    2003-01-01

    The upward bubble velocity and the pierce length distributions in a sectional water model of the copper convener in Guixi Smelter in Jiangxi, China, were measured using a two-contact electro-resistivity probe. In the case of using a single tuyere, the bubble velocity distribution along longitudinal direction was similar to that derived from Guassian function. Beyond the center of the longitudinal range, the bubble pierce length exhibited a sudden increase. The upward bubble velocity at a specified location could go up to meters per second. Its probability at a fixed location obeys a lognormal function; the bubble pierce length there varies bellow a few centimeters. In the case of using multi-tuyeres, the upward bubble velocity was roughly uniform right above the tuyeres and showed a slow decrease beyond this region. The bubble pierce length within both of these two regions was roughly uniform. Its average value in the former region, however, was found to be somewhat lower than that in the later.

  10. MANAGEMENT BOARD OF 2/06/08 (MB116)

    CERN Multimedia

    Schedule The outcome of the meeting with the CERN Directorate, the Machine builders, the LHCC, and the other experiments on May 6th had been reported to the collaboration. The mid-July date was set for closing the experiments. This is five weeks after the then foreseen beam-pipe bake-out for CMS. Injection of beam would occur two weeks later and collisions at 10 TeV after two months. There would be a winter shutdown of “normal” duration. LHC The progress on the machine was outlined. All sectors were now either cold or had started cooling. It was now expected that the machine would be cold in early July. Magnet quench training in sector 56 was continuing. CMS Progress The beam-pipe was now installed (apart from the compensation bellows) and leak-tight. The low current test of the solenoid had been cancelled, but other critical tests of the magnet system had been successfully carried out. Trial insertion of the pixels and the BCM had been successful. The optical fibre installation for the...

  11. 解读《寻找格林先生》中的人生哲学%The Philosophy of Life in Looking for Mr. Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳艳

    2012-01-01

    Looking for Mr. Green is one of the excellent short stories by Saul Bellow, the famous American Jewish writer and Nobel Literature Prize winner. The story is unfolded around the event of a Jewish American intellectual looking for the social relief taker in the Negro slum, which reflects a contemporary American Jews's mental course during seeking the meaning of life. By comparing and contrasting different characters" attitudes towards life, this paper explores the philosophy of life conveyed in Looking for Mr. Green.%《寻找格林先生》是当代美国著名的犹太作家、诺贝尔奖得主索尔·贝娄的短篇佳作。小说围绕一位犹太知识分子在贫民窟中寻找社会救济金领取者的事件展开,向读者展示了一个当代美国犹太人探寻生存意义的心路历程。小说中不同人物持有不同的人生态度。贝娄通过对这些人物的细致刻画,向读者传达了他的人生哲学观。

  12. A cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei

    2016-06-01

    The design and performance of a cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) housed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are reported. The cryogen-free design was done by directly integrating a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler to a Besocke-type STM, and the vibration isolation was achieved by using a two-stage rubber bellow between the cryocooler and a UHV-STM interface with helium exchange gas cooling. A base temperature of 15 K at the STM was achieved, with a possibility to further decrease by using a cryocooler with higher cooling power and adding additional low temperature stage under the exchange gas interface. Atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra on various samples were demonstrated. Furthermore, we reported the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy on a single carbon monoxide molecule adsorbed on Ag(110) surface with a cryogen-free STM for the first time. Being totally cryogen-free, the system not only saves the running cost significantly but also enables uninterrupted data acquisitions and variable temperature measurements with much ease. In addition, the system is capable of coupling light to the STM junction by a pair of lens inside the UHV chamber. We expect that these enhanced capabilities could further broaden our views to the atomic-scale world. PMID:27370453

  13. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  14. Pressure vessel code construction capabilities for a nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYNES alloy 230 (UNS NO6230) has achieved wide usage in a variety of high-temperature aerospace, chemical process industry and industrial heating applications since its introduction in 1981. Combining high elevated temperature strength with excellent metallurgical stability, environment-resistance and relatively straight forward fabrication characteristics, this Ni-Cr-W-Mo alloy was an excellent candidate for ASME Pressure vessel Code applications. Coverage under case No. 2063 was granted in July, 1989, for both Section I and Section VIII Division 1 construction. In this paper, the metallurgy of 230 alloy will be described, and its design strength capabilities contrasted with those for more established code materials. Other important performance capabilities, such as long-term thermal stability, oxidation-resistance, fatigue-resistance, and resistance to other forms of environmental degradation will be discussed. It will be shown that the combined properties of 230 alloy offer some significant advantages over other materials for applications such as expansion bellows, heat-exchangers, valves and other components in the fossil energy, nuclear energy and chemical process industries, among others

  15. The Decay of Forced Turbulent Coflow of He II Past a Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuin, S.; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.

    2014-04-01

    We present an experimental study of the decay of He II turbulence created mechanically, by a bellows-induced flow past a stationary grid in a 7×7 mm2 superfluid wind tunnel. The temporal decay L( t) originating from various steady-states of vortex line length per unit volume, L 0, has been observed based on measurements of the attenuation of second-sound, in the temperature range 1.17 K< T<1.95 K. Each presented decay curve is the average of up to 150 single decay events. We find that, independently of T and L 0, within seconds past the sudden stop of the drive, all the decay curves show a universal behavior lasting up to 200 s, of the form L( t)∝( t- t 0)-3/2, where t 0 is the virtual origin time. From this decay process we deduce the effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II. We compare our results with the bench-mark Oregon towed grid experiments and, despite our turbulence being non-homogeneous, find strong similarities.

  16. A Study of an Earthworm type Inspection Robot Movable in Long Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ono

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a three somites earthworm type mobile inspection robot which is able to move in long pipes. We have many small diameter pipes which are gas or water pipes for individual or corporate houses and boilers or hot water pipes for industries. They are settled in the ground horizontally or in the narrow spaces vertically and some of them are covered by casings or hard heat insulating matters. It is very difficult to inspect from out of the pipes. If we can insert a mobile inspection robot into the pipes from the suitable position, we are easy to inspect the pipes. Authors fabricated a three somites earthworm type mobile inspection robot in which we use three rubber bellows as pneumatic actuators. Sixteen rubber friction rings are used to get friction force between pneumatic actuators and the pipes. The electromagnetic valves and air-feeding tubes for the pneumatic actuators are carried on trolleys in order to decrease friction force between the pipes and them. The fabricated three somites earthworm type mobile inspection robot can move in a pipe which is 78 mm in inner diameter and vertical pipe carrying a load that is equivalent to the air-feeding tube of 32 m length. Consequently, the inspection robot was confirmed to move in the long pipes.

  17. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  18. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliavao da concentracao de elementos traco e de mercurio total em pescados comercializados na cidade de Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T., E-mail: ba_cortopassi@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the non predator species, and the 1000 {mu}g{sup -1} for the predator species (humid weight)

  19. A word from the DG: LHC commissionning 
enters the home straight

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In an age of blogs there are seemingly no secrets, so by the time Lyn Evans gave his talk on the status of LHC commissioning on 13 September, everyone seemed to know about plug-in modules, beam position monitors and transmitters embedded in ping-pong balls. All the on-line speculation made for interesting reading, and is a clear sign of the growing interest there is in CERN as we approach LHC start-up. We are now entering the final phase of commissioning, and things are going well given the unprecedented complexity of the task in hand. Following the cool-down, powering and warm-up of Sector 7-8 earlier this year, we have learned a great deal about what it means to commission the LHC. There have inevitably been hitches, including the plug-in modules, or PIMs. When the LHC is cooled down, each sector shrinks by about 10 metres in length, and this has to be absorbed by bellows between components and a system of sliding copper fingers (PIM) that ensure electrical connectivity ar...

  20. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkman, C. M.; Highland, M. J.; Perret, E.; Kim, S. K.; Baldo, P. M.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Fister, T. T. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zhou, H.; Seifert, S. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10{sup -6}-10{sup 3} Torr and 25 Degree-Sign C-900 Degree-Sign C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO{sub 3} thin films on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates were investigated.

  1. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, C. M.; Highland, M. J.; Perret, E.; Kim, S. K.; Fister, T. T.; Zhou, H.; Baldo, P. M.; Seifert, S.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Fong, D. D.

    2013-02-01

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10-6-103 Torr and 25°C-900°C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO3 thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates were investigated.

  2. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10−6–103 Torr and 25°C–900°C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO3 thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates were investigated.

  3. DFT modeling and spectroscopic study of metal ligand bonding in La(III) complex of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Tz.; Trendafilova, N.; Kostova, I.; Georgieva, I.; Bauer, G.

    2006-09-01

    The binding mode of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (HCCA) to La(III) is elucidated at experimental and theoretical level. The complexation ability of the deprotonated ligand (CCA -) to La(III) is studied using elemental analysis, DTA and TGA data as well as FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The experimental data suggest the complex formula La(CCA) 2(NO 3)(H 2O) 2. B3LYP, BHLYP, B3P86, B3PW91, PW91P86 and MPW1PW91 functionals are tested for geometry and frequency calculations of the neutral ligand and all of them show bond length deviations bellow 1%. B3LYP/6-31G(d) level combined with large quasi-relativistic effective core potential for lanthanum is selected to describe the molecular, electronic and vibrational structures as well as the conformational behavior of HCCA, CCA - and La-CCA complex. The metal-ligand binding mode is predicted through molecular modeling and energy estimation of different La-CCA structures. The calculated atomic charges and the bonding orbital polarizations point to strong ionic metal-ligand bonding in La-CCA complex and insignificant donor acceptor interaction. Detailed vibrational analysis of HCCA, CCA - and La(CCA) 2(NO 3)(H 2O) 2 systems based on both calculated and experimental frequencies confirms the suggested metal-ligand binding mode.

  4. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungdae; Nam, Hyoungdo; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Sang-ui; Schroeder, Allan; Eom, Daejin; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  5. A cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Di; Wu, Shiwei

    2016-06-01

    The design and performance of a cryogen-free low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) housed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are reported. The cryogen-free design was done by directly integrating a Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocooler to a Besocke-type STM, and the vibration isolation was achieved by using a two-stage rubber bellow between the cryocooler and a UHV-STM interface with helium exchange gas cooling. A base temperature of 15 K at the STM was achieved, with a possibility to further decrease by using a cryocooler with higher cooling power and adding additional low temperature stage under the exchange gas interface. Atomically sharp STM images and high resolution dI/dV spectra on various samples were demonstrated. Furthermore, we reported the inelastic tunneling spectroscopy on a single carbon monoxide molecule adsorbed on Ag(110) surface with a cryogen-free STM for the first time. Being totally cryogen-free, the system not only saves the running cost significantly but also enables uninterrupted data acquisitions and variable temperature measurements with much ease. In addition, the system is capable of coupling light to the STM junction by a pair of lens inside the UHV chamber. We expect that these enhanced capabilities could further broaden our views to the atomic-scale world.

  6. 记忆合金在节流制冷器中的应用%Application of shape memory alloy in J-T cryocoolers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆松; 崔戈

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种红外探测器上所应用的新型节流制冷器,该制冷器采用形状记忆合金(Shape Memory Alloy)作为自调机构的调节元件;与传统波纹管型自调式制冷器相比,具有结构简单、装调方便、寿命长、稳定性好等优点;文中还对记忆合金工作原理、制冷器结构及低温记忆合金现状和前景等进行了简要的介绍和分析。%A novel self-regulated J-T cryocooler for infrared detector is introduced,shape memory alloy is used as regu-lated elements.Compared with the bellows self-regulated cryocooler,the cryocooler has the advantages of simple struc-ture,easy adjustment,long life and good stability.Working principle of shape memory alloy and the cryocoolers struc-ture are discussed.The current status and prospect of cryogenic shape memory alloy are introduced.

  7. 锥形自调式节流制冷器的应用研究%Application research of tapered self-regulated J-T cryocoolers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚青华

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种应用于红外焦平面探测器组件上的自调式节流制冷器,该制冷器为锥形结构,采用了一种新型自调方式,与传统的波纹管型自调式节流制冷器相比,具有制冷速度快、结构简单、成本低廉、装调方便等优点;文中还对该制冷器自调机构的工作原理进行了简单的介绍和分析,并对该型制冷器进行了性能测试.%This paper introduces a kind of the self-regulated J-T cryocoolers applied to infrared focal plane detector components. The cryeooler with tapered structure, adopts a kind of new self-regulated way. And the crycoolers compared with the traditional self-regulated J-T cryocoolers with bellows have some advantages,such as the cooling speed, simple structure, low cost, convenient assembly and so on. The paper also analyses the working principle of this kind of self-regulated J-T cryocooler, and we have performance test of these coolers.

  8. A vibration free cryostat using pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Hartnett, John G.

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces a new vibration free cryostat cooled by liquid helium and a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. The cryogenic device mounts on the sample cooling station which is cooled by liquid helium. The boil off helium is recondensed by the pulse tube cryocooler, thus the cryostat maintains zero boil off. There is no mechanical contact between the cryogenic part of the cryocooler and the sample cooling station. A bellows is used to isolate the vibration which could transfer from the cryocooler flange to the cryostat flange at the room temperature. Any vibrations generated by the operation of the cryocooler are almost entirely isolated from the cryogenic device. The cryostat provides a cooling capacity of 0.65 W at 4.21 K on the sample cooling station while maintaining a vapor pressure of 102 kPa. The sample cooling station has a very stable temperature with oscillations of less than ±3 mK during all the operations. A cryogenic microwave oscillator has been successfully cooled and operated with the cryostat.

  9. Disponibilidade de horas de frio na região central do Rio Grande do Sul: 2 - Distribuição geográfica Chilling hours in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state: 2 - Geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram traçadas as cartas da distribuição de disponibilidade de horas de frio na região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, utilizaram-se os dados de disponibilidade de ocorrência do número médio acumulado de horas de frio Maps of chilling hours distribution in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were drawn. Mean of chilling hours bellow 7°C (HF<7 and 13°C (HF<13 accumulating every 15 days up to certain date were used. Isolines of different intensities were drawn using average accumulated values of the number of chilling hours for the occurrence probability of 50%. Two distribution combinations were used to determine the occurrence probability of chilling hours. One was a discrete distribution to verify if there was chilling hours accumulated during the 15 day interval and the other one was a continuous distribution used to identify the accumulate chilling hours. Regression equations that adjusted chilling hours values as a function of the local latitude and altitude were used to simplify isolines drawing. Lower values of accumulate chilling hours below 7°C and below 13°C were observed in locals with low altitudes, such as Jacuí, Vacacaí and Ibicuí river valleys and main tributary streams. However, higher values were observed in high altitudes mainly in Serra do Sudeste and Planalto highland areas.

  10. Field-Amplified Sample Injection-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography for the Determination of Benzophenones in Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Félez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FASI-MEKC method for the determination of 14 benzophenones (BPs in a food simulant used in migration studies of food packaging materials was developed, allowing almost baseline separation in less than 21 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution as sample matrix was mandatory to achieve FASI enhancement of the analyzed BPs. A 21- to 784-fold sensitivity enhancement was achieved with FASI-MEKC, obtaining limits of detection down to 5.1–68.4 µg/L, with acceptable run-to-run precisions (RSD values lower than 22.3% and accuracy (relative errors lower than 21.0%. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying BPs in the food simulant spiked at 500 µg/L (bellow the established specific migration limit for BP (600 µg/L by EU legislation. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.55, showing that the proposed FASI-MEKC method is suitable for the analysis of BPs in food packaging migration studies at the levels established by EU legislation.

  11. Distribuição espacial de aves em um fragmento florestal do campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Norte do Paraná, Brasil Spatial distribution of birds in a forest fragment at Londrina State University campus, Northern Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rodrigo Gimenes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of birds was studied in 10 ha forest fragment at Londrina State University, southem Brazil (23º15'S, 51º10'W. Five habitats were categorized in the forest fragment: four related to the edges and one related to the forest interior. A line transect, crossing ali these habitats, was used to identify the bird species one day each two weeks from September 1996 to September 1997 totaling 57 days of samplings. The forest was divided into three leveis: understory (bellow 3 m, mid-levels (3-7 m and canopy (above 7 m. Occurrence frequencies in each habitat and each forest levei were calculated for each of the 62 species identified during the field work. The number of species in each levei was similar (43 species in the understory, 42 at mid-levels and 40 in the canopy. Edges had higher number of species (51, 46, 33 and 30 species and most of them with more than 50% of occurrence frequency. By contrast, forest had the lowest number of bird species (29 species, 80% of them with less than 50% of occurrence frequency, what suggest that the edge effect is strong on this forest fragment.

  12. Mechanical design, development, and installation of ultra high vacuum compatible beam position indicators for insertion devices in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, two insertion devices (undulators) have been installed in long straight sections LS-2 and LS-3 of Indus-2. For precise monitoring of electron beam position at the entry and exit of these insertion devices, 17 mm vertical low gap type ultra high vacuum (UHV) compatible insertion device beam position indicators (IDBPls) have been designed, developed, and installed by Beam Diagnostics Section. The water cooled RF shielded bellows have also been designed, developed, and integrated in IDBPI assembly by Ultra High Vacuum Technology Section. The IDBPI has 17 mm (V) x 81 mm (H) internal race track profile aperture same as of vacuum chamber of insertion device. It incorporates four numbers of electrode subassemblies directly welded (by TIG) to its vacuum chamber. The button diameter is 9 mm. The horizontal separation between buttons is 12 mm. The IDBPI assemblies have been installed in Indus-2 ring and are in operation since Jan 2015. The mechanical design, development procedure and initial results have been described in this paper

  13. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of commercial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program has been carried out to provide technical database and review manuals for evaluating the adequacy of Tokai plant's Ageing Management report from F.Y.2006 to F.Y.2011. In the near future, the regulator will be to carry out the evaluation of Rokkasho plant, which is commercial-size plant mainly designed by the technologies in Britain and France. This plant is different from Tokai plant in a technique of the prevention of corrosion. The purpose of the research program is to provide supplementary database and improve the review manual in order to evaluate the adequacy of Rokkasho plant's Ageing Management report. We selected three experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program on the basis of the result of the operational experience of the foreign plants and the related previous studies. Effect of solid deposit adhering on the metal, Np(VI) and nitrous ions in solution on the corrosion of stainless steel made reduced pressure evaporator in boiling nitric acid solutions, Conditions of initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking of the zirconium made components in boiling nitric acid solutions including highly-concentrated plutonium, Conditions of initiation of Hydrogen Embrittlement Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipe Fittings Composed of Zirconium, Tantalum and Stainless Steel in high radioactive nitric acid solutions. (author)

  14. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide the review manual and the relevant technical data for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. We have been conducted the research program based on a contract with well-equipped organization since FY2006. We selected four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant experienced in much corrosion problems, which is pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec.1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr.2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. This annual report presents the summary of research activities in FY2010. (author)

  15. Reversal of the Asymmetry in a Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Ar/Cl2 Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of the asymmetry in the plasma sheath voltages of a cylindrical coaxial capacitively coupled plasma is crucial for efficient surface modification of the inner surfaces of concave three-dimensional structures, including superconducting radio frequency cavities. One critical asymmetry effect is the negative dc self-bias, formed across the inner electrode plasma sheath due to its lower surface area compared to the outer electrode. The effect on the self-bias potential with the surface enhancement by geometric modification on the inner electrode structure is studied. The shapes of the inner electrodes are chosen as cylindrical tube, large and small pitch bellows, and disc-loaded corrugated structure (DLCS). The dc self-bias measurements for all these shapes were taken at different process parameters in Ar/Cl2 discharge. The reversal of the negative dc self-bias potential to become positive for a DLCS inner electrode was observed and the best etch rate is achieved due to the reduction in plasma asymm...

  16. LS1 Report: achieving the unachievable

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling and extraction of a defective DFBA module from LHC Point 6, announced a few weeks ago, has been completed without a hitch. The DFBAs in the LHC are unique and irreplaceable components that must be handled with care.   The Transport team extract the defective module in one of the two DFBAs at Point 6. This module was brought to the surface, where it is currently being repared. Dismantling and extracting part of an electrical feed box (DFBA) had not been planned and could not have been foreseen. Nonetheless, that is what had to be done. When the LS1 teams discovered that the bellows of one of the DFBAs in Sector 5-6 were damaged - and completely inaccessible - they were not exactly overwhelmed with solutions. In fact, they had only one option: to dismantle them and take them up to the surface. Step 1: measure the alignment of the module to be taken out in relation to the beam lines to ensure that when the DFBA is put back in, it is in the right position for the beam to pass thr...

  17. LHCb connects its pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Two weeks ago the first beryllium section of the LHCb beam vacuum chamber was installed. This three-day operation, after requiring lengthy preparation work, demanded patience and precision as the first of four sections of the beampipe was connected to the vertex locator (VeLo) vacuum vessel. The AT-VAC Group with the collaboration of PH/LBD, including Gloria Corti, Tatsuya Nakada, Patrice Mermet, Delios Ramos, Frans Mul, Bruno Versollato, Bernard Corajod, and Raymond Veness. (Not pictured: Adriana Rossi and Laurent Bouvet) This first installed section is composed of a nearly two-metre long conical tube of one-millimetre thick beryllium and of a thin spherical-shaped window, 800 millimeter diameter, made of an aluminum alloy, and has the appearance of a mushroom lying on its side. The window is connected to the conical part of the beampipe through an aluminum alloy bellow, which is needed to allow for mechanical alignment once the assembly is installed. Beryllium was chosen as the material for 12 m of the 19...

  18. Instruments for subsurface monitoring of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.E.; Ranson, B.B.

    1979-07-01

    The requirements for a subsurface geothermal subsidence instrument were reviewed. Available instruments for monitoring subsurface displacements, both vertical and horizontal, were studied and the most capable instruments identified. Techniques and materials for improving existing or developing new instruments were evaluated. Elements of sensor and signal technology with potential for high temperature monitoring of subsidence were identified. Drawing from these studies, methods to adapt production wells for monitoring were proposed and several new instrumentation systems were conceptually designed. Finally, four instrumentation systems were selected for future development. These systems are: triple sensor induction sensor probe (with casing collar markers); triple sensor gamma ray detector probe (with radioactive markers); triple sensor reed switch probe (with magnet markers); and triple sensor oscillator-type magnet detector probe (with magnet markers). All are designed for use in well casing incorporating slip couplings or bellows sections, although the gamma ray detector probe may also be used in unlined holes. These systems all measure vertical moement. Instruments to measure horizontal displacement due to geothermal subsidence were studied and the required instrument performance was judged to be beyond the state-of-the-art. Thus, no conceptual designs for instruments to monitor horizontal movement are included.

  19. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  20. On-line measurements to control the forming process of glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Francesco; Bianchini, Gianandrea; Fanti, Giulio; Mozzi, Massimo

    1993-02-01

    The most relevant parameters to control the quality of glass vials are the internal and external diameters of the mouth and the height of the rim. A low cost vision system based on a 486 PC, a frame grabber, 4 CCD cameras (768 X 512 pixels) and I/O device to control the production of vials, by adjusting the flames temperature in the moulding section of the machine, has been developed and tested. A 24 mandrel machine rotating at about 300 rpm with a production capability of about 4200 pieces/hour had to be monitored with an accuracy of +/- 0.02 mm in the measure of the mouth diameters and +/- 0.04 mm on the rim height. In order to minimize the time delay required for the machine temperature compensation, the measurements had to be taken during the forming process. The system must be fast enough to follow the process, able to take into account the temperature variation of different classes of vials and far enough from the high temperature of the flames. A direct calibration procedure, using a reference vial, and a pyrometer to check the temperature range was derived. A long focus lens coupled with a bellow to put the system away from the flames was adopted. The algorithm implemented for the measurements and the machine temperature control is presented.

  1. High Nitrogen Fertilization of Tobacco Crop in Headwater Watershed Contaminates Subsurface and Well Waters with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis was that subsurface and well waters in watershed with shallow, stony soils, steep landscapes, and cropped to tobacco are contaminated by nitrate. Nitrate in soil solution was monitored in (0.20 m and below (0.5 m root zone with tension lysimeters, in five transects. Water from two wells (beneath tobacco field and in native forest used for human consumption was also analyzed for nitrate. Soil bulk density, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were evaluated. Soil physical and hydrological properties showed great variation at different landscape positions and soil depths. Soil coarse grain size, high porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity favored leaching nitrate. Nitrate in soil solution from tobacco fields was greater than in natural environment. Nitrate reached depths bellow rooting zone with values as high as 80 mg L−1 in tobacco plantation. Water well located below tobacco plantation had high nitrate concentration, sometimes above the critical limit of 10 mg L−1. Tobacco cropping causes significant water pollution by nitrate, posing risk to human health. A large amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied to tobacco and nitrate in subsurface waters demonstrate the unsustainability of tobacco production in small farming units on steeps slopes, with stony and shallow soils.

  2. Development of UHV compatible machined diamond profile gaskets for INDUS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, D. P.; Shiroman, R.; Shukla, S. K.; Kotaiah, S.

    2008-05-01

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible demountable joints are needed in Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300mA) electron storage ring for connecting Al-alloy vacuum chambers (homogeneous joints) as well as Al-alloy vacuum chambers to well proven stainless steel components like beam diagnostic components and RF-shielded bellow assemblies (heterogeneous joints). Bakeable & reliable diamond profile Al-alloy gaskets have been developed for Helium leak rate less than 2×10-10 Std. CC/sec, which eliminated the need of any Al to SS transition pieces onto the Aluminium vacuum chambers. Salient features of these gaskets are: high reliability, low cost, reduced flange thickness, self alignment, ease in installation, less torque requirement, formability to non-circular shape & ultra cleanliness. These diamond profile gaskets were machined from extruded Al-alloy 6061-T5 pipes using specially developed high-speed steel formed cutting tools. Thermal cyclic tests were carried to check the reliability of these gaskets. No leaks were found even after several bakeouts at 150°C. Non-circular metallic gaskets like the one used in UHV gate valve bonnet seal can also be manufactured using specially developed formed toolings. This paper describes basic design philosophy, manufacturing process and testing details of these gaskets.

  3. Development of UHV compatible machined diamond profile gaskets for INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible demountable joints are needed in Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300mA) electron storage ring for connecting Al-alloy vacuum chambers (homogeneous joints) as well as Al-alloy vacuum chambers to well proven stainless steel components like beam diagnostic components and RF-shielded bellow assemblies (heterogeneous joints). Bakeable and reliable diamond profile Al-alloy gaskets have been developed for Helium leak rate less than 2x10-10 Std. CC/sec, which eliminated the need of any Al to SS transition pieces onto the Aluminium vacuum chambers. Salient features of these gaskets are: high reliability, low cost, reduced flange thickness, self alignment, ease in installation, less torque requirement, formability to non-circular shape and ultra cleanliness. These diamond profile gaskets were machined from extruded Al-alloy 6061-T5 pipes using specially developed high-speed steel formed cutting tools. Thermal cyclic tests were carried to check the reliability of these gaskets. No leaks were found even after several bakeouts at 150 deg. C. Non-circular metallic gaskets like the one used in UHV gate valve bonnet seal can also be manufactured using specially developed formed toolings. This paper describes basic design philosophy, manufacturing process and testing details of these gaskets

  4. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser (λ=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm2 on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  5. Mechanical flexible joint design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Vic

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of the Mechanical Flexible Joint (MFJ) Design Subtask with the intent of halting work on the design. Recommendations for future work is included in the case that the task is to be resumed. The MFJ is designed to eliminate two failure points from the current flex joint configuration, the inner 'tripod configuration' and the outer containment jacket. The MFJ will also be designed to flex 13.5 degrees and have three degrees of freedom. By having three degrees of freedom, the MFJ will allow the Low Pressure Fuel Duct to twist and remove the necessity to angulate the full 11 degrees currently required. The current flex joints are very labor intensive and very costly and a simple alternative is being sought. The MFJ is designed with a greater angular displacement, with three degrees of freedom, to reside in the same overall envelope, to meet weight constraints of the current bellows, to be compatible with cryogenic fuel and oxidizers, and also to be man-rated.

  6. Design, implementation, and testing of a cryogenic loading capability on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during loading at cryogenic temperatures on the spectrometer for materials research at temperature and stress at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This capability allowed for the application of dynamic compressive forces of up to 250 kN on standard samples controlled at temperatures between 300 and 90 K. The approach comprised of cooling thermally isolated compression platens that in turn conductively cooled the sample in an aluminum vacuum chamber which was nominally transparent to the incident and diffracted neutrons. The cooling/heat rate and final temperature were controlled by regulating the flow of liquid nitrogen in channels inside the platens that were connected through bellows to the mechanical actuator of the load frame and by heaters placed on the platens. Various performance parameters of this system are reported here. The system was used to investigate deformation in Ni-Ti-Fe shape memory alloys at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary results are presented.

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  8. Future of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy), suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation

  9. ‘Crack Nature’s Molds’: Reasoned Madness and Evolution in King Lear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available King Lear as a product of evolutionary progressions is logical because the play is framed around two ideas of society and generation in direct confrontation. The sociopolitical ramifications of King Lear are clarified when viewed as an evolutionary progression because societal causality is mirrored in nature. The connection between Lear’s madness and nature’s role in determining societal evolution is demonstrated in the evolutionary notion that “everybody is what he typically is because his progenitors were what they were . . . [i]n the molecular structure of the minute germ of him,” (Maudsley 4 and that and social events are connected with the mechanistic march of nature. When Lear bellows “Crack nature’s molds, all germens spill at once,” (3.2.8 he is requesting the impossible, that the laws of causation be terminated and evolution be put on hold.Keywords: Evolutionary Criticism, reason, philosophy, Shakespeare, King Lear, consilience, evolution, mechanism, madness, nature

  10. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  11. MICROSCOPY, MICRO-CHEMISTRY AND FTIR AS ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR IDENTIFYING TRANSPARENT FINISHES CASE STUDIES FROM ASTRA MUSEUM – SIBIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of cultural heritage relies on scientific investigation of artefacts, a key point being identification of the original materials. In this context, besides wood species identification, investigation of finishing layers is of ultimate importance for old furniture and any other wooden objects with historic, documentary or artistic value. The present paper refers to a series of micro-destructive investigation methods applied for identification of finishing materials, namely: simple in situ and laboratory physical tests, optical microscopy, micro-chemistry and FTIR – ATR analysis. Small samples of finishing layers were taken from four furniture objects belonging to CNM ASTRA Sibiu and were analysed according to the usual procedures of the laboratories from Sibiu and Brasov. The results showed that physical tests and microscopy are useful to get basic information on the samples’ morphology and possible classes of coating materials, while micro-chemistry revealed by some successive tests more specific information on the type of finishing materials. FTIR - ATR is a rapid method of identifying the coating materials based on available reference samples or spectra. However, this is not always straightforward and preliminary physical tests of solubility are useful to select the adequate references, while micro-chemistry tests could complete the FTIR result, especially for those components of the finishing layer present in very small amounts (less than 5%, bellow the FTIR sensitivity. Corroboration of microscopy, physical and micro-chemistry tests with FTIR can provide more reliable results in terms of finishes identification and also valuable information for restoration.

  12. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  13. Bipropellant propulsion with reciprocating pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, John C.

    1993-06-01

    A pressure regulated gas generator rocket cycle with alternately pressurized pairs of reciprocating pumps offers thrust-on-demand operation with significantly lower inert mass than conventional spacecraft liquid propulsion systems. The operation of bipropellant feed systems with reciprocating pumps is explained, with consideration for both short and long term missions. There are several methods for startup and shutdown of this self-starting pump-fed system, with preference determined by thrust duty cycle and mission duration. Progress to date includes extensive development testing of components unique to this type of system, and several live tests with monopropellant hydrazine. Pneumatic pump control valves which render pistons and bellows automatically responsive to downstream liquid demand are significantly simpler than those described previously. A compact pumpset mounted to central liquid manifolds has a pair of oxidizer pumps pneumatically slaved to a pair of fuel pumps to reduce vibration. A warm gas pressure reducer for tank expulsion can eliminate any remaining need for inert gas storage.

  14. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  15. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, V B; Griffiths, O J; Hendry, P C; Kolmakov, G V; McClintock, P V E; Skrbek, L

    2006-11-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. Although the expansion is complete within 15ms , the second-sound velocity and attenuation continue to increase for a further approximately 60ms ; correspondingly the temperature decreases. Subsequently, the temperature rises again toward its final value as the second-sound velocity and attenuation decrease. It is shown that this unexpected behavior is apparently associated with a large-amplitude second-sound oscillation produced by the expansion, and it is suggested that the observed vortices are created by the normal fluid-superfluid counterflow that constitutes the second-sound wave. If production of large-amplitude second sound is inherent to the mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through the superfluid transition, as appears to be the case for final temperatures more than 3mK from the lambda transition, the phenomenon sets a lower bound on the density of KZ vortices that can be detected in this type of experiment. PMID:17279991

  16. Chitosan-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems for doxorubicin: Optimization and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Sousa, Ana Isabel; Silva, Jorge Carvalho; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-08-20

    In the present work, two drug delivery systems were produced by encapsulating doxorubicin into chitosan and O-HTCC (ammonium-quaternary derivative of chitosan) nanoparticles. The results show that doxorubicin release is independent of the molecular weight and is higher at acidic pH (4.5) than at physiological pH. NPs with an average hydrodynamic diameter bellow 200nm are able to encapsulate up to 70% and 50% of doxorubicin in the case of chitosan and O-HTCC nanoparticles, respectively. O-HTCC nanoparticles led to a higher amount of doxorubicin released than chitosan nanoparticles, for the same experimental conditions, although the release mechanism was not altered. A burst effect occurs within the first hours of release, reaching a plateau after 24h. Fitting mathematical models to the experimental data led to a concordant release mechanism between most samples, indicating an anomalous or mixed release, which is in agreement with the swelling behavior of chitosan described in the literature.

  17. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.

  18. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  19. An Analysis of the Prototype' s Impact on the Hero's Personality in Seize the Day%集体潜意识原型对《只争朝夕》主人公的人格影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓华

    2012-01-01

    Seize the Day is a famous nouyelle written by American novehst Saul Bellow. The nouvelle successfully shapes a character Wilhelm. This paper intends to analyze the process of Tommy Wilhelm' s selihood development from the angle of Carl Jung' s prototype theory in order to display the conflicts between the individual existence and social existence and the contradiction between ego and reality and the problem of personal pursuit of integrity in personality and spirit.%《只争朝夕》是美国著名小说家索尔·贝娄的一部中篇佳作。小说成功地塑造了威尔海姆这一人物形象。本文将用荣格的集体潜意识原型理论来分析主人公威尔海姆的人格发展过程,以此来揭示作品所反映的个人存在与社会存在、自我与现实间难以调和的矛盾及自我精神完善的问题。

  20. Collagen type I alpha 1 gene polymorphism in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism in women bellow 40 years. Osteoporosis is one of the late complications of POF. Objective. To correlate collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD in women with POF. Methods. We determined the COLIA1 genotypes SS, Ss, ss in 66 women with POF. Single nucleotide polymorphism (G to T substitution within the Sp 1-binding site in the first intron of the COLIA1 gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the lumbar spine region by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Statistics: Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Chisquare test, Spearman correlation test. Results. The relative distribution of COLIA1 genotype alleles was SS - 54.4%, Ss - 41.0% and ss - 4.5%. No significant differences were found between genotype groups in body mass index, age, duration of amenorrhea or BMD. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI and parity. Conclusion. The COLIA1 gene is just one of many genes influencing bone characteristics. It may act as a marker for differences in bone quantity and quality, bone fragility and accelerated bone loss in older women. However, in young women with POF, COLIA1 cannot identify those at higher risk for osteoporosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173056

  1. A set-up for a biased electrode experiment in ADITYA Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental set-up to investigate the effect of a biased electrode introduced in the edge region on ADITYA tokamak discharges is presented. A specially designed double-bellow mechanical assembly is fabricated for controlling the electrode location as well as its exposed length inside the plasma. The cylindrical molybdenum electrode is powered by a capacitor-bank based pulsed power supply (PPS) using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a switch with forced commutation. A Langmuir probe array for radial profile measurements of plasma potential and density is fabricated and installed. Standard results of improvement of global confinement have been obtained using a biased electrode. In addition to that, in this paper we show for the first time that the same biasing system can be used to avoid disruptions through stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Real time disruption control experiments have also been carried out by triggering the bias-voltage on the electrode automatically when the Mirnov probe signal exceeds a preset threshold value using a uniquely designed electronic comparator circuit. Most of the results related to the improved confinement and disruption mitigation are obtained in case of the electrode tip being kept at ∼3 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with an exposed length of ∼20 mm in typical discharges of ADITYA tokamak. (paper)

  2. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  3. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  4. Mass and energy balance: application to the sanitary sewage treatment with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors to temperature of 20 deg C; Balanco de massa e energia: aplicacao ao tratamento de esgotos sanitarios com reatores anaerobicos de manta de lodo (UASB) a temperatura de 20 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Katherine Ivonne Alcocer

    1992-07-01

    A feasibility study of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor use as a sewage treatment plant component for areas with average temperature bellow 20 deg C was performed. The literature on UASB reactor indicates that a 70 % chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal al 20 and 6 to 17 hr hydraulic detention time is possible in sewage treatment plants. This study was developed for a Oruro (Bolivia) district and the plant was designed for a population of up to 10,000 inhabitants. This city presents average temperatures lower than 20 deg C being necessary to heat the sewage if is used the UASB reactor. Based on the performance simulation of mass and energy balances it was found that 84 % COD removal and 92 % total suspended solids removal are possible. The potential average energy production (61 kW due to methane combustion) is less than 10 % of the power consumption for heating, which indicates that the use of the methane may be expensive. The evaluated energy rate to be applied to the sewage for heating is 0.33 kW/m{sup 3} d{sup -1} which is significantly greater than the necessary energy to introduce oxygen in aerobic treatment systems. However total energy demand for aerobic systems must be evaluated for each particular case. (author)

  5. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  6. Individual dosimetry in a radiotherapy department - evaluation between 1997 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The occupational exposure is the exposure of workers due to their work. With the individual monitorization of the external radiation it is possible to get an approximated value of the effective dose and of the equivalent dose to the skin. The effective doses evaluation allows us to verify if these values are bellow the threshold established by law (a Portuguese law from 1990 established levels under 50 mSv/year for professionals and another law from 1997 established levels under 0,4 mSv/week, which is equivalent to 20 mSv/year, also for professionals). Methods and materials: we analyzed the values of the TLD dosimeters used by the workers during their professional activity between 1997 and 2004, in a Radiotherapy Department. Results: we separed the workers by professional groups and analyzed the equivalent dose in depth achieved (mSv/year). The workers were separed by physicians, medical physicists, technicians, nurses, helpers and secretaries. Conclusions: from the analysis of the results it is possible to demonstrate that the equivalent dose in depth achieved by the workers are under the threshold established and that we work under good conditions of radiation protection. (author)

  7. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  8. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  9. The Pliocene and Quaternary formations of El Abalario, in the Huelva province littoral (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of new and ancient boreholes in El Abalario area (Lower Guadalquivir basin) permitted to identify four main plio-quaternary formations above the Miocene marls, namely: Huelva Sands, Bonares Sands, Almonte Sands and Gravels, and El Abalario Sands. Respectively, they are interpreted as shallow marine, deltaic, alluvial and eolian sediments, together forming a marine to continental sequence that reaches a thickness of more than 250 metres. All sediments are arranged as a gentle dipping and thickening structure to the southeast. Only a few boreholes of the western border of El Abalario reach the top of the Miocene marls. In the rest of the Abalario area the Miocene marls are confined to an unknown level bellow the deepest boreholes. Upward, the marls grade to the Huelva sands, without any appreciable break in the sediments. To the north, the upper part of the Huelva formation grades to the Bonares sands, which is mainly developed outside the study area. Both formations are covered by the coarse clastic deposits of the Almonte formation. At the top, El Abalario sands recover all previous deposits and configure the current relief. This study improves the early existing geology profile and the connection with the surrounding areas (Author).

  10. The Pliocene and Quaternary formations of El Abalario, in the Huelva province littoral (Spain); Las formaciones Plio-Cuaternarias de El Abalario, en el litoral de la provincia de Huelva (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvany, J.M.; Mediavilla, C.; Rebollo, A.

    2010-07-01

    The study of new and ancient boreholes in El Abalario area (Lower Guadalquivir basin) permitted to identify four main plio-quaternary formations above the Miocene marls, namely: Huelva Sands, Bonares Sands, Almonte Sands and Gravels, and El Abalario Sands. Respectively, they are interpreted as shallow marine, deltaic, alluvial and eolian sediments, together forming a marine to continental sequence that reaches a thickness of more than 250 metres. All sediments are arranged as a gentle dipping and thickening structure to the southeast. Only a few boreholes of the western border of El Abalario reach the top of the Miocene marls. In the rest of the Abalario area the Miocene marls are confined to an unknown level bellow the deepest boreholes. Upward, the marls grade to the Huelva sands, without any appreciable break in the sediments. To the north, the upper part of the Huelva formation grades to the Bonares sands, which is mainly developed outside the study area. Both formations are covered by the coarse clastic deposits of the Almonte formation. At the top, El Abalario sands recover all previous deposits and configure the current relief. This study improves the early existing geology profile and the connection with the surrounding areas (Author).

  11. Production of a New Flavor Compound Fruit Vegetable Drink%新香型复合果蔬饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培丽; 穆振亚; 刘燕

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,with fresh fruit and vegetable as the main raw materials ,a new flavour beverage was developed of fruit vegetable by adding honey ,stabilizer and other materials .Compound fruit vegetable drink better formula determined by comparison of test was as bellow (v/v):kiwi∶cucumber=2∶1,sydney∶lettuce=2.5∶1,banana∶broccoli=2.5∶1.Series of the fruit and vegetable compound drinks was created with rich nutrition , taste flavor , ratio of sweet and sour appropriate , quality safety and stability , and it owned a certain health care function .%以市售新鲜果蔬为主要原料,通过添加蜂蜜、稳定剂等辅料研制新香型复合果蔬饮料。通过对比试验确定了复合果蔬饮料较佳的配方为(v/v):猕猴桃∶黄瓜=2∶1,雪梨∶生菜=2.5∶1,香蕉∶西兰花=2.5∶1,所得系列果蔬复合饮料营养丰富,口感风味较佳,酸甜比合适,质量安全稳定,具有一定的保健功能。

  12. An effective model of DNA like helicoidal structure: with length fluctuation nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Tseytlin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural helicoidal nanostructure, which thermomechanical features are studied carefully with the help of different mechanical models, is a DNA cell / molecule. Our study proves that the experimentally determined nonlinear fluctuations of the molecular length of DNA can be better understood by modeling the molecule as a helicoidal pretwisted nanostrip sensor with nonlinear function. The calculations presented here are in good agreement with the experimental data within 10%. Other used by many researchers mechanical models such as an elastic rod, wormlike chain (WLC, accordion bellows, or an elastic core wrapped with rigid wires do not show the possible variance nonlinearity of thermomechanical DNA molecular length fluctuations. We have found that the nonlinear variance of the length fluctuations is an intrinsic property of the micro-nano-sensors with helicoidal shape. This model allows us to estimate the persistence length and twist-stretch coupling of a DNA molecule as well. It also shows the molecule's overwinding possibility at initial stretching with correct numerical representation.

  13. Flucutation driven selection at crticality: the case of multi-k partial order on the pyrochlore lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhihao; Javanparast, Behnam; Enjalran, Matthew; Gingras, Michel

    2014-03-01

    We study the problem of partially ordered phases with periodically arranged disordered sites on the pyrochlore lattice. The periodicity of the phases is characterized by one or more wave vectors k = {1/21/21/2 } . Starting from a general microscopic Hamiltonian including anisotropic nearest-neighbor exchange, long-range dipolar interactions and second- and third-nearest neighbor exchange, we identify using standard mean-field theory (s-MFT) an extended range of interaction parameters that support partially ordered phases. We demonstrate that thermal fluctuations beyond s-MFT are responsible for the selection of one particular partially ordered phase, e.g. the ``4- k'' phase over the ``1- k'' phase. We suggest that the transition into the 4- k phase is continuous with its critical properties controlled by the cubic fixed point of a Ginzburg-Landau theory with a 4-component vector order-parameter. By combining an extension of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer method originally used to study fluctuations in spin glasses with parallel-tempering Monte-Carlo simulations, we establish the phase diagram for different types of partially ordered phases. Our result reveals the origin of 4- k phase observed bellow 1K in Gd2Ti2O7. Funded by NSERC of Canada. M. G. acknowledge funding from Canadian Research Chair program (Tier 1).

  14. Prepare to be blown away

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 16 April, the TE-VSC team began identifying and repairing the LHC’s faulty radiofrequency fingers. Their main tool: an “RF ball” that will be – quite literally – blown through the beam pipe.   RF ball tests carried out in 2007. In the bellows of the LHC interconnects, you’ll find the vacuum pipe held together by some flexible metallic connectors known as “RF fingers”. These RF fingers maintain the electrical contact between the LHC magnets, ensuring the continuity of the beam pipe. As the magnets contract and expand when heated up and cooled down, the fingers preserve their connection by simply sliding over each other. However, experience has shown that the movement of the LHC magnets can cause the fingers to buckle. “It’s not a question of bad design,” explains Vincent Baglin, from TE's Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (TE-VSC) group. “Rather, there were slight non...

  15. Design of a micro-robot with an electro-pneumatic servo-actuator for the intra-pipe inspection; Conception d'un micro robot a actionneur asservi electropneumatique pour l'inspection intratubulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthierens, C

    1999-12-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated in many current products and are not only the concern of military defence or medicine. Nowadays micro actuators are diversified by using different kind of energy, and creating different motions. Several applications require small systems to inspect confined and hostile places. Vapour generators in nuclear plants are composed with 3000 to 5000 vertical pipes of 17 mm diameter. These pipes endure high mechanical constraints and have to be inspected to detect eventual cracks. Our study is based on the design, modelling and implementation of a micro-robot enable to move up and carry sensors in these pipes. It moves as an inchworm and then is composed by 2 blocking modules that brace the robot on the pipe sides, and one stretching module that creates a step. This actuator is pneumatic and composed by metal bellows. By this original design, the micro-robot have a good power to volume ratio and thus it can carry a load higher than 1 kg. Its good positioning accuracy is proved with a 90 mm course where the error of positioning is less than 60{mu}m. A PID control law is used to control the robot but state feed back control law is planed. (author)

  16. Analysis on Wind Valume Optimization Adjusting After Low NOx Burner Reformation of 600 MW Unit Boiler%600 MW锅炉低NOx 燃烧器改造后风量优化调整试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇胜; 吕旭阳; 李春曦; 闫慧博

    2014-01-01

    以经过低 NOx 燃烧器改造的600 MW 煤粉锅炉为例,结合实际运行工况,从改变辅助风风量、紧凑燃尽风风量、高位燃尽风风量、总风量以及燃烧器摆角等方面对优化调整试验进行分析,得出氧量、风箱差压、风门开度、燃烧器摆角等在各负荷下的最佳控制量,为电厂运行提供参考。%The object of the paper is some 600 MW coal boil-er with retrofited low NOx burner,combined with the actual operating conditions,analyzes the test from the aspects of changing the secondary air,compact burning wind air vol-ume, high burning wind volume, total air volume and swinging angle of burner,gets the best antrol volume of the oxygen content,bellows differential pressure,throttle open-ing and swinging angle of burner and the amount of optimal control under various load,for the reference of the power plant operation.

  17. New woman escape from prison--the typical image Madelin in Herzog%逃出牢笼的新女性--试析《赫索格》中马德琳的形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉莉

    2015-01-01

    《赫索格》在20世纪美国文坛中占有重要地位。作者索尔贝娄也因此于1976年获得诺贝尔文学奖。但是,作者却对马德琳这样一个冲出夫权牢笼的现代妇女,寻找自我价值的新女性展现出了种种的偏激。本文就贝娄先生的代表作《赫索格》中的典型人物马德琳进行分析,进而对贝娄先生保守的女性观进行评论。%Herzog plays an important role in the 20th century literature in America. The author, Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the work. The author has shown great prejudice for such a modern new woman who tries to escape the authority of husband and find her own value. This paper would analyze the typical image Madelin in Herzog and criticize the stereotypical thoughts towards women of the author.

  18. SAUL BELLOW’S QUEST HERO – HENDERSON THE RAIN KING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Balaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endless striving for ‗human redemption‘ seems to be the underlying motif of Saul Bellow‘s novels, and most of his protagonists are in search of enhanced meaning in their life. Critics have called Henderson the Rain King a ―quest-romance‖ that takes the protagonist to Africa, a place that Bellow had not yet visited. This study makes an attempt of how the gigantic, blustering, crazed, and comic Henderson testifies to Bellow‘s remarkable creative diversity. Henderson itself is a triumph of the imagination, with its marvelous descriptions of a purely fictive Africa, an Africa of the soul. For all the exoticism of the events, the writing is as tough and witty as in the earlier books. Henderson, who tells his own story as Augie did, uses an even more flavourful language. Despite his comic blunderings and bull-headedness, he is an appealing figure. And despite the fantastic setting, the central character is capable of deeper emotional attachment to people and objects than has been true in the preceding books.

  19. [Intermittent forced ventilation of the lungs with series "PO" IVL apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorokhordin, N E; Leonov, G N; Vasil'ev, A V; Kotras, R L; Prokof'eva, E N

    2004-01-01

    The authors suppose that the intermittent ventilation (IMV) may be provided by the connection of an additional respiratory appliance made on the basis of a standard narcosis attachment of "Polynarcon" type with a respirator "PO" and the patient. A specific feature of this modified respiratory appliance is the bellows which fulfiles the function of a reserved capacity for a breath and a damper when in the smoothed out (hung up) state. The intubation tube is fastened to the T-joint adapter of the narcosis attachment (the scheme is shown), the hose being detached from the expiration valve and connected with the respirator T-joint adapter (to the place of the intubation tube). On the termination of the forced breath the patient can (if he has enough force to open the expiration valve) fulfill a self-dependent breath from the additional respiration appliance (the expiration is fulfilled into the respirator as during the forced breath). A method of realization of IMV in the "PO" type respirators which have been produced in lots by the "Krasnogvardeets" firm since 2000-2002 is described.

  20. Fast imaging diagnostics on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V.

    2016-11-01

    The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary. The axial view incorporated a stainless-steel mirror in a protective cap assembly attached to the vacuum-side of the viewport. For each system, a custom lens-based, high-throughput optical periscope was designed to relay the plasma image about half a meter to a high-speed camera. Each instrument also contained a remote-controlled filter wheel, set between shots to isolate a particular hydrogen or impurity emission line. The design of the camera platform, imaging performance, and sample data for each view is presented.

  1. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber; Determinacao da atenuacao do ar e perda eletronica para a camara de ionizacao de ar livre de cilindros concentricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-07-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k{sub e}) and air attenuation (k{sub a}). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  2. ATLAS gets its own luminosity detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    During the winter shutdown, the ATLAS collaboration has completed the installation of ALFA, the detector system that aims at the LHC absolute luminosity at Point 1 analysing the elastic scattering of protons at small angles.   Upper and lower ALFA Roman Pots as installed in sector 8-1 of the LHC tunnel, 240 metres from the ATLAS Interaction Point. The detectors of the ALFA system are installed at ± 240 meters from the interaction point 1, on either side of the ATLAS detector. The whole system consists of four stations, two on each side of the interaction point. Each station is equipped with two Roman Pots; each pot – that is separated from the vacuum of the accelerator by a thin window but is connected with bellows to the beam-pipe – can be moved very close to the beam. “The Roman Pot technique has been used successfully in the past for the measurement of elastic scattering very close to the circulating beam,” says Patrick Fassn...

  3. 论《偷窃》中蕴藏的犹太伦理%On Jewish Ethics in A Theft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤广杰

    2014-01-01

    阐述了索尔·贝娄在1989年出版的中篇小说《偷窃》中蕴藏的犹太伦理:重视个人内省、自新和精神上的自我净化,呼唤人们过一种有道德的生活,宣扬人与人之间的真爱。认为《偷窃》体现了贝娄一贯的深切的道德关怀,指出蕴藏其中的犹太伦理对现代人同样具有指导意义。%The paper expounds the Jewish ethics in Saul Bellow ’ s novella A Theft published in 1989. The novella emphasizes self-introspection, self-renewal, and self-purification, calls on man to live a moral life, and advocates true love between men. It embodies Bellow’ s consist-ent and profound moral concern. The embedded Jewish ethics also have guidance significance to us modern people.

  4. Method of processing radioactive waste water from WWER power plants and equipment for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste water with mechanical impurities removed is thickened by evaporation to a salt concentration of more than 100 g/l. It is then cooled to a temperature below 40 degC which results in the crystallization of boric acid salts and/or double or multi-component salts, which are then separated by filtration from the mother solution. The salts are used as secondary raw materials or are dissolved by the action of H2SO4 or HCl; a conversion salt and boric acid are formed. After evaporation and having cooled down a bellow 35 degC, H3BO3 becomes crystallized and is separated by filtering. Radioactive emitters contained in the radioactive waste water accumulate in the minimized-volume mother liquors. The equipment consists of a crystallization evaporator, a tickener, a centrifuge and a separator. The centrifuge is connected to the reactor via a pipe and via another pipe to the crystallizer which in turn is connected to the separator. (J.P.)

  5. NESC Peer-Review of the Flight Rationale for Expected Debris Report. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Stadler, John H.; Piascik, Robert S.; Kramer-White, Julie A.; Labbe, Steve G.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Rotter, Hank A.; Rogers, James H.; Null, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Since the loss of Columbia on February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) has significantly improved the understanding of launch and ascent debris, implemented hardware modifications to reduce debris, and conducted tests and analyses to understand the risks associated with expected debris. The STS-114 flight rationale for expected debris relies on a combination of all three of these factors. A number of design improvements have been implemented to reduce debris at the source. The External Tank (ET) thermal protection system (TPS) foam has been redesigned and/or process improvements have been implemented in the following locations: the bipod closeout, the first ten feet of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank protuberance air load (PAL) ramp, and the LH2 tank-to-intertank flange closeout. In addition, the forward bipod ramp has been eliminated and heaters have been installed on the bipod fittings and the liquid oxygen (LO2) feedline forward bellows to prevent ice formation. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) bolt catcher has been redesigned. The Orbiter reaction control system (RCS) thruster cover "butcher paper" has been replaced with a material that sheds at a low velocity. Finally, the pad area has been cleaned to reduce debris during lift-off.

  6. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert D M; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  7. Large expansion joint movement test; Teste de movimentacao de juntas de expansao de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Jorivaldo; Veiga, Jordana Luiza Barbosa da Costa [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, Jose Carlos [Teadit, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper show the results obtained in a movement test realized on metallic bellows expansion joints used in the turbo expander duct system. A test device was developed. For dada acquisition a dynamometer was used and the tests were performed on gimbal expansion joints type. The joints were pressurized with water during the test. Data acquisition was realized at the design, operation and room pressure. The expansion joints were tested rotating them to the design angular movement of 3 deg and 6 deg degrees. The reactions for each degree of movement were recorded during loading and unloading. The tests confirmed that the expansion joints presented no-interference from construction, which configure in an adequate acceptance proceeding. It was noted the influence of internal pressure on reaction forces during expansion joints movements, these forces are not taken into consideration on theoretical calculations of EJMA design equations. The influence of friction on expansion joints hinges are significant and shall be considered on piping design and mitigated using friction reduction devices. (author)

  8. TIG welding of aluminum alloys for the APS storage ring - a UHV application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) incorporates a 7-GeV positron storage ring 1104 meters in circumference. The storage ring vacuum system is designed to maintain a pressure of 1 nTorr or less with a circulating current of 300 mA to enable beam lifetimes of greater than 10 hours. The vacuum chamber is an aluminum extrusion of 6063T5 alloy. There are 235 separate aluminum vacuum chambers in the storage ring connected by stainless steel bellows assemblies. Aluminum was chosen for the vacuum chamber because it can be economically extruded and machined, has good thermal conductivity, low thermal emissivity, a low outgassing rate, low residual radioactivity, and is non-magnetic. The 6063 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloy provides high strength combined with good machining and weldability characteristics. The extrusion process provides the interior surface finish needed for the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environments There are six different vacuum chambers with the same extrusion cross section. The average vacuum chamber length is 171.6 inches. The extruded vacuum chambers are welded to flange assemblies made up of machined 2219 aluminum alloy pieces and 2219 aluminum vacuum flanges from a commercial source

  9. TIG welding of aluminum alloys for the APS storage ring - a UHV application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1996-05-29

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) incorporates a 7-GeV positron storage ring 1104 meters in circumference. The storage ring vacuum system is designed to maintain a pressure of 1 nTorr or less with a circulating current of 300 mA to enable beam lifetimes of greater than 10 hours. The vacuum chamber is an aluminum extrusion of 6063T5 alloy. There are 235 separate aluminum vacuum chambers in the storage ring connected by stainless steel bellows assemblies. Aluminum was chosen for the vacuum chamber because it can be economically extruded and machined, has good thermal conductivity, low thermal emissivity, a low outgassing rate, low residual radioactivity, and is non-magnetic. The 6063 aluminum-silicon-magnesium alloy provides high strength combined with good machining and weldability characteristics. The extrusion process provides the interior surface finish needed for the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environments There are six different vacuum chambers with the same extrusion cross section. The average vacuum chamber length is 171.6 inches. The extruded vacuum chambers are welded to flange assemblies made up of machined 2219 aluminum alloy pieces and 2219 aluminum vacuum flanges from a commercial source.

  10. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  11. Surface interactions in a reverse field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle findings of the investigations were: (1) mechanical deformation occurring at the end of the bellows section adjacent to the weld. (2) Very localised erosion on at least three deformed sections, leading in one case to the puncturing of the liner wall. These eroded spots were all at a region of the liner underneath a gap in the shell. The mechanism whereby the energy is deposited locally is not understood. (3) Deposition of stainless steel as molten droplets was observed over a much larger area adjacent to the shell gap. There is no obvious link between this deposition and the puncture. (4) Arcing is observed over a large proportion of the liner surface: the highest local density of arcs is found on the outer part of the torus, especially near the ports. (5) The inside of the vessel has large coloured areas which were identified as oxide layers probably formed as the result of liner heating by the plasma in the presence of leaks during the last weeks of operation. (orig./RW)

  12. Mechanical integration of an RF volume source and einzel lens LEBT to the SSC RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) LINAC Injector is currently operating with an RF-driven volume ion source coupled with an einzel lens Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). The ion source, LEBT and beam diagnostics are integrated into a compact vacuum enclosure which is mounted to the ups endwall of the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). Beam dynamic requirements imposed a minimum longitudinal of only 23.5 cm, thus creating a very challenging packaging problem. In addition, optimum beam matching to the RFQ specified a maximum gap of 1 cm between the LEBT and the entrance endwall face, thereby excluding the use of a bellows between the LEBT chamber and the RFQ. Vacuum system induced loads and vibrations are isolated from the beamline components by the use of a straddling frame which is an integral component of the vacuum system/support cart TWs paper will desirable some of the unique aspects of the mechanical design resulting from beam requirements, high gas load, availability of the vacuum system and the need for unconstrained attachment to the RFQ. In addition, the mobile installation cart and the fully automated vacuum control system will be discussed

  13. Mechanical integration of an RF volume source and einzel lens LEBT to the SSC RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) LINAC Injector is currently operating with an RF-driven volume ion source coupled with an einzel lens Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). The ion source, LEBT and beam diagnostics are integrated into a compact vacuum enclosure which is mounted to the upstream endwall of the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). Beam dynamic requirements imposed a minimum longitudinal space of only 23.5 cm, thus creating a very challenging packaging problem. In addition, optimum beam matching to the RFQ specified a maximum gap of 1 cm between the LEBT and the entrance endwall face, thereby excluding the use of a bellows between the LEBT chamber and the RFQ. Vacuum system induced loads and vibrations are isolated from the beamline components by the use of a straddling support frame which is an integral component of the vacuum system/support cart. This paper will describe some of the unique aspects of the mechanical design resulting from beam requirements, high gas load, availability of the vacuum system and the need for unconstrained attachment to the RFQ. In addition, the mobile installation cart and the fully automated vacuum control system will be discussed

  14. Fast Filtered Imaging of the C-2U Advanced Beam-Driven Field-Reversed Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P.; Knapp, K.; Cordero, M.; Patel, V.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the C-2U program is to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) for 5+ ms using neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques. Three high-speed, filtered cameras are used to observe visible light emission from deuterium pellet ablation and compact-toroid injection which are used for auxiliary particle fueling. The instruments are also used to view the dynamics of the macroscopic plasma evolution, identify regions of strong plasma-material interactions, and visualize non-axisymmetric perturbations. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses are mounted in re-entrant viewports, two of which are mounted on bellows for retraction during gettering and removal if cleaning is necessary. Images are coupled from the imaging lens to the camera via custom lens-based optical periscopes. Each instrument contains a remote-controlled filter wheel which is set between shots to select a particular emission line from neutral D or various charge states of He, C, O, or Ti. Measurements of absolute emissivity and estimates of neutral and impurity density will be presented.

  15. Structural analyses and integrated design of the MITICA Injector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Seismic design has been carried out on PRIMA building. ► Three-dimensional FE models have been developed the vessel and TL device. ► Three bellows stiffness have been considered to evaluate maximum TL displacements. -- Abstract: In the framework of the activities foreseen for PRIMA (Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) the MITICA neutral beam injector plays the role of main experiment, aiming to build, operate, test and optimize a full power and full scale prototype of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam Injector [1–3]. The entire MITICA system will be housed in special buildings, suitably designed to provide all the necessary supports, interfaces and shielding walls for nuclear radiation safety. Therefore an integrated design of the MITICA system and relevant buildings shall be developed and verified carefully, considering all the different configurations, operational modes and load combinations. This paper presents the numerical models and the results of MITICA assembly integrated analyses. The model takes into account properly constraints to ground and surrounding buildings, to study and verify the static and seismic response of the whole assembly. The load cases are defined and the numerical analyses described. Load definition and analyses have been performed considering the requirements of both the ASME [4] and the National Standard NTC2008 [5] for the seismic verification of structures subject to design response spectra. The obtained results are finally shown in detail and discussed, also comparing some different design options for design optimization

  16. Aspects regarding the influence of European integration on Romania’s trade structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camil-George Stoenescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper I intend to briefly analyze and discuss some of the major elements and influences that Romania’s integration into the European Union had on its external trade during the time frame beginning in 2002 and ending with the year that has just passed (2013. In order to achieve these goals and to emphasize certain relevant aspects of Romania’s economic changes in recent history, I want to synthetically analyze both the structure of Romania’s international trade (consisting of inflows and outflows, compared as well as the evolution of the commercial balance of net exports versus imports, for the purpose of gaining insight into the evolution and changes that Romanian economy experienced during the aforementioned thirteen-year period. Subsequently, the 2002 – 2013 time span can be logically divided into two major periods, the one before (2002-2007 and the one after (2007-2013 Romania’s accession to the European Union, each with its own traits and peculiarities but, also, both sharing sufficient similarities between them. Therefore, my main hypothesis to be tested in the upcoming article is that the European Union integration substantially influenced (and, one could say, altered for the better Romania’s economic outlook, and, consequently, those changes can be highlighted and quantified, among others, by a number of relevant indicators linked to the area of foreign trade, as detailed bellow.

  17. Quantification of decreasing of human health risk by bioremediation of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons; Quantificacao do decrescimo de risco associado a biorremediacao de um solo contaminado por hidrocarbonetos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cristiane A.; Castilhos, Zuleica C.; Rizzo, Andrea C.L. [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leite, Selma G.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of four different bioremediation processes in the decrease of organic pollutants present in a soil contaminated with crude oil, using a toxicological approach based on the human health risk assessment methodology (USEPA, 1989). The different techniques of bioremediation utilized (biostimulation, bioaugmentation and addition of enzymatic solution) were efficient in the removal of the organic pollutants, especially of PAHs, considered highly recalcitrant. In the human health risk assessment, the exposure pathway that resulted in higher hazards of no-carcinogenic effects and risks of carcinogenic effects in the population (children and adult) was dermal contact with soil. The pollutant that contributed more in the different exposure pathways was benzo(a)pyrene. When carcinogenic and no-carcinogenic effects in children and adults were evaluated, the different treatments showed efficiency, once they were capable to reduce the risk and the hazard index (HI) bellow target levels (< 1 x 10{sup -4} and 1, respectively), showing that these treatments were efficient to decrease the potential damage in the exposed population. (author)

  18. The moisture updrafts on the cold pool captured by the continuously radiosonde observation passing through the marginal ice zone in Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensuke; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Alexeev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2013, we conducted 6 hourly radiosonde observation between off-ice and on-ice by Russian icebreaker "Akademik Fedorov" passing through the marginal ice-zone in Laptev Sea during NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basins Obsevational System). During observation period, the warmer and humid air mass was advected by southeasterly wind from Siberia to Laptev sea because the low-pressure system was passing The temperature profiles bellow 600 m was maintaining the cold pool associated with a sea ice and the inversion layer formed above it. The humidity profiles were, however, not trapped until the height of inversion layer, they reached at higher levels (process could transport the moisture to upper level in the arctic region. To verify these processes and examine the impact of the existence of sea ice, we conducted the numerical experiment by WRF. Three boundary conditions were adopted to simulation; present sea ice, removed all sea ice, and increased sea ice area. As primary results, the trajectories of air parcel from Siberia was rising to upper level with released the latent heat due to the condensation of humid air. The case of present sea ice transported much moisture vertically in the arctic region than other two cases. More detail results will be reported on the day. The process of the vertical moisture lifting due to the cold pool could contribute to the heat transport from the mid-latitude surface to the upper level in the arctic.

  19. Design improvements and lessons learned for the TFTR Tritium Cleanup and Gas Holding Tank Sampling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key to the Deuterium-Tritium operations at TFTR has been the support provided by the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) and the associated Gas Holding Tank (GHT) and Sample Loops. The TCS disposes of hydrogen waste products from the Torus by oxidizing them over a catalyst and then absorbing the resulting moist gas onto molecular sieve. The GHT Sample Loops provide the analytical capabilities required to measure gas composition and activity in the GHTs before the gas is passed into TCS. At present the authors have accumulated significant operating experience running tritium through both TCS and the GHT Sample Loops. As experience has been gained they have made improvements to the system hardware resulting in increased reliability and performance. Hardware changes include the upgrading to metal bellows type vacuum pumps, the addition of service ports for enhanced maintenance capabilities, and improvements made to the diagnostic capabilities for the GHT Sample Loops. The operation of TCS has also provided us with lessons learned in trouble shooting some interesting problems, one being the introduction of Sulfur Hexafluoride, an insulating gas used in the Neutral Beam system, into TCS and its effect on the platinum catalyst. Other areas of interest include the experience gained in the continuing task of identification and repair of leaks in the system, and the challenge of instrumentation and flow control with varying gas densities

  20. U形膨胀节试验研究%Experiments and researches on single-layer U-shaped expansion join

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄来军

    2001-01-01

    Bellows expansion joint is a kind of very good device which can provide the deflection compensations,especially U-shaped expansion joint ,the y have been widely used in petrol chemical engineering,power,shipping and aero e tc.departments.Experiments and researches on single-layer U-shaped expansion joi nt are made in this paper,the stress distributing charts of expansion joint unde r internal pressure,axial deflection and combinational acting are give.The super imposing performance of stress under combinational acting condition is researche d.The result of test told us that combinational acting condition is the worst co ndition.%波纹管膨胀节是一种 性能优异的位移补偿元件,尤其是U形膨胀节,在石油化工、动力、船舶、航空等部门均有 广泛应用。这里对单层U形膨胀节进行了试验研究,得出了在内压、轴向位移以及联合工况 作用下的应力分布曲线,验证了联合工况下应力的叠加性。试验结果表明,联合工况是最危 险的工况。

  1. On the flow of helium II under the influence of a heat current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of results corresponding to the general flow behaviour of helium II is rather incomplete and the initial investigations described in this thesis, are particularly intended to extend the previous studies to higher temperatures. An experiment on thermally driven flow in a closed circuit formed by two coupled capillaries is described. Without the measurement of the mass-flow rate in the closed circuit the measured temperature differences across the flow tubes can be explained in terms of the flow characteristics of the individual capillaries. The role of the principle of conservation of superfluid circulation in the closed flow circuit is also discussed. An extension of the study already described is presented using a new device which has two important differences as compared to the previous device. Firstly the transport velocities of heat and mass can be adjusted independently but the mass flow is rigidly imposed by means of a bellows which drives the flow. The chemical-potential difference along the flow tube is now measured with a pressure transducer. Secondly the homogeneity of the flow along the capillary, during steady flow as well as during transitions between different flow states, is studied by means of some thermometers which are placed along the flow tube. The measurements are carried out with both a glass and a stainless-steel capillary, having approximately the same length and diameter (length: 8.5 cm, inner diameter: 216 μm and 206 μm respectively). (Auth.)

  2. Self-sustained oscillations of a sinusoidally-deformed plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Diego F.; Cowen, Edwin A.

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by energy harvesting, the oscillatory motion of a deformed elastic material with aspect ratio Length/Width=2, immerse in an incompressible flow is studied experimentally. To induce the wave-like deformation a polycarbonate sheet is placed under longitudinal compression with external forcing provided by equispaced tension lines anchored in a frame. No additional constrains are placed in the material. Based on quantitative image-based edge detection, ADV, and PIV measurements, we document the existence of three natural states of motion. Bellow a critical velocity, a stable state presents a sinusoidal-like deformation with weak small perturbations. Above a critical velocity, instability appears in the form of a traveling wave with predictable dominant frequency accompanied by higher-order harmonics. As the flow velocity increases the instability converges faster to its limit cycle in the phase plane (e.g., vertical velocity and position), until the stable oscillatory mode transitions to chaos showing a broad energy spectrum and unstable limit cycle. The underlying objective is to induce the onset of the instability at lower critical velocities for higher bending rigidities, promoting possible energy extraction and increasing the range at which stable oscillations appear.

  3. Fluctuation effects on critical and tricritical properties of the three-state Potts model with symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization and the critical and tricritical behavior of the three-state Potts model with broken symmetry between the state vectors and with a external field is studied in a field theory. As an extension of Landau phase-transition theory, renormalization group transformations, to first order in ε =dc-d, are applyied, generating recursion relations. These differential equations are solved in two cases: (a) dc = 6 the φ3-field critical dimension; (b) dc = 4 the φ4-field (XY model) critical dimension. In both cases, non-universal ratios of temperaturestt/tc, magnetizationsmt/ mc and external fieldsht/ hc tricritical and critical are obtained. Such results are applyied to the structural phase transition of SrTiO3 stressed along p->//[1+δ, 1+δ, 1-2δ] yielding a non-universal ratioδt/ δc. Finally, the susceptibility, the magnetization and the singular part of the free energy are calculated in d = 4 - ε dimension at the critical region, showing the crossover from XY model to Potts model behavior. Universal ratio of susceptibilities calculated above and bellow the critical point is obtained too. (author)

  4. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  5. LS1 Report: first missions accomplished

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Things are going well in all the Laboratory’s accelerators. For the SMACC project at the LHC (see here), work on the machine’s outer W bellows is well advanced with over half now opened up. To date we have completed 15% of the project and all the magnet and superconducting circuit consolidation activities are now being submitted to a quality audit by external experts from laboratories all over the world.   Picture 1: one of the Point 7 access galleries after enlargment. Magnets are being replaced according to the schedule and the last of them should be in place before mid-August. The Radiation to Electronics (R2E) project to relocate the electronics is progressing particularly well and is one week ahead of schedule. At Point 7, the civil-engineering work to widen one of the access galleries is almost complete (see picture 1). At Point 5, drilling to allow the passage of the last of the 14 m-long sleeves, 40 cm in diameter, has been successfully completed. Unfortunately ...

  6. Elemental distribution in brain of wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Oliveira, Luis F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Correa Junior, Jose D.; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the changes in the elemental distribution in brain rats, due the knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues have great importance since trace elements are involved in many biological functions of living organisms. For perform this research, Wistar rats with different ages (3, 48 and 72 weeks) were used. The microfluorescence measurements were carried out in a standard geometry of 45 deg/45 deg, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The following elements were studied: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Among these elements, Fe and Zn are related with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, respectively. By the elemental maps, we can observe that the distribution of zinc was more pronounced in the hippocampus area, the distribution of iron was more conspicuous in the cortical region and bellows the thalamus and, moreover potassium and chlorine distributions were more present in the cortical area. Although, the small statistic, we can view that almost all measured elements are present in lower intensity in brains of rats with 3 weeks, and are usually the same for the other ages studied. (author)

  7. FPs release behavior from irradiated FBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission products (FPs) release behavior in the experiments (FP-1, FP-2) performed at JNC were evaluated from the viewpoint of source-term evaluation of FBR. Release fraction of FPs (Cs, Sb, Ru, Eu) in the experiments were calculated by NUREG-0772 model, and grain (hypothetical spheres) radius of fuel pellets and diffusion coefficient of FPs in grains for Booth model were calculated in the evaluation. Furthermore, the calculated values were compared with the values obtained in other experiments. The results of evaluation are summarized bellow. (1) The experiments (FP-1, FP-2) were performed in inert gas (Ar) condition, but FPs release fractions and diffusion coefficients in fuel grains almost agree with the values obtained in the other experiments which were performed in oxidized conditions. FPs release behavior in reduced condition containing such as sodium vapor are expected to be different from the behavior in FP-1 and FP-2. Some other experiments in reduced condition should be performed to investigate FPs release behavior in reduced conditions. Geometric grain radius obtained from metallographic images in used for the base data of diffusion coefficients evaluation, but the radius calculated from BET surface area is desirable. (2) Another release mechanism such as evaporation from the fuel pellet surface should be considered for more detailed evaluation of Cs composite and low volatile Ru and Eu release behavior, but, FPs chemical composition in fuel pellet, oxygen potential in carrier gas and FPs chemical composition in carrier gas, etc, should be evaluated in advance. (author)

  8. Capillary Electrophoresis-nanoelectrospray Ionization-selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Via A True Sheathless Metal-coated Emitter Interface For Robust And High Sensitivity Sample Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xuejiang; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Gao, Yuqian; Tang, Keqi

    2016-03-30

    A new sheathless CITP/CZE-MS interface, based on a commercially available capillary with an integrated metal coated ESI emitter, was developed in this study aiming at overcoming the reproducibility and ruggedness problems, suffered to a certain degree by almost all the available CE-MS interfaces, and pushing the CE-MS technology suitable for routine sample analysis with high sensitivity. The new CITP/CZE-MS interface allows the electric contact between ESI voltage power supply and the CE separation liquid by using a conductive liquid that comes in contact with the metal coated surface of the ESI emitter, making it a true sheathless CE-MS interface. Stable electrospray was established by avoiding the formation of gas bubbles from electro chemical reaction at the emitter tip or inside of the CE capillary. Crucial operating parameters, such as sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation voltage, were systematically evaluated for their effects on both CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. Around one hundred CITP/CZE-MS analyses can be easily achieved by using the new sheathless CITP/CZE interface without a noticeable loss of metal coating on the ESI emitter surface, or degrading of the ESI emitter performance. The reproducibility in analyte migration time and quantitative performance of the new interface was experimentally evaluated to demonstrate a LOQ bellow 5 attomole.

  9. Synergetic Effects of Runaway and Disruption Induced by VDE on the First Wall Damage in HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋先瑛; 杨进蔚; 李旭; 袁国梁; 张轶泼

    2012-01-01

    The plasma facing component in HL-2A has been damaged seriously after disruption, and for this reason its operation is suspended for maintenance. The experimental phenomena and plasma configurations, calculated by the current filament code (CF-code) using the plasma parameters measured by diagnostics and the signals of the magnetic probes, confirm that the first wall is damaged by the synergetic effects of runaway electrons and disruption induced by a vertical displacement event (VDE). When the plasma column is displaced upward/downward, the strong runaway electrons normally hit the baffle plate of the MP3 or MP1 coil in the upper and lower divertor during the disruption, causing the baffle plates to be holed and wrinkled by the energetic runaway current, and water (for cooling or heating the baffle plates) to leak into the vacuum vessel. Another disastrous consequence is that bellows underlying the baffle plate and outside the coil of MP3 for connecting two segments of the jacket casing pipe are punctured by arcing. The arc may be part of the halo current that forms a complete circuit. The experimental phenomena are indirect but compelling evidence for the existence of a halo current during the disruption and VDE, though the halo current has not been measured by the diagnostics in the HL-2A tokamak.

  10. Detection of effect cytotoxic of the alpha hemolysin of E. Coli (HLY A) in leukocytes polymorphonuclear neutrophils by means of cytometry of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell viability of Hly A exposed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was assessed by propidium uptake, measured by flow cytometry. Hemolytic supernatant, but not the non hemolytic controls, caused a dose-dependent fluorescence signal in PMN. Cells exposed to low hemolytic activities (bellow 0.5 HU50/ml) did not fluoresce, although cell size, estimate by Forward Scatter (FSC), increased slightly, and returned to normal within 30-60 minutes suggesting both membrane damage in absence of propodium uptake and term cell recovery from the effects of Hly A. The fluorescent signal from permeated PMN decrease 15 minutes after exposure to Hly a, a decrease which was prevented by chelation ok extracellular Ca+2 with EGTA. Whereas Ca+2 entry into the cell is responsible for triggering mechanisms leading to loss of fluorescence, low or chelated extracelular Ca+2 facilitate propidium uptake, but the fluorescent signal does not decrease only when both intracellular and extracellular Ca+2 are chelated. The findings of this study, together whit data from other authors, are taken as basis to formulate a hypothetical sequence of events to explain the cytometric data obtained from Hly A exposed PMN, including the significance of increases in cell size without propidium uptake. (Author)

  11. Report of meeting on monochromator technology for MR synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This meeting was held on June 12, 1996 at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The MR was reconstructed so as to be used for synchrotron radiation in the summer of the last year, and has been stably operated at 8-10 GeV. The synchrotron radiation of ultrahigh luminance was taken out, and by using this light, the experiments of 14 subjects were carried out, and a number of the data which have the highest quality in the world were obtained. By having carried out the researches, the perspective for future was able to be slightly obtained. As the technologies which supported these activities, there were many such as accelerators, beam lines and others, but especially the splendid working of the monochromator must be remembered. The monochromator is composed of the vacuum tanks for first crystal and second crystal, the bellows connecting both crystals and the translating table, and is cooled with liquid nitrogen. At the meeting, lectures were given on MR synchrotron radiation project, the concept of design of the monochromator, the precision control of goniometers, the detailed design, the table for first crystal, the assembling and installation, control software, the adjustment of light paths and others. (K.I.)

  12. Hydroponics as a valid tool to assess arsenic availability in mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Jiménez, E; Esteban, E; Fresno, T; de Egea, C López; Peñalosa, J M

    2010-04-01

    The low solubility of As in mine soils limits its phytoavailability. This makes the extrapolation of data obtained under hydroponic conditions unrealistic because the concentration in nutrient solution frequently overexposes plants to this metalloid. This work evaluates whether As supply in hydroponics resembles, to some extent, the As phytoavailable fraction in soils and the implications for phytoremediation. Phytotoxicity of As, in terms of biomass production, chlorophyll levels, and As concentrations in plants, was estimated and compared in both soils and hydroponics. In order for hydroponic conditions to be compared to soil conditions, plant exposure levels were measured in both cultures. Hydroponic As concentration ranging from 2-8microM equated to the same plant organ concentrations from soils with 700-3000mgkg(-1). Total and extractable As fractions exceeded those values, but As concentrations in pore water were bellow them. According to our results (i) hydroponics should include doses in the range 0-10microM As to allow the extrapolation of the results to As-polluted soils, and (ii) phytoextraction of As in mining sites will be limited by low As phytoavailability.

  13. Concept for Sustained Plant Production on ISS Using VEGGIE Capillary Mat Rooting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth in microgravity presents unique challenges associated with maintaining appropriate conditions for seed germination, seedling establishment, maturation and harvest. They include maintaining appropriate soil moisture content, nutrient balance, atmospheric mixing and containment. Sustained production imposes additional challenges of harvesting, replanting, and safety. The VEGGIE is a deployable (collapsible) plant growth chamber developed as part of a NASA SBIR Phase II by Orbitec, Madison, WI. The intent of VEGGIE is to provide a low-resource system to produce fresh vegetables for the crew on long duration missions. The VEGGIE uses and LED array for lighting, an expandable bellows for containment, and a capillary matting system for nutrient and water delivery. The project evaluated a number of approaches to achieve sustained production, and repeated plantings, using the capillary rooting system. A number of different root media, seed containment, and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated and effects on seed germination and growth were evaluated. A number of issues limiting sustained production, such as accumulation of nutrients, uniform water, elevated vapor pressure deficit, and media containment were identified. A concept using pre-planted rooting packs shown to effectively address a number of those issues and is a promising approach for future development as a planting system for microgravity conditions.

  14. Human paranasal sinuses and selective brain cooling: a ventilation system activated by yawning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Andrew C; Hack, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    The function of the paranasal sinuses has been a controversial subject since the time of Galen, with many different theories advanced about their biological significance. For one, the paranasal sinuses have been regarded as warmers of respiratory air, when in actuality these structures appear to function in cooling the blood. In fact, human paranasal sinuses have been shown to have higher volumes in individuals living in warmer climates, and thus may be considered radiators of the brain. The literature suggests that the transfer of cool venous blood from the paranasal sinuses to the dura mater may provide a mechanism for the convection process of cooling produced by the evaporation of mucus within human sinuses. In turn, the dura mater may transmit these temperature changes, initiated by the cool venous blood from the heat-dissipating surfaces of the sinuses, to the cerebrospinal fluid compartments. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated in cadaveric dissections that the thin bony posterior wall of the maxillary sinus serves as an origin for both medial and lateral pterygoid muscle segments, an anatomic finding that had been previously underappreciated in the literature. The present authors hypothesize that the thin posterior wall of the maxillary sinus may flex during yawning, operating like a bellows pump, actively ventilating the sinus system, and thus facilitating brain cooling. Such a powered ventilation system has not previously been described in humans, although an analogous system has been reported in birds. PMID:21906886

  15. Chronology of Holocene lacustrine sediments in Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yanhong; WANG; Sumin; HOU; Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    Chronology is the basis for using lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of environmental change. Radioactive-nuclides such as 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating are mainly used to establish the chronology for recent several ten thousand years. Because of being mixed with "dead carbon", the measured 14C age is always older than the actual age which is recognized as "reservoir effect". Cs is a kind of active metal element, and easy to migrate vertically in the sediment that leads to the error of the time marker. 210Pb dating should make sure to select CIC model or CRS model. On the Tibetan Plateau, most of the lakes are alkaline closed lake where Cs is more moveable in the sediment and the reservoir effect caused by "dead carbon" on 14C dating is stronger. Based on the analysis on results of 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs of the lacustrine sediments from Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau, we use the simple regression method to re-calculate the 14C calendar ages, and establish the time sequence for cores CE-1 and CE-2 with result of 210Pb CRS model for the upper 35 cm and recalculated 14C calendar age for sediments bellow 35 cm. Since 1400 cal. a BP, sedimentation interrupted for more than 1000 years. According to this time sequence, variations of environmental proxies confidently reflect the major climatic events in Holocene.

  16. LS1 Report: across the accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    The warm-up of the first LHC sector (5-6) is now complete; it is at room temperature for the first time in over three years. Next week, the W bellows in this sector will be opened in preparation for the consolidation of the superconducting circuits, splices and interconnections (the SMACC project). Elsewhere in the LHC, the ELQA tests and the warm-up of the remaining seven sectors are proceeding as planned.   Vacuum leak tests are performed on the magnets before the LHC is brought up to ambient temperature. The SPS magnet test programme was completed on 26 March and work has already begun in the SPS tunnel. Among the activities being carried out is the installation of 16 specially coated vacuum chambers in the SPS main dipole magnets around BA5. The first of these dipole magnets were removed from the SPS tunnel today, Friday 5 April. By reducing the build-up of electron clouds around the LHC beam during acceleration in the SPS, this activity will play a key role in the increase of LHC beam in...

  17. Influence of cover crop and intercrop systems on Bemisia argentifolli (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation and associated squash silverleaf disorder in zucchini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wright, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of cover cropping and intercropping on population densities of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolli Bellow and Perring, and the incidence of squash silverleaf disorder (SSL) in zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., in Oahu, HI. Two cover crops, buckwheat (BW), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, and white clover (WC), Trifolium repens L., or sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea L., and an intercropped vegetable, okra, Abelmonchus esculentus L., were evaluated during the 2003, 2005, and 2006 growing seasons, respectively. Population densities of whiteflies and SSL severity varied during the three field experiments. In 2003, the severity of SSL and percentage of leaves displaying symptoms were significantly lower on zucchini plants in WC than BW plots throughout the crops' growth cycle. Additionally, the percentage of leaves per plant displaying SSL symptoms was significantly greater in bare-ground (BG) compared with the pooled BW and WC treatments on each inspection date. In 2005, zucchini intercropped with okra had lower numbers of adult whiteflies and resulted in significantly lower severity of SSL than pooled BW and WC treatments. During 2006, zucchini grown with SH had significantly lower numbers of all whitefly stages (i.e., egg, immature, and adult) and less SSL severity symptoms than BW. Despite these differences in whitefly numbers and SSL severity, marketable yields were not significantly lower in BW compared with WC or SH treatment plots during the study. The mechanisms underlying these results and the feasibility of using cover crops and intercrops to manage B. argentifolli and SSL are discussed.

  18. Microbial, physical-chemical and sensory spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pedro; Nieto, Gema; Garrido, María Dolores; Bañón, Sancho

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to study spoilage during the refrigerated storage of cooked pork loin processed by the sous vide method. Samples were packaged under vacuum into polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 70°C/12h, chilled at 3°C and stored at 2°C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks. Microbial (psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, moulds and yeasts), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) colour, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odour, flavour, texture and acceptance) parameters were determined. The results showed that sensory spoilage preceded microbiological spoilage of sous vide pork loin. Counts bellow 1logcfu/g of psychrotrophs, anaerobic psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were detected in any control week, while moderate counts (2-3logcfu/g) of moulds and yeasts were found. Minor changes in water activity, lipid oxidation, CIELab colour, hardness, cohesiveness or gumminess were associated with spoilage of pork loin, only decreases of lactic acid, springiness and shear force were observed. The pork loin was unacceptable after 10 weeks. This loss of acceptance was mainly due to the deterioration of meaty flavour and odour, although the loss of appearance, juiciness and firmness also contributed. Moderate warmed-over and rancidity were detected. The sensory analysis was the most effective method for determining the shelf life of the sous vide pork-based dishes. PMID:22063333

  19. An Integrated MCDM Method in Ranking BSC Perspectives and key Performance Indicators (KPIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alvandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The balanced scorecard (BSC approach is an effective technique for performance evaluation. BSC can better reflect the dependence and feedback problems of each factor in real world situations. This study aims at developing a set of appropriate key performance indicators according to (BSC approach for SAPCO using multiple criteria decision making(MCDM method. We provide key performance indicators through literature reviews and experts' idea in SAPCO, which is one of the biggest vehicle spare suppliers in Iran. The proposed study uses decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP, respectively to measure the casual relationship between the perspectives as well as the relative weights. The results based on ANP method shows that ‘‘Customer’’ is the most influential factor. In addition, internal process, financial and learning and growth are in two to four positions. Three important key performance indicators are as bellow: Total price of parts, Customer satisfaction and Lack of parts in production.

  20. The Distortion of the Image of Denise under Citrine' s Narration inHumboldt' s Gift%The Distortion of the Image of Denise under Citrine' s Narration inHumboldt' s Gift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璐

    2012-01-01

    Saul Bellow, the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976, is considered as one of the most famous writers in modern Ameri- can literary area and enjoys reputation and status comparable with that of his predecessors Faulkner, Hemingway, and Steinbeck. In 1975, he published his novel Humboldt~ Gift. As one of his most important long novels, it draws critics" wide attention. By a close reading, the author finds out it is feasible to carry on a study of female images under male protagonist- Citrine" narration from the perspective of the resisting reader. In this sense, this dissertation is aimed at revealing the fact that the image of Denise - the heroine, is in the state of being distorted and demonized by applying the strategy of resisting reading put forward by Judith Fetterley. In order to disclose elements behind the distortion of female image - Denise, the thesis also employs power relations be- tween the two sexes put forward by Michel Foucauh and it is found that the economic power conflict between Citrine and Denise leads to the distortion of Deniseg image in the eyes of male narrator - Citrine.

  1. Conceptual design and application studies of piezoelectric crystal motors under ultra-high vacuum conditions; Konzepterstellung und Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten eines Piezokristallmotors im Ultrahochvakuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, Jens

    2009-08-15

    For the operation of accelerators it is important that motions in the vacuum occur. The here produced diploma thesis deals with the possibility to perform thes motions with piezocrystal motors in order to abandon wear-susceptible membrane bellows. For this studies have been performed, which should show for which it is useful to apply a piezocrystal motor. Limits are shown, advances and disadvantages are weighted in the thesis. Construction with with subsequent test of a tandem facility and an outlook on possible future concepts form the main content. [German] Fuer den Betrieb von Beschleunigern ist es wichtig, dass Bewegungen im Vakuum stattfinden. Die hier angefertigte Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit der Moeglichkeit, diese Bewegungen mit Piezokristallmotoren durchzufuehren, um auf verschleissanfaellige Membranbaelge zu verzichten. Hierfuer sind Studien durchgefuehrt worden, die zeigen sollen, wofuer es ratsam ist, einen Piezokristallmotor zu verwenden. Grenzen werden aufgezeigt, Vor- und Nachteile werden in der Arbeit abgewogen. Konstruktion mit anschliessenden Tests eines Tandemaufbaus und ein Ausblick auf moegliche zukuenftige Konzepte bilden den Kerninhalt. (orig.)

  2. Acquisition and automated 3-D segmentation of respiratory/cardiac-gated PET transmission images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of respiratory motion on attenuation correction of cardiac PET data, we acquired and automatically segmented gated transmission data for a dog breathing on its own under gas anesthesia. Data were acquired for 20 min on a CTI/Siemens ECAT EXACT HR (47-slice) scanner configured for 12 gates in a static study, Two respiratory gates were obtained using data from a pneumatic bellows placed around the dog's chest, in conjunction with 6 cardiac gates from standard EKG gating. Both signals were directed to a LabVIEW-controlled Macintosh, which translated them into one of 12 gate addresses. The respiratory gating threshold was placed near end-expiration to acquire 6 cardiac-gated datasets at end-expiration and 6 cardiac-gated datasets during breaths. Breaths occurred about once every 10 sec and lasted about 1-1.5 sec. For each respiratory gate, data were summed over cardiac gates and torso and lung surfaces were segmented automatically using a differential 3-D edge detection algorithm. Three-dimensional visualizations showed that lung surfaces adjacent to the heart translated 9 mm inferiorly during breaths. Our results suggest that respiration-compensated attenuation correction is feasible with a modest amount of gated transmission data and is necessary for accurate quantitation of high-resolution gated cardiac PET data

  3. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert D. M.; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  4. An Analysis of The Victim from the Perspective of Levinas’ s Philosophy%从列维纳斯哲学看《受害者》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁东

    2014-01-01

    The Victim is an early representative work of Saul Bellow who is a famous American writer and the winner of Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976. The thesis interprets The Victim with Levinas’ s philosophy from such two aspects of the other as a mysterious existence and duty coming before freedom and draws the conclusion that the protagonist of the novel, Leventhal,is a character with the features of the ethics of the other.%《受害者》是美国作家和1976年诺贝尔文学奖获得者索尔·贝娄的早期代表作。本文借助列维纳斯的哲学对《受害者》进行解读,从他者作为神秘的存在和责任先于自由两方面进行分析,认为该小说的主人公利文撒尔是一个具有他者伦理特征的人物。

  5. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  6. Future of the beam energy scan program at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odyniec Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first exploratory phase of a very successful Beam Energy Scan Program at RHIC was completed in 2014 with Au+Au collisions at energies ranging from 7 to 39 GeV. Data sets taken earlier extended the upper limit of energy range to the √sNN of 200 GeV. This provided an initial look into the uncharted territory of the QCD phase diagram, which is considered to be the single most important graph of our field. The main results from BES phase I, although effected by large statistical errors (steeply increasing with decreasing energy, suggest that the highest potential for discovery of the QCD Critical Point lies bellow √sNN 20 GeV. Here, we discuss the plans and the preparation for phase II of the BES program, with an order of magnitude larger statistics, which is planned for 2018-2019. The BES II will focus on Au+Au collisions at √sNN from 20 to 7 GeV in collider mode, and from √sNN 7 to 3.5 GeV in the fixed target mode, which will be run concurrently with the collider mode operation.

  7. A thermochemical energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyeguti, K.; Indzima, T.

    1982-08-09

    Mercury is used as the active mass of the anode in the converter and 0/sub 2/ is used as the active cathode material. The reaction of Mercury + 1/2 0/sub 2/-Hg0 occurs with a discharge. With heating to 500/sup 0/C the regeneration of the Mercury, Hg0 yields Mercury + 1/2 0/sub 2/, occurs. The device for performing the thermochenical conversion of energy contains an element body, an oxygen chamber, an oxygen electrode, a chamber with an alkaline liquid electrolyte, a separator, an auxiliary separator, an electrode and a chamber with the Mercury. The thermochemical reaction occurs in the reactor to which the Hg0 is transported along a pipe which has a refrigerator and a valve. The Mercury is fed into the element from a reservoir. The Mercury reduced in the reactor and in a reaction tower is fed into it through a closed cycle. The bellows is connected with the reactor by a pipe with a refrigerator. Through it the 0/sub 2/ goes in a closed cycle to the chamber. The current forming reactions are Hg + 20H-anion yields Hg0 + H/sub 2/0 + 2e and 1/2 0/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/0 + 2e yields 20H-anion. The voltage on the outleads of the element is approximately 0.3 volts.

  8. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia; Avaliacao biomecanica da acao da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade no processo de osseointegracao de implantes de titanio inseridos em tibia de coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho Filho, Thyrso

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser ({lambda}=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm{sup 2} on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  9. Shaking table tests under simulated earthquakes for seismic performance evaluation of primary water accident pump used in nuclear reactor%某核级一次水事故泵抗震性能评估的振动台试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永武; 戴君武; 金波; 聂桂波

    2015-01-01

    由于一次水事故泵运行条件下的振动台试验可评估抗震性能,用钢丝橡胶波纹管连接进出口水管、沙堆支撑橡胶管提供柔性约束。合理模拟水泵在试验过程中所受接管荷载,保证试验过程中水泵与循环水箱变形协调。对正常运行的事故泵进行5次 OBE、1次 SSE 人造地震动输入振动台试验,并据动应变曲线判断仍处于弹性状态。试验表明,经5次 OBE、1次 SSE 人造地震动输入后的一次水事故泵仍能保证压力边界完整性及功能可运行性。较试验前各项功能指标无明显变化,抗震性能良好。%Primary water accident pump is an important part of reactor for its waste heat export,whose seismic performance will directly affect the safe shutdown of reactor and the exuding of waste heat after the occurrence of major earthquakes.The prototype shaking table tests under simulated earthquakes are the most intuitive method to evaluate the seismic performance of primary water accident pump in running condition.The steel wire rubber corrugated pipe connection was selected as the import and export connections of water pipe,and the sand pile support rubber bellows were used as the flexible constraints.The connecting load on the water pump in the processes of tests was reasonably simulated and the deformation coordination was ensured between the primary water accident pump and circulating water tank in the test processes.Suitable wire rubber bellows were selected and sand was used to guarantee the rationality of boundary conditions in the experiments.Five OBE and one SSE earthquake simulation shaking table tests on the primary water accident pump were performed by using artificial seismic waves as the seismic inputs in normal running.According to time history curves of strain,the maximum strain responses under the input of different artificial seismic waves were obtained, and the structure was found still in elastic state.The results show that

  10. 2.4米跨声速风洞推力矢量试验技术%The thrust vectoring experiment technique in the 2.4 m×2.4 m transonic wind tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建强; 李耀华; 郭旦平; 苗磊; 杜宁; 黄存栋; 周洪; 曾利权; 张诣

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement for the testing of the advanced aircrafts’thrust vectoring techniques in high speed wind tunnel,a device for the flexible metal bellow system’s calibration of the performance impact on thrust vectoring balance and the corresponding high pre-cision flow close-loop measurement and control system based on the digital flow valve are devel-oped.A test platform for a twin-engine aircraft thrust vectoring,including the supply lamina support,the flexible metal bellow for realizing the jet air supply and three balances system,is es-tablished.Separate measurement of both aerodynamic characteristics and propulsion characteris-tics is achieved simultaneously.The system adjustment and the results of model tests demon-strate that,the experimental equipment and the overall system operate accurately and steadily, the precision of jet mass flow measurement is better than 0.5%.The experimental results of aer-odynamic characteristics and propulsion characteristics obtained in the research are normative and reasonable,and the precision of repeatability tests is up to the standard of GJB.The experimen-tal skills obtained in the research can satisfy the twin-engine aircraft requirement,and the test condition is within the margin of Mach number of 0.3~1.2,angle of attack of -10°~60°,nozzle thrust vector angle of -20°~20°,jet mass flow 0~3kg/s.%针对先进战斗机推力矢量高速试验需求,研制了可用于校准通气不传力系统对推力天平性能影响的装置和基于数字流量阀的喷流质量流量闭环测控系统,在2.4 m 跨声速风洞建立了通气叶片支撑、金属波纹管通气不传力系统实现喷流供气转换、三台天平内置的双发战斗机推力矢量试验平台,实现了飞机气动力和两尾喷管转向喷流推进特性同时分别测量。系统调试和模型风洞试验表明:试验系统运行稳定、可靠,质量流量测控精度优于0.5%;全机气动力及两个喷

  11. Study on the Vertical Dynamic Characteristics of Air Spring Used in High-speed EMU%高速动车组空气弹簧垂向动态特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚壮; 李芾; 黄运华; 周张义; 虞大联

    2015-01-01

    The pneumatic hydromechanics model of air spring is constructed and the relation functions of air spring's vertical characteristics and its hysteresis curves are derived. Based on the pneumatic model, the relations of the air spring structural parameters, which include the bellow volume, the auxiliary tank volume and the orifice diameter, and the static and dynamic stiffness and the damping characteristics are revealed by the static and dynamic simulation tests. On this basis, the air spring model is implemented in the high-speed electric multiple units(EMU) dynamics model and a parametric study on the vertical comfort is conducted. The study results show that, the increment of the bellow volume can improve the vertical comfort; when the auxiliary tank volume is large enough, its influence on the vertical comfort becomes little, so the volume of the auxiliary tank should be at least 35 L; with the increase of the orifice diameter, the vehicle vertical comfort index first rapidly decreases and then increases slowly, which means that there exists a preferable range, about 15-25 m, for the value of orifice diameter, which makes the vertical comfort become best.%建立空气弹簧的气动流体力学模型,并推导空气弹簧垂向特性与其回滞曲线几何特征的关系式.基于该气动模型,通过静态及动态仿真试验,着重研究橡胶气囊体积、附加空气室体积及节流孔直径三个结构参数与空气弹簧垂向静态刚度、动态刚度及阻尼特性的关系.在此基础上,使用包含该空气弹簧气动模型的高速动车组整车动力学模型,进一步研究空气弹簧结构参数对车辆垂向平稳性的影响规律.计算结果表明,增大橡胶气囊体积可有效改善车辆垂向平稳性;附加空气室体积达到一定值时,进一步增大对提高车辆垂向平稳性作用不大,应保证附加空气室容积至少为35 L;随着节流孔直径的增大,车辆垂向平稳性指标首先快速减小然后

  12. Metais pesados em LATOSSOLO tratado com lodo de esgoto e em plantas de cana-de-açúcar Heavy metals in an Oxisol treated with sewage sludge and in sugarcane plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho Oliveira

    2001-09-01

    , control and sewage sludge applied at three levels, 33, 66 and 99 mg ha-1 in the first year and 37, 74 and 110 mg ha¹ in the second year. After two sewage sludge applications in the two year period an increase of the level of Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn in the topsoil (00.2 m layer was observed. Levels of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in plant leaves were bellow detection limits. In sugarcane juice the levels of Cd, Cr and Ni were bellow 0.02 mg kg-1. Levels of Cu and Zn in leaves were not different from the usually reported values for plants cultivated in soils without sludge application. The chemical extractants used (0.1 mol L-1 HCl and Mehlich-3 removed more Cu, Ni and Zn from the soil than DTPA-TEA and all of them were effective only to preview Zn concentration in stalks and juice of ratton sugarcane.

  13. Potencial biótico da mosca-branca Bemisia argentifolii a diferentes plantas hospedeiras Biotic potential of Bemisia argentifolii to different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni L. Villas Bôas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A mosca-branca Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, 1994 causa danos em diversas culturas de importância econ��mica no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o potencial biótico do inseto nas plantas de abobrinha, feijão, mandioca, milho, poinsétia, repolho e tomate. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, em Brasília-DF, em câmaras climatizadas, à temperatura de 28 ± 2ºC e casa de vegetação, à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 8ºC, partindo-se de uma população de B. argentifolii, criada em poinsétia desde 1995. Repolho e feijão foram as plantas hospedeiras que apresentaram períodos pré-imaginais mais curtos, respectivamente 20,5 e 21,9 dias. As maiores porcentagens de mortalidade nesses períodos foram observadas em mandioca (97,9% e milho (94,2%. A razão sexual em geral foi favorável às fêmeas. O inseto apresentou valores muito próximos de r m (capacidade intrínseca de crescimento da população, variando de 0,18 em feijão a 0,13 em repolho, mostrando estar igualmente adaptado a estes hospedeiros. Resultados diversos foram observados em milho e mandioca, onde as fêmeas apresentaram alta mortalidade (> 90%, o que sugere baixa capacidade de utilização destes hospedeiros pela mosca-branca.The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, 1994 has been causing damage in several economically important crops in Brazil. The purpose of this research was to determine the biotic potential of the insect in zucchini, dry bean, cassava, corn, poinsettia, cabbage and tomato. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in Brasilia, in BOD chamber (28°C ± 2°C and greenhouse (25°C ± 8°C, with a whitefly population continuously reared on poinsettia plants since 1995. Cabbage and dry bean were the host plants with shorter pre-imaginal periods, 20.5 and 21.9 days respectively. The highest mortality in this periods was observed in cassava (97.9% and

  14. Measurement of wall relaxation times of polarized Helium-3 in bulk liquid Helium-4 for the neutron electric dipole moment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jacob

    The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment (nEDM) experiment that will take place at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee will measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron with a precision of order 10-28 e-cm, utilizing spin-polarized 3He in bulk liquid 4He to detect neutron precession in a 10 mG magnetic field and 50 kV/cm electric field. Since depolarized 3He will produce a background, relaxation of the polarized 3He, characterized by the probability of depolarization per bounce, Pd, was measured for materials that will be in contact with polarized 3He. Depolarization probabilities were determined from measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time of polarized 3He in bulk liquid 4He inside an acrylic cell coated with the wavelength shifter deuterated tetraphenyl butadiene (d-TPB), which will be used to coat the nEDM measurement cell. Relaxation measurements were also performed while rods, made from plumbing material Torlon and valve bellows material BeCu, were present in the cell. The BeCu was coated with Pyralin resin prior to relaxation measurements, while relaxation measurements were performed both before and after the Torlon rod was coated with Pyralin resin. The depolarization probabilities were found to be Pd-TPBd <1.32x10-7 PBareTorlon d=1.01+/-0.08 x10-6 PCoatedTorlon d=2.5+/-0.1 x10-7 PCoatedBeCu d=7.9+/-0.3 x10-7 The relaxation rates extrapolated from the observed values of Pd for d-TPB, coated Torlon, and coated BeCu in the nEDM apparatus were found to be consistent with design goals.

  15. Contamination of cars and exposure dose to drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traffic on the Route 6 will increase after the revision of evacuation area and restricted area. At the request of the Local Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters established in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has surveyed the effect on cars and drivers traveling through the Route 6 in the restricted area as listed bellow. (1) Investigation of contamination of cars traveling through the Route 6. (2) Investigation of exposure dose of drivers traveling through the Route 6. The maximum contamination at the surface of tires and tire-houses of cars traveling through the Route 6 is estimated to be 2 Bq/cm2 (this concentration is correspond to 470 cpm). The external exposure dose of drivers will be about 4 μSv when they run through the restricted area at a pace of 40 km/h. The internal exposure dose will be small because of the low radioactive concentration in the air. It is important not to stay long in high radiation areas to prevent unnecessary exposure. The main source of the contamination is sand cloud thrown up by the wheels. Though, the radioactivity of the sand cloud is proportional to the surface concentration of roads and dose rate of each area, contamination level by the sand cloud will remain low level. Significant contamination is likely to be caused by running on the soil. So, it is important not to run on the soil on the local road around the Route 6 or road shoulder of the Route 6. It is recommended to wash tires and tire-houses when accidentally run on the soil. (author)

  16. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  17. Design and Fabrication of the Superconducting Bussystem for the Stellarator W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for plasma physics (IPP) essential work packages of the superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (which is presently under construction at Greifswald, Germany) have been taken over by the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ). One of these packages is the design, construction, qualification, manufacturing and assembly of the superconducting three-dimensional bussystem and its appropriate supports. An overall concept of the project was elaborated with the goal to optimize manufacturing steps, to simplify the system assembly and to provide easy transportation. In order to compensate the magnetic stray fields generated by the bus currents and to facilitate the bus assembly, a suitable bus topology was developed. For checking the geometry of the bent buses and to examine the buses assembly a 1:1 model of one W7-X section (72 o) has been built. An insulation set up was developed and different samples have been fabricated. For qualification the insulation was examined as follows: - high voltage insulation checks including measurements of the Paschen firmness, - thermal tests and mechanical bending under cryo-temperatures at 77 K, - leakage and high pressure tests to simulate quench situations and - vacuum compatibilities of the materials and methods used. The design will be shown, calculation of magnetic fields and forces are presented. For series production of the 121 buses a production line has been installed. The fabrication process and its main appropriate steps will be presented: 1. Straightening of the superconductor on a rolling machine 2. Rounding on a special turning lathe, required to facilitate 3-dimensional bending 3. Bending on a 3-D-bending machine 4. Checking of geometry on the 1:1 model 5. Electrical insulation and conductive lacquer coat applied by hand 6. Vacuum and high voltage test at several pressure steps (Paschen test) inside bellow tube 7. Transportation in bundle of 6 buses to Greifswald

  18. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potentially toxic trace element. In this paper, the antimony content in nine brands of bottled mineral and spring water from Serbia, and seven brands of bottled mineral and spring water from EU countries was analyzed. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. In the all examined samples the antimony concentration was bellow the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by the Serbian and EU regulations. Comparison of the content of antimony in PET bottled waters with the content of antimony in water bottled commercially in glass and the natural content of antimony in pristine groundwaters, provides explicit evidence of antimony leaching from PET containers. Since waters bottled in PET have much greater concentration ratio of Sb to Pb than corresponding pristine groundwaters, it can be assumed that bottled waters cannot be used as the relavant source for the study of the natural antimony content in groundwaters. There is a clear relation between the quality of water in bottles (composition, ion strength and antimony leaching rate. Moreover, while the rate of antimony leaching is slow at temperatures below 60 oC, at the temperature range of 60-80 oC antimony release occurs and reaches maximum contaminant level rapidly. As antimony can cause both acute and chronic health problems, factors that promote the increase of antimony concentration should be avoided.

  19. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  20. Improvement of cattle production in Myanmar through the use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of Artificial Insemination (AI) status in Myanmar was carried out in the Mandalay region. Most farms are smallholdings with 1-12 breedable cattle per farm. During the survey a total 435 first inseminations carried out by 5 AI technicians were recorded. The conception rate (CR) at first service was 60.7% and the overall CR was 63.3%. Interval from calving to first service was 103.6 ± 40.0 days. Progesterone measurement on the samples collected on the day of AI (day 0) showed that 6.3% of the services were done when progesterone was high (>3nmol/L), indicating that the cows could not have been in oestrus. Most of the farmers detected oestrus based on signs such as mucus discharge, bellowing and mounting. After the preliminary survey a study was conducted to test two intervention measures: to reduce the interval from calving to first service by nutritional supplementation with urea molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB); and to reduce the number of AI done during the luteal phase. In this study 245 first AI were recorded. Interval from calving to first oestrus was 95.8 ± 24.8 days. Incidence of AI at luteal phase declined to 4%. In spite of better heat detection, the conception rate was 55.9%, which is lower than during the survey phase. This could be attributed to lower fertility of semen from certain bulls used in the second phase. Assessment of progesterone values in the samples showed that 3.8% of AI were done during anovulatory oestrous cycles, 7.8% in anoestrous cows and 5.9% in cows with irregular or short oestrous cycles. (author)

  1. Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as  -0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients.

  2. 含芳香酯基液晶基元环氧树脂固化 动力学FTIR研究%Curing kinetics of a liquid crystalline epoxy with the aromatic ester mesogen by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立新; 王汝敏; 蓝立文; 徐亚洪; 廖建伟

    2001-01-01

    应用DTA分析研究了含液晶基元的环氧化物-对羟基苯甲酸对苯二酚二缩水甘油醚与四种芳香胺类固化剂的固化行为,选择了4,4’-二氨基二苯甲烷为固化剂。根据环氧树脂自催化固化反应模型和氨基氢等活性假设,利用傅立叶变换红外光谱法研究了液晶环氧/4,4’-二氨基二苯甲烷体系在90℃、120℃、140℃恒温固化时的动力学行为。结果表明,在反应程度低于40%时,符合自催化模型。%The curing processes of diglycidlether of 4 - hydroxyphenyl - 4 - hydroxybenzoate(PHBHQ) with four different amine curing agents were studied by means of the DTA. A suitable curing agent ,4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane( DDM) was selected as well. Based on the self- catalyzed curing model of epoxy resin and equal activity of hydrogen amino , the isothermal curing processes of PHBHQ/ DDM liquid system at 90℃,120℃,140℃ were monitored by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrum(FTIR). The result showed that the curing process was accorded with the self- catalyzed curing model when the reaction extent bellowed 40%.

  3. Report of summer maintenance of electrostatic accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the yearly summer maintenance of the facilities, 2010's work gave priority to micro-particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) beam line since 11 years had passed from the introduction of the accelerator in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). This report describes the first renewal of its cooling system of water recycling, arrangement of micro-PIXE power source unit and maintenance status of peripheral parts. The cooling system was renewed to the type of TCA-0000AW-E, power supply 3phi 200V 22.3 KVA, cooling capacity 30,960 kcal/hr at 20 deg. C (old one, 22,000 kcal/hr), breaker 75A (60 A), water tank 70 L (40 L) and size W 700 x D 1850 x H 2200 mm (700 x 1500 x 2190), particularly resulting in increased cooling capacity, flow rate (100 vs 24 L/min) and safety stoppage mechanic by abnormalities of water level, temperature, gas and recycling water pressures. For micro-PIXE, manufactured was a unit of rack-mount loading systems of the power supply 230 V and of vacuum involving their controlling circuits. The circuit for the interlock to preserve vacuum systems was also setup. The hose for rotary vacuum pump was renewed by KF25 bellows, and valves connected with turbo-pump for beam opening, by manual ones for vacuum use. As well, inspection and repair were performed on the cooling lines and telemeter. An overhaul of the accelerator itself is necessary several years later. (T.T.)

  4. A Novel Fast Helical 4D-CT Acquisition Technique to Generate Low-Noise Sorting Artifact–Free Images at User-Selected Breathing Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a novel 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) technique that exploits standard fast helical acquisition, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a breathing motion model to remove sorting artifacts. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were imaged under free-breathing conditions 25 successive times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low-dose fast helical protocol. An abdominal bellows was used as a breathing surrogate. Deformable registration was used to register the first image (defined as the reference image) to the subsequent 24 segmented images. Voxel-specific motion model parameters were determined using a breathing motion model. The tissue locations predicted by the motion model in the 25 images were compared against the deformably registered tissue locations, allowing a model prediction error to be evaluated. A low-noise image was created by averaging the 25 images deformed to the first image geometry, reducing statistical image noise by a factor of 5. The motion model was used to deform the low-noise reference image to any user-selected breathing phase. A voxel-specific correction was applied to correct the Hounsfield units for lung parenchyma density as a function of lung air filling. Results: Images produced using the model at user-selected breathing phases did not suffer from sorting artifacts common to conventional 4D-CT protocols. The mean prediction error across all patients between the breathing motion model predictions and the measured lung tissue positions was determined to be 1.19 ± 0.37 mm. Conclusions: The proposed technique can be used as a clinical 4D-CT technique. It is robust in the presence of irregular breathing and allows the entire imaging dose to contribute to the resulting image quality, providing sorting artifact–free images at a patient dose similar to or less than current 4D-CT techniques

  5. High precision mirror alignment mechanism for use in synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline is highly depends on parameters, crucially on the manufacturing accuracies of the optical elements and very good alignment of optical elements in the beam path. To develop a synchrotron beamline the misalignment effects have to be estimated and the mechanical components that hold optical elements have to be designed and developed within the specified tolerance limits. The translational inaccuracies result in shifting the image spot, which affect the flux throughput. The misorientation errors i.e. the rotation of optical elements about their mean position affects the image quality. The horizontal misorientation i.e. the rotation of an optical element about an axis passing through its centre and perpendicular to the plane containing the mirror has the most sever effect on the spectral resolution of the beamline, because of an increase in the dispersive spot size at the image plane. The design development and testing of a high precision mirror alignment mechanism is reported in this abstract. Though this mirror alignment mechanism is developed for the X-ray diffraction beamline on synchrotron radiation source Indus-2, 2.5 GeV, 300 mA, the design is general purpose and can be adapted for any other synchrotron facility or a similar ultra high vacuum environment. The mirror alignment mechanism is based on a constrained kinematic chain which provides the angular motions about three co-ordinate axes in the range of 0 to ±1° with the backlash free resolution of 1 arc second. The linear motions in three orthogonal directions are performed by other kinematic mounts in the range of 0 to ± 10 mm with a fine adjustment of 10 μm. The motions are transferred from air to ultra high vacuum through bellows. The ultra high vacuum chamber has been designed, fabricated and tested as per the ASME code. The rotational motions of the mirror alignment mechanism has been tested using a laser interferometer. (author)

  6. Factors of poor prognosis of visceral leishmaniasis among children under 12 years of age. A retrospective monocentric study in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sérgio da Costa Braga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUTION: A major concern with the visceral leishmaniasis (VL is its high lethality rate, even with proper treatment. Low age, prior malnutrition, disease duration prior to diagnosis, severe anemia, fever for more than 60 days, diarrhea and jaundice are known poor prognostic factors. The goals of this study are to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of VL among children under 12 years of age and to identify the factors associated with VL poor outcome. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty children under 12 years of age with confirmed VL admitted to Hospital João Paulo II (FHEMIG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between January 2001 and December 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. The primary outcome was the poor clinical evolution: sepsis, and/or pneumonia, and/or urinary tract infection, and/or of bleeding (expect epistaxis, and/or severe neutropenia (neutrophil < 500 cells/mm3. Odds ratio (crude and adjusted and its 95% confidence interval for each variable were calculated. Values less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Average age was 3.3 years (3.6 months-11.6 years, 71.2% were younger than 5 years and 47.2% lived in Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte. The mean fatality rate was 3.6%. Sixty-six (26.4% patients presented poor evolution. After a multivariate analysis, age <18 months, abnormal respiratory physical examination on hospital admission, and platelets <85,000/mm3 remained associated with increased chance of poor evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients aged between 12 and 18 months, with platelet counts bellow 85,000/mm3, and respiratory abnormalities at admission should be considered potentially severe.

  7. A review of the clinical utility of duloxetine in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King JB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jordan B King, Marisa B Schauerhamer, Brandon K Bellows Pharmacotherapy Outcomes Research Center, University of Utah College of Pharmacy, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a world-wide epidemic with many long-term complications, with neuropathy being the most common. In particular, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP, can be one of the most distressing complications associated with diabetes, leading to decreases in physical and mental quality of life. Despite the availability of many efficient medications, DPNP remains a challenge to treat, and the optimal sequencing of pharmacotherapy remains unknown. Currently, there are only three medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for the management of DPNP. Duloxetine (DUL, a selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is one of these. With the goal of optimizing pharmacotherapy use in DPNP population, a review of current literature was conducted, and the clinical utility of DUL described. Along with early clinical trials, recently published observational studies and pharmacoeconomic models may be useful in guiding decision making by clinicians and managed care organizations. In real-world practice settings, DUL is associated with decreased or similar opioid utilization, increased medication adherence, and similar health care costs compared with current standard of care. DUL has consistently been found to be a cost-effective option over short time-horizons. Currently, the long-term cost-effectiveness of DUL is unknown. Evidence derived from randomized clinical trials, real-world observations, and economic models support the use of DUL as a first-line treatment option from the perspective of the patient, clinician, and managed care payer. Keywords: clinical trials, pharmacoeconomic studies, opioid-utilization, health care utilization, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin

  8. Improvements in rf input unit for injector microtron for Indus SRS complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.5 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) Indus-2 and a 450 MeV SRS Indus-1 are in operation at RRCAT. Electrons are injected into these machines with the help of a common injector system consisting of a 20 MeV microtron and a 450/543 MeV booster synchrotron. In this paper we report the work done towards the development of an improved RF input unit for the 20 MeV injector microtron. The RF input unit is a multifunctional unit and provides arrangements for alignment and positioning of the RF cavity, in-vacuum wave-guide connections, cavity cooling arrangement and cathode powering leads. A microwave window provides isolation of waveguide pressure to the microtron vacuum. While feeding microwave through a WR 284 waveguide, RF input unit provides water circulation to remove heat generated by the cavity losses as well as the cathode heating so as to keep cavity temperature stabilised. The alignment features provide anti-backlash features. Bellow seals as well as rotary O-ring seals have been used to provide various degrees of freedom for the alignment. The new unit consists of kinematically designed adjustable columns and has robust design features to hold the cavity position under changing loads during evacuation and operation. The new design also reduces the overall installation time significantly. The prototype RF input unit has been manufactured and tested. This paper presents the test results of the prototype, design, components and status of actual unit which is under manufacturing. (author)

  9. Ultra-low q and reversed field pinch experiments in Extrap T1 with a resistive shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extrap T1 device is a high aspect ratio toroidal pinch with the dimensions R/a = 0.5 m/0.057 m. In the experiments described here, the stainless steel bellows vacuum vessels was surrounded by a resistive shell with a perpendicular field penetration time of 75 μs. The ULQ discharges, with toroidal currents in the range 20-50 kA and pulse lengths up to 2 ms, showed the typical step-wise decay of the plasma current. The current steps corresponded to transitions of the edge q-value across rational values 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1. During a step through a rational q value, there was an increase in the fluctuation activity and a corresponding increase in the plasma resistance. As part of the ULQ studies, discharges with four poloidal field nulls were produced by applying an octupole magnetic field, thus demonstrating that it is possible to sustain ULQ equilibria with poloidal field x-points and a magnetic separatix. In another study, the transition from ULQ discharges to relaxed state discharges was investigated. When the initial bias toroidal field was reduced so that q was less than about 1/6, which corresponded to a pinch parameter of about 0.6, a change in the discharge character was observed. The loop voltage required to sustain a given current increased and stochastic fluctuations were seen. Toroidal flux was generated and relaxed state equilibira developed. For higher pinch parameter, in the range of 1.5 to 2.0, a reversed field pinch could be set up if the toroidal field power supply provided a reversed current in the coils. The plasma resistivity was again lower and the pulse lengths in the RFP mode were up to 1 ms, corresponding to over 10 shell penetration times. (au)

  10. Limitations in controlling white mold on common beans with Trichoderma spp. at the fall-winter season Limitações do controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro com Trichoderma spp. no cultivo de outono-inverno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effectiveness of application of Trichoderma spp. in controlling white mold on common beans at the fall-winter crop in the Zona da Mata region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was no effect of the antagonist in reducing the disease severity, which could be explained by the low temperatures and the high inoculum pressure in the field. We concluded that Trichoderma applications are not recommended for control of white mold on common beans at the fall-winter season in regions with average temperature bellow 20 °C, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist.Estudou-se a eficácia da aplicação de Trichoderma spp. no controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro cultivado no outono-inverno na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. Não houve efeito do antagonista em reduzir a severidade da doença, o que pode ser explicado pelas baixas temperaturas e pela alta pressão de inóculo no campo. Conclui-se que aplicações de Trichoderma não são recomendadas para o controle do mofo-branco do feijoeiro no outono-inverno em regiões com temperatura média abaixo de 20 °C, considerando que essa condição climática favorece mais o desenvolvimento do patógeno do que o do antagonista.

  11. Qualifying plasma diagnostics for a high power microwave background of ECRH heated discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Baldzuhn, J.; Endler, M.; Laux, M.; Zhang, D.; Laqua, H.P.; Noke, F.; Purps, F.; Ewert, K. [Max-Planck Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.W. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Associacion EURATOM/CIEMAT, av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Microwave background radiation resulting from multiple reflected unabsorbed ECRH / ECCD power may cause severe problems for microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, isolators and cable insulations in particular during long pulse operation. For qualifying in-vessel components of W7-X in the environment of an isotropic 140 GHz radiation the Microwave Stray Radiation Launch facility, MISTRAL is operated at IPP. Power flux densities of 10-40 kW/m{sup 2} are obtained with a pulsed power gyrotron launching the microwave via a corrugated transmission line and a vacuum window to the MISTRAL vessel. The focus of the program was on cable isolations as required e.g. for in-vessel magnetic diagnostics. Sufficient shielding is obtained in nearly closed metal pipes only. Cryo pumps require a temperature < 12 K where Hydrogen desorption starts. The cryo pumps are usually shielded from plasma radiation by so called chevron structures. It is investigated whether coating of these chevrons with a microwave absorbing layer yields a sufficient reduction of the stray radiation level to ensure cryo pump operation. Diagnostic windows have been tested also. Although the temperature rise even of uncooled ZnSe and quartz windows at 10 kW/m{sup 2} is uncritical with respect to damage the associated refractive index changes may be too high for some diagnostic purposes e.g. for interferometry. A possible shielding are meshes or {mu}W absorbing coatings. Integrated diagnostic mock-ups such as for the diamagnetic loop, the inner Rogowski coils, Mirnov coils and the bolometer head also have been tested

  12. Determination of hydrogeological conditions in large unconfined aquifer: A case study in central Drava plain (NE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keršmanc, Teja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-04-01

    In several countries, many unregulated landfills exits which releasing harmful contaminations to the underlying aquifer. The Kidričevo industrial complex is located in southeastern part of Drava plain in NW Slovenia. In the past during the production of alumina and aluminum approximately 11.2 million tons of wastes were deposit directly on the ground on two landfills covering an area of 61 hectares. Hydrogeological studies were intended to better characterized conditions bellow the landfill. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of Quaternary unconfined aquifer were analyzed with lithological characterization of well logs and cutting debris and XRF diffraction of silty sediments on 9 boreholes. Hydrogeological conditions: hydraulic permeability aquifer was determined with hydraulic tests and laboratory grain size analyses where empirical USBR and Hazen methods were applied. Dynamics of groundwater was determined by groundwater contour maps and groundwater level fluctuations. The impact of landfill was among chemical analyses of groundwater characterised by electrical conductivity measurements and XRF spectrometry of sand sediments. The heterogeneous Quaternary aquifer composed mainly of gravel and sand, is between 38 m and 47.5 m thick. Average hydraulic permeability of aquifer is within the decade 10-3 m/s. Average hydraulic permeability estimated on grain size curves is 6.29*10-3 m/s, and for the pumping tests is 4.0*10-3 m/s. General direction of groundwater flow is from west to east. During high water status the groundwater flow slightly changes flow direction to the southwest and when pumping station in Kidričevo (NW of landfill) is active groundwater flows to northeast. Landfills have significant impact on groundwater quality.

  13. Seismic imaging of the upper mantle beneath the northern Central Andean Plateau: Implications for surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extending over 1,800 km along the active South American Cordilleran margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) as defined by the 3 km elevation contour is second only to the Tibetan Plateau in geographic extent. The uplift history of the 4 km high Plateau remains uncertain with paleoelevation studies along the CAP suggesting a complex, non-uniform uplift history. As part of the Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project, we use surface waves measured from ambient noise and two-plane wave tomography to image the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle to investigate the upper mantle component of plateau uplift. We observe three main features in our S-wave velocity model including (1), a high velocity slab (2), a low velocity anomaly above the slab where the slab changes dip from near horizontal to a normal dip, and (3), a high-velocity feature in the mantle above the slab that extends along the length of the Altiplano from the base of the Moho to a depth of ~120 km with the highest velocities observed under Lake Titicaca. A strong spatial correlation exists between the lateral extent of this high-velocity feature beneath the Altiplano and the lower elevations of the Altiplano basin suggesting a potential relationship. Non-uniqueness in our seismic models preclude uniquely constraining this feature as an uppermost mantle feature bellow the Moho or as a connected eastward dipping feature extending up to 300 km in the mantle as seen in deeper mantle tomography studies. Determining if the high velocity feature represents a small lithospheric root or a delaminating lithospheric root extending ~300 km into the mantle requires more integration of observations, but either interpretation shows a strong geodynamic connection with the uppermost mantle and the current topography of the northern CAP.

  14. Development of a new laser heating system for thin film growth by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Eiji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Lippmaa, Mikk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Koinuma, Hideomi; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a new laser heating system for thin film growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A collimated beam from a high-power continuous-wave 808 nm semiconductor laser was directly introduced into a CVD growth chamber without an optical fiber. The light path of the heating laser inside the chamber was isolated mechanically from the growth area by bellows to protect the optics from film coating. Three types of heat absorbers, (10 × 10 × 2 mm(3)) consisting of SiC, Ni/NiO(x), or pyrolytic graphite covered with pyrolytic BN (PG/PBN), located at the backside of the substrate, were tested for heating performance. It was confirmed that the substrate temperature could reach higher than 1500 °C in vacuum when a PG/PBN absorber was used. A wide-range temperature response between 400 °C and 1000 °C was achieved at high heating and cooling rates. Although the thermal energy loss increased in a H(2) gas ambient due to the higher thermal conductivity, temperatures up to 1000 °C were achieved even in 200 Torr H(2). We have demonstrated the capabilities of this laser heating system by growing ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The growth mode of ZnO films was changed from columnar to lateral growth by repeated temperature modulation in this laser heating system, and consequently atomically smooth epitaxial ZnO films were successfully grown on an a-plane sapphire substrate.

  15. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and other buildings in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas derived from the natural decay series of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 232}Th, which are present in rocks and soils. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to the surface and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important indoor radon source is the building material construction. Therefore, it may accumulate indoor environments with reduced ventilation rates. Radon progeny attach to the aerosol particle in the air. The attached and unattached radon progeny may deposit in the lungs and irradiate to the lung tissue as they decay. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard, that causes excess of lung cancer among underground miners and there is an evidence that radon is also a heath hazard in dwellings and other indoor environments. Radon accounts for about half of all human exposure to natural radiation. Radon concentration measurements were carried out in dwellings, schools and shopping centers in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. Most part of the inhabitants of the RMBH lives over the granitic gneissic complex, which has a variable depth out coming in some areas. For the radon concentration measurement continuous detectors, AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO, RAD7 and Pylon Lucas Cells were used and, for Potential Alpha Energy Concentration-PAEC measurement a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO was used. The experiments showed that most results are below 50 Bqm{sup -3} (mean+3{sigma}). This value is bellowing the action levels of the USEPA, ICRP and others, which varies in the range from 148 to 200 Bqm{sup -3}. The values are in the low range, as it was expected for a tropical climate. (author)

  16. Mass-loading of the solar wind around 67P/CG as seen by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer (RPC-ICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg-Wieser, Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC) has been observing the plasma environment in the vicinity of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for the last two years. We focus here on how the solar wind (SW) flow is affected by its interaction with the partially ionized coma, using data from the Ion Composition Analyzer (RPC-ICA).At large heliocentric distances (i.e. low nucleus activity), the entire coma is permeated by the SW, and plasma boundaries such as bow shock or ionopause are not yet formed. Mass-loading (initially, neutral particles being ionized within an undisturbed plasma flow) is the main mechanism through which the coma affects the SW. Observations show that the SW deflection from the comet-Sun line is controlled by the convective electric field, as expected for mass-loading. For heliocentric distances larger than 2.2 AU, deflection of the observed SW from the comet-Sun line remains bellow 90°, while its deceleration is very low: it is efficiently deflected but doesn't lose much energy.When the nucleus draws closer to the Sun, activity keeps increasing, and the effects of this denser coma on the SW flow become accordingly larger. Proton velocity distributions become much more complex than the previous beam-like distribution, exhibiting parts of the proton population with a main sunward velocity component (i.e. deflection reaching almost 180°). The deceleration remains fairly low, the speed stays above 75% of the expected upstream speed.Even closer to the Sun, the SW is not observed at the spacecraft position anymore. A SW free region has been created.The SW then re-appears after perihelion, when the comet moves away from the Sun. We rewind the same scenario as described above, with a noticeable time-lag indicating a possible asymmetry in the nucleus activity along the inbound and outbound legs of the comet orbit around the Sun.

  17. Soil Penetration Rates by Earthworms and Plant Roots- Mechanical and Energetic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Siul; Schymanski, Stan; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the implications of different soil burrowing rates by earthworms and growing plant roots using mechanical models that consider soil rheological properties. We estimate the energetic requirements for soil elasto-viscoplastic displacement at different rates for similar burrows and water contents. In the core of the mechanical model is a transient cavity expansion into viscoplastic wet soil that mimic an earthworm or root tip cone-like penetration and subsequent cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydrostatic skeleton or root radial growth. Soil matrix viscoplatic considerations enable separation of the respective energetic requirements for earthworms penetrating at 2 μm/s relative to plant roots growing at 0.2 μm/s . Typical mechanical and viscous parameters are obtained inversely for soils under different fixed water contents utilizing custom miniaturized cone penetrometers at different fixed penetration rates (1 to 1000 μm/s). Experimental results determine critical water contents where soil exhibits pronounced viscoplatic behavior (close to saturation), bellow which the soil strength limits earthworms activity and fracture propagation by expanding plant roots becomes the favorable mechanical mode. The soil mechanical parameters in conjunction with earthworm and plant root physiological pressure limitations (200 kPa and 2000 kPa respectively) enable delineation of the role of soil saturation in regulating biotic penetration rates for different soil types under different moisture contents. Furthermore, this study provides a quantitative framework for estimating rates of energy expenditure for soil penetration, which allowed us to determine maximum earthworm population densities considering soil mechanical properties and the energy stored in soil organic matter.

  18. A small diameter, flexible, all attitude, self-contained germanium spectrometer. Operator's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War has brought about tremendous changes in the nuclear complex of the Department of Energy. One of the many changes has been the shutdown or decommissioning of many facilities that performed nuclear work. One of the steps in the process of decommissioning a facility involves the decontamination or removal of drain lines or pipes that may have carried radioactive materials at one time. The removal of all these pipes and drain lines to a nuclear disposal facility could be quite costly. It was suggested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that a germanium spectrometer could be built that could fit through straight pipes with a diameter as small as 5.08 cm (2 inches) and pass through curved pipes with a diameter as small as 7.6 cm (3 inches) such as that of a 3-inch p-trap in a drain line. The germanium spectrometer could then be used to simultaneously determine all gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in or surrounding the pipe. By showing the absence of any gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the pipes could then be reused in place or disposed of as non-radioactive material, thus saving significantly in disposal costs. A germanium spectrometer system has been designed by PNNL and fabricated by Princeton Gamma Tech (PGT) that consists of three segments, each 4.84 cm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Flexible stainless steel bellows were used to connect the segments. Segment 1 is a small liquid nitrogen reservoir. The reservoir is filled with a sponge-like material which enables the detector to be used in any orientation. A Stirling cycle refrigerator is under development which can replace the liquid nitrogen reservoir to provide continuous cooling and operation

  19. Measures Study and Effect Analysis of Noise Reduction for High Speed Inspection Train%高速综合检测列车降噪措施研究与效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽荣; 张志军; 王东川

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the example of noise control measures for 400 km/h high speed inspection train and presents the measures study and effect analysis of noise reduction for high speed inspection train. Based on analyzing the source noise of high speed inspection train, aiming at reduce the source noise and noise path controlling technique, we used such noising reduction method as high damping on car body, sound insulation and absorbing material in equipment cabin, damping treatment in air condition tube and noise absorbing material in brake unit to reduce the sound pressure level in the train. The static and dynamic test results of the train shows that the noise reduction measures have reached the noise reduction target well. The sound pressure has been controlled bellow 68dB successfully.%以400 km/h高速综合检测列车噪声控制措施为例,在分析高速检测车的噪声来源的基础上,针对噪声产生的根源和有关噪声控制技术,分别采取车体高阻尼减震、设备舱隔音吸音、空调管路阻尼处理、制动单元吸音处理等降噪措施来降低车内噪声.从高速综合检测列车在静止状态和运行状态下的测试结果分析,针对车内采取的降噪措施,达到了预期的隔音降噪效果,整车声压值水平控制在68 dB以内.

  20. Efficient removal of microcystin-LR by UV-C/H₂O₂ in synthetic and natural water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; Pelaez, Miguel; Westrick, Judy A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Hiskia, Anastasia; Triantis, Theodoros; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Stefan, Mihaela I; de la Cruz, Armah A; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2012-04-01

    The destruction of the commonly found cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), in surface waters by UV-C/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation process (AOP) was studied. Experiments were carried out in a bench scale photochemical apparatus with low pressure mercury vapor germicidal lamps emitting at 253.7 nm. The degradation of MC-LR was a function of UV fluence. A 93.9% removal with an initial MC-LR concentration of 1 μM was achieved with a UV fluence of 80 mJ/cm(2) and an initial H(2)O(2) concentration of 882 μM. When increasing the concentration of MC-LR only, the UV fluence-based pseudo-first order reaction rate constant generally decreased, which was probably due to the competition between by-products and MC-LR for hydroxyl radicals. An increase in H(2)O(2) concentration led to higher removal efficiency; however, the effect of HO scavenging by H(2)O(2) became significant for high H(2)O(2) concentrations. The impact of water quality parameters, such as pH, alkalinity and the presence of natural organic matter (NOM), was also studied. Field water samples from Lake Erie, Michigan and St. Johns River, Florida were employed to evaluate the potential application of this process for the degradation of MC-LR. Results showed that the presence of both alkalinity (as 89.6-117.8 mg CaCO(3)/L) and NOM (as ∼2 to ∼9.5 mg/L TOC) contributed to a significant decrease in the destruction rate of MC-LR. However, a final concentration of MC-LR bellow the guideline value of 1 μg/L was still achievable under current experimental conditions when an initial MC-LR concentration of 2.5 μg/L was spiked into those real water samples. PMID:22177771