WorldWideScience

Sample records for bellows

  1. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  2. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  3. A Parylene Bellows Electrochemical Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Po-Ying; Sheybani, Roya; Gutierrez, Christian A.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    We present the first electrochemical actuator with Parylene bellows for large-deflection operation. The bellows diaphragm was fabricated using a polyethylene-glycol-based sacrificial molding technique followed by coating in Parylene C. Bellows were mechanically characterized and integrated with a pair of interdigitated electrodes to form an electrochemical actuator that is suitable for low-power pumping of fluids. Pump performance (gas generation rate and pump efficiency) was optimized throug...

  4. Rolling-cuff flexible bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D.R.

    1982-09-27

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping, is described. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  5. Development of bellows for IHX in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows is installed at the outer side of the secondary sodium entrance nozzle of MONJU IHX as the absorber for the difference of thermal expansion between the pressure equipment and the piping. A research and development program on IHX bellows was performed in the field of experiment and analysis for establishing the feasibility of IHX bellows under high temperature conditions. This report consists of three sections, namely design profile, experimental tests and analysis of IHX bellows. In the design profile a calculation of temperature distribution of bellows and stress analysis using a half convolution model are included. Basic tests such as non-destructive tests on the raw metal sheet and selection tests of welding conditions were performed. Some results of these basic tests, fatigue tests and sodium exposure tests are described in the research and development section of this report. Furthermore, analytical calculations led the correlations on a maximum stress between axial and some other loads. (author)

  6. Metallurgical analysis of corroded bellows of bellow-sealed valve in lithium flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigate the corrosion behavior of SS316L bellows of bellow-sealed valve in liquid lithium at temperature ranging from 350 to 500 °C for 1500 h. ► The bellows was found to be fractured with dissolution of selective elements at the surface. ► Two types of cracks were observed, i.e. intergranular and transgranular. -- Abstract: Liquid lithium has been one of the candidates of the tritium breeder and possibly a coolant for the blanket of fusion reactors. The observation of corrosion behavior was conducted on the bellows of the bellow-sealed valve used in a lithium circulation loop at 350–500 °C for about 1500 h. The results were obtained from observation of the surfaces and cross sections. The bellows was found to be fractured and detached. Selective elements were depleted on the surface

  7. Containment bellows testing under extreme loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting several research programs to help develop validated methods for the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) containment structures. To help understand the ultimate pressure of the entire containment pressure boundary, each component must be evaluated. The containment pressure boundary consists of the containment shell and many access, piping, and electrical penetrations. The focus of the current research program is to study the ultimate behavior of flexible metal bellows that are used at piping penetrations. Bellows are commonly used at piping penetrations in steel containments; however, they have very few applications in concrete (reinforced or prestressed) containments. The purpose of piping bellows is to provide a soft connection between the containment shell and the pipe are attached while maintaining the containment pressure boundary. In this way, piping loads caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment shell are minimized. SNL is conducting a test program to determine the leaktight capacity of containment bellows when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. If the test results indicate that containment bellows could be a possible failure mode of the containment pressure boundary, then methods will be developed to predict the deformation, pressure, and temperature conditions that would likely cause a bellows failure. Results from the test program would be used to validate the prediction methods. This paper provides a description of the use and design of bellows in containment piping penetrations, the types of possible bellows loadings during a severe accident, and an overview of the test program, including available test results at the time of writing

  8. Fixture tests bellows reliability through repetitive pressure/temperature cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, C.

    1967-01-01

    Fixture explores the reliability of bellows used in precision in inertial systems. The fixture establishes the ability of the bellows to withstand repetitive over-stress pressure cycling at elevated temperatures. It is applicable in quality control and reliability programs.

  9. The consequences of expansion joint bellows failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion joint (EJ) bellows are thin walled, flexible components of a piping system. As such, they usually are the weakest structural link in the pressure boundary from a failure probability perspective. Previously, a 360 degrees, circumferential rupture of a bellows was conservatively assumed to cause bellows collapse due to internal pressure resulting in a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) and the associated, large leak rate. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the structural response of a ruptured bellows and its ability to resist large opening areas and hence, large leak rates. The results show that a 360 degrees break can lead to an opening width of up to 0.7 inch following an instantaneous rupture -- provided the equalizing rings and tie rods remain intact. This would result in an initial leak rate reduction equal to 80% of the previously assumed DEGB flow. The reduced flow rate is less than the water removal system capacity-assuring that flooding will not occur

  10. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the Ra, the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the Rc is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  11. Development of bellows for sodium valves in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium valves for FBR are required to isolate sodium side from the atmosphere completely throughout its lifetime because of preventing sodium leakage with or without radioactivity. A great number of sodium valves have been used in FBR test facilities at O-arai Engineering Center of PNC and many troubles have occurred through their operational experience. Most of the cause of the troubles are the bellows failure followed by sodium leakage. A research and development program on bellows was started to clarify many uncertain factors of its performance and to establish the feasibility of bellows used in sodium. In this program Small Bellows Test Loop was built to perform low cycle fatigue tests on bellows under high temperature conditions. In this report some examples of the investigation of failed bellows occurred at O-arai Engineering Center of PNC are described. The research and development program on bellows is also explained with the summary of recent test results. (author)

  12. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  13. Evaluation of characteristics of race-track bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the extraction part of J-PARC 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron, a race-track bellows is required between the vacuum chamber of extraction septum magnet 1 and 2, because there is no space to install a circular bellows. However, formed titanium bellows with race-track shape have never been fabricated. Small size formed titanium race-track bellows were fabricated. Characteristics of them were measured and evaluated. Spring force measurements, expansion/contraction repetition life test, vacuum heating test and He-gas leak test were performed. The characteristics of the race-track bellows are satisfied with our use conditions. We obtained a prospect that actual size race-track bellows could be used. (author)

  14. Development of Dieless Compression Process for Fabrication of Metal Bellows

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Hung, Nguiyen

    2011-01-01

    Metal bellows have wide applications in many fields that are used as important elements in piping systems, micro-electromechanical systems, automotive and aerospace industries. In the bellows fabrication area, many methods have been suggested for metal bellows fabrication such as hydro-forming, bulge forming or press forming and so on. The general points of almost conventional methods are used dies and tools in the process. However, the conventional methods were not efficient to solve the pro...

  15. Prototype bellows sealed nuclear valve development -reliability through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assist in appraising bellows sealed valve performance, 10 tests were done on a ''1 in.'' prototype bellows sealed valve design. The tests simulated primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions for a 600 MWe CANDU-PHW. The design approach was to have all valve components outlast the bellows in endurance tests; this was achieved. The valve design meets the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited specification. For comparison, bellows fatigue failure data were fitted to both log-normal and Weibull distributions. A numerical example shows how to select valve stroke amplitude on the basis of valve flow requirement and the minimum acceptable fatigue life. (author)

  16. Bellows design and testing for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suetsugu, Y. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A bellows assembly with an RF-shield has been developed for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). The RF-shield is a usual finger-type but has a special spring-finger to press the contact-finger on to the beam tube without fail. The mechanical workings of the RF-shield is tested using a trial model and no mechanical problem is found except for the dust production. The necessary contact force, 50 g/finger, is obtained experimentally transmitting the 508 MHz microwave up to 80 kW through the trial model. (author)

  17. Simulation of HOM Leakage in the PEP-II Bellows

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Cho-Kuen; Ge, Lixin; Langton, Jay; Lee, Lie-Quan; Novokhatski, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    An important factor that limits the PEP-II from operating at higher currents is higher-order-mode (HOM) heating of the bellows. One source of HOM heating is the formation of trapped modes at the bellows as a result of geometry variation in the vacuum chamber, for example, the masking near the central vertex chamber. Another source comes from HOMs generated upstream that leak through the gaps between the bellows fingers. Modeling the fine details of the bellows and the surrounding geometry requires the resolution and accuracy only possible with a large number of mesh points on an unstructured grid. We use the parallel finite element eigensolver Omega3P for trapped mode calculations, and the S-matrix solver S3P for transmission analysis. The damping of the HOMs by the use of absorbers inside the bellows will be investigated.

  18. Specialists' meeting on bellows for sodium systems. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specialists' Meeting on Bellows for Sodium Systems was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by participants and observers from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide forum for exchanging views on application of bellows for FBR use, problems found in service in sodium systems, design and fabrication of bellows for sodium systems and studies necessary for estimation and improvement of reliability of bellows in long term use under the condition of high temperature sodium. The technical parts of the meeting were divided into five major sessions, as follows: Experience of Bellows Applications for Sodium Systems; Design and Analysis; Fabrication; In-Service Inspection and Repair; Research Work

  19. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-Ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the VUV and 28 ports of the X-Ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb. reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support the load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur

  20. Development of bellows for intermediate heat exchanger in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows is installed at the outer side of the secondary sodium entrance nozzle of MONJU IHX as the absorber for the difference of thermal expansion between the pressure equipment and the piping. A research and development program on IHX bellows was performed in the field of experiment and analysis for establishing the feasibility of IHX bellows under high temperature conditions. This report consists of three sections, namely design profile, experimental tests and analysis of IHX bellows. In the design profile a calculation of temperature distribution of bellows and stress analysis using a half convolution model are included. Basic tests such as nondestractive tests on the raw metal sheet and selection tests of welding conditions were performed. Some results of these basic tests, fatigue tests and sodium exposure tests are described in the research and development section of this report. Furthermore, analytical calculations led the correlations on the maximum stress between axial and some other loads. (author)

  1. Rubber-coated bellows improves vibration damping in vacuum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, D. E.; Smith, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Compact-vibration damping systems, consisting of rubber-coated metal bellows with a sliding O-ring connector, are used in vacuum lines. The device presents a metallic surface to the vacuum system and combines flexibility with the necessary stiffness. It protects against physical damage, reduces fatigue failure, and provides easy mating of nonparallel lines.

  2. Universal bellows joint restraint permits angular and offset movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, R. F., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Universal joint-type restraint that employs ball joints permits maximum angular and lateral offset movement in a bellows joint without danger of rupture or pressure drop in the line. It is used in high pressure and high temperature applications in refineries, steam plants, or stationary power plants.

  3. Instabilities of bellows: Dependence on internal pressure, end supports, and interactions in accelerator magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For superconducting magnets, one needs many bellows for connection of various helium cooling transfer lines in addition to beam tube bellows. There could be approximately 10,000 magnet interconnection bellows in the SSC exposed to an internal pressure. When axially compressed or internally pressurized, bellows can become unstable, leading to gross distortion or complete failure. If several bellows are contained in an assembly, failure modes might interact. If designed properly, large bellows can be a very feasible possibility for connecting the large tubular shells that support the magnet iron yokes and superconducting coils and contain supercritical helium for magnet cooling. We present here (1) a spring-supported bellows model, in order to develop necessary design features for bellows and end supports so that instabilities will not occur in the bellows pressure operating region, including some margin, (2) a model of three superconducting accelerator magnets connected by two large bellows, in order to ascertain that support requirements are satisfied and in order to study interaction effects between the two bellows. Reliability of bellows for our application will be stressed. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  5. Predicting the preferential sites to liquid droplet erosion of the bellows assemblies by CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The first convolution of the bellows encounters the severest erosion damage. → The bigger droplet causes severer liquid droplet erosion on the bellows assemblies. → The LDE distribution is not dependent on the liquid droplet size. → The weld seam can mitigate the LDE of the bellows downstream. → The optimal dimensions of the protecting cover are calculated by CFD. - Abstract: Bellows assemblies are placed within extraction steam lines to absorb the differential displacement (driven primarily by thermal growth) between the turbine lower casing and the condenser shell in nuclear power plants. The thin wall thickness and service environmental conditions of the bellows predetermine their vulnerable endurance to the liquid droplet erosion (LDE). A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) bellows model proposed in this paper consists of a hydraulic model and a LDE model aiming to investigate the LDE on the external surface of the bellows assemblies. The result shows that the most prone site to LDE locates at the upwind side of the first bellows convolution (USFBC). The droplet diameter has significant effect on the LDE extent, rather than the LDE distribution. Moreover, the addition of the weld seam before the bellows can mitigate the LDE of the bellows downstream. In addition, the protecting cover (PC) effectively prevents the bellows from the LDE, but causes the droplet accumulation on the convolution, which possible leads to corrosive damage. The PC structure was designed optimization according to the requirements of the displacement compensation, the manufacture cost and the LDE resistance.

  6. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesha Udupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental results. The actuator is fabricated using compression molding process that includes micromachining of the molds. Experiments conducted show the bending characteristics of the actuator at different pressures. The actuator shows excellent bending performance and the eccentricity in its design supports increased bending or curling motion up to a certain extent compared to normal bellows without eccentricity. The effects of profile shape and eccentricity on the actuator performance are analysed and the results are presented.

  7. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15. Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagonist’s physical and psychological alienation. Furthermore, the resemblance of their lifestyles and attitudes indicates that their consciousness, sub-conscious, and psychologies follow the same routine. This study will therefore argue the novel’s psychoanalytic characteristics.Keywords: Mind Structure, Personality, Psychoanalysis, Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, Tommy Adler, Wilhelm Adler

  8. Design of the welded bellows for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum vessel of the KSTAR(Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak is a fully welded toroidal structure with noncircular cross-section nested in the TF(Toroidal Field) coil. According to the requirements of the physics design, sixteen horizontal ports, sixteen slanted ports, sixteen baking and cooling ports, and twenty-four top and bottom vertical ports are designed for the diagnostics, plasma heating, vacuum pumping, and baking and cooling. Bellows on these ports are used for flexible components to absorb the relative displacement due to the vacuum vessel thermal expansion and the electromagnetic force between the vacuum vessel and the cryostat ports. In this study, mechanical strength of the welded bellows for KSTAR vacuum vessel was evaluated

  9. Asymmetric Bellow Flexible Pneumatic Actuator for Miniature Robotic Soft Gripper

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesha Udupa; Pramod Sreedharan; Sai Dinesh, P.; Doik Kim

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of the soft gripping devices is increasing day-by-day in medical robotics especially when safe, gentle motions and soft touch are necessary. In this paper, a novel asymmetric bellow flexible pneumatic actuator (AFPA) has been designed and fabricated to construct a miniaturised soft gripper that could be used to grip small objects. The model of AFPA is designed using solid works and its bending motion is simulated in Abaqus software for optimisation and compared with experimental...

  10. A MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator for fluid metering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Roya; Gensler, Heidi; Meng, Ellis

    2013-02-01

    We present a high efficiency wireless MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator capable of rapid and repeatable delivery of boluses for fluid metering and drug delivery applications. Nafion®-coated Pt electrodes were combined with Parylene bellows filled with DI water to form the electrolysis-based actuator. The performance of actuators with several bellows configurations was compared for a range of applied currents (1-10 mA). Up to 75 boluses were delivered with an average pumping flow rate of 114.40 ± 1.63 μL/min. Recombination of gases into water, an important factor in repeatable and reliable actuation, was studied for uncoated and Nafion®-coated actuators. Real-time pressure measurements were conducted and the effects of temperature, physiological back pressure, and drug viscosity on delivery performance were investigated. Lastly, we present wireless powering of the actuator using a class D inductive powering system that allowed for repeatable delivery with less than 2 % variation in flow rate values. PMID:22833156

  11. Stability of bellows used as expansion joints between superconducting magnets in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For superconducting magnets, one needs many bellows for connection of various helium cooling transfer lines. There could be approximately 20,000 magnet interconnection bellows in the SSC exposed to an internal pressure. When axially compressed, internally pressurized, or insufficiently supported at their ends, bellows can become unstable, leading to gross distortion or complete failure. If several bellows are contained in a magnet assembly, failure modes might interact. If designed properly large bellows can be used to connect the large tubular shells that support the magnet iron yokes and superconducting coils and contain supercritical helium for magnet cooling. We investigate here bellows design features and end supports to insure that instabilities will not occur in the bellows pressure operating region, including some margin. A model of three superconducting accelerator magnets connected by two large bellows is analyzed in order to ascertain that support requirements are satisfied and in order to study interaction effects between the two bellows. Specific details of large and small bellows design and reliability for our application will be addressed

  12. A Complicated Personality in Seize The Day By Saul Bellow

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Kalay

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow, a distinctive prominent writer in American literature, is frequently concerned with the themes of Jewish culture, and alienation. In Bellow’s novel Seize the Day, Tommy Adler “the maladroit, suffering middle-aged hero of the book, is the pathetic heir in post-war fiction to the failure of the American Dream” (Richmond 15). Tommy abandons his family and endeavors to emulate his father. However, his father’s perfectionism and preference for avoidance of his son lead to the protagon...

  13. Bellows arrangement with double walls for coping with high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high pressure component is carried in a tube which has a substantially circular cross section throughout the greater part of its length. The bellows take the form of non-rotationally symmetric extensions, also of circular arc form arranged in similar pairs at intervals along the length. These extensions enable the horizontal sections of tube to undergo changes in direction without bending the entire pipe length. Additionally, rotationally symmetric extensions may be incuded for joints between sections to allow for expansion and contraction effects. (G.C.)

  14. A method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accomodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-Ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port

  15. Principles and practice of a bellows-loaded compact irradiation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Li, Meimei; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Burchell, Timothy D.; McDuffee, Joel L.

    2013-08-01

    This article describes the key design principles and application of a mini-bellows loaded irradiation creep frame technology developed for use in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR). For this irradiation vehicle, the bellows, frame, sample, and temperature monitor are contained within a hydraulic or fixed "rabbit" capsule of a few inches in length. Of critical importance and key to this technology is the viability and stability of the metallic bellows under the elevated temperature irradiation environment. Conceptual design and supporting analysis have been performed for tension and compression specimens. Benchtop verification has substantiated the modeling regarding the ability of the bellows to produce sufficient stress to induce irradiation creep in subsize specimens. Discussion focuses on the possible stress ranges in specimens induced by the miniature gas-pressurized bellows and the limitations imposed by the size and structure of thin-walled bellows. A brief discussion of pre- and post-irradiation measurement of the integrity of load frames irradiated to 4.4 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) is presented. Following this protocol, the pre-irradiation loading to a sample is determined and post-irradiation loading inferred. An in-reactor creep testing technology using pressurized mini-bellows has been established for irradiation creep tests in tensile or compressive mode using the HFIR rabbit capsule design. Results from theoretical calculation and in-furnace tests confirmed that the pressurized bellows-loaded miniature creep frame can produce enough thrust force to induce irradiation creep in subsize specimens. Bellows materials, types and dimensions were selected considering in-reactor integrity, load transferring function, weldability, and in-reactor stability. Both stainless steel and IN 718 mini-bellows were proven to be capable of irradiation creep testing. A practical process for the testing and evaluation of applied stress has been developed and applied to in

  16. Reverse Anti-Semitism in the Fiction of Bellow and Roth

    OpenAIRE

    Halio, Jay L

    2014-01-01

    In his article "Reverse Anti-Semitism in the Fiction of Bellow and Roth" Jay L. Halio discusses anti-Semitism in Philip Roth's fiction that what might be called reverse anti-Semitism: the active reaction by Jews who are subjected to anti-Semitism. This aspect of Roth's work is not often discussed: it is not the same as philo-Semitism, which takes a different form entirely. Since Roth was an admirer of Saul Bellow, Halio begins by considering reverse anti-Semitism in Bellow's early novel The V...

  17. Type tests of the welded bellows for the ports of the JT-60 vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type tests of three kinds of the welded bellows were carried out to examine their applicability to the ports of the JT-60 vacuum vessel, because strict specifications on the mechanical, vacuum and thermal properties were required for them. The following conclusions were obtained after seven kinds of type tests. (1) Spring constant and stress measurement tests showed a good agreement between the measured values and the calculated ones and confirmed the validity of the spring constant and stress evaluation formula. (2) The results of the Helium leak and outgassing rate measurement tests were found to be below the specifications and showed the good vacuum property of the welded bellows. (3) The welded bellows kept up the structural integrity after the thermal cycle, life and pressure tests and sufficient thermal and mechanical property of the welded bellows was confirmed. (author)

  18. Preliminary design of bellows for the DNB beam source by EJMA and FE linear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In piping system, U-shaped Bellows are widely used among flexible elements. In general, bellows are typically design for Fatigue behavior according to the EJMA standard based on empirically generated fatigue curves. The present work proposes a methodology in the design of bellows by design by analyses and validates its design by EJMA standard. A linear FE approach is chosen to in line with the EJMA standard. The proposed methodology is benchmarked with the available literatures. The same practice is implemented in the preliminary design of a U-shaped bellows in the water line circuits of DNB beam source. DNB Beam Source is a negative ion source-based neutral beam generator for ITER operates at 100KV. The beam divergence (intrinsic) and magnetic fields from ITER torus causes deflection of beams. This calls for beam optic alignment, which are assured by BS Movement mechanism system. To accomplish the above movement requirements, bellows, which is a stringent of its kind (± 22 mm axial, ± 45 mm lateral within 400mm available space with single ply), is designed between the beam source and possible rigid interface-cooling lines coming from HVB. The paper describes right from conceptual stage to preliminary design. Optimization tools are adopted in the selecting bellow dimensions using MATLAB. At the end a coordinated approach between FE based assessment (in ANSYS) and widely applied code, EJMA is implemented for the validation of design and found FE approach is a very conservative than later in the present case. (author)

  19. Reactor cooling water expansion joint bellows: The role of the seam weld in fatigue crack development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary cooling water system pressure boundary of Savannah River Site reactors includes expansion joints utilizing a thin-wall bellows. While successfully used for over thirty years, an occasional replacement has been required because of the development of small, circumferential fatigue cracks in a bellows convolute. One such crack was recently shown to have initiated from a weld heat-affected zone liquation microcrack. The crack, initially open to the outer surface of the rolled and seam welded cylindrical bellows section, was closed when cold forming of the convolutes placed the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through the large-grained weld metal, followed by slower extension through the fine-grained base metal. A significant through-wall crack was not developed until the crack extended into the base metal on both sides of the weld. Leakage of cooling water was subsequently detected and the bellows removed and a replacement installed

  20. CDFR design studies of bellows for operation in a sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LMBR operating experience in the UK indicates that bellows correctly designed to meet the operating duty will function satisfactorily over many years, probably longer than the economic life of the reactor. Generally the use of bellows in sodium cooled reactors is to perform one of two basic functions, either to form a high integrity leak tight seal between a static component and one whose function requires a limited movement: or to reduce to an acceptable level the stress due to differential thermal expansion between physically connected components. When bellows units are applied to LMFBRs the design/ validation process is often complicated by the bellows being located in high temperature regions (typically 500 deg C - 550 deg C) where in addition to the more usual duties they have to be capable of withstanding thermal shock and thermal creep strain. This paper considers two examples of the NPC approach to design validation of bellows applied to specific duties that fall within the general categories referred to above

  1. Bellows design for the PEP-II High Energy Ring arc chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the current bellows module design and performance parameters is presented. Performance requirements based on external chamber design constraints, and operational needs are discussed. Parameters include beam impedance of the RF shield, and electrical resistance of the shield gap joint. Also discussed is the analysis of the high-current thermal management, and structural and cyclic behavior of the bellows and RF shield. Experiments of the tribology and electrical resistance of the shield sliding joint are summarized, and their results presented. Existing and new design options are discussed in light of the analyses and experiments. The final design is presented as the optimal compromise between the varying parameters

  2. Observation and calculation of trapped modes near cut-off in the ALS bellow-shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed heating of the RF shields in the bellows of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring has led to studies of possible causes. One such possibility is resonant impedances near the cut-off frequency of the beam-pipe that arise from small, localized, enlargements of the beampipe cross-section. Calculations of trapped modes in the elliptical-section vacuum chamber, approximated by a rectangular geometry, are described. Measurements of a bellows-shield in the test laboratory are also described, as are temperature measurements of a flexband in the storage ring

  3. Development of methods and equipment for bellows assemblies testing under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol’khovik, E.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a newbellows assemblies test method for stop and safety valves. To create the real conditions it is suggested testing under external hydrostatic pressure, which is available in the piping system.A designed test apparatus allows testing of the bellows under the effect of external hydrostatic pressure. The paper describes the design of the apparatus, its specifications and the test procedures.

  4. Bakable aluminium vacuum chamber and bellows with an aluminum flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber and bellows (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the assemblies of the vacuum chambers in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings

  5. Numerical simulation of bellows effect on flow and separation of uranium isotopes in a supercritical gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical solving of the Navier-Stokes and convection-diffusion equations by the finite difference technique has been applied to study the influence of bellows on the flow and separation of uranium isotopes in a single supercritical gas centrifuge. Dependence of the separative power of a gas centrifuge on geometric parameters and position of a bellows on a rotor wall as well as the effect of scoop drag and feed flow on isotope separation in a gas centrifuge with a bellows have been obtained in computing experiments. It was demonstrated that increase of the separative power with increase of the gas centrifuge length is less considerable than predicted by the Dirac's law

  6. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  7. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  8. A zero-length bellows for the PEP-II High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the beamline space constrictions and the modular design of the vacuum system, a conventional bellows can not be used everywhere in the PEP-II High-Energy Ring (HER) arcs. A zero-length ''Flex Flange'' was developed which actually performs better than a more standard bellows. The Flex Flange fits the space available while still preserving the modularity of the system. Furthermore, the design provides for an accurate match-up between adjoining octagonal copper chambers despite the large fabrication and assembly tolerances and high operational loads. Beam chamber continuity is ensured by an integral RF seal ring which is easy to install and fault-tolerant. Heating from synchrotron radiation and higher-order mode trapping is managed to ensure a robust connection despite the 3,000 mA beam current of the PEP-II HER. The Flex Flange concept is versatile and adaptable to many applications, yet economical both in space needed and cost

  9. Application of Comb-Type RF-Shield to Bellows Chambers and Gate Valves

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Yusuke; Ohuchi, Norihito; Shibata, Kyo; Shirai, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    A comb-type RF-shield, which was recently proposed for high current accelerators, was experimentally applied to bellows chambers and gate valves. The comb-type RF-shield has a structure of nested comb teeth, and has higher thermal strength and lower impedance than usual finger-type RF shields. The shield is suitable for future high intensity accelerators, such as particle factories aiming a luminosity of 1·1035

  10. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT DISPLACEMENT PERTURBATION METHOD FOR GEOMETRIC NONLINEAR BEHAVIORS OF SHELLS OF REVOLUTION OVERALL BEDING IN A MERIDIONAL PLANE AND APPLICATION TO BELLOW (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    The finite-element-displacement-perturbation method (FEDPM)for thegeometric nonlinear behaviors of shells of revolution subjected to pure bending moments orlateral forces in one of their meridional planes ( Ⅰ ) was employed to calculate the stressdistributions and the stiffness of the bellows. Firstly, by applying the first-orderperturbation solution ( the linear solution ) of the FEDPM to the bellows, the obtainedresults were compared with those of the general solution and the initial parameter integrationsolution proposed by the present authors earlier, as well as of the experiments and the FEAby others. It is shown that the FEDPM is with good precision and reliability, and as it waspointed out in ( Ⅰ ) the abrupt changes of the meridian curvature of bellows would not affectthe use of the usual straight element. Then the nonlinear behaviors of the bellows werediscussed. As expected, the nonlinear effects mainly come from the bellows ring plate, andthe wider the ring plate is, the stronger the nonlinear effects are. Contrarily, the vanishingof the ring plate, like the C-shaped bellows, the nonlinear effects almost vanish. Inaddition, when the pure bending moments act on the bellows, each convolution has thesame stress distributions calculated by the linear solution and other linear theories, but bythe present nonlinear solution they vary with respect to the convolutions of the bellows. Yetfor most bellows, the linear solutions are valid in practice.

  12. Tentative design-philosophy for bellows in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion joints have proved to be reliable components, when properly designed and realized, in normal industrial equipment. But nevertheless bellows have not been employed widely in nuclear reactors and almost not in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, where use of expansion-joints could considerably shorten the length of pipelines and, in consequence, lower the cost of the power plant. In the framework of its research and development program on fast reactors the French Atomic Energy.Commission, in cooperation with the industry, develops guidelines, backed up by experiments, to allow a safe design of pipe-lines and compensating-devices. The main points of these guidelines are discussed in this paper with the understanding, that they are tentative rules subject to changes. The guidelines are a complement to existing rules, like ASME - Code III, Code Case 1481, standards of the EJMA Preliminary Draft for Code Case Class I, Expansion Joints in Piping systems and suppliers' rules for the special case of application to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. Relatively small diameters and easily accessible expansion joints, on control rods and valves for example, are not concerned. These guidelines do not apply to the bellows which are used as an integral part of a component

  13. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump

  14. Dynamic considerations for composite metal-rubber laminate acoustic power coupling bellows with application to thermoacoustic refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    Many electrically driven thermoacoustic refrigerators have employed corrugated metal bellows to couple work from an electro-mechanical transducer to the working fluid typically. An alternative bellows structure to mediate this power transfer is proposed: a laminated hollow cylinder comprised of alternating layers of rubber and metal 'hoop-stack'. Fatigue and visoelastic power dissipation in the rubber are critical considerations; strain energy density plays a role in both. Optimal aspect ratios for a rectangle corss-section in the rubber, for given values of bellows axial strain and oscillatory pressure loads are discussed. Comparisons of tearing energies estimated from known load cases and those obtained by finite element analysis for candidate dimensions are presented. The metal layers of bellows are subject to an out-of-plane buckling instability for the case of external pressure loading; failure of this type was experimentally observed. The proposed structure also exhibits column instability when subject to internal pressure, as do metal bellows. For hoop-stack bellows, shear deflection cannot be ignored and this leads to column instability for both internal and external pressures, the latter being analogous to the case of tension buckling of a beam. During prototype bellows testing, transverse modes of vibration are believed to have been excited parametrically as a consequence of the oscillatory pressures. Some operating frequencies of interest in this study lie above the cut-on frequency at which Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) predicts multiple phase speeds; it is shown that TBT fails to accurately predict both mode shapes and resonance frequencies in this regime. TBT is also shown to predict multiple phase speeds in the presence of axial tension, or external pressures, at magnitudes of interest in this study, over the entire frequency spectrum. For modes below cut-on absent a pressure differential (or equivalently, axial load) TBT predicts decreasing resonance

  15. Development of the Water Thickness Gaging Technique in the Horizontal Tube by Immersion UT Technology with the Special Shoes Design of the Outside Shape of the Bellows Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most engineering materials can be measured ultrasonically, including metals, plastic, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, residual water level gaging in a bellow tube is measured by appling the immersion ultrasonic technique. The bellow tube is located in complex structures. Since it is located at far deep distance, it is difficult to approach from outside working area to the bellow tube, which has some residual water level after drainage of water in it, because the structure like the bellow has peak and mold shape.

  16. General Solution of the Overall Bending of Flexible Circular Ring Shells with Moderately Slender Ratio and Applications to the Bellows ( Ⅰ )—Governing Equation and General Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 黄黔

    2002-01-01

    The overall bending of circular ring shells subjected to bending moments and lateral forces is discussed. The derivation of the equations was based upon the theory of flexible shells generalized by E. L. Axelrad and the assumption of the moderately slender ratio less than 1/3 ( i. e. , ratio between curvature radius of the meridian and distance from the meridional curvature center to the axis of revolution ). The present general solution is an analytical one convergent in the whole domain of the shell and with the necessary integral constants for the boundary value problems. It can be used to calculate the stresses and displacements of the related bellows. The whole work is arranged into four parts: ( Ⅰ )Governing equation and general solution; ( Ⅱ ) Calculation for Omega-shaped bellows;( Ⅲ ) Calculation for C-shaped bellows; ( Ⅳ ) Calculation for U-shaped bellows. This paper is the first part.

  17. Ω形波纹管的轴向刚度研究%RESEARCH ON THE AXIAL STIFFNESS OF Ω-SHAPED BELLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宁; 欧开良; 王长路; 周峰; 贺宾; 贺艳娜

    2011-01-01

    为研究Ω形波纹管的刚度特性,用有限元方法分别建立轴对称单元以及轴对称单元与接触单元组合的有限元模型.对同种规格、同种材料的单层Ω形与U形波纹管的轴向刚度进行对比分析,表明单层Ω形波纹管的补偿能力更强;探讨波纹管开口量和壁厚对单层Ω形波纹管轴向刚度的影响,与相关文献的研究结果一致;研究不同层数以及存在层间摩擦的条件下,Ω形波纹管的轴向刚度变化情况,表明Ω形波纹管的压缩刚度呈现非线性特点.%In order to explore the stiffness characteristic of ft-shaped bellows, the finite element model of axisymmetric element and axisymmetric element combined with contact element were established separately based on the finite element method. The axial stiffness of monolayer ft-shaped and U-shaped bellows, which have the same specifications and material, were analyzed and compared, and the results show that monolayer ft-shaped bellows has better capacity of compensation; the axial stiffness of the monolayer ft-shaped bellows with different amount of openings and wall thickness of the bellows was studied, whose results is coincidence with related literature; and the axial stiffness of ft-shaped bellows with different number of layers and the presence of friction between layers was researched, which shows that compression stiffness of ft-shaped bellows is nonlinear.

  18. 波纹管焊缝跟踪检测技术%Tracking measurement technology for welding seam of bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段振云; 蒋卫卫; 赵文辉; 任仲伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the seam quality and welding speed for bellows, an automatic welding technique with real-time tracking measurement system was presented according to the welding seam characteristics of bellows.The infrared laser sensor was used for performing the non-contact and real-time detection of welded joint center.The profile data of welding seam was transmitted by IEEE-1384 fire wire communication.Through pre-processing the data and combining with least square method, the coordinates of welding points were storaged and forecasted.Then the data was transmitted to the moving control card to control the welding gun.The experimental results show that the present tracking measurement technology for welding seam is stable and reliable, and is effective for improving the welding quality and efficiency of bellows.%为了提高波纹管焊缝的焊接质量和焊接速度,根据波纹管焊缝的特点,提出了一种实时跟踪检测波纹管焊缝的自动焊接技术.采用红外激光传感器对焊缝中心进行非接触式实时检测,通过1394火线通讯传输焊缝轮廓数据,经焊缝数据点预处理后结合最小二乘法直线拟合原理对焊点坐标进行存储与预测,再向运动控制卡发送数据控制焊枪跟踪焊接.实验结果表明,此焊缝跟踪检测技术稳定可靠,能够有效地提高波纹管的焊接质量和生产效率.

  19. Water level gauging in a bellows tube by a combination of a special shoe and a position control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness measurement for most engineering materials can be obtained ultrasonically, including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, by using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, a residual water level measurement in a bellows tube was obtained by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special probe attachment. There are two kinds of transducers according to a water depth. An enhanced S/N ratio could be obtained from a 25 MHz frequency transducer more so than that of a 15 MHz frequency transducer, because of a good resolution of the transducer as a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain a frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT function. It is possible to analyze the signal patterns and obtain some information by using the frequency domain. In this experiment, we prepared a position control system for an accurate measurement. This system was designed and fabricated for a convenient control in a water tank, which has a combination of a sensor and a position control function. The shoes were made by Lusite material which had the same shape as the bellows tube and the immersion transducers were controlled by a 3-axis position control system, which can be operated within a moving distance as small as 0.5 mm. Certain specialized applications such as an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion water tank. (authors)

  20. Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Technical specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges and vacuum tubes for the magnets MCA/MCB in the experimental areas of the 450 GeV proton synchrotron

  1. Specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges, and vacuum tubes for the magnets in the Experimental Areas of the 450 GeV Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1982-01-01

    Specification for the vacuum chamber assemblies comprising flexible metal bellows, transition pieces, flanges, and vacuum tubes for the magnets in the Experimental Areas of the 450 GeV Proton Synchrotron

  2. Water level gauging in a bellows tube using special shoes and ultrasonic immersion transducers according to the diverse frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness measurement for most engineering materials can be obtained ultrasonically, including metals, composites, and glass, as well as liquid levels and certain biological specimens. In this experiment, a residual water level in a bellows tube was measured by using an immersion ultrasonic technique according to diverse frequency transducers with special UT (Ultrasonic Testing) shoes for a position control device. In that case, a diverse immersion transducer's band is a wide band from a low frequency to a high frequency where each range has 2.25MHz, 15MHz, 25MHz. Therefore, we can obtain a database for all kinds of frequency transducers and then it is possible to compare the S/N ratio according to the diverse frequency, which includes information on a sensitivity and resolution of the measured signals received from these ultrasonic transducers for a detectable water thickness gauging. Certain specialized applications such as special shoes and an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion water tank. As a result, a high frequency transducer could obtain an enhanced S/N ratio more so than that of a low frequency transducer from many kinds of diverse transducers according to the water depth, because of a good resolution of the transducer as a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain a frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT (Fourier Fast Transform) function. It is also possible to analyze the signal patterns and obtain some more information from the frequency domain. (author)

  3. Development of Pneumatic Bellows Based Loading Devices for Mechanical Testing in LWR, SCWR and LFR Relevant Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed investigation of detrimental processes such as corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC), ageing embrittlement, creep, fatigue liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and etc., which may significantly affect the materials performance in specific water chemistry environments, is of fundamental importance for current LWR and for the development of the Generation-IV reactor concepts such as SCWR and LFR. In particular, SCC crack growth rate testing is difficult to perform due to complex requirements for the experimental facilities which include water chemistry loops equipped with relevant pH, conductivity, dissolved O2 and H2 sensors, autoclaves with mechanical loading devices, incorporating crack growth rate measurement by direct current potential drop (DCPD) and displacement measurement by LVDT. All these requirements significantly advance the total materials qualification costs. JRC in cooperation with VTT has been working on a new type of loading devices which are expected to decrease these costs and at the same time guarantee enough reliability and flexibility for both SCC and future irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) testing to be performed in LWR, SCWR and LFR environments. This paper summarizes the development of the devices for SCC crack growth rate measurements in LWR and SCWR conditions by using a pneumatic bellows based loading device developed in the frame of JRC-VTT cooperation. Examples of results of crack growth rates measured in LWR and SCWR autoclave tests are given. Furthermore, the conceptual design for future IASCC application and for pneumatically powered testing system capable of working in liquid lead environment up to 650oC is presented. (author)

  4. Effects of Waveform on Welded Metal Bellows Stiffness%波片波形对焊接金属波纹管刚度的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭金; 马咏梅; 王庆

    2015-01-01

    焊接金属波纹管是密封件中重要部件,波纹管刚度对密封件的密封性能有显著影响。以2种S型波形DN70波纹管为研究对象,建立波纹管的单波有限元模型,确定适合的边界条件,分别研究波片波形直线段、圆弧段几何尺寸对其刚度的影响,通过优化分析获得与设计公式偏差较小的波形尺寸。研究结果表明,波片波形尺寸对波纹管的刚度有明显影响,内圆斜边波形的波片刚度比内圆直边波形的刚度大,直线段波形对刚度的影响比圆弧段波形大。%Welded metal bellows are the important parts of seal components, whose stiffness has a significant effect on sealing performance� Taking two kinds of DN70 bellows with S⁃type waveform as the research objects, the finite element model of single⁃wave bellows was set up, the suitable constraints were established, and the influences of the waveform geo⁃metrical sizes of the wave plate with line segments and circular arc segments on the stiffness were studied� The waveform size which has a smaller deviation with the design formula was got by the optimization analysis� The results show that the waveform size has aobvious effect on the stiffness of bellows;The wave plate with inner circle bevel edge waveform has lar⁃ger stiffness than that with inner circle straight edge waveform;The influence of straight segment waveform on the stiffness is larger than the arc segment waveform.

  5. Thermodynamic and depressurization experiments at an angular bellows under cyclic movement in helium at temperatures up to 10000C and at a pressure of 35 bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By order of the Interatom Ltd., Mannesmann-Anlagenbau in Duesseldorf constructed a tube with internal insulation for the HTGR component test facility (KVK I) of Interatom. The test section with a diameter of the pressure tube of approx. 700 mm and a length of approx. 3000 mm contained an axially fixed bellows designed for an internal pressure of 40 bars. An angular movement of the test tube of +- 1.75 deg. was possible. In the region of the pressure resistant bellows a sleeve plated with oxide ceramics and above the fixed seat an axial compensator was integrated in the gas duct which had an internal diameter of 250 mm. In the depressurization test facility of the IRB of the KFA the test section was tested in Helium at pressures up to 35 bars and temperatures between 650 and 10000C. At each temperature level of approx. 650, 800, and 9500C the test tube was bent 200 times. Six depressurization experiments were carried out. The results endorse the design data. The depressurization had no influence on the quality of the insulation. The sleeve plated with oxide ceramics and the fixed seat were the weak components. They will have to be redesigned. (orig.)

  6. 套管式换热器波纹管的数值模拟及结构参数优化%Numerical Simulation and Structural Parameter Optimization for Double-tube Heat Exchanger Bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀娟; 王尊策; 孔令真; 李森

    2013-01-01

    The numerical model for fluid flow and heat transfer within bellows was established and the parametric model for the structure of tube heat exchanger bellows was achieved. Taking the heat exchange quantity, the internal tube resistance and annular gap as evaluation indexes, the scheme of bellows' orthogonal test which including 3 factors and 3 levels was designed to simulate bellows' 9 different structures respectively; basing on difference and variance analysis of orthogonal testing results, the effect of different structural parameters on the bellows was achieved to determine an optimal combination of structural parameters with a balance method, and this provides a reference for the design or improvement on the tube heat exchanger bellows.%建立了波纹管流动和传热的数值模型,实现了换热器波纹管结构的参数化建模;以换热量、内管阻力和环隙阻力为评价指标,制定了波纹管4因素3水平正交试验,对9种结构的波纹管分别进行了数值模拟;对正交试验的结果进行了极差和方差分析,得到了各结构参数对波纹管的换热和阻力性能的影响规律,并用综合平衡的方法确定最优的波纹管结构参数组合,可为套管式换热器波纹管的设计和改进提供有价值的参考.

  7. Design and Finite Element Analysis on Bellows of Combination Rotary Seal%井下组合动密封波纹管设计及有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琴; 亓京波; 胡远彪

    2012-01-01

    井下导向工具的组合动密封由机械密封、波纹管等组成,其中波纹管起角位移补偿和静密封作用,要求有足够的强度、轴向刚度和角位移补偿能力.根据导向工具的工作环境和空间结构设计角位移补偿波纹管的结构及参数.采用控制变量法对U型波纹管进行刚度计算,得出刚度的变化规律,确定波纹管的最终结构参数;并用有限元方法研究在内压载荷与径向弯曲载荷共同作用下,波纹管的结构参数变化对波纹管性能的影响,验证波纹管最终结构参数的合理性.%Combination rotary seal of steerable rotary drilling device is composed of mechanical seal and bellow, and the bellow plays the role of angular displacement compensation and static seal, which is required to have adequate strength, ax ial stiffness and angular displacement capability. The bellows which are applied to angle displacement compensation was designed to meet the seal demand of environment and space of the steerable tool. The control variable method was adopted to calculate the stiffness of U-shape bellows, the rules of stiffness change were educed and the final structure parameters were established. The bellows performances of two different structures were studied by finite element analysis under the loads of press and bend,and reliable results were obtained.

  8. A System for a Water Thickness Gauging in a Bellows Tube was Developed, by using a Special UT Probe Attachment and an Immersion Ultrasonic Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness gauging for most engineering materials can be measured ultrasonically, including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, epoxies, and glass, as well as liquid levels and the thickness of certain biological specimens. Precision ultrasonic thickness gauges for liquid levels usually operate at frequencies between 500 KHz and 100 MHZ, by using piezoelectric transducers to generate bursts of sound waves when excited by electrical pulses. In this experiment, a residual water level gauging in a bellow tube is measured by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special UT probe attachment. There are two kinds of transducers according to the water thickness. In this case, the enhanced S/N ratio could be obtained from the 15 MHz frequency transducer more than a 2.25 MHz frequency transducer, because of the good resolution of the transducer with a wide band frequency, and we could also obtain the frequency domain from each time domain signal by the FFT function. It is possible to analyze the signal patterns and some information from the frequency domain. (authors)

  9. Study on Tired Life Test of Mental-Bellows in Electrical Vacuum Device%电真空器件用金属波纹管的疲劳寿命试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兆祥; 陈小红; 姚拴科

    2013-01-01

    Metal-bellows play a very important role in instrument and meter valve and electrical vacuum device as elastic sensitive device,compensate device and sealed device.It is always in a state of stretching and compressing back and forth.In order to test the number of times with no failure under continuing stretching and compressing,the tired life test of mental-bellows is introduced.With some specific examples,the paper give several main parameters which affect the metal-bellows life and show how to select these parameters properly.%金属波纹管作为仪器、仪表、阀门、电真空器件中的弹性敏感元件、补偿元件、密封元件起到很重要的作用,仪器、仪表、阀门、电真空器件在工作时,其中的波纹管经常处于往复拉伸和压缩的工作状态,为了考核波纹管能够承受往复拉伸和压缩不失效的次数,引入了金属波纹管的机械疲劳寿命试验,本文结合具体实例,介绍了影响波纹管机械疲劳寿命的参数和在实践中这些参数的合理选择.

  10. Structure design and finite element analysis on system of balance and bellows%天平与波纹管系统结构设计与有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 林俊; 殷国富; 彭云; 郭旦平; 王玉花

    2013-01-01

    To meet wind tunnel test demands for an aircraft's afterbody,a novel measuring device,a balance airproofed with metal bellows,is developed.Utilizing sealing principle,this device can keep stable pressure in its inner cavity by blocking pressure fluctuations of wind tunnel flow field with the bellows,and can accurately measure the aerodynamic loads acting on the airplane's afterbody with the balance.The appropriate structural designs and full analysis on static and dynamic mechanics performance for the balance and bellows are studied based on finite element method,which lead an ideal design.The results of static calibration and wind tunnel tests show that the interference to force balance from the flow pressure fluctuations is little with the good airproof-effect of the bellows,and the test demands are realized in term of the expectation.%为满足某飞机后机身风洞试验需求,研制了一种用金属波纹管密封测力天平的新型测力装置.利用密封原理,该装置的波纹管结构能有效地隔断风洞流场压力波动,使其内腔压力平衡,确保天平精确测量作用在飞机后机身上的气动载荷.通过对天平与波纹管系统进行合理的结构设计,以及应用有限元方法进行详尽的静态和动态力学分析,该装置得到了较为理想的设计结果.天平地面校准和风洞试验结果表明,波纹管密封效果好,对天平测力干扰小,达到了预期的试验要求.

  11. 贝娄小说《雨王汉德森》的个体心理学解读%An Interpretation of Bellow' s Henderson the Rain King from the Perspective of Individual Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁东

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing Henderson the Rain King by Saul Bellow who is a winner of Nobel Prize for Literature from the perspective of Adler' s theory of individual psychology will reveal the fact that the protagonist of the novel, Henderson, is a character with inferior complex and his trip to Africa is a spiritual journey of overcoming the feelings of inferiority and achieving perfection.%借助阿德勒的个体心理学理论解读诺贝尔文学奖获得者索尔·贝娄的小说,可以发现小说中的主人公汉德森是一个有着自卑情结的人物,而他的非洲之行是其超越自卑和走向自我完善的精神成长之旅.

  12. 不锈钢截止阀波纹管组件腐蚀开裂失效分析%Failure Analysis of Corrosion Cracking of Bellows Subassembly in Stainless Steel Sealed Valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明卫平; 张怡悦; 王传志; 许元; 刘欣芳; 熊金平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To find out the causes for corrosion cracks by failure analysis in the condition that the bellows subassem-bly made of 06Cr19Ni10 stainless steel in the sealed valves cracked which resulted in the failure of sealed valves. Methods The appearance of the failed bellows subassembly was examined by naked eyes, the metallographic structure and the chemical compo-nents were analyzed respectively by the metallographic microscope and direct reading spectrometer;the morphology and fracture of the failed subassembly were observed by SEM. Results Cleavage plane, cleavage steps and corrosion products were seen on the fracture of the outer wall, which was the typical feature for stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel. Some dimples were observed on the inner wall fracture, which indicated that the inner wall had ductile fracture. The analysis showed that the quality of microstructure and chemical composition of the bellows subassembly met the requirements on design and usage. The medium test results showed that the content of harmful ions was relatively high in the heat transfer fluid ( HTF) which contained 55 mg/kg chlo-ride ion and over 350 mg/kg sulfur. Conclusion The main fracture causes of outer and inner wall of the double-layer bellows subas-sembly were different;the failure of outer wall was due to the stress corrosion related to the high content of chloride ion, while the fracture of inner wall was ductile fracture, which was due to the significant decrease in compressive strength in the result of the plane instability cause by the failure of outer wall. It is proposed that the content of harmful ions should be reduced in HTF and the stainless steel with better corrosion resistance should be used.%目的:针对某炼油厂波纹管截止阀中双层不锈钢304波纹管组件发生开裂,造成截止阀失效的现况,通过失效分析,寻找腐蚀开裂的原因。方法对失效开裂的不锈钢截止阀双

  13. 中国实验快堆典型钠阀温度分布研究%Study on temperature distribution in bellows seal sodium valve assembly of China Experimental Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生; 张东辉; 刘云焰

    2012-01-01

    The typical bellows seal sodium valves, as the important equipment in the sodium systems of China Experimental Fast Reactor, have a significant effect on the safety of fast reactors. The typical valves caused some problems in the test stage. The paper is to get the results of temperature distribution in the sodium valve assembly on stable heat transfer condition, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The paper also analyses the results computed under the condition of fixed thickness and the different height of thermal insulation materials. It gets a good conclusion through the comparison of measured and simulated results and the numerical simulation result is logical and meaningful.%中国实验快堆典型钠阀作为系统重要的涉钠设备,直接影响着反应堆系统的安全运行.中国实验快堆工程在调试和运行阶段面临着钠阀门带来的一系列问题.本文应用CFD软件计算了两种运行工况下典型钠阀稳态温度场分布,分析了保温层厚度一定、高度不同的情况下,钠阀门的温度场分布结果,并与实验结果进行了对比,证明结果是合理的有意义的.

  14. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, George A.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  15. Service experience and stress corrosion of Inconel 600 bellows expansion joints in turbine-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 Inconel 600 single and 2-ply expansion joints exposed to less than 3800C high purity water for times up to 12 years at 100 to 250 psig have experienced failures in only 7 cases. Mill annealed sheets are gas tungsten welded and may or may not be stress relieved. Design and structural details are given; statistics on number of joints and service times are listed. Details of 7 failures include pressures, boiler type, water treatment, turbine inlet conditions, temperatures and other parameters. Steam was greater than 3150C and 140 psig. Deposits from failed joints showed magnetite, various carbonates, calcium, silicates, and sodium orthophosphate. The sulfate anion was found also in some locations. Microscopic examination of failed zones showed carbide aggregations. Hydroxide and sodium ions were found in cracks. Failures were attributed to caustic stress corrosion cracking resulting from excursions of water treatment chemicals. Laboratory tests were made of stressed samples in high purity, low oxygen water, boiling ferric sulfate, inhibited sulfuric acid, potassium-sodium hydroxide; in 2700C air with fused caustic-steam environments was 25 ksi. Silicon dioxide promoted cracking in K-NaOH. Annealed specimens did not crack in 3300C high purity water even after pickling in nitric-hydrofluoric acid. Caustic concentrations over 50 percent were necessary for cracking

  16. Quantum turbulence of bellows-driven .sup.4./sup.He superflow: decay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Vinen, W. F.; Skrbek, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 18 (2015), "184503-1"-"184503-13". ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vortex-line density * counterflow turbulence * quantum turbulence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  17. Quantum turbulence of bellows-driven .sup.4./sup.He superflow: steady state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuin, Simone; Stammeier, M.; Varga, E.; Rotter, M.; Skrbek, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 13 (2012), "134515-1"-"134515-11". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantum turbulence * superfluidity * helium 4 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  18. Effect of different treatments of copper surface on its total hemispherical absorptivity bellow 77 K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Věra; Králík, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Pavel; Srnka, Aleš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2007), s. 257-261. ISSN 0011-2275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : metals * structural materials * heat transfer * radiant properties * cryostats Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2007

  19. Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around Saul bellow's henderson, the rain king — a coming to terms with his self and with the world around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Vieira B. de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin. As the plot focuses on Henderson, our starting point wil be a presentation of his most important characteristics, so we can better understand the developing of the action. Henderson, at the age of fifty-five, is not a happy man. Although he has a nice wife and kids, plenty of money and time to enjoy life and its pleasures, he thinks he has made a mess of his life. Physically, he describes himself as "six feet four inches tall. Two hundred and thirty pounds - An enormous head, rugged, with hair like Persian lamb's fur. Suspicious eyes, usually narrowed. Blustering ways. A great nose" (p.8. His appearance is, to say the least, remarkable. And he made it still more remarkable by the kind of clothes he liked to wear. He is a person who requires " large and real emotions" (p. 25 and that is why he was happy when he was in the war; /the civilian life bored him. Although he is always quarreling and many times "behaved like a bum", he wants to belong, to be accepted. On p. 256, when he's telling about one of his experiences with king Dahfu, what kind of words came instinctively from his mouth? "and certain words crept into my roars, like "God", "Help", "Lord Have Mercy"... plus snatches from the Messiah (he was despised and rejected, a man of sorrows, etcetera". He feels there is a similarity between the Messiah and himself. Another aspect of his contradictory personality is the combination of sensitivity and a taste for hard manual work. The same hands that have"thrown down boars and pinned them and gelded them" (p. 32 also played the violin.

  20. Material and structural mechanical modelling and reliability of thin-walled bellows at cryogenic temperatures. Application to LHC compensation system

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric; Skoczen, Blazej

    The present thesis is dedicated to the behaviour of austenitic stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The plastic strain induced martensitic transformation and ductile damage are taken into account in an elastic-plastic material modelling. The kinetic law of →’ transformation and the evolution laws of kinematic/isotropic mixed hardening are established. Damage issue is analysed by different ways: mesoscopic isotropic or orthotropic model and a microscopic approach. The material parameters are measured from 316L fine gauge sheet at three levels of temperature: 293 K, 77 K and 4.2 K. The model is applied to thin-walled corrugated shell, used in the LHC interconnections. The influence of the material properties on the stability is studied by a modal analysis. The reliability of the components, defined by the Weibull distribution law, is analysed from fatigue tests. The impact on reliability of geometrical imperfections and thermo-mechanical loads is also analysed.

  1. EFFLUENT - DISCHARGE DESCRIPTION and Other Data from BELLOWS and Other Platforms From Gulf of Mexico from 19651115 to 19780225 (NODC Accession 8600141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a collection of three kinds of data. First data set consists of of files of Fish Histopathology data from the South Texas Outer Continental Shelf...

  2. Low-Shock Pyrotechnic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Miniature 1-ampere, 1-watt pyrotechnic actuator enclosed in flexible metal bellows. Bellows confines outgassing products, and pyrotechnic shock reduction achieved by action of bellows, gas cushion within device, and minimum use of pyrotechnic material. Actuator inexpensive, compact, and lightweight.

  3. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  4. 威胜利塑料波纹管的应用与其摩阻系数的测定%Application of VSL Plastic Bellow and Determination of Its Friction Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯平

    2004-01-01

    VSLPT-PLUSH塑料波纹管,因其摩阻系数明显较小,故在大跨度桥梁预应力钢束应用中,可适当减少配筋,节约预应力钢材.本文介绍应用实例及其摩阻系数的测定.

  5. Multibeam collection for USF2002Fla: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 2002-04-17 to 2002-07-14, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for USF2001Mudhole: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 2001-03-01 to 2002-04-13, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. 索尔·贝娄创作中的“大屠杀”阴影及其反思%The Shadows of the Holocaust and the Introspection on It in Saul Bellow's Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武跃速; 蒋承勇

    2015-01-01

    索尔·贝娄在其创作中多次表达了他对纳粹大屠杀的诸多思考.文章通过散点透视,从其表现大屠杀的《受害者》《赛姆勒先生的行星》《贝拉罗莎暗道》《拉维尔斯坦》等几部重要小说中,分阶段地阐述其从20世纪40年代的“恐惧”和“受害”隐喻,到60、80年代直接的回忆性控诉和对历史记忆的反复强调,一直到21世纪最后一部作品中的类似遗嘱,阐明和缕析作家立足西方文化、普遍人性和人类历史维度书写“大屠杀”灾难所显示出来的深厚内涵和警示意义.这种具有宏阔视野的反思方式也是贝娄在文学上的贡献.

  8. Multibeam collection for USF2001samoa: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 2001-05-04 to 2001-05-12, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for USF1999: Multibeam data collected aboard Bellows from 1999-02-17 to 1999-10-08, departing from Unknown Port and returning to Unknown Port

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Long range plan for flexible joint development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective is to develop bellows expansion joints into CDS and subsequent LMFBR and liquid metal applications. An assessment was performed on the use of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 718 as bellows materials

  11. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs

  12. Technical Note: Development of a tidal volume surrogate that replaces spirometry for physiological breathing monitoring in 4D CT

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, René; White, Benjamin; Handels, Heinz; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Spirometry exhibits baseline drift and frequent measurement errors so it cannot be used by itself to provide tidal volume-based image sorting or breathing motion modeling. Other breathing surrogates, in this study an abdominal bellows system, are drift free but do not measure tidal volume. Simultaneously using spirometry and the bellows system allows the user to convert the recorded bellows signal to tidal volume but still relies on spirometry measurements. The authors therefore prop...

  13. Uniformidade de irrigação em microaspersor operando abaixo da pressão de serviço em diferentes simulações de espaçamentos Irrigation uniformity for micro-sprinkler operating bellow of the working head in diff erent distances simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lourenço de Freitas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution uniformity evaluation of an irrigation system would have to be an essential element to the project and irrigation management. Some data of hydraulic characterization normally are supplied by manufacturers; however, generally, the number of information is very limited, diminishing the capacity of use of the equipment. What is normally found are recommendations of distances for determined service pressures. These recommendations are based in laboratory analysis, that is, with absence of winds. A previous evaluation of the sprinkler, to the fi eld, can determine other possibilities of use. The present work evaluated the uniformity and application potential effi ciency of a micro-sprinkler in three pressures of service below of the recommended ones for the manufacturer, for
    diff erent distances, in intention to inquire the possibility
    of use with lesser expense of energy. The results show that
    some are viable alternatives tested.A avaliação da uniformidade de distribuição de um sistema de irrigação deveria ser um elemento imprescindível ao projeto e manejo da irrigação. Alguns dados de caracterização hidráulica são normalmente fornecidos por fabricantes, no entanto, geralmente, o número de informações é bastante limitado, diminuindo a capacidade de uso do equipamento. O que normalmente se encontra são recomendações de espaçamentos para determinadas pressões de serviço. Essas recomendações são embasadas em ensaios de laboratório, ou seja, com ausência de ventos. Uma prévia avaliação do aspersor a campo pode determinar outras possibilidades de uso. O presente trabalho avaliou alguns parâmetros hidráulicos de um microaspersor em três pressões de serviço abaixo das recomendadas pelo fabricante, em diferentes espaçamentos, o intuito de averiguar a possibilidade de uso com menor gasto de energia. Os resultados obtidos demonstram viabilidade de uso dentro das alternativas ensaiadas.

  14. Gas-cooled high temperature reactor with a coolant gas circuit subdivided into several loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annulus between liner and side reflector horizontal penetrations open up in which the hot-gas pipes run coaxially. For isolating these loops inflatable sealing bellows, and inflatable sealing balloons are introduced through construction openings, each sealing bellows isolating the gap between penetration and hot-gas pipe and the sealing balloon isolating the hot-gas pipe itself. (RW)

  15. Saul Bellow’s Adherence and Breakthrough to Jewish Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most significant American Jewish writers in the 20th century, Saul Bellow was influenced by the Jewish tradition and American mainstream thoughts in his writing creations. The conflicts and amalgamation between these two different cultures in his novels indicate that Bellow not only adheres to the Jewish traditional culture, but also breaks through the narrow-mindedness of it.

  16. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  17. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  18. Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal heated tube and shell heat exchanger where straight tubes extend between upper and lower tube sheets. In order to prevent thermal stress problems, one tube sheet is fixed to the shell, and the other tube sheet is sealed to the shell by means of a flexible bellows. In the event of a catastrophic bellows failure, a housing that utilizes a packing gland sliding seal is used to enclose and back-up the bellows. Also, a key and slot arrangement is provided for preventing relative rotation between the shell and tube sheet which could damage the bellows and cause failure thereof. This exchanger is seen to be of use in sodium cooled reactors between the liquid sodium circuit on the steam generator

  19. Investigation into the causes and consequences of the malfunction of static shutdown seal S/N 3 in Fort St. Vrain circulator C2102 from the ''D''' penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The helium circulators for the Fort St. Vrain nuclear power station incorporate bellows-actuated shutdown seals. Circulator C2102 was removed in March 1976 from its penetration following a suspected failure of the bellows actuator or its supply line, as evidenced by a substantial leak. The circulator was returned to San Diego for disassembly and inspection. Examination of the shutdown seal revealed the failure to be a circumferential crack in the inner bellows in the crown of the first convolution adjacent to the fixed end. Investigation of the failure showed that the crack was most probably initiated by repeated overextension of the bellows prior to installation in the circulator and was propagated by shorter stroke cyclic loading. It was concluded that the conditions leading to failure were abnormal and unique to this particular seal and circulator. Therefore, the failure does not appear to be indicative of a generic problem

  20. Vibration damping of mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R. R.

    1970-01-01

    Bellows seal filled with spherical powder reacts to vibration inputs by absorbing displacement energy through inertia and friction of the particle masses acting on the inside surface of the cylinders.

  1. Benthic organism data from the South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) and the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida (MAFLA) Outer Continental Shelf studies from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978 (NODC Accession 8500179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler and net casts BELLOWS and other platforms in the Gulf of Mexico from 16 May 1974 to 20 February 1978....

  2. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... groin, this really offers the patient a tremendous advantage over having his bellow open. The recovery time ... just this type of work. One of the advantages we have at the Baptist Cardiac and Vascular ...

  3. A novel mechanical lung model of pulmonary diseases to assist with teaching and training

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Geoffrey M; Mulligan Kerry J; Yuta Toshinori; Chase J Geoffrey; Horn Beverley

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation with accurate volumes and compliances, while connected directly to a ventilator. Methods The lung is modelled with multiple units, represented by rubber bellows, with adjustable weights placed on bellows to simulate compartments of different superimposed pressure and co...

  4. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus: acoustic analysis and playback experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available The ability to signal individual identity using vocal signals and distinguish between conspecifics based on vocal cues is important in several mammal species. Furthermore, it can be important for receivers to differentiate between callers in reproductive contexts. In this study, we used acoustic analyses to determine whether male koala bellows are individually distinctive and to investigate the relative importance of different acoustic features for coding individuality. We then used a habituation-discrimination paradigm to investigate whether koalas discriminate between the bellow vocalisations of different male callers. Our results show that male koala bellows are highly individualized, and indicate that cues related to vocal tract filtering contribute the most to vocal identity. In addition, we found that male and female koalas habituated to the bellows of a specific male showed a significant dishabituation when they were presented with bellows from a novel male. The significant reduction in behavioural response to a final rehabituation playback shows this was not a chance rebound in response levels. Our findings indicate that male koala bellows are highly individually distinctive and that the identity of male callers is functionally relevant to male and female koalas during the breeding season. We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels.

  5. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lower plate of lower seal bellows secured to the lower portion of an intermediate heat exchanger and a lower bellows seat mounted on the side of an inner cylinder constitute a lower seal mechanism. In addition, the lower plate of upper seal bellows and an upper bellows seat constitute an upper seal mechanism. A depressurizing mechanism is disposed to the lower seal mechanism. The depressurizing mechanism comprises a lower small hole formed at the lower end of the lower seal bellows and an upper small hole formed on the side of an exit plenum of a heat transfer pipe of the intermediate heat exchanger. Primary sodium pressurized by an electromagnetic pump flows from the lower small hole to the upper small hole and returned to the suction side of the electromagnetic pump by way of the exit plenum of the electromagnetic pump by way of the exit plenum of the heat transfer pipe of the intermediate heat exchanger. With such a constitution, pressure difference exerted on the sealing mechanism is mitigated. Accordingly, necessary conditions for the strength of the seal bellows can be moderated, as well as the amount of coolants leaked from the sealed portion can be decreased. (I.N.)

  6. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  7. High-Reynolds Number Active Blowing Semi-Span Force Measurement System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Rhew, Ray D.; Acheson, Michael J.; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent wind-tunnel tests at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility utilized high-pressure bellows to route air to the model for evaluating aircraft circulation control. The introduction of these bellows within the Sidewall Model Support System significantly impacted the performance of the external sidewall mounted semi-span balance. As a result of this impact on the semi-span balance measurement performance, it became apparent that a new capability needed to be built into the National Transonic Facility s infrastructure to allow for performing pressure tare calibrations on the balance in order to properly characterize its performance under the influence of static bellows pressure tare loads and bellows thermal effects. The objective of this study was to design both mechanical calibration hardware and an experimental calibration design that can be employed at the facility in order to efficiently and precisely perform the necessary loadings in order to characterize the semi-span balance under the influence of multiple calibration factors (balance forces/moments and bellows pressure/temperature). Using statistical design of experiments, an experimental design was developed allowing for strategically characterizing the behavior of the semi-span balance for use in circulation control and propulsion-type flow control testing at the National Transonic Facility.

  8. Anaesthesia ventilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish K Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV. PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits.

  9. Polymeric Bladder for Storing Liquid Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David H.; Harvey, Andrew C.; Leary, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system for storing oxygen in liquid form and dispensing it in gaseous form is based on (1) initial subcooling of the liquid oxygen; (2) containing the liquid oxygen in a flexible vessel; (3) applying a gas spring to the flexible vessel to keep the oxygen compressed above the saturation pressure and, thus, in the liquid state; and (4) using heat leakage into the system for vaporizing the oxygen to be dispensed. In a typical prior system based on these principles, the flexible vessel is a metal bellows housed in a rigid tank, and the gas spring consists of pressurized helium in the tank volume surrounding the bellows. Unfortunately, the welds in the bellows corrugations are subject to fatigue, and, because bellows have large ullage, a correspondingly large fraction of the oxygen content cannot be expelled. In the proposed system, the flexible vessel would be a bladder made of a liquid- crystal polymer (LCP). (LCPs are strong and compatible with liquid oxygen.) In comparison with a metal bellows, a polymeric bladder would have less ullage and would weigh less. In experiments involving fatigue cycling at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, two LCPs were found to be suitable for this application.

  10. Pressure sensor apparatus for indicating pressure in the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel pressure sensor for indicating pressure in the body cavities of humans or animals is described in detail. The pressure sensor apparatus is relatively small and is easily implantable. It consists of a radioactive source (e.g. Pr-145, C-14, Ni-63, Sr-90 and Am-241) and associated radiation shielding and a bellows. The pressure acting upon the sensing tambour causes the bellows to expand and contract. This is turn causes the radiation shielding to move and changes in pressure can then be monitored external to the body using a conventional nuclear detector. The bellows is made of resilient material (e.g. gold plated nickel) and has a wall thickness of approximately 0.0003 inches. The apparatus is essentially insensitive to temperature variations. (U.K.)

  11. Experience with one-layer high-strength ferrite and austenite bellous of pipe joint compensators in 20 ata hot steam pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous signs of damage have occured on one-layer high-strength ferrite and austenite bellows of pipe joint compensators in 20 ata superheated-steam pipelines. From a precise analysis of the damage cases, it was found that in ferrite material, the high creep-alternating stress lead to damage, whereas in the austenite material, above all the difficult workability and the slight ductility at operational temperature were determining factors. An attempt was made to prolong the lifetime of the compensators equipped with ferrite bellows by increasing the bellow wall thickness from 3 to 4 mm. These new compensators have so far achieved an operational time of about 10,000 hours with 50 drives without visible deformations or damage. (orig./LH)

  12. TheUniversalJewishnessintheViewofEthnology--AThematicStudyofHerzog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡潇霖

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Herzog from the view of ethnology and finds that the novel has a deeper meaning of universality and that it surpasses the concern of Jewishness and reaches a broader theme of humanistic care. By studying the Jewishness and universality in Herzog, it can be concluded that Saul Bellow embedded his anxiety and unique perceiving in his works. In this way, Bellow announced to the world that he was a Jew, an American, an ordinary human being and that a writer should not be the writer of a nation or a race, but of all human beings, he should not care about his own people, but about the whole human world.

  13. Study of the thorium incorporation by inhalation in individuals occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model describing the metabolism of inhaled thorium in the human body was developed. Through this model theoretical limits of excretion were calculated for workers of a monazite plant (Usina Santo Amaro). This limits were based on International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 30, 1979. Excreta samples from twelve workers of Usina Santo Amaro were collected and analysed for thorium. All samples were bellow the theoretical limits of excretion indicating that Usina Santo Amaro workers are exposed to thorium levels bellow the Annual Limits of Intake recommended by ICRP, publication 30. (author)

  14. Breathing zone concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer during joint replacement operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Jørgensen, L G; Vedel, P; Jensen, J S

    By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during cementat......By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during...

  15. A flow-transfer device with nonmetallic diaphragms for propulsion wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Price, Barry L.

    1988-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has developed a new flow-transfer device for powered wind tunnel models in which the traditional metal bellows have been replaced with nonmetallic diaphragms. Two complete flow transfer assemblies have been fabricated and installed within a twin-jet propulsion simulation system. Calibrations of the force balance have been performed over a range of nozzle mass flow rates up to 15 lbs/sec in order to validate the nonmetallic diaphragm design concept. Results from these calibrations are compared to those obtained with flow-transfer devices utilizing metal bellows.

  16. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 104; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  17. Dual acting slit control mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthoff, G. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dual acting control system for mass spectrometers is described, which permits adjustment of the collimating slit width and centering of the collimating slit while using only one vacuum penetration. Coaxial shafts, each with independent vacuum bellows are used to independently move the entire collimating assembly or to adjust the slit dimension through a parallelogram linkage.

  18. A method to determine methylmethacrylate in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Gottlieb, J; Nielsen, P M;

    1988-01-01

    To determine the air concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer and thus obtain information about the safety in the operating theater, a methylmethacrylate Dräger tube was used in connection with a bellows pump. This method gives an instantly readable value correlated with more complicated gas...

  19. The Acoustic Structure and Information Content of Female Koala Vocal Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Determining the information content of animal vocalisations can give valuable insights into the potential functions of vocal signals. The source-filter theory of vocal production allows researchers to examine the information content of mammal vocalisations by linking variation in acoustic features with variation in relevant physical characteristics of the caller. Here I used a source-filter theory approach to classify female koala vocalisations into different call-types, and determine which acoustic features have the potential to convey important information about the caller to other conspecifics. A two-step cluster analysis classified female calls into bellows, snarls and tonal rejection calls. Additional results revealed that female koala vocalisations differed in their potential to provide information about a given caller's phenotype that may be of importance to receivers. Female snarls did not contain reliable acoustic cues to the caller's identity and age. In contrast, female bellows and tonal rejection calls were individually distinctive, and the tonal rejection calls of older female koalas had consistently lower mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency. In addition, female bellows were significantly shorter in duration and had higher fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, and formant frequency spacing than male bellows. These results indicate that female koala vocalisations have the potential to signal the caller's identity, age and sex. I go on to discuss the anatomical basis for these findings, and consider the possible functional relevance of signalling this type of information in the koala's natural habitat.

  20. The Acoustic Structure and Information Content of Female Koala Vocal Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    Determining the information content of animal vocalisations can give valuable insights into the potential functions of vocal signals. The source-filter theory of vocal production allows researchers to examine the information content of mammal vocalisations by linking variation in acoustic features with variation in relevant physical characteristics of the caller. Here I used a source-filter theory approach to classify female koala vocalisations into different call-types, and determine which acoustic features have the potential to convey important information about the caller to other conspecifics. A two-step cluster analysis classified female calls into bellows, snarls and tonal rejection calls. Additional results revealed that female koala vocalisations differed in their potential to provide information about a given caller's phenotype that may be of importance to receivers. Female snarls did not contain reliable acoustic cues to the caller's identity and age. In contrast, female bellows and tonal rejection calls were individually distinctive, and the tonal rejection calls of older female koalas had consistently lower mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency. In addition, female bellows were significantly shorter in duration and had higher fundamental frequency, formant frequencies, and formant frequency spacing than male bellows. These results indicate that female koala vocalisations have the potential to signal the caller's identity, age and sex. I go on to discuss the anatomical basis for these findings, and consider the possible functional relevance of signalling this type of information in the koala's natural habitat. PMID:26465340

  1. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that because we’re doing this with such holes in the groin, this really offers the patient a tremendous advantage over having his bellow open. The recovery time for what we’re doing here is going ...

  2. DESIGN AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE ON LASER CAVITY IN A VACUUM OF 10-10 TORR

    OpenAIRE

    Velghe, M.

    1983-01-01

    The length of the A.C.O. storage ring laser is 5.50 meters, on each side of the undulator is a vacuum system monted with bellows in which the laser cavity mirrors are placed. The mechanical feed thoughs for the mirror adjustments have an accuracy of 1 µmeter for the length 10-6 Rd. for the angles.

  3. Dynamic displacements of the RHIC dipole cold mass with injection molded composite posts during quench conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new design of the RHIC dipole magnets incorporate helium containment bellows having a convolution diameter of only 7.63 inches. The present bellows are 12.80 inches in diameter. The smaller bellows present a substantially reduced pressure area which can be expected to reduce proportionately the end force on the cold mass during a quench. But, the objection was raised that the smaller bellows would present greater obstruction to the helium flow during a quench thereby producing higher pressure differentials. This analysis was undertaken to address these assertions by predicting the dynamic displacements of the cold mass using the latest test data on the stiffness of the IMC posts, pressure-time histories acquired from the recent full cell tests of RHIC magnets, and the dimensions of the new expansion joints. The analysis treated the cold mass as an elastic body having a saggittal curvature. The technique of normal mode expansion of a lumped-parameter system was used to obtain the results and conclusions reported herein

  4. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  5. CMS and CERN teams perform delicate surgery on the beamline at –18 m

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Over the Christmas period, teams from CMS and CERN worked on replacing a bellows unit using a very delicate method that ensured the beam pipe vacuum wasn’t affected during the task. Read more in the Technical Coordination contribution in this CMS Bulletin.

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2012-01-01

      UXC + detectors As explained in detail in the November 2011 bulletin, the bellows unit at −18.5 m from the CMS interaction point was identified as a prime candidate for the regularly occurring pressure spikes which occasionally led to sustained severe background conditions in 2011, affecting dead time and data quality. Similar regions in LHC with vacuum instabilities were observed to be close to bellows, which radiography showed to have distorted RF-fingers — on removal, they proved to have been severely overheated. The plans for the Year-End Technical Stop were adapted to prioritise radiography of the bellows at 16 m to 18 m either end of CMS. Excellent work by the beam pipe, survey and heavy mechanical teams allowed the X-rays to be taken as planned on 20th December, showing that the bellow at −18.5m had an obvious non-conformity. The RF-fingers were found inside the end of the opposing flared pipe instead of outside. In addition, the overlap between fingers and...

  7. Method of encapsulating radioactive or other dangerous waste and a container for this waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The matter is made insoluble for water, placed in a gasstight container and isostatically compacted to a solid body. The container has a bellow-formed outer wall and an inner capsule which is gas-permeable. The top and the bottom are plain and gas-tight. (G.B.)

  8. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  9. Inoperable HTS pressure sensor due to NaK leak. Final unusual occurrence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes an inoperable pressure sensor in the primary heat transport system, due to a NaK leak between the transducer and bellows seal assembly. The pressure transducer capillary tube and seal assembly was replaced during a planned Heat Transport System test that required reduced sodium level, resulting in no schedule impact

  10. Leak-tightness technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter on the leak-tightness of welded joints a study is made of welding and bonding technology (metals, glass-metals, ceramic-metals), the welding of flanges and collars, the welding of end pieces, the welding of an electric crossover and a bellows

  11. ANALYSIS OF MONOPOLE ANTENNA ON CIRCULAR DISC BY MODE MATCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baohua; Zhang Fushun; Liu Qizhong

    2001-01-01

    Mode matching is used for the analysis of monopole antenna on circular disc, which is achieved by developing a novel model consisting of two artificial ground planes above and bellow the monopole antenna. Using this model, the input impedance is computed and compared with measured data reported in literatures, and excellent agreement is observed.

  12. Mitmevärvilised mõtisklused / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Doris Lessing. Kuldne märkmeraamat; Rein Raud. Pisiasjad, mis omavad tähtsust; Italo Calvino. Palomar; Saul Bellow. Vihmakuningas Henderson; Danielle Steel. Rantsho; Margareta Strömstedt. Astrid Lindgren; Nicholas Davies. William - tulevane kuningas; Guntars Godinsh. Öö päike

  13. What Gets the Turbine Spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    One activity that gets children thinking about how electricity is made involves exploring hydro (water) power. Water has been used as a source of energy for thousands of years for mechanical purposes such as grinding corn, bellows for furnaces or sawmills for cutting wood or slate. For about a century hydro power has been producing electricity…

  14. Study of isotopic tracing related with mechanism of cancer caused by carcinogenic substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the mechanism of cancer caused by carcinogenic substance, a project using 41Ca as tracer and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as measurement method to investigate the origin of the increased Ca2+ when the cells are exposed to carcinogenic substances is being undertaken. Several results as bellow have been obtained

  15. Cross-platform Software Defined Networking controller v multi-vendor prostředí

    OpenAIRE

    NEBÁZNIVÝ, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with software defined network and with protocol which supports this technology. In the text bellow is a brief OpenFlow functionality description. Thesis also contains instructions on how to deploy OpenFlow controller which manages active network devices from different vendors and with different operating systems.

  16. Suzbijanje korova i ostaci herbicida u proizvodnji princa

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Hrlec, Goran; Tomeva, Elizabeta

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of herbicides activity on rice weeds and the herbicides residues in soil, water and rice has been researched. The best biological efficiency were given by the following combinations: Sofit plus 500 EC+ Basagran and Sofit combi 600EC+ Basagran. Herbicide residues in rice are bellow the allowed maximum.

  17. Suzbijanje korova i ostaci herbicida u proizvodnji pirinca

    OpenAIRE

    Karov, Ilija; Hrlec, Goran; Tomeva, Elizabeta

    1987-01-01

    The efficiency of herbicides activity on rice weeds and the herbicides residues in soil, water and rice has been researched. The best biological efficiency were given by the following combinations: Sofit plus 500 EC + Basagran and Sofit combi 600 EC + Basagran. Herbicide residues in rice are bellow the allowed maximum.

  18. Multiple homoclinic orbits in conservative and reversible systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Homburg; J. Knobloch

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We study dynamics near multiple homoclinic orbits to saddles in conservative and reversible flows. We consider the existence of two homoclinic orbits in the bellows configuration, where the homoclinic orbits approach the equilibrium along the same direction for positive and negative times.

  19. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  20. Design of creep machine and creep specimen chamber for carrying out creep tests in flowing liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design of a lever type creep machine for carrying out creep test in flowing sodium. • Leveling of lever during creep was achieved by automated movement of fulcrum. • Design of creep chamber for providing constant sodium flow rate across creep specimen. • Minimum use of bellow in chamber for sodium containment and mechanical isolation. • Mini-lever mechanism to counter balance load reduction on specimen due to bellow stiffness. - Abstract: A creep testing system has been designed, fabricated, installed and validated for carrying out creep tests in flowing liquid sodium. The testing system consists of two sections namely creep testing machine and an environmental chamber. The testing system has the ability of (i) applying tensile load to the test specimen through a lever, (ii) monitoring continuously the creep elongation and (iii) allowing sodium to flow around the creep specimen at constant velocity. The annular space between the creep specimen and the environmental chamber has been suitably designed to maintain constant sodium flow velocity. Primary and secondary bellows are employed in the environmental chamber to (i) mechanically isolate the creep specimen, (ii) prevent the flowing sodium in contact with air and (iii) maintain an argon gas cover to the leaking sodium if any from primary bellow, with a provision to an alarm get activated by a spark plug. The lever-horizontality during creep test has been maintained by automatically lifting up the fulcrum instead of lowering down the pull rod as conventionally used. A mini lever mechanism has been incorporated in the load train to counter balance the load reduction on specimen from the changing stiffness of the bellows. The validation of the testing system has been established by carrying out creep tests on 316L(N) stainless steel at 873 K over a wide stress range and comparing the results with those obtained in air by employing the developed and conventional creep testing machines

  1. Experimental Study Of Precipitation Competition Of Ca(OH)2 And Mg(OH)2 On MSF Desalination Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competition study has been carried out by using sea water simulation containing of 142 on deposit ppm of bicarbonate ion, 400 ppm of calcium ion and 1272 ppm of magnesium ion. Experiment was performed by heating sample at temperature 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C for 30 minutes. Precipitation competition of Ca(OHh and Mg(OHh was analyzed by reduction of calcium and magnesium ion. Experiment data showed information that at the temperature bellow 800oC CaCO3 precipitation was more dominant, meanwhile above than 80oC precipitation Mg(OH)2 was more dominant. This competition occurred because at temperature more than 80oC rate of hydroxyl ion formation and Mg(OH)2 recipitation was greater than CaCO3 precipitation and at temperature bellow 80oC rate of hydrolysis carbonate ion was less than thermal decomposition bicarbonates ion

  2. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peksa, L.; Gronych, T.; Řepa, P.; Wild, J.; Tesař, J.; Pražák, D.; Krajíček, Z.; Vičar, M.

    2008-03-01

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Pa×m3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement.

  3. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Paxm3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement

  4. The fatigue behavior of X 6 CrNi 18 11 under sodium corrosion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To carry out fatigue tests in sodium the experience gained in an ongoing program on irradiation effects was used for the definition of the test procedure and sample conditions, i.e. strain controlled experiments with an hour glass sample and axial strain measurement. In order to allow sodium corrosion to take place during the test, the samples were welded into a bellow and connected to a dynamic sodium loop. Due to the restricted test capacities, INTERATOM and the Metaalinstituut TNO (MI-TNO) pursued in a combined experimental program two different concepts with regard to the corrosion conditions. INTERATOM tested the samples during exposure in flowing sodium within a nonisothermal loop. The MI-TNO tested the samples after a precorrosion in a nonisothermal sodium loop. During the test at TNO the bellow-sealed samples were surrounded by static sodium

  5. Stress analysis of the JT-60 vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress analysis of the JT-60 vacuum vessel is reported in the parameter ranges of rigid ring thickness 40 - 70 mm and bellows thickness 2.0 - 2.5 mm for the structure in detailed design. The needs of stiffening ribs and dash-pots against the electromagnetic forces are discussed and also integrity of the vacuum vessel in plasma disruptions with time constant shorter than 50 msec. Calculations show that the maximum stress intensity produced in the vacuum vessel is below the allowable one even without the stiffening ribs and dash-pots. And, the larger the bellows thickness the higher becomes the safety margin; thickness of the rigid ring little influences the stress intensity. In plasma disruptions with time constant shorter than 1 msec, the stress intensity exceeds the allowable one. (author)

  6. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GHz ERL main linac. Component test at 30 kW IOT test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We started to develop an input coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity. Required input power is about 20 kW for the cavity acceleration field of 20 MV/m and the beam current of 100 mA in energy recovery operation. The input coupler is designed based on the STF-BL input coupler and some modifications are applied to the design for the CW 20 kW power operation. We fabricated input coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a 30 kW IOT power source and a test stand constructed for the highpower test. In this report, we mainly describe the results of the high-power test of ceramic window and bellows. (author)

  7. Testing device for fuel element samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device described is for testing samples for behavior at high temperature in heavy gamma radiation. The whole device is designed to be maintained in the high neutron flux of a nuclear reactor channel. It comprises two co-axial envelopes with cylindrical side walls and with convex truncated bottom and head walls, these truncated walls being maintained in pairs at a small distance and as constant as possible owing to the inner envelope being designed to accept the fuel element or other sample for testing and to be connected to an intake pipe and a return pipe for a sample environmental gas. The truncated head wall of the outer envelope is joined by a sealed thermal expansion bellows to the cylindrical wall of this same envelope. The restricted annular space between the inner envelope and the outer envelope with its bellows is designed to be coupled to an intake pipe and a return pipe for a variable thermal conductivity gas

  8. A tensile test of vacuum fired titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure Ti is adopted as a material for ducts and bellows at the proton accelerator 3 GeV-RCS in J-PARC project, because of its small residual radioactivity. We intended to apply vacuum firing to reduce the hydrogen content in the Ti. The firing at temperatures higher than 550 deg C was effective in reducing the hydrogen content in the Ti. At the same time, we have measured the mechanical properties because grain growth leads to decrease in mechanical strength. Even after treatment at 750 deg C for 8 hr, the decreases in tensile and yield strength were so small ( ∼10%) that we have no anxiety about the reduction of mechanical strength. Based on the above results, to reduce the hydrogen content, the Ti bellows and ducts for the RCS have been vacuum fired at 650 deg C for 8 hr and at 750 deg C for 8 hr, respectively. (author)

  9. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  10. Door valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To reliably block leakage of inner fluid in a door valve by providing a bellows mechanism in a portion where a valve rod penetrates an oil hydraulic cylinder and by sealing opposite side valve seats of the valve body with an oil hydraulic type seal mechanism. Structure: A door valve comprising a valve body movably provided within a valve casing, an oil hydraulic mechanism driving a valve rod directly connected to the valve body, a bellows mechanism provided on a portion where a valve rod penetrates the cylinder of the oil hydraulic mechanism and an oil hydraulic seal mechanism provided on the inner side of an inlet of the valve casing opposing a valve seat of the valve body, thereby isolating such components as the reactor container, casker, relay container and fuel storage tank at the time of replacement of fuel and reliably preventing leakage of liquid metal vapor containing radioactive material. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  12. Air pollution control with semi-infinite programming

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    Environment issues are more than ever important in a modern society. Complying with stricter legal thresholds on pollution emissions raises an important economic issue. This paper presents some ideas in the use of optimization tools to help in the planning and control of stationary pollution sources. Three main semi-infinite programming approaches are described. The first consists in optimizing an objective function while the pollution level in a given region is kept bellow a ...

  13. A novel fast helical 4D-CT acquisition technique to generate low-noise sorting artifact-free images at user-selected breathing phases

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D.; Lamb, J.; White, B.; Jani, S.; Gaudio, S.; P. Lee; Ruan, D; McNitt-Gray, M; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) technique that exploits standard fast helical acquisition, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a breathing motion model to remove sorting artifacts. Methods and Materials Ten patients were imaged under free-breathing conditions 25 successive times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low-dose fast helical protocol. An abdominal bellows was used as a breat...

  14. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    María Berenice González Maldonado; Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (...

  15. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehne, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  16. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  17. Predictive Modelling of Cardiac 2D Multi-Slice MRI with Simultaneous Resolution of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darkner, Sune;

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to modelling of volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with simultaneous resolution of cardiac and respiratory motion. The major challenge is that the inherent slow nature of MRI prevents obtaining real-time volumetric images of the heart with...... respiratory bellow and a vectorcardiogram, and utilizes a combination of deformation modelling and pixel intensity modelling. We demonstrate that this approach reliably models volumetric cardiac MRI for any combination of cardiac and respiratory phase....

  18. Taking Lawyering Skills Training Seriously

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, David A.; Bergman, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The lawyering skills so thoroughly explored in Gary Bellow and Bea Moulton's The Lawyering Process continue to be a major focus of clinical legal education. Distinguishing between case-centered and skill-centered clinical programs, this essay explores whether clinical courses provide a sufficient foundation for students to "transfer" the lawyering skills they are exposed to in law school to the practice of law. Drawing on the recent work of educational researchers and medical school educators...

  19. Modified apparatus for low temperature/high pressure Mossbauer absorber studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C M; Ingalls, R

    1978-12-01

    A method is described in which a system designed to study Mossbauer sources as a function of pressure and temperature is modified to include absorbers as well. This is accomplished by coupling the Mossbauer source, mounted inside a cryostat, to an external transducer by means of a bellows. In addition, a simple modification has converted an existing helium Dewar to a dynamic gas flow cryostat. Temperature can be continuously varied from 300 to 20 K at pressures up to 200 kilobars. PMID:18699030

  20. Anaesthesia ventilators

    OpenAIRE

    Rajnish K Jain; Srinivasan Swaminathan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bello...

  1. Marketingová podpora produktu Baby Well.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahradníková, Adéla

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines a form of marketing communication, which is referred to as bellow-the-line (BTL). It's arranged chronologically according to the individual steps, which were taken in the course of the project. It observes the environment of an advertisement agency, which has the task of implementing a sales promotion for PG Corporation. This is client who functions in the children segment of the market with their brand Baby Well. Thus in the first part is a brief introduction of...

  2. Weighing the Evidence : -Determining and Contrasting the Characteristics and Functionality of Loom Weights and Spindle Whorls from the Garrison at Birka

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Ida

    2012-01-01

    The focus for this study is the illumination of the function of loom weights and their purpose within the warp-weighted loom. This study deals with Iron Age loom weights excavated at Birka, within the area known as the Garrison. This category of objects was originally classified as being fragments of bellow shields, an interpretation seemingly more corresponding with the site’s traditional interpretation. In order to give a fuller depiction of the textile production as a whole, spindle whorls...

  3. Ventilatory function test values of health adult Jordanians.

    OpenAIRE

    Sliman, N A; Dajani, B M; Dajani, H M

    1981-01-01

    A sample of 144 male, and 117 female healthy adults was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions for Jordanians. Forced vital capacity, FEV1, and FMF 25-75% were determined using a dry bellows spirometer. Linear regression curves and nomograms were constructed for predicted values. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the western hemisphere.

  4. Modelling and Experimental Investigation of an Active Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luís Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a validation methodology of the dynamic behavior of an active viscous damper. The damper has two flexible metallic bellows connected to a rigid reservoir filled with fluid. When one of the bellows is connected to a vibrating structure a periodic flow passes through a variable internal orifice and the damping effect is produced. The size of the orifice is adjusted by a controlled linear piezoelectric actuator that positions the conical core into a conical cavity. The device finite element structural model consists of the valve body and its conical core that are assumed rigid and the flexible bellows are represented by two pistons with elastic suspensions. The flow developed inside the damper is modeled considering the fluid-structure interation, using the Lagrangean-Eulerian formulation. To validate the proposed model a prototype was constructed and experimental tests and numerical simulations are accomplished in the time domain, applying harmonic excitations. The results are compared using curves that relate the damping coefficient with the orifice size and with the input velocity applied at the bellows face. However, for the proper control design and system operation, the direct use of the finite element model becomes unviable due to its high computational time. Then, a reduced second order discrete dynamic model for the damper was developed. The model parameters are identified by analysis in the frequency domain, using impulsive excitation force, for constant and variable orifice sizes. At low excitation frequencies, the damper prototype behaves like a single degree of freedom system which damping factor changes with the orifice size A fuzzy controller was designed and it generates the orifice reference size associated to the desired damping factor. The active system presented better performance when compared to the passive one.

  5. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time

  6. THE BRAND EQUITY OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS - THE MEANING OF THE VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Silaghi Simona; Popa Luminita; Ban Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    In today's global economy, each place competes with other places for economic benefits. Destination has become a product that has to be promoted and sold in the most advantageous terms. The work bellow is an analysis of "brand equity" concept for touristic destinations, as found in the specific literature. Destination brands differ from product brands, major distinction being given by their stability/ instability. Brands of products are stable; this constant is maintained by the use of qualit...

  7. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    CERN Document Server

    Höhne, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  8. Pulmonary function in normal Jordanian children

    OpenAIRE

    Sliman, Naif A; Dajani, Basem M; Shubair, Kandil S

    1982-01-01

    A sample of 204 male and 224 female healthy Jordanian children was selected to determine the normal ventilatory functions of this Arab population. Forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FMFR 25-75%) were determined with a dry bellows spirometer. Multiple linear regression formulae and correlation coefficients were computed for the group. Jordanian values for FVC and FEV1 were similar to those of Caucasians living in the We...

  9. Radon in the Hotels in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m3, with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m3. This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)

  10. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  11. Niobium quarter-wave cavity for the New Delhi booster linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P.N. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India)

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the completion of development of a 97 Mhz niobium coaxial quarter-wave cavity to be used in a booster linac for the New Delhi 16UD pellatron electrostatic accelerator. A prototype cavity, which incorporates a niobium-bellows tuning device, has been completed and operated at 4.2 K at accelerating gradients above 4 MV/m for extended periods of time.

  12. Das novas possibilidades do trabalho coletivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Campregher

    2004-01-01

    This article attempts to show that more recent dinamics of capitalism based in flexible accumulation (in both dimensions technical and social) puts again the question about another kind of work, not pay by wages, and not inconscient about its power. In this way, work is yet 'a key category' to think society (in the oposite view of Claus Offe). Bellowing Marx, we believe that the combination of social activity is the power of productivity. And nowadays, this combination of social activity exis...

  13. Lasalle station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure of a circulating water pump rubber expansion bellows resulted in the flooding of all equipment below lake level in the lake screen house including the service water pumps which provide cooling water to all balance of plant systems. The plant was cooled down without extensive use of safety components and was returned to service 10 days after the flooding occurred. The sequence of events and lessons learned from this event are presented

  14. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  15. Existing potential for local food supply in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Perpar; Andrej Udovč

    2010-01-01

    The degree of self-sufficiency with food products in Slovenia has decreased in the last years, for some products even bellow one half. In the article the qualitative analyses of possibilities for self-sufficiency improvement are presented. They are based on comparative analysis of production potentials of agricultural land, projection of the development trends in agriculture and agricultural land use and trends in food consumption. An analysis of good practices with local food supply and resu...

  16. Zemědělská farma a její vliv na venkovský prostor

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtl, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Summary Agricultural farm and its impact on rural areas Permanent residents and regular visitors of countryside are exposed to farmer's activities. The object of this diploma thesis is a farm in the village Skalsko, located in the district of Mladá Boleslav. Very good agricultural conditions are specific for this region. The agricultural farm in Skalsko bellows with a high intensity of farming to the best enterprises in the branch. The aim of this thesis was to assess the impact of the ...

  17. Allergie affections of the larynx in children-a clinico pathological study

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Gobind Chandra

    1999-01-01

    Laryngeal manifestation of allergy though less common than, Rhinosinusitis, tubotympanitis and bronchopulmanary allergy but it is not that uncommon which is usually misdiagnosed and mistreated in children. Hence the importance of larynx as the allergic shock organ in children with spasmodic croup and laryngotracheo bronchits. In the present study in children bellow five years, presenting with stridor and/or hoarsness were evaluated regarding the history of allergy, direct laryngoscopic findin...

  18. Comparison of three trap types for adult catching of whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus in tomato greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nombela, G.; Chu, CC.; Heneberry, T.; Muñiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The attractiveness of three trap types to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (= Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet adult was compared in two choice experiments in a greenhouse at the Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid, Spain.  Yellow sticky cards equipped with light-emitting-diodes (LED-YC) caught more adults per trap per day than yellow sticky card (YC) traps.YC traps caught significantly more B. tabaci and E. mundus adults than plastic cup traps...

  19. Vegetative propagation by cuttings of azaléia tree (Rhododendron thomsonii HOOK. f.)/
    Propagação vegetativa de estaquia de azaléia arbórea (Rhododendron Thomsonii HOOK. f.)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Soares Koehler; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Michele Fernanda Bortolini; Aurea Portes Ferriani

    2006-01-01

    Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae) is a chinese ornamental hardwood species. The seeds are used just for hybrids production, therefore, vegetative propagation is an appropriate way for large scale plant production. The rooting potential was evaluated in cuttings collected in spring/2004 from stock plants localized in Curitiba, Paraná. The stem cuttings were produced with 12 cm long, right cut upper and bevel bellow, with two half leaves and treated with sodium hypochlorite for ten minutes and...

  20. Pump design for High Temperature Sulfuric acid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sulfuric acid concentration / decomposition section, consequent issues handling material corrosion and the coupling with high temperature energy source were generated, as well as the study of catalyst activity and stability. And Onuki et al., mentioned that material resistance issues are also important for the development of the hydriodic acid concentration/decomposition section. Moreover, the transfer of high temperature H2SO4 is a very important factor considering safety in successive reaction process and efficiency. As mentioned above, the pump to carry sulfuric acid is very important in SI process, but this study is insufficient. After forced cooling of high temperature H2SO4, reduction of safety and process efficiency which is caused by transfer, re-heating, and pressurization is one of the weaknesses in H2SO4 transfer system. Therefore, in this study, we proposed the newly designed H2SO4 transfer system for SI thermo-chemical cycle and the proposed H2SO4 transfer system was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis in order to investigate thermodynamic /hydrodynamic characteristics. As the results, we identify as follows as: By the thermal analysis result of bellows in developed transfer system, it is verified that continuous operation is possible within the deformation temperature limit of Teflon 430 K. Physical/chemical environment of inside the bellows box and performance of bellows in continuous operation condition were evaluated. It is verified that not only the bellows, but also the end-plate made of STS can provide reliability and durability during continuous operation. The CFD results on thermohydrodynamic characteristics show good performance for the proposed H2SO4 transfer system. It is evaluated that it will be efficient in actual manufacturing process because it can provide quantitative transfer and prevent heat loss

  1. Study Regarding the Importance of Sensory Assessment Applied to Traditional Romanian Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Neagu; Constantin Savu; Ovidiu Savu; Catalina Nicoleta Boiteanu

    2013-01-01

    The sensory analysis by point scale method had the total average result scores, as follows: “urda” cheese type 15.60 points, bellows cheese-type 17.33 points, “telemea” cheese 18.87 points and for “cas” smoked cheese -type 18.51 points. Both pair method and triangular method confirmed that the sample 1 gained the unanimity preferences of cheese tasters participating in the evaluation.

  2. WATER QUALITY OF DUG WELLS OF MAYYANAD PANCHAYAT IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RESHMA S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive study on well water characteristics of Mayyanad Panchyat in Kerla was carried out during 2004-05 by analyzing samples from all the wards. All the water characteristics except colour, iron, and coliforms were found within the quality tolerance limits of drinking water as per BIS. The amount of flouride was bellow desirable level. WQI revealed that the water was partially clean; however, proper treatment and mass community action plan are suggested as remedial measures.

  3. ALEGEREA MIJLOACELOR DE COMUNICARE

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Vit

    2011-01-01

    In the material bellow are presented promotional materials that can be used for theadvertising of organizations, products and services offered by them. Also there aredisplayed the advantages and disadvantages of each one. There is a wide range ofcomunication mediums, that can be used by the organizations that wish to promote theirown products and services. These include external mediums of comunication: the printedpress, television, radio, cinematografy, and also internal means like direct co...

  4. Plasma-wall interaction: Recent TFTR results and implications on design and construction of limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first wall of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) consists of a water cooled toroidal belt limiter, a cooled moveable limiter, and cooled protective plates to shield the vacuum vessel from neutral beam shinethrough. Each of these systems consists of Inconel support plates covered with graphite tiles. In addition, there are Inconel and stainless steel bellows cover plates to protect the bellows and the surface pumping system which provides enhanced pumping in the torus and also serves to protect the bellows. These systems are described and the design requirements, simulations and actual thermal and mechanical loads reviewed. The normal and off-normal operating conditions which were considered in the design of the TFTR components include thermal loading during normal and disruptive plasma operation, eddy-current induced mechanical forces and arcing. The failures which have occurred are generally associated with thermal stress rather than mechanical failure due to disruption induced eddy currents. The models which were developed to design the TFTR hardware appear to have worked well as the performance of these systems has generally been satisfactory at loads approaching design limits. The implications of the TFTR experience for reactor design are discussed

  5. Estimate of the longitudinal and transverse impedances of the main ring in the TeV I project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To guarantee the successful performance of the Main Ring in Tevatron I, its stability limits and impedances have to be estimated and controlled. The impedances of the Main Ring are estimated, considering contributions from the bellows, beam position monitors, wall resistivity, kickers and Lambertsons. The estimations of the contributions to the longitudinal and transverse impedances are tabulated and plotted. The stability limits for the worst situation are also tabulated for comparison. The slow-growing single bunch instability caused by longitudinal mode coupling is found to be safe. The corresponding instability caused by transverse mode coupling is not. The fast-growing longitudinal microwave instability is found to be driven by the sharp resonances of the bellows and beam monitors and may be the broad resonances of the Lambertsons also. The fast-growing transverse microwave instability is found to be safe. It is found that, to have stability, the bellows have to be shielded and the beam monitors terminated at the ends instead of the center. The slow-growing transverse mode coupling is found to be curable by feedback. 6 tabs., 7 figs

  6. A consideration on public acceptance for radio activity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even news paper reports on radioactive irradiation and nuclear energy seems to be decreased than before, a hidden feeling of radioactive irradiation and nuclear energy is still in a deep mind of the people. This suggested some doubt on nuclear energy may stay in people's deep mind, even they may know a little bit on nuclear energy. They may not tell all nuclear plant shut down immediately, but they may have a tendency to get in anti-nuclear group, once something happen in a nuclear plant. The people opinion may be divided in to 4 areas, if the adequate coordinate was chosen. Let us take a knowledge on nuclear energy for vertical axes, an anti-degree on nuclear energy for horizontal axes, a 80% to 90% of people may stay in a left bellow area. Anti-nuclear with a well knowledge on nuclear energy, the people may stay in right upper area. This people may not be a good target for nuclear public acceptance. A 4% to 2% of people may be counted. Right bellow and left upper area may contain 8% to 4% of people each. Of course, the questionnaire method may give a good affect to the results. People, who may be a good target of nuclear public acceptance may be in the left bellow area. They may go into anti-nuclear movement, when something happen in nuclear plant. (J.P.N.)

  7. Pump design and computation fluid dynamic analysis for high temperatrue sulfuric acid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we proposed a newly designed sulfuric acid transfer system for the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle. The proposed sulfuric acid transfer system was evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for investigating thermodynamic/hydrodynamic characteristics and material properties. This analysis was conducted to obtain reliable continuous operation parameters; in particular, a thermal analysis was performed on the bellows box and bellows at amplitudes and various frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz). However, the high temperatures and strongly corrosive operating conditions of the current sulfuric acid system present challenges with respect to the structural materials of the transfer system. To resolve this issue, we designed a novel transfer system using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon[R]) as a bellows material for the transfer of sulfuric acid. We also carried out a CFD analysis of the design. The CFD results indicated that the maximum applicable temperature of PTFE is about 533 K (260 degrees Celsius), even though its melting point is around 600 K. This result implies that the PTFE is a potential material for the sulfuric acid transfer system. The CFD simulations also confirmed that the sulfuric acid transfer system was designed properly for this particular investigation.

  8. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a control rod assembly comprising an extension rod extended upwardly from the upper end of a control rod main body disposed in a reactor core and an extension tube engaging a grip portion disposed to an upper portion of the extension rod for suspending the control rod main body, a shrinkable portion is disposed to a part of the extension tube or extension rod, or a grip portion shrinkable in the axial direction is disposed to the extension rod. Further, a spring is interposed to a portion of the extension tube and bellows are disposed to the inner side or the outer side of the spring. A double-cylindrical temperature sensing member is disposed surrounding the outer side of the bellows or the spring. Liquid metals are sealed in the temperature sensing member or the bellows. This can improve the response of the coolants to the temperature elevation and can suppress the change of the reactor core insertion amount relative to temperature change during usual operation. (T.M.)

  9. Major and trace element vertical distribution in Matita lake - Danube Delta sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vertical distribution of 25 elements in Matita lake sediments was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The obtained results were correlated with the core mineralogical composition determined by X-ray diffraction. The concentrations of microelements Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Lu, Ru, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Yb and of the major element Fe present similar vertical profiles and put in evidence three distinct regions, corresponding to the three types of sediments: lacustrine, brackish and loess-continental. The profiles of Sr and Ca, the major elements, are very well correlated with calcite content. Th, Hf and Na concentrations monotonously increase with depth and remain constant bellow 70 cm and reflect the change of sediment origin from lacustrine to brackish. They also could be correlated with feldspar fraction. Sb, Zn and As vertical profiles present a maximum near the sediment surface and fall steeply to their naturally appearing values bellow 20 cm. These profiles could not be correlated with any other major minerals, suggesting their pollutant origin. Bromine profile presents a high concentration at the surface of sediment and decreases at about 5 μg/g bellow 50 cm depth, suggesting its marine origin. U and Ba concentrations do not correlate with any major mineral and remain almost constant across the core. The research is in progress. (authors)

  10. Measurement of LHCD antenna position in Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To drive plasma current non-inductively in ADITYA tokamak, 120 kW pulsed Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system at 3.7 GHz has been designed, fabricated and installed on ADITYA tokamak. In this system, the antenna consists of a grill structure, having two rows, each row comprising of four sub-waveguides. The coupling of LHCD power to the plasma strongly depends on the plasma density near the mouth of grill antenna. Thus the grill antenna has to be precisely positioned for efficient coupling. The movement of mechanical bellow, which contracts or expands up to 50mm, governs the movement of antenna. In order to monitor the position of the antenna precisely, the reference position of the antenna with respect to the machine/plasma position has to be accurately determined. Further a mechanical system or an electronic system to measure the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the reference position is also desired. Also due to poor accessibility inside the ADITYA machine, it is impossible to measure physically the reference position of the grill antenna with respect to machine wall, taken as reference position and hence an alternative method has to be adopted to establish these measurements reliably. In this paper we report the design and development of a mechanism, using which the antenna position measurements are made. It also describes a unique method employing which the measurements of the reference position of the antenna with respect to the inner edge of the tokamak wall is carried out, which otherwise was impossible due to poor accessibility and physical constraints. The position of the antenna is monitored using an electronic scale, which is developed and installed on the bellow. Once the reference position is derived, the linear potentiometer, attached to the bellow, measures the linear distance using position transmitter. The accuracy of measurement obtained in our setup is within +/- 0.5 % and the linearity, along with repeatability is excellent.

  11. 基于有限元的波纹管疲劳寿命影响因素分析%Analysis of Factors of Bellow’s Fatigue Life Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李上青

    2016-01-01

    基于ANSYS的AP DL参数化编程语言,在热-应力耦合的复杂工况下,对波纹管进行有限元建模。同时在充分考虑了波纹管非线性特点的前提下,确定了其疲劳破坏的危险位置,计算了疲劳寿命,进而探究得出影响因素与波纹管疲劳寿命之间的关系。研究表明:波纹管疲劳寿命随壁厚、直壁段倾斜角的增大而增大,随波数、波高、受载的增大而减小,不同材料类型适用于不同疲劳寿命要求的场合。这些结论有助于波纹管的疲劳寿命设计。%Based on ANSYS APDL parametric programming language, in the couple and complex condition of thermal-stress, finite element models of bellow was established. At the same time, under the premise of consideration of nonlinear feature of bellow, hazardous locations of fatigue were ensured and fatigue life was also calculated. Furthermore, the relationship between factors and fatigue life was probed emphatically. The results show that bellow’ s fatigue life increases when wall thickness or tilt angle increases, and decreases when wave number, wave height or load increases. Different kinds of material type apply to differ-ent fatigue life requirement’ s occasion. These results can be used to instruct fatigue design of bellow comprehensively.

  12. Calibration and Data Analysis of the MC-130 Air Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Dennis; Ulbrich, N.

    2012-01-01

    Design, calibration, calibration analysis, and intended use of the MC-130 air balance are discussed. The MC-130 balance is an 8.0 inch diameter force balance that has two separate internal air flow systems and one external bellows system. The manual calibration of the balance consisted of a total of 1854 data points with both unpressurized and pressurized air flowing through the balance. A subset of 1160 data points was chosen for the calibration data analysis. The regression analysis of the subset was performed using two fundamentally different analysis approaches. First, the data analysis was performed using a recently developed extension of the Iterative Method. This approach fits gage outputs as a function of both applied balance loads and bellows pressures while still allowing the application of the iteration scheme that is used with the Iterative Method. Then, for comparison, the axial force was also analyzed using the Non-Iterative Method. This alternate approach directly fits loads as a function of measured gage outputs and bellows pressures and does not require a load iteration. The regression models used by both the extended Iterative and Non-Iterative Method were constructed such that they met a set of widely accepted statistical quality requirements. These requirements lead to reliable regression models and prevent overfitting of data because they ensure that no hidden near-linear dependencies between regression model terms exist and that only statistically significant terms are included. Finally, a comparison of the axial force residuals was performed. Overall, axial force estimates obtained from both methods show excellent agreement as the differences of the standard deviation of the axial force residuals are on the order of 0.001 % of the axial force capacity.

  13. The J.E.T (Joint European Torus) vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large vacuum vessel of the J.E.T. (Joint European Torus) experiment has been designed as an all metal composite torus of non-circular cross-section. To comply with mechanical stability and ultra high vacuum requirements it has been designed as a completely welded fabrication. The metal structure consists of 32 rigid sectors of box type construction suitably ribbed to withstand the stresses imposed upon them by the external forces. The bellows linking these rigid sectors determine the electrical resistance of the metallic vacuum vessel the long way around the torus, since currents which are induced in parallel with the plasma current should be kept as low as possible. All forces acting on the vacuum vessel are absorbed by the rigid sectors which also incorporate the openings to the interior of the machine, such as ports for pumping, diagnostics, auxiliary plasma heating, etc... This toroidal vacuum vessel is a double walled structure with the bellows linking the rigid sectors being fitted as pairs, and it is proposed to circulate hot inert gas through out this interspace in order to raise the temperature of the whole vacuum vessel to 500 degres C to achieve bakeout conditions which will assist in reaching the required base pressure of 10-10 torr, the outside of the vacuum vessel will be thermally insulated. The final choice of materials to construct this vacuum vessel was to use Inconel 600 or Nicrofer 7216 for the rigid sectors and Inconel 625 (Nicrofer 6020) for the bellows, the latter material having the required electrical resistivity

  14. Metal hydride actuation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-recocking actuation device is disclosed. One possible use for it is in conjunction with a pneumatic fire protection system. This invention employs the process known as occlusion to store large amounts of gas in a small volume. Metal hydrides in a chamber are used to store hydrogen in the disclosed preferred embodiment. Upon the application of heat-from a heat source like a resistance heater-the charged metal hydride releases its hydrogen (H2) in a chamber having only one exit opening which empties into a sealed bellows. This bellows contacts a piston located in another chamber wherein a biased resetting spring is provided to normally maintain the piston in contact with the bellows. As the pressure from the H2 gas builds up, it overcomes the biased spring to move it and the piston along with an associated pin or other actuator. If used to actuate a pneumatic fire protection system, the pin or actuator at the downward side of its stroke in turn, may puncture a shearable diaphragm or in some other way releases the contents of a container containing a second gas, like nitrogen (N2), which is then released from a second exit port in a different chamber to charge the fire protection system. Recocking of the piston begins as the heating of the metal hydride ceases. As cooling takes place the hydrogen is absorbed to reenter the hydride to decrease the gas pressure supplied. The piston's biased resetting spring then recocks the piston to its original position

  15. Thermal-Structural Coupled Analysis of ITER Torus Cryo-Pump Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松可; 宋云涛; 谢韩; 雷明准

    2012-01-01

    An ITER torus cryo-pump housing (TCPH), which encloses a torus cryo-pump, is connected to a vacuum vessel (VV) by a set of associated double bellows. There are complicated loads due to two different operating states (pumping and regeneration) and foreseeable accidents with the cryo-pump. This paper describes a thermal-structural coupled analysis of the present TCPH according to tho allowatfle stress criteria of RCC-MR, in which the worst cases and outcomes of various load combinations are obtained. Meanwhile, optimization of the structure has been carried oul, to obtain positive analysis results and an adequate safety margin.

  16. A commercial lithium battery LiMn-oxide for fuel cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Bin; Fan, Liangdong; He, Y.; Y. Zhao; Wang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hereby we report first a commercial lithium battery LiMn-oxide (LMO) positive electrode material for fuel cell applications. The obtained LMO can be used for both anode and cathode in a three-layer fuel cell, but displays low electro-catalytic activity and power output. Using a nanocomposite approach we have significantly improved the cell performance from tens mW cm-2 up to 210 mW cm-2, which is technically useful for low temperature (bellow 600 °C) ceramic fuel cells. We also constructed si...

  17. 60Co γ-ray irradiation effect on germination and seedling growth of dry Buchloe dactyloides seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry seeds of Buchloe dactyloides were irradiated by γ-ray at dose of 25-300 Gy. Seed germination and seedling characters were surveyed in laboratory and field. The results indicated that radiation could promote seed germination, and the optimum dose was 100 Gy. The dose of 150 Gy was the up limit to germination rate, root length and seedling height in field. When the radiation dose was bellow 100 Gy, the fresh weight of stems, leaves and roots of seedlings were increased. From this study, the recommended radiation does for Buchloe dactyloides dry seeds treatment was between 100-150 Gy for the purpose of promoting germination. (authors)

  18. Steam generator tubesheet waterlancing at Bruce B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, R. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Eybergen, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    High pressure water cleaning of steam generator secondary side tubesheet surfaces is an important and effective strategy for reducing or eliminating under-deposit chemical attack of the tubing. At the Bruce B station, reaching the interior of the tube bundle with a high-pressure water lance is particularly challenging due to the requirement to setup on-boiler equipment within the containment bellows. This paper presents how these and other design constraints were solved with new equipment. Also discussed is the application of new high-resolution inter-tube video probe capability to the Bruce B steam generator tubesheets. (author)

  19. A liquid helium piston pump with a superconducting drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes a bellows pump where the driving force is achieved by an arrangement of three superconducting coils. The pump was designed for use in the supercritical helium flow circuit of the LCT-conductor test facility. The main advantage of the superconducting drive, compared to conventional pumps with external drive, is the compact design. Force transferring parts between 4.2 K and room temperature are not necessary. The pump was tested in a closed loop arrangement. The superconducting drive for a piston pump consists of a moving coil in a constant background field. Other coil configurations and the upscaling of the pump design are discussed

  20. Looking for Hope-An Analysis of Grebe’s Search in “Looking for Mr.Green”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie Zhi

    2014-01-01

    “Looking for Mr.Green” is a famous short story written by the renowned Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow.Grebe, the main character in“Looking for Mr.Green”, confronts many difficulties in delivering relief checks to the residents who were in need in the South Side of Chicago.With the analysis of Mr.Grebe and his finding Mr.Green, this paper will take Grebe’s looking for hope in his life as the main reason for his chase.What Grebe does represents the predicament of Americans and their attitudes towards life during the depression time.

  1. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.; Jensen, S.B.; Nauntofte, B.; Bakke, M.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Bredie, W.L.P.

    masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup......During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...

  2. Saturated steams pressure of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bellows null pressure gauge and the dynamic method were used to measure the total and partial pressures of saturated vapors of individual components of molten HfCl4-KCl mixtures, as a function of temperature (260 to 1000 deg C) and composition (1.9 to 64.3 mol.% HfCl4). Empirical equations expressing the relationship between pressure and temperature are presented. It is shown that in molten mixtures of hafnium tetrachloride with chlorides of alkaline metals its partial pressure dramatically increases when potassium chloride substitutes for cesium chloride

  3. A scram mechanism for a liquid metal cooled reactor, using the critical value of the temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-actuated mechanism within a safety assembly in a liquid metal nuclear reactor is described comprising sensor fuel pins located in a reactor coolant flow path, a sensor bulb containing NaK located near the upper end of the sensor fuel pins and in the reactor coolant flow path, and a sensor tube connecting the sensor bulb to a metal bellows and push rod. The motion of the push rod resulting from the temperature dependent change in the NaK volume actuates a safety rod release mechanism when a predetermined coolant temperature is reached. (Auth.)

  4. Application of titanium materials to vacuum chambers and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the outgassing properties of titanium materials, and development of vacuum chambers and components for practical UHV/XHV systems. The mechano-chemically polished and the chemically polished titanium materials have a smooth surface and a thin (≤ 10 nm) oxide surface layer, which showed extremely low outgassing rate below 10-12 Pams-1 after baking process. In order to fabricate practical vacuum systems welding, metallizing and brazing processes were optimized, and complex shaped vacuum chambers and various vacuum components such as a bellows, valve, electric feedthrough and ceramic duct with titanium sleeve were fabricated. Sufficient mechanical properties and durability were obtained for practical use

  5. Summary of the impedance working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impedance working group concentrated on the LHC design during the workshop. They look at the impedance contributions of liner, beam position monitors, shielded bellows, experimental chambers, superconducting cavities, recombination chambers, space charge, kickers, and the resistive wall. The group concluded that the impedance budgeting and the conceptual designs of the vacuum chamber components looked basically sound. It also noted, not surprisingly, that a large amount of studies are to be carried out further, and it ventured to give a partial list of these studies

  6. Morphing skins to improve local flow behavior in a hydroturbine context: Adaptive overflater for forbedring av lokal strømning i vannturbinsammenheng

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanger, Jarle Vikør

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of morphing skin and structure technology in a hydroturbine context. The work has been divided into two parts; construction of a demonstration rig and CFD calculations assessing the concept of camber morphing of guide vanes.Five rubber 'morphing bumps' reduce the intensity of vortex shedding behind a cylinder in an open flow of water. The bumps are made by a rubber bellows placed in a perforated stainless steel pipe. Their size is controlled by...

  7. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GH ERL main linac. High power test of the renewed ceramic window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We started to develop an input power coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity for main linac. We fabricated power coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a CW 30 kW IOT power source. During this test, the ceramic window was broken by the sudden heat load. We found that this heat load occurred by the unexpected dipole mode. We renewed the ceramic window and successfully carried out the high power test up to CW 27 kW input power. (author)

  8. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    OpenAIRE

    Efimov, V. B.; Griffiths, O. J.; Hendry, P. C.; Kolmakov, G. V.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Skrbek, L.

    2006-01-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. A...

  9. The measurement of linear and angular displacements in prototype aircraft - Instrumentation, calibration and operational accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm van Leeuwen, Sam

    The design and development of angular displacement transducers for flight test instrumentation systems are considered. Calibration tools, developed to meet the accuracy requirements, allowed in situ calibration with short turn around times. The design of the control surface deflection measurement channels for the Fokker 100 prototype aircraft is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that a bellows coupling provides accurate results, and that the levers and push-pull rod drive mechanisms perform well. The results suggest that a complex mechanical drive mechanism reduces the system accuracy.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  11. In pile creep measuring rigs for metallic specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of creep rigs are described using stainless steel or zircaloy specimens. First, a tensile creep rig allowing continuous length measurement of tubular or solid specimens. The measurement of the specimen length is compared with that of a reference specimen, situated as close as possible to the tensile one. The second rig is used for continuous measurement of the radial strain of pressurised tubes. The measurement is made by a cone and ball system, transforming diameter changes into axial displacements. These rigs are made in two parts: a capsule with NaK, including: specimens, loading bellows microwave measuring system, and a standard 'CHOUCA' furnace with electrical heating

  12. Looking for Hope——An Analysis of Grebe’s Search in “Looking for Mr.Green”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bie; Zhi

    2014-01-01

    "Looking for Mr.Green"is a famous short story written by the renowned Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow.Grebe,the main character in"Looking for Mr.Green",confronts many difficulties in delivering relief checks to the residents who were in need in the South Side of Chicago.With the analysis of Mr.Grebe and his finding Mr.Green,this paper will take Grebe’s looking for hope in his life as the main reason for his chase.What Grebe does represents the predicament of Americans and their attitudes towards life during the depression time.

  13. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  14. Design Aspects of the RF Contacts for the LHC Beam Vacuum Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Couturier, K; Hilleret, Noël; Knaster, J R; Lepeule, P; Taborelli, M; Veness, R J M; Vos, L

    2001-01-01

    The LHC requires a very low longitudinal and transverse beam coupling impedance, in particular at low frequencies. This implies an admissible DC contact resistance of less than 0.1 m$\\Omega$ for the RF contacts inside the vacuum bellows which must carry the image current (up to 50 A peak) of the beam at each vacuum chamber interconnect. Technological aspects, measurement methods and test results are presented for the contacts which will be used in the LHC. The modified mechanical design and the justifications for specific choices will be discussed

  15. Influence of changes in the composition of Kh18N10T steel on the results of measurement of its thickness by the radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The additional error in measurement of the thickness of Kh18N10T steel for possible changes in composition with an energy of the photons of ionizing radiation of 10-80 keV was evaluated. The desirability of use of a type REIS-I x-ray emitter in measurement of the thickness of steel up to 1 mm is shown. The instrument provides measurement of the thickness of steel in the 0.1-1.0 mm range with a reproducibility of the results with an error not exceeding 0.5-1.0%. The measurement error with corrugations characteristic of bellows does not exceed 5%

  16. Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and Negative Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pavšič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We review the occurrence of negative energies in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. We point out that in the absence of interactions negative energies are not problematic, neither in the classical nor in the quantized theory. However, in the presence of interactions that couple positive and negative energy degrees of freedom the system is unstable, unless the potential is bounded from bellow and above. We review some approaches in the literature that attempt to avoid the problem of negative energies in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  17. ISCOOL RFQ (HRS) HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the ISCOOL RFQ after the ISOLDE HRS40 separator sector. The RFQ tank / vessel can be seen with the RF amplifier on it and different electrical, He gas and vacuum connections. The triplets at injection and ejection are shown as well as the He gas bottle position. All vacuum chambers and interconnections such as the insulators, flanges and bellows can be seen. Some of the mechanical and electrical parts of the scanners and faraday cups before and after the RFQ can be spotted: HRS SC680, FC690 before the RFQ and HRS SC748 and FC749 after the RFQ.

  18. Burnishing tool actuators and their influence on the burnishing force components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervach, Yu; Kim, A.; Dorzhiev, D.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents the results of studies on measuring components of force of diamond burnishing of surfaces with variable radius of curvature. The impact of structural elements of burnishing tools of different types on components of burnishing force was analyzed. The impact of different actuators of burnishing tools on components of burnishing force was analyzed. The design of the burnishing tool with an air receiver (bellows with compressed air as an actuator) with a parallelogram-type mounting of the indenter on the four flat posts, which ensures burnishing of profiled and other types of surfaces with constant radial force, was proposed.

  19. Courses on emergency preparedness and medical procedures in case of a nuclear accident organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb, different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the Croatian doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialised courses of the I. category, offered and described bellow, are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  20. A Review of the Courses on Emergency Preparedness and Medical Procedures in Case of a Nuclear Accident Organised in Zagreb, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the postgraduate education at the Medical School of the University of Zagreb different short courses are offered. It has been realised that the knowledge about radiation and its uses among the doctors is more than insufficient, especially if any action for treatment of radiation victims will ever be needed. The specialized courses of the I. category offered and described bellow are meant to provide the sufficient theoretical knowledge about ionising radiations as well as practical workshops and exercises in treatment of persons accidentally injured in a nuclear power plant or similar accident. (author)

  1. The Review of The Development of Business English in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绚

    2004-01-01

    the purposes of this paper are to overview and evaluate the development of Business English in China. It will firstly cover what is known about BE in present China from school campus to training courses, and secondly reveal what are problems posed in Business English Education here. In doing this, the description of BE characteristics will be followed, the relationship between BE and EAP will be folded and even the history of Business English will be summarized bellowed to support the review of BE in China today.

  2. Mechanical optimisation of a high-precision fast wire scanner at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, Sebastian; Veness, Raymond

    Wire scanners are instruments used to measure the transverse beam prole in particle accelerators by passing a thin wire through the particle beam. To avoid the issues of vacuum leakage through the bellows and wire failure related to current designs of wire scanners, a new concept for a wire scanner has been developed at CERN. This design has all moving parts inside the beam vacuum and has a nominal wire scanning speed of 20 m/s. The demands on the design associated with this together with the high precision requirements create a need for\

  3. Kolmogorov's dissipation number and the number of degrees of freedom for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence predicts that only wavenumbers bellow some critical value, called Kolmogorov's dissipation number, are essential to describe the evolution of a three-dimensional fluid flow. A determining wavenumber, first introduced by Foias and Prodi for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations, is a mathematical analog of Kolmogorov's number. The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a time-dependent determining wavenumber for the 3D Navier-Stokes equations whose time average is bounded by Kolmogorov's dissipation wavenumber for all solutions on the global attractor whose intermittency is not extreme.

  4. Induction of mutation with gamma irradiation in camellia (Camellia Japonica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the radiosensitivity and mutagenic effects in Camellia (Camellia Japonica L.) were carried out with the shoot cuttings, one-year seedlings and three or four-year plants irradiated with 60Co-γ rays. Results obtained showed that the radiosensitivities varied greatly in cultivars and in different parts of the plant. The suitable irradiation doses for shoot cuttings are 1-3 krad. The treatment of low doses (bellow 2 kard) resulted in higher frequency of mutation with plants of high sensitivity to γ-rays. The frequencies of mutation in flower color and type were 2.5-12.0%. The mutant with ornamental value has been obtained

  5. Vibration test report on crossover piping system in seismic isolation nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Shinohara, Takaharu; Terada, Shuji; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Tomita, Tsuneo; Kondo, Toshinari

    1999-03-01

    In a seismic isolation nuclear facility, crossover piping system is subjected to large relative displacement and inertia forces during earthquakes. Hinged bellows expansion joints are utilized for accommodation to such the large displacement. This report describes tests for validation of developed simulation code with analytical models. Seismic experiments by a vibration test machine were conducted using actual size piping system models. A comparison between test results and analytical results showed a favorable agreement. The vibration test demonstrated that the structural integrity of this piping system would be maintained during earthquakes. (H. Itami)

  6. A High-Sensitivity Hydraulic Load Cell for Small Kitchen Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Franc Novak; Roman Pačnik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a hydraulic load cell made from hydroformed metallic bellows. The load cell was designed for a small kitchen appliance with the weighing function integrated into the composite control and protection of the appliance. It is a simple, low-cost solution with small dimensions and represents an alternative to the existing hydraulic load cells in industrial use. A good non-linearity and a small hysteresis were achieved. The influence of temperature leads to an error of 7.5%...

  7. Design of the critical components in the ITER ECH upper launcher steering mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the ITER electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) antennae located in the upper port launcher will be to stabilize the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) by driving currents locally inside either the q=3/2 or 2 island. The ITER reference design uses a front steering (FS) concept with the moveable mirror close to the plasma. The FS launcher is capable of steering eight 2 MW beams via two sets of steering mirrors. In the adverse invessel operating conditions, reliable operation is required to guarantee the availability of the mirror steering mechanism during the twenty year lifetime of ITER. The dynamic performance and steering accuracy of the mirror system are essential for the localised beam power deposition. In order to increase the steering reliability and accuracy, traditional bearing and push-pull rods are avoided, which tend to introduce backlash or grip. The proposed frictionless and backlash free mechanism design uses elastically compliant structural components to guide and drive the rotating mirror. The actuator system is based on a pressure controlled helium filled bellows array working against a set of preloaded compressive springs. The pressure control servovalves are located in the port duct behind the closure plate. Resistance to cyclic fatigue is the critical design requirement for compliant systems. In order to achieve the high reliability, four critical components are identified and described in detail. The bellows, the flexure pivots, the return springs and the spiral cooling tubes are the core elements of the mechanism allowing the controlled rotation of the mirror. The bellows has been identified as the most critical component which is not covered by the industry standard codes. An extensive test program is in progress to asses the expected cyclic lifetime of the bellows under working conditions. Prototypes of the other critical components are being tested. Corresponding analytical and cyclic fatigue numerical models of the

  8. Limitations in controlling white mold on common beans with Trichoderma spp. at the fall-winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trazilbo José de Paula Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effectiveness of application of Trichoderma spp. in controlling white mold on common beans at the fall-winter crop in the Zona da Mata region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. There was no effect of the antagonist in reducing the disease severity, which could be explained by the low temperatures and the high inoculum pressure in the field. We concluded that Trichoderma applications are not recommended for control of white mold on common beans at the fall-winter season in regions with average temperature bellow 20 °C, since this condition favor more the pathogen than the antagonist.

  9. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  10. Development of beam diagnostic devices for characterizing electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron guns for the DC accelerators and RF Linacs are designed and developed at EBC/APPD/BARC, Kharghar. These electron guns need to be characterized for its design and performance. Two test benches were developed for characterizing the electron guns. Various beam diagnostic devices for measuring beam currents and beam sizes were developed. Conical faraday cup, segmented faraday cup, slit scanning bellows movement arrangement, multi-plate beam size measurement setup, multi- wire beam size measurement setup, Aluminum foil puncture assembly etc. were developed and used. The paper presents the in-house development of various beam diagnostics for characterizing electron guns and their use. (author)

  11. Tests of dry mechanical forepumps for use in the ITER vacuum pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the design and construction of FORTE (Forepumps Test Facility) which has been built in order to enable testing of the pumping speeds of prototypical mechanical forepumps connected in series, as proposed for the ITER forepump system. Three NORMETEX pumps (1300, 600, 60 m3/h) and one METAL BELLOWS pump (6m3/h) have been integrated into the test bench. Measurements of the pumping characteristics were performed, both with the single pumps and with trains of series connected pumps, using the gases N2, H2, D2, He as well as ITER typical gas mixture. The results of the tests are presented. (orig.)

  12. Design and development of neutral beam module components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) injection system consists of twenty 20 keV start-up, and twenty-four 80 keV sustaining neutral beam source modules. The neutral beam modules are mounted in four clusters equally spaced around the waist of the vacuum vessel which contains the superconducting magnets. A module is defined here as an assembly consisting of a beam source and the interfacing components between that beam source and the vacuum chamber. Six major interfacing components are the subject of this paper. They are the magnetic shield, the neutralizer duct, the isolation valve, mounting gimbals, aiming bellows and actuators

  13. Device for rapid transfer of condensable gases into a capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, S.; Krouse, H. R.

    1984-07-01

    An inverted bellows-sealed vacuum valve was modified by replacing the Teflon pad on its stem by a stainless-steel dish with a knife-edge circumference and a capillary attached through its center. A Teflon cup for containing liquid air was threaded on top into the valve outlet. With the dish down, condensable gases could be frozen on a small surface area on the bottom of the cup. By pushing the dish upwards so the knife edge pushed into the Teflon, the gas was quantitatively transferred into the capillary upon warming.

  14. ISCOOL RFQ (HRS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the ISCOOL RFQ after the ISOLDE HRS40 separator sector. The RFQ tank / vessel can be seen with the RF amplifier on it and different electrical, He gas and vacuum connections. The triplets at injection and ejection are shown as well as the He gas bottle position. All vacuum chambers and interconnections such as the insulators, flanges and bellows can be seen. Some of the mechanical and electrical parts of the scanners and faraday cups before and after the RFQ can be spotted: HRS SC680, FC690 before the RFQ and HRS SC748 and FC749 after the RFQ.

  15. Method of reducing temperature in high-speed photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. D.; Slater, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A continuing problem in high-speed motion picture photography is adequate lighting and the associated temperature rise. Large temperature rises can damage subject matter and make recording of the desired images impossible. The problem is more severe in macrophotography because of bellows extension and the necessary increase in light. This report covers one approach to reducing the initial temperature rise: the use of filters and heat-absorbing materials. The accompanying figures provide the starting point for selecting distance as a function of light intensity and determining the associated temperature rise. Using these figures will allow the photographer greater freedom in meeting different photographic situations.

  16. The Leakage determination on corrosion fretting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretting machine is an experimental loop to learn fretting corrosion phenomena wich is caused by loading and vibration. On the steam generator, one of the corrosion process that's occurred, it can be caused by vibration between tubes and bending material. Because of high flow rate inside the tube, the high frequency vibration will appeared so it can make the corrosion on bending material more faster. This process can be simulate by fretting machine. This machine has already damage because of leakage. So it will be repaired by dismantling, radiography testing and redrawing. from the result of radiography, the leakage is caused by cracking on bellows seals of the dynamic main support

  17. Buckling Characteristics of Cylindrical Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the buckling pattern of the body frame by energy absorbed efficiency of crashworthiness related toresearch of the buckling characteristics of aluminum cylindrical pipes with various diameters formed mechanical tools. Experimentswere performed by the quasi-static test without lubrication between specimen and equipment. According to the change in the radiusversus thickness of the specimen, the buckling phenomena are transformed from folding to bellows and the rate of energy absorptionis understood. In crashworthiness, frames are characterized by the folding among three patterns from the absorbed energy efficiencypoint of view and weight reduction. With the development of new types of transport such as electric vehicles, innovated bodystructure should be designed.

  18. Development and study on vacuum absorber tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoming [Southeast Univ., Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China); Liu, Deyou; An, cuicui [Hohai Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new type solar vacuum absorber tube has been developed, and the tensile tests have shown the high reliability of the joint between the metal and glass of the vacuum absorber tube; the fatigue tests have indicated that the bellows of the vacuum absorber tube as well as the interface between the metal and glass can last for as long as 20 years; the weathering tests of the sample, have lasted for an entire year, which proves that the tube design is scientifically and reasonably devised. (orig.)

  19. Avaliação por SAXS e DSC das interações entre H2O e Renex-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Dias Palombino de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation behavior of the non-ionic surfactant Renex-100 in aqueous solutions and mesophases was evaluated by SAXS in a wide range of concentrations, between 20 and 30 °C. Complementary, water interactions were defined by DSC curves around 0°C. SAXS showed that the system undergoes the following phase transitions, from diluted to concentrated aqueous solutions: 1 isotropic solution of Renex aggregates; 2 hexagonal mesophase; 3 lamellar mesophase; and 4 isotropic solution. DSC analysis indicated the presence of interfacial water above 70wt%, which agreed with the segregation of free water to form the structural mesophases observed by SAXS bellow this concentration.

  20. LS1 Report: working night and day

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC tunnel, the first underground activities of the SMACC (Superconducting Magnet And Circuit Consolidation) project have begun. In sector 5-6, the opening of the W bellows, which form the outer shell around the circuit connections between each of the cryo-magnets, is underway.   On 18 April, CERN Director General, Rolf Heuer, assisted in opening of the first interconnection in sector 5-6 of the LHC tunnel. By 15 April, 22 interconnection bellows had been opened. Elsewhere in the LHC, the warming up of the different sectors to room temperature continues. Sector 4-5 should be at room temperature by the end of April, with sector 6-7 not far behind. At the SPS, 16 magnets (12 dipoles and 4 quadrupoles) have been removed from the machine. These magnets will be equipped with specially coated vacuum chambers in order to measure the effectiveness of this coating in reducing the build-up of electron cloud phenomena around the LHC beam during acceleration in the SPS. The removal of ...

  1. Irrigation, a Component of the Sustainable Agriculture in North Western Romania in the Context of the Climate Change UDK 631. 67 : 551. 583 (498

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Domuţa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the researches carried out during 1976-2010 in the long term trial placed on the prelvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea. The main field crops of the area (wheat, maize, sunflower, soybean, bean, potato, sugarbeet, alfalfa were studied. Based on the soil moisture determination ten to ten days, the soil water reserve was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity on the watering depth. Pedological and strong pedological drought (the decrease of the soil water reserve on watering depth bellow easily available water content, bellow wilting point respectivelly were registered every year. The use of the irrigation determined the improve of the water/temperature+light (Domuta climate index report, the increase of the daily and total water consumption, yield gains very significant statistically, the improve of the yields stability and yields quality, the increase of the water use efficiency. The use of the good soil management didn’t worsen the soil structure and the chemical  and biological parameters of the soil were improved. The researches sustain the irrigation opportunity for sustainable agriculture in the North-Western Romania.

  2. Metabolic alkalosis in children: Study of patients admitted to pediatrics center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhani A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic alkalosis is characterized by high HCO3- as it is seen in chronic respiratory acidosis, but PH differentiates the two disorders. There is no characteristic symptom or sign. Orthostatic hypotension may be encountered. Weakness and hyporeflexia occur if serum K+ is markerdly low. Tetany and neuromuscular irritability occur rarely. We report the results of retrospective data analysis of metabolic alkalosis in 15463 patients hospitalized Pediatric Medical Center in Tehran during years 1995-1997. We found 50 cases of metabolic alkalosis (rate of 0.32 percent. 64 precent male and 36 percent female. Most of them had growth failure (40% were bellow 3 percentile of height by age, 44% bellow 5 percentile of weight by height. More than 60 percent had hypokalemia, hypocloremia and hyponatremia. The most common cause of Metabolic alkalosis was cystic fibrosis and pyloric stenosis. Fifty percent of cystic fibrosis patients and Bartter cases had metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis should be considered in every pediatric patient presented with projectile vomitting.

  3. Development and Design of a Zero-G Liquid Quantity Gauge for a Solar Thermal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.; Taylor, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-g applications is described. The gauge, named the Compression Mass Gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of +/- 1% of tank volume. Southwest Research Institute (Tm) and NASA-GRC (Glenn Research Center) have developed several previous breadboard and engineering development gauges and tested them in cryogenic hydrogen and nitrogen to establish the gauge capabilities, to resolve several design issues, and to formulate data processing algorithms. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future X program for a flight demonstration on the USAF (United States Air Force) / Boeing Solar Thermal Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This paper reviews the design trade studies needed to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on CMG power, volume, and mass, and describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  4. Development and Design of Zero-g Liquid Quantity Gauge for Solar Thermal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steven T.; Petullo, Steven P.; VanDresar, Neil T.

    2002-01-01

    The development and design of a cryogenic liquid quantity gauge for zero-gravity (zero-g) applications are described. The gauge, named the compression mass gauge (CMG), operates on the principle of slightly changing the volume of the tank by an oscillating bellows. The resulting pressure change is measured and used to predict the volume of vapor in the tank, from which the volume of liquid is computed. For each gauging instance, pressures are measured for several different bellows frequencies to enable minor real-gas effects to be quantified and thereby to obtain a gauging accuracy of 11 percent of tank volume. The CMG has been selected by NASA's Future-X program for a flight demonstration on the United States Air Force-Boeing Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle Space Experiment (SOTVSE). This report reviews the design trade studies needed for the CMG to satisfy the SOTVSE limitations on its power, volume, and mass and also describes the mechanical design of the CMG.

  5. Saul Bellow’s Response to Nietzsche’s Ideas on Nihilism in The Victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Farshid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to expound Saul Bellow’s response to Nietzsche’s ideas on nihilism. The latter contends that the life-denying morality of Christianity has ultimately resulted in modern nihilism to solve which he propounds “active nihilism”. While “passive nihilism”, he argues, has darkened human life, the active one can save modern human, because it enables them to go beyond infertile moral judgments. In his second novel The Victim (1947 which portrays human anxieties in the modern era, Bellow comparatively asks his readers to confront nihilism, instead of ignoring it, and then make efforts to prevail over it, nevertheless the path he suggests differs from the one offered by Nietzsche. He depicts modern human’s predicament in The Victim by posing its central character in a disheartening situation, but concurrently shows his perturbed endeavors to discern a way to surmount that situation. Eventually he realizes that to divest himself out of that quandary, he must overcome his fear of death to salute life, and also to acknowledge the bond of human beings that creates in them a sense of responsibility toward each other. It is here that Bellow parts with Nietzsche who holds that elevation is only gained by the egotistic Overman. Keywords: modern predicament, the will to power, active nihilism, humanity  

  6. Degradation of organic matter in the sediments of Hongfeng Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhongqing; LIU Congqiang; LIANG Xiaobing; WANG Fushun; WANG Shaofeng

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the distribution of organic carbon, DNA and lipids in the sediments of Hongfeng Reservoir were described in addition to SO42- Profile in pore water. The contents of organic carbon in the sediments range from 23.3 to 76.8 mg·g-1, with the peak value appearing at the depth of 8 cm bellow the sediments water interface (SWI), and tend to decrease gradually with sedimentation depth. The concentrations of SO42- Decreased from 40.50 mg·L-1 to 12.00 mg·L-1 at SWI in top 4 cm sediment, and was kept at 12.0 mg·L-1 bellow that depth. Newly produced organic carbon can be conserved as long as 14 years in the sediments. The contents of DNA were relatively high in top 9 cm surface sediments, as revealed by agarose gel images, close to those of organic carbon and sulphate reduction index (SRI). This study shows that bacteria played an important role in organic matter degradation; SO42- is the primary electron acceptor under anaerobic condition in this reservoir; DNA in the lake sediments can provide important information for the study of cycling of nutrient elements in the lake.

  7. Interconnections 180

    CERN Multimedia

    180

    2013-01-01

    The LHC's main magnets operate at a temperature of 1.9 K (-271.3°C), colder than the 2.7 K (-270.5°C) of outer space. This ensures that the cables supplying power to the magnets operate in a superconducting state; they conduct electricity with no resistance. The cold magnets are insulated from the surrounding tunnel – kept at room temperature – with multiple layers of thermal insulation. Over the next 18 months, 1695 interconnections between LHC magnets will be opened and their insulation consolidated. In the video above, narrated by Jean-Philippe Tock of the Technology department, technicians demonstrate the process on an interconnection between spare LHC magnets. A "W bellows" system slides out of the way to reveal accelerator components inside. The technicians add aluminium sheeting and further insulating material before closing the W bellows for a leak-proof connection. The section is then brought to a pressure of 10-6 mbar, to further limit the possibility of heat leaks from the cold magnets. Insul...

  8. Enhancement of EAP actuated facial expressions by designed chamber geometry in elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.; Bergs, R.; Tadesse, Y.; White, V.; Priya, S.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, the authors explore various ways that designed chambering of elastomers can enhance electroactive polymer (EAP) actuation. Such enhancements include structuring of chambers for various mechanical functions and advantages, boosting of surface area of a polymer for enhanced ionic migration, construction of advanced electret foams for sensing and for tunable hydrophobicity for micro/pumping action, and distribution of composite EAP devices throughout the chambered elastomer to achieve discrete controllability of electroactive polymer actuators. The authors also discuss the chambering of EAP materials themselves for enhanced actuation effects. With varied design of the chambers of the elastomer, the mechanical and structural properties of the elastomer can be tuned to greatly enhance EAP actuation. The chambers can be designed in accordion-like bellows to achieve extreme elongation with low forces, in spiral geometries to effect negative or neutral poisson's ratio under actuation, and with embedded fluidic bellows for fluidic actuation or sensing. These are but a few examples of the advantages that can be achieved via designed chambering of elastomers. The authors also discuss various application uses of the described chambering technologies. Such chambered elastomers, combined with advanced muscle-like actuators, can substantially benefit facelike robots (useful for entertainment and education etc), prosthetics, and numerous modalities of bio-inspired locomotion. In the efforts of the authors to generate facial expression robots with low-power lightweight actuators is described.

  9. Internally shielded beam transport and support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to environmental concerns, the Advanced Photon Source has a policy that disallows any exposed lead within the facility. This creates a real problem for the beam transport system, not so much for the pipe but for the flexible coupling (bellows) sections. A complete internally shielded x-ray transport system, consisting of long transport lines joined by flexible coupling sections, has been designed for CARS sector 14 to operate either at high vacuum or as a helium flight tube. It can effectively shield against air scattering of wiggler or undulator white beam with proper placement of apertures, collimators, and masks for direct beam control. The system makes use of male- and female-style fittings that create a labyrinth allowing for continuous shielding through the flexible coupling sections. These parts are precision machined from a ternary hypereutectic lead alloy (cast under 15 inches of head pressure to assure a pinhole-free casting) then pressed into either end (rotatable vacuum flanges) of the bellows assembly. The transport pipe itself consists of a four part construction using a stepped transition ring (Z-ring) to connect an inner tube to the vacuum flange and also to a protective and supportive outer tube. The inner tube is wrapped with 1/16 double-prime pure lead sheet to a predetermined thickness following the shape of the stepped transition ring for continuous shielding. This design has been prototyped and radiation tested. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Water Level Gauging in a Tube by Using a Special Ultrasonic Shoe in an Immersion Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic pulse travels through the thickness of a material, then finally it is reflected by the back or inside surface, and it can be returned to a transducer. In most applications this time interval is only a few microseconds or less. The measured two-way transit time is divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path, and then multiplied by the velocity of the sound in a test material. The result is expressed by a well-known relationship as equation. In this experiment, a residual water level measurement in a bellow tube is obtained by using an immersion ultrasonic technique and a special UT probe attachment. This system was designed and fabricated for a convenient control in a water tank, which has a combination of a sensor and a position control function. The shoes are specially made with Lusite material which has the same shape as the bellows tube and then the immersion transducers are controlled by a 3-axis position control system, and it can be operated within a moving distance as small as 0.5mm. Certain specialized applications such as an underwater testing require a long cable between the transducer and the ultrasonic gauging target in an immersion tank

  11. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel

  12. Structural design of cryostat and port penetration of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary structural design of the ITER cryostat and port penetration based on concrete cryostat was conducted and the structural concept compatible with remote handling and nuclear shielding is proposed. The ITER cryostat was mainly composed of side wall, upper cover, upper port, horizontal port, vacuum port, cooling pipe penetration. The upper cover is designed to be fully detachable structure by remote handling for assembling/disassembling the poloidal field coils. In addition, the upper cover provides the biological shield for personal access for the blanket maintenance operation. The upper port is designed to meet the requirements of cooling pipe penetration, blanket maintenance and biological shield. The layout of the cooling pipe is defined by simple thermal stress analysis. There are 16 horizontal ports arranged around the cryostat to provide the access of heating and current drive system, fuel injection, blanket test modules, vacuum pump and remote handling manipulators. Each port should have the biological shield and bellows to prevent an excessive thermal stress due to thermal expansion. These bellows are non-circular cross-section and the reinforced structure to prevent buckling is proposed. A partial model of the seal mechanism applicable to large gate valves connected to the horizontal ports was fabricated and the basic performance under cyclic loading has been investigated. As a whole, the design concept of the cryostat and port penetration has been successfully developed and more detailed analysis and critical technology development will be conducted in the Engineering Design Phase. (author)

  13. The Self And Beyond: A Reading of The Fixer, The Centaur, And Henderson The Rain King The Self And Beyond: A Reading of The Fixer, The Centaur, And Henderson The Rain King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bornéo Funck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Toward the end of the three novels I'm going to discuss, the protagonists make the following statements. Eugene penderson, in Bellow's Henderson the Rain Xing, days: "Whatever gains I ever made were always due to love and nothing else." In Updike's The Centaur, George Caldwell realizes that "Only goodness lives. But it does live." And Yakov Bok in Malamud's The Fixer recognizes that "There's no such a thing as an unpolitical man." Isolated though they may be from the contexts in which they appear, these statements summarize appropriately enough the lessons learned by the three protagonists after periods of intense doubts and suffering. Toward the end of the three novels I'm going to discuss, the protagonists make the following statements. Eugene penderson, in Bellow's Henderson the Rain Xing, days: "Whatever gains I ever made were always due to love and nothing else." In Updike's The Centaur, George Caldwell realizes that "Only goodness lives. But it does live." And Yakov Bok in Malamud's The Fixer recognizes that "There's no such a thing as an unpolitical man." Isolated though they may be from the contexts in which they appear, these statements summarize appropriately enough the lessons learned by the three protagonists after periods of intense doubts and suffering.

  14. A novel mechanical lung model of pulmonary diseases to assist with teaching and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Geoffrey M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A design concept of low-cost, simple, fully mechanical model of a mechanically ventilated, passively breathing lung is developed. An example model is built to simulate a patient under mechanical ventilation with accurate volumes and compliances, while connected directly to a ventilator. Methods The lung is modelled with multiple units, represented by rubber bellows, with adjustable weights placed on bellows to simulate compartments of different superimposed pressure and compliance, as well as different levels of lung disease, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. The model was directly connected to a ventilator and the resulting pressure volume curves recorded. Results The model effectively captures the fundamental lung dynamics for a variety of conditions, and showed the effects of different ventilator settings. It was particularly effective at showing the impact of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP therapy on lung recruitment to improve oxygenation, a particulary difficult dynamic to capture. Conclusion Application of PEEP therapy is difficult to teach and demonstrate clearly. Therefore, the model provide opportunity to train, teach, and aid further understanding of lung mechanics and the treatment of lung diseases in critical care, such as ARDS and asthma. Finally, the model's pure mechanical nature and accurate lung volumes mean that all results are both clearly visible and thus intuitively simple to grasp.

  15. LS1 Report: the SMACC consolidation train is almost at its destination

    CERN Multimedia

    Simon Baird

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC, the remaining replacement magnets are now installed in their correct positions and awaiting reconnection. The SMACC project continues to advance and three quarters of the interconnect W bellows are now open. In sector 5-6 almost all the SMACC consolidation activities have been completed and the bellows are being closed again ready for testing.   The area around the PSB beam dump. The main part of the SMACC consolidation train is now completing the work on the interconnects in sector 6-7 and starting work in sector 7-8. In the LSS (Long Straight Sections), new equipment is being installed, such as the TCDQs at point 6 and collimators at point 1, and the first kicker at point 8 will be installed in September. The R2E activities at the LHC are also progressing well. At point 5 the new cable ducts have been successfully drilled and the installation of the new safe rooms is in progress. An important milestone was reached in mid-August when the clearance of the magnet transport vehicl...

  16. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemkens, Bjorn, E-mail: b.stemkens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tijssen, Rob H.N. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, Baudouin D. de [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); L' Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5251, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Heerkens, Hanne D.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Berg, Cornelis A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients.

  17. Optimizing 4-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Sampling for Respiratory Motion Analysis of Pancreatic Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the optimum sampling strategy for retrospective reconstruction of 4-dimensional (4D) MR data for nonrigid motion characterization of tumor and organs at risk for radiation therapy purposes. Methods and Materials: For optimization, we compared 2 surrogate signals (external respiratory bellows and internal MRI navigators) and 2 MR sampling strategies (Cartesian and radial) in terms of image quality and robustness. Using the optimized protocol, 6 pancreatic cancer patients were scanned to calculate the 4D motion. Region of interest analysis was performed to characterize the respiratory-induced motion of the tumor and organs at risk simultaneously. Results: The MRI navigator was found to be a more reliable surrogate for pancreatic motion than the respiratory bellows signal. Radial sampling is most benign for undersampling artifacts and intraview motion. Motion characterization revealed interorgan and interpatient variation, as well as heterogeneity within the tumor. Conclusions: A robust 4D-MRI method, based on clinically available protocols, is presented and successfully applied to characterize the abdominal motion in a small number of pancreatic cancer patients

  18. Non-standard vacuum hardware for an accelerator vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal sealed demountable joints of the LEP vacuum system have been proposed and designed in such a way that well-proven stainless steel components like pumps, valves, gauges or bellows could be joined without transition pieces onto the aluminium vacuum chambers. Important boundary conditions which were imposed by the operation parameters were corrosion and temperature resistance with the general demand for a high standard of reliability which had to be assured despite the considerable differential expansion caused by the dissimilar flange materials at elevated temperature. 2800 bellows compensate alignment tolerances and the length increase of the aluminium chambers during bake-outs. Their circular aperture would create 2800 cavities of an inadmissible transverse impedance. An inner screen has therefore been designed which provides a reliable electrical contact under all working conditions of LEP and which keeps the elliptical aperture of the beam path quasi-constant, such eliminating higher order mode losses, which would otherwise be induced by the passage of charged particles. The report describes the design and technology of these components and their performance in the ultra-high vacuum system of LEP. (author)

  19. The latest from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    All replacement magnets required for Sectors 3-4, 1-2 and 6-7 have now been cryostated. Work is continuing to cryostat six additional spare dipoles as a precautionary measure. In the tunnel work is well underway to open the W bellows - the large bellows between the magnets - in order to start cutting and welding work for installation of the new pressure release ports. In Sector 3-4 the campaign to repair the damaged ‘QRL jumpers’ is going ahead. The QRL line is the network of cryogenics piping that distributes the liquid helium throughout the tunnel. Every 100 m the distribution line is connected to the magnets through pipes known as ‘jumpers’. During the incident in Sector 3-4 last September, four ‘jumpers’ were damaged. One has now been completely repaired and the remaining three jumpers are currently being repaired and should be completed at a rate of one per week. The replacement magnet for the faulty dipole removed from Sector 1-2 has now been installed i...

  20. Real-time system for respiratory-cardiac gating in positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Macintosh-based signal processing system has been developed to support simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating on the ECAT EXACT HR PET scanner. Using the Lab-View real-time software environment, the system reads analog inputs from a pneumatic respiratory bellows and an EGG monitor to compute an appropriate histogram memory location for the PET data. Respiratory state is determined by the bellows signal amplitude; cardiac state is based on the time since the last R-wave. These two states are used in a 2D lookup table to determine a combined respiratory-cardiac state. A 4-bit address encoding the selected histogram is directed from the system to the ECAT scanner, which dynamically switches the destination of tomograph events as respiratory-cardiac state changes. to Test the switching efficiency of the combined Macintosh/ECAT system, a rotating emission phantom was built. Acquisitions with 25 msec states while the phantom was rotating at 240 rpm demonstrate the system could effectively stop motion at this rate, with approximately 5 msec switching time between states

  1. The Irradiation Test Results of the Creep Capsule(04S-23K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kim, B. G.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Kang, Y. H.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Seo, C. G

    2007-02-15

    This report includes the analysis of the irradiation test results of the 04S-23K creep capsule. The irradiation test of this capsule was performed for the HANARO 45 period operated in June, 2006. The fatigue test was performed at the specimen temperature of 600 .deg. C and the specimen stress of 253MPa. In this report, the temperature changes measured during an increase of the HANARO power was reported and analysed with the design values. In this report, the temperature changes measured during an increase of the HANARO power was reported and analysed with the design values. And the temperature change according to the content of a vacuum in the capsule was reported. The displacements were measured and analysed separately in the 4 specimen modules containing the stress loading unit and LVDT, and the cause for the abnormal signal occurred at some of the LVDTs was analysed to devise a proper measure. A high radiation was detected at the pool top radiation monitor by a backward flow of the air in the bellows due to the loss of the electric power in the capsule control unit. As a countermeasure, a purging of bellows before an irradiation test was suggested to be carried out.

  2. The Irradiation Test Results of the Creep Capsule(04S-23K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes the analysis of the irradiation test results of the 04S-23K creep capsule. The irradiation test of this capsule was performed for the HANARO 45 period operated in June, 2006. The fatigue test was performed at the specimen temperature of 600 .deg. C and the specimen stress of 253MPa. In this report, the temperature changes measured during an increase of the HANARO power was reported and analysed with the design values. In this report, the temperature changes measured during an increase of the HANARO power was reported and analysed with the design values. And the temperature change according to the content of a vacuum in the capsule was reported. The displacements were measured and analysed separately in the 4 specimen modules containing the stress loading unit and LVDT, and the cause for the abnormal signal occurred at some of the LVDTs was analysed to devise a proper measure. A high radiation was detected at the pool top radiation monitor by a backward flow of the air in the bellows due to the loss of the electric power in the capsule control unit. As a countermeasure, a purging of bellows before an irradiation test was suggested to be carried out

  3. Ultrahigh vacuum system with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakeable vacuum chamber (1500C continuous) consists of aluminum alloy beam pipe (6063-T6) and bellows (5052-F) with an aluminum alloy flange (2219-T87) and a metal seal [Helicoflex-HN: pure aluminum (1050) O-ring with an elastic core (Ni base super alloy Inconel 750) which supplies the sealing force] has been constructed. The beam pipe and the flange (6063-T6/2219-T87), and the bellows and the flange (5052-F/2219-T87) were welded by an alternate current (50 Hz) TIG process using an aluminum alloy filler wire (4043). The mechanical properties of the aluminum alloy (2219-T87) is suitable for using the Helicoflex O-ring but the groove surface for the gasket is weak for scratching. Cromium-nitride coating by ion plating method was carried out on the aluminum surface of the gasket groove [thickness: 16 μm, micro Vickers hardness: 1800]. Ordinary stainless steel vacuum system can be replaced by the aluminum vacuum system in an accelerator. (author)

  4. System for ultra high vacuum made of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the system for ultra high vacuum made of aluminum alloys for proton and electron synchrotron. This is the first system for ultra high vacuum in which bakable metal seal flange and small diametral bellows of aluminum alloys have been put to practical use. The system consists of the flange protected by a CrN thin film and made of 2219-T87 alloy, the chamber made of 6063-T6 alloy, the aluminum metal gasket of Helico Flex and the bellows made of 5052 alloy. As a result of experiments at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), it had been confirmed that this system shows the special qualities of ultra high vacuum operation, resistance to hard radiation and baking and cooling operations. Up to now, this system has been widely used for the beam lines of the booster synchrotron utilization facility, K1, K2, linac, PI 1 and EP2-B extension of the KEK proton synchrotron. We investigate that this system is applicable to nuclear energy utilization facility and general vacuum apparatus. (author)

  5. Pipeline design and thermal stress analysis of a 10kW@20K helium refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D.; Gong, L. H.; Xu, P.; Liu, H. M.; Li, L. F.; Xu, X. D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the devices and pipeline in the horizontal cryogenic cold-box of a 10kW@20K helium refrigerator developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Four devices, six valves, supporting components and pipe lines are positioned in the cold-box. At operating state, the temperature of these devices and pipeline is far below the room temperature, and the lowest temperature is 14K. Due to different material and temperature, the shrinkage of devices and pipes is different. Finite element analysis software SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION was used to numerically simulate the thermal stress and deformation. The results show that the thermal stress of pipe A is a little large. So we should change the pipe route or use a bellows expansion joint. Bellows expansion joints should also be used in the pipes connected to three of the six valves to protect them by decreasing the deformation. At last, the effect of diameter, thickness and bend radius on the thermal stress was analyzed. The results show that the thermal stress of the pipes increases with the increase of the diameter and the decrease of the bend radius.

  6. Continuous Flow - Cavity RingDown Spectroscopy Using a Novel Universal Interface for High-Precision Bulk 13C Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Nabil; Richman, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the world's first optical spectroscopy-based system for bulk stable isotope analysis of 13C. The system is based on a novel universal interface, named LIAISON, capable of coupling to almost any CO2-generating sample preparation front-end ranging from an elemental analyzer to any dissolved carbon analysis module, which are of significant use in geochemical, ecological and food authentication studies. In one specific application, we have coupled LIAISON to an elemental analyzer (EA) and to a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) for 13C isotopic analysis of adulterated honey samples. Another application was developed to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in water samples. LIAISON is suited for handling a high-throughput sample analysis process by running three different gas handling operations in parallel: Admitting combustion gas from the EA into a first gas bellows, analyzing the previous sample collected into a second gas bellows with CRDS, and flushing and purging a third gas bellows in preparation for the upcoming sample collection operation. The sample-to-sample analysis time is 10 minutes and the operation is completely automated for the whole front-end auto-sampler tray capacity, requiring no operator intervention. The CRDS data are collected, tabulated and saved into an output text file. The memory effect between the USGS L-Glutamic acid standard at natural abundance and the moderately enriched USGS L-Glutamic acid standard is excluded by the selection of the adequate number and duration of flush and purge cycles of the gas sample bags. The system's proven accuracy was cross-checked with EA-IRMS and its achieved precision was typically less than 0.2 permil, including the 13C-enriched tested samples. The LIAISON-CRDS system presented here provides a fully automated solution for 13C bulk stable isotope analysis with unprecedented ease-of-use and possible field portability and application with the availability of a compact front-end. In

  7. Pneumatic locking device for magnetic bearing reaction wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Michel; da Costa, Arlindo

    2003-09-01

    Due to the launch vibration environment, the use of locking device is necessary for large or heavy mechanisms. This remark is true in particular for the inertial actuators like magnetic bearing reaction wheels. These actuators have a rotor that is in magnetic levitation without any contact with the stator. Locking device is mandatory to maintain the rotor during the launch vibrations. To avoid contact between rotor and stator during the functional phase, the link created by the locking device must be completely released. This article presents a pneumatic locking device with pyrotechnical sub-systems that have been realised by "ALCATEL Space Industries" for the reaction wheels development in the frame of a CNES satellites family. The first paragraph presents the wheel functioning and briefly describes the Electro-mechanical components of the reaction wheel. The second paragraph describes a device based on a metallic bellows ring. A nitrogen pressure in the ring allows pushing the rotor against the stator. The rotor release is obtained by drilling the system tubing with a pyrotechnic valve. The third point describes the qualification tests and the resulting data. Some functional tests are made in warm and cold case with the locking device in order to improve some mechanical characteristics including the locking effort generated and the leakage rate. Launch vibrations and thermal tests have been realised and the good functioning of the mechanism is proven. At the end of these tests, the qualification has been pronounced. The device is now implemented within the reaction wheel. This equipment should flight in 2004. The next paragraph presents the works realised under CNES Research and Technology contract. The objectives were the characterisation of metallic bellows and some technological studies to improve the knowledge of the mechanical and functional characteristics of these elements. The first study was to create a Finite Element model of a bellow in order to

  8. Flow-induced vibration signal analysis of the FIV test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibration spectrums of the test loop according to flow conditions were analyzed in order to identify the sources of vibration at peak frequencies. While a flow condition of the sweep test was changed by varying pump rotational speed from 450 rpm to 1500 rpm by the step 150 rpm, mid span acceleration of the test section in width-direction and dynamic pressure perturbation in the test section were measured. Other sources of vibration due to the flow structure interactions, such as acoustic resonance, blade pulsing frequency and bellows wrinkles, were investigated. Pressure perturbation in the section and acoustic resonance due to branch pipe give major effects to the vibration of the test section in high frequency range of 1.5 kHz to 2.8 kHz

  9. Pickering NGS A: Assessment of calandria tube integrity following a sudden pressure tube failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of calandria tube integrity following a sudden rupture of the pressure tube in Pickering NGS A reactor is addressed. Based on operating experience, only fish-mouth ruptures of the pressure tube are considered to be credible. The calandria tube response to the pressure tube break is delineated into three distinct stages, i.e. the initial transient response during the annulus filling stage, transient overpressurization and the final steady-state loading after bellows failure. The annulus response in the second stage is dominated by a waterhammer type overpressure transient with attenuation of this transient due to plastic straining of the calandria tube. The annulus pressure transients for various breaks and the sensitivity of the results to various parameters are presented. The strength margins of the calandria tube are evaluated to be relatively large. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations

  11. LHC Vacuum Upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M; Chiggiato, P; Cruikshank, P; Gallilee, M; Garion, C; Gomes, P

    2012-01-01

    The last two years of LHC operation have highlighted concerns on the levels of the dynamic vacuum in the long straight sections in presence of high intensity beams. The analysis of the existing data has shown relationship between pressures spikes and beam screen temperature oscillations or micro-sparking in the RF fingers of the bellows on one side and coincidence of pressure bumps with stimulated desorption by electron cloud, beam losses and/or thermal out gassing stimulated by higher order modes (HOM) losses. The electron cloud mitigation solutions will be adapted to the different configurations: cold/warm transitions, non-coated surfaces in direct view of beams, photoelectrons, etc. All scenarios will be presented together with their efficiencies. Additional pumping and reengineering of components will reduce the sensitivity of the vacuum system to beam losses or HOM inducing out gassing. The expected margin at nominal intensity and energy resulting from these consolidations will be summarized. Finally, th...

  12. Optical absorption of boron nitride nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical absorption spectra have been measured for hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), rhombohedral BN(rh-BN), and material obtained by laser vaporization of BN target under a nitrogen atmosphere and contained single-wall BN-nanotubes. Band gap of the BN materials was found to have a value of 6.0-6.3 eV. The spectra of h -BN and vaporized material exhibited a peak at ∝5.5 eV, moreover, the latter sample showed an absorption band around 4.5 eV. The vaporized material has been fractionated to the BN-platelets and single-wall BN-nanotubes. Absorption peaks, located bellow the bottom of the conductance band, were found to be characteristics of thin BN-platelets and they could be attributed to defects in BN network. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Graphite high temperature creep rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of two high temperature tensile creep rigs, for irradiating pyrocarbon and graphite specimens. PIRITHOOS is a creep rig operating at 1100 deg C and utilizing three in line pyrocarbon specimens. These have different cross sections giving three stress values. Unstressed specimens are placed close to the tensile ones. Dimensional measurements: length, thickness, width are made in hot cells, after each reactor shut down. FLACH is a graphite creep rig allowing continuous length measurement, to be made in comparison with the length of two reference specimens. These rigs consists of two main parts: the creep capsule including: specimens, loading bellow, microwave measuring apparatus, which is introduced into a standard gas gap furnace regulating the temperature by gas mixture and electrical heating

  14. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2004-01-01

    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, gamma->alpha' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of gamma->alpha' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced ...

  15. Constitutive modelling of stainless steels for cryogenic applications. Strain induced martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2001-01-01

    The 300-series stainless steels are metastable austenitic alloys: martensitic transformation occurs at low temperatures and/or when plastic strain fields develop in the structures. The transformation influences the mechanical properties of the material. The present note aims at proposing a set of constitutive equations describing the plastic strain induced martensitic transformation in the stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The constitutive modelling shall create a bridge between the material sciences and the structural analysis. For the structures developing and accumulating plastic deformations at sub-zero temperatures, it is of primary importance to be able to predict the intensity of martensitic transformation and its effect on the material properties. In particular, the constitutive model has been applied to predict the behaviour of the components of the LHC interconnections, the so-called bellows expansion joints (the LHC mechanical compensation system).

  16. Vorticity production and survival in viscous and magnetized cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dosopoulou, F; Tsagas, C G; Brandenburg, A

    2011-01-01

    We study the role of viscosity and the effects of a magnetic field on a rotating, self-gravitating fluid, using Newtonian theory and adopting the ideal magnetohydrodynamic approximation. Our results confirm that viscosity can generate vorticity in inhomogeneous environments, while the magnetic tension can produce vorticity even in the absence of fluid pressure and density gradients. Linearizing our equations around an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, we find that viscosity adds to the diluting effect of the universal expansion. Typically, however, the dissipative viscous effects are confined to relatively small scales. We also identify the characteristic length bellow which the viscous dissipation is strong and beyond which viscosity is essentially negligible. In contrast, magnetism seems to favor cosmic rotation. The magnetic presence is found to slow down the standard decay-rate of linear vortices, thus leading to universes with more residual rotation than generally anticipated.

  17. Cornell Electron Storage Ring phase-III interaction region vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two 115 in. long copper ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chambers for the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) interaction region were fabricated. These chambers are a part of the phase-III upgrade project for the CESR storage ring. They incorporate several novel features including a remotely engaging differentially pumped Viton O ring sealed UHV flange, two rf shielded bellows joints, and inner stepped masking for synchrotron radiation. The fabrication of these chambers incorporates multistage electron beam welding to maintain the strict tolerance required for installation through superconducting and permanent quadrupole magnets. Before final welding, a series of electron beam welding setup tests were done to work out a welding procedure for optimizing the welding parameters and avoiding contamination in the weld zone. In this article we will describe the design, fabrication, welding, leak checking, and final UHV performance testing of these chambers

  18. Success in the pipeline for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The very heart of any LHC experiment is not a pixel detector, nor a vertex locator but a beam pipe. It is the site of each collision and the boundary where the accelerator and experiment meet. As an element of complex design and manufacture the CMS beam pipe was fifteen years in the making and finally fully installed on Tuesday 10 June. Watch the video! End cap beam pipe installation in the CMS detector. Central beam pipe installation.The compensation modules were the final pieces to take their places in the cavern at Point 5: "These are like bellows," says Wolfram Zeuner, Deputy Technical Co-ordinator for CMS. "They allow us to compensate for the change in length when we heat or cool the beam pipe. And they are the very last elements; beam pipe installation, which began last year, is now complete." The beam pipe is neither too fragile nor too bulky, but just right to satisfy the conflicting n...

  19. Impact of the Revolution´s Programs in Cienfuegos Dental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Alpízar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revolution´s Programs in Stomatology are part of a strategy to improve oral health of the population and the quality of the dental services. Objective: To asses the impact of Revolution´s Programs in the primary dental services in Cienfuegos. Methods: Retrospective, longitudinal study evaluating the tendencies of dental services markers of municipalities of Cienfuegos before and after the intervention between 2000 and 2007. Results: The effectiveness in Stomatology services improved in more than 100% in 2007 compared with 2005; the good use of prosthesis increased in 100%; the assistance covering and resolution index for persons over 60 years and bellow 19 increased lineally, reaching values similar to those of the first years of the studied period. Conclusions: The impact of the Revolution’s Programs was positive since the performance of the studied markers was superior after the intervention.

  20. Application of LabVIEW-EPICS in measuring and monitoring system of BEPCII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introducing application and development of EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is depicted in this article. EPICS can run on not only Vxworks but also Win32, Linux et al. By using the LabVIEW-EPICS interface on Win32 platform, the temperature of vacuum chamber, photo-absorber and RF bellows of Beijing Electron Position Collider is monitored and measured, then transfer the temperature data to database of EPICS/IOC. OPI in center room can show current temperature, store the historical data by channel access, and alarm when temperature is higher than threshold. Now, the prototype of monitoring and measuring Temperature of BEPCII has been finished, and the system software is being developed. (authors)

  1. A Theoretical investigation on HC Mixtures as Possible Alternatives to R134a in Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a theoretical comparison of the performance of refrigerants in use in a vapor comparison cycle. It is about the phase-out of R134a from actual refrigeration system, comparison being performed for this chemical and two more ecological mixtures: R290/R600a described as (30/70 and (40/60. Were investigated effects of condensation temperatures and evaporation temperatures on performance measures as COP (Coefficient of Performance and VCC (volumetric cooling capacity. COP is a measure of the performance of the refrigeration cycle, while VCC is an indicator of compressor size. Results of this study will reveal that R290/R600a (30/70 is a good option when it is about substitution of R134a, from energy efficiency point of view, in terms of COP. R290/R600a (40/60 has VCC values bellow the ones of R134a, but comparable.

  2. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  3. Inner Structure of Black Holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: the role of mass inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interior dynamics of accreting black holes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity using the homogeneous approximation and taking charge as a surrogate for angular momentum, showing that accretion can have an enormous impact on their inner structure. We find that, unlike in general relativity, there is a minimum accretion rate bellow which the mass inflation instability, which drives the centre-of-mass streaming density to exponentially high values in an extremely short interval of time, does not occur. We further show that, above this threshold, mass inflation takes place inside black holes very much in the same way as in general relativity, but is brought to a halt at a maximum energy density which is, in general, much smaller than the fundamental energy density of the theory. We conjecture that some of these results may be a common feature of modified gravity theories in which significant deviations from general relativity manifest themselves at very high densities.

  4. THE ROLE OF THE LANGUAGE IN THEOLOGICAL MAKING Elements of Rahner’s legacy regarding literature and poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lussi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by presenting some elements of analyses on theological language and its relevance to theological making, beginning from the philosophical impulse of the 20th century, especially those of Heidegger, Gadamer and Ricoeur. Theology, conversing with literature, values its language as a place where the words not only communicate, but also happens as an event, a gathering and even as a place for God’s experience. Elements of Rahner’s legacy regarding the magnitude of poetry as a privileged place for God’s Word occurrence are set out bellow, given that poetry “is the grace which works on men”. For Rahner, literature, and especially poetry, promote the ability of making the human happen; therefore, theology develops its aptitude of making the event of the Word happen, which has to do with the meaning of theology as “life’s hermeneutic”.Keywords: Theological language, poetry, literature, Karl Rahner.

  5. A Large-Format Imaging Optics System for Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental power couplers for superconducting accelerator applications like the ILC are complicated transmission line assemblies that must simultaneously accommodate demanding RF power, cryogenic, and cleanliness constraints. When these couplers are RF conditioned, the observed response is an aggregate of all the parts of the coupler and the specific features that dominate the conditioning response are hard to determine. To better understand and characterize RF conditioning phenomena toward improving performance and reducing conditioning time, a high-power coupler component test stand has been built at SLAC. Operating at 1.3 GHz, this test stand was designed to measure the conditioning behavior of select components of the TTFIII coupler independently, including outer-conductor bellows, tube transitions, copper plating, surface preparations, and cold window geometries and coatings. A description of the test stand, the measurement approach, and a summary of the results obtained so far are presented.

  6. Emprego do carvão ativado para remoção de cobre em cachaça Using activated carbon to remove copper from sugar cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de J. Boari Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper content is of great concern among sugarcane-spirit producers. It is released from copper-made distillers, during the distillation process. Activated carbon has been used to remove copper. However, depending on the amount of carbon and the duration of reaction, it can also remove higher alcohols and esters, which are important in the final product. A sugarcane spirit with 9 mg L-1 of copper was shaken with 2 to 26 g L-1 of activated carbon, during 10 to 1440 minutes. Then, copper and organic compounds were measured. At least 12 g L-1 of carbon and 60 min shaking time were necessary to decrease copper bellow 5 mg L-1. However, other components of the product were also affected.

  7. Design and development of radiation absorber for sighting beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the commissioning of Indus-2 , it is necessary to view the synchrotron radiation that will be emanating from the dipole exit ports. The 100 beam line from dipole 11 was earmarked for sighting beam line. The synchrotron radiation power density would be around 340 watts on the photon absorber inside the radiation absorber module, at the specified beam power of Indus-2. The beam striking on this photon absorber produces x-rays and Bremsstrahlung radiation. These are to be stopped and absorbed by radiation absorber. The photon absorber and the radiation absorber are integrated in a single vacuum chamber and actuated by a pneumatic cylinder connected using a bellow. Radiation absorber was needed to isolate the diagnostic components and to protect them from radiation a well as heat when they were not in use. The paper describes the design, calculation and development of the dynamic photon cum radiation absorber. The ultimate vacuum performance is also described. (author)

  8. Excavation of shafts and research galleries at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Construction work of MIU part 4. Construction progress report, fiscal year 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report, in fiscal year 2010-2011. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned in 2010-2011: the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. The safety patrol report is based on defects recording by the safety manager of the Geoscience Facility Construction Section. Regarding the plan and actual performance of the construction work of MIU part IV (March 16, 2010 - March 15, 2012) performance carried out from April 1, 2010 until March 15, 2012 is described in this report. The attached appendices have been provided: regarding content in the excavated material bellowing the environmental standards, technical specifications of fiscal year 2010-2011 in construction work of MIU part IV, also photos of construction activities. (author)

  9. Estudo ultra-estrutural do esôfago de Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega (Pisces, Siluriformes, Trichomicteridae Ultrastructural study of the oesophagous of Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega (Pisces, Siluriformes, Trichomicteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Lima Pinheiro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogenes longipinnis (Britski & Ortega, 1983 is a leather fish restricted to the rivers on the shore in the southeast of Brazil. In this work, the oesophagous structure is being showed. The oesophagous appears itself short, dorsally inclinated toward pericardium and ventrally covered by liver lobe. By electron microscopy we can observe a mucosa layer formed by stratified squamous epithelium and lamina propria with stratum compactum. The epithelium is composed by three types of cells: superficial squamous cells; mucous cells, similar to the globet cells and polyhedric cells. The stratification of this epithelium provides a complete basal layer of proliferation polyhedric cells. The cells in the intermediate region of the epithelium are also polyhedric. These cells are just bellow the superficial squamous cells and packed among mucous cells.

  10. First photon-shutter development for APS insertion device beamline front ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Nian, H. L. Thomas; Wang, Zhibi; Collins, Jeffrey T.; Ryding, David G.; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1993-02-01

    One of the most critical components on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) insertion device (ID) beamline front ends is the first photon shutter. It operates in two modes to fully intercept the high total power and high-heat-flux ID photon beam in seconds (normal mode) or in less than 100 ms (emergency fast mode). It is designed to operate in ultra high vacuum (UHV). The design incorporates a multi-channel rectangular bar, bent in a `hockey stick' configuration, with two-point suspension. The flanged end is an articulated bellows with rolling hinges. The actuation end is a spring-assisted, pneumatic fail-safe flexural pivot type. The coolant (water) channels incorporate brazed copper foam to enhance the heat transfer, a tube technology particular to the APS. The design development, and material aspects, as well as the extensive thermal and vibrational analyses in support of the design, are presented in this paper.

  11. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely 67 Ga and 139 Ce. Small activities of 111 In were produced by the α bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the 111 In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given

  12. Experience of operating the large vacuum system of the KEKB collider. High stored current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the KEK B-factory, an electron-positron collider which consists of two storage rings intersecting at the collision point has been running in operation since December 1998. The ring has a circumference of 3016 m, and its vacuum chambers are mainly made of copper. Until July 2001, a fill with the initial current of 940 mA positron and 730 mA electron was established and the world record luminosity was achieved. Before the goal currents of 2.6 A positron and 1.1 A electron are achieved, the effect of high beam current has been emerging. The effect of electron cloud became evident especially in the LER. Some bellows were found to be warmed by the TE mode of beam induced fields. Direct damage by beam is seen at the surface of the movable mask. An indirect effect of the high beam current passing close to a vacuum seal is also observed. (author)

  13. Development of input power coupler for ERL main linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing the 1.3GHz 9-cell superconducting cavities for realizing the ERL under the collaboration between KEK, JAEA, ISSP, and other institutes. A power coupler is designed for the ERL main linac superconducting cavity. Estimated input power is about 20kW for 20MV/m ERL operation. This coupler is based on the STF-BL input coupler, which adopts the TRISTAN type coaxial coupler, and some modifications are applied for the CW 20kW power operation. Now we are developing the high power coupler test stand to carry out the components test of the ceramic windows and bellows by using a 30kW IOT. In this paper, we report the design strategy of the input power coupler for ERL main linac and the recent status of the high power coupler test stand. (author)

  14. Status of the Tidal Regenerator Engine for nuclear circulatory support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the annular version of the Tidal Regenerator Engine, a packaged energy system for nuclear powered circulatory support systems was developed. Net power output of approximately 3 watts is delivered using a 33-watt heat source for an engine module volume of 0.7 liter and a weight of 1.6 kg. A higher efficiency dual cycle version of the annular engine using a Dowtherm A topping cycle on the basic steam cycle is also under development. Projected system output using this advanced engine is 5 watts for the same sized heat source. Life testing of critical components has demonstrated substantial reliability improvement over earlier designs. Of particular significance is the continuing operation of a complete implantable engine system after 1200 hours. Component life testing is continuing with over five thousand hours accumulated on two pump actuators employing welded metal bellows

  15. Stop and regulating valves for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers on developing stop and regulating valves and selecting material for these valves are reviewed. The main technical requirements of the radiochemical production to the valves are: the fluid stream velocity of 0.2-10000 l/s, remote exchange, one year lifetime or 15O00 cycles, the pressure and temperature of the fluid up to 0.6 MPa and up to 120 deg C. It is presupposed to use 03Cr18Ni12 and 03Cr18Ni12MO2-3 type steels for these valves. The CrWCO type lining materials for the working medium of nitrogen acid are acknowledged unfit. Significantly better anticorrosion properties are found for the electrodes with the 1Cr18Ni Mo2-5 Mn2-4 type lining. The bellow valve design meets the suggested technical requirements most fully. Two perspective projects of the valve of this type are presented

  16. Wave Damping over a Perforated Plate with Water Chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shutang

    2006-01-01

    The movement of waves propagating over a horizontally submerged perforated plate with waterfilled chambers bellow the plate was investigated by using linear potential theory. The analytical solution was compared with laboratory experiments on wave blocking. The analysis of the wave energy dissipation on the perforated bottom surface shows that the effects of the perforated plate on thewave motion depend mainly on the plate porosity, the wave height, and the wave period. The wave number is a complex number when the wave energy dissipation on the perforated plate is considered. The real part of the wave number refers to the spatial periodicity while the imaginary part represents the damping modulus. The characteristics of the wave motion were explored for several possible conditions.

  17. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  18. Comparison of sodium zirconium phosphate-structured HLW forms and synroc for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of (a) Cs/Sr as simulated heat-generating isotopes contained in Purex reprocessing waste, (b) simulated actinides, and (c) simulated Purex waste in sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been studied. The samples were prepared by sintering, by hot pressing and by hot isostatic pressing in metal bellows containers. The short-term chemical durability of the phosphate-based material containing Purex waste was within an order of magnitude of that for Synroc-C, as measured by 7-day MCC-1 tests at 90 degrees C. The dissolution behavior showed evidence of re-precipitation phenomena, even after times as short as 28 days. Potential for improvement of NZP-based ceramics for HLW management is discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Release of peppermint flavour compounds from chewing gum: effect of oral functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.;

    2004-01-01

    During chewing, the oral cavity functions like a bellow, forcing volatile flavour compounds into the exhaling air to the nasal compartment. Accordingly, we hypothesised that flavour release from chewing gum is predominantly governed by chewing frequency (CF), although other oral functions, like...... masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup...... comprised three separate series of a 4-min chewing period. These series differed only with respect to CF, i.e., habitual frequency, and 60 and 88 strokes/min. Results showed that more than 50% of the released menthol and menthone could be retrieved in the expired air and saliva. After 2-min of chewing, the...

  20. o caso Kalunga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Alves Marinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attitude and practices of each actor of the ethnic-maroon field generate possibilities and institutional constraints that guide the senses of the residents of the Kalunga community, based upon the will of their respective habitus that have been formed historically, but circumvented by the knowledge accessed throughout the ontogenetic development. It is these networks of interdependence that will be analyzed below in order to understand how knowledge is acquired and settled in an environment of struggles between guidelines that either aim to satisfy the rationalist and interested markets’ demands of the liberal mold, generating false recognition in a formalistic perspective of equality, or that seek to enhance the particularity of these groups in an attempt to generate recognition and autonomy of their identity, in a communitarian perspective of multiculturalism, which supports the creative economy. The struggles between these two approaches bring challenges to the management of this emergent sector, which will be analyzed bellow.

  1. TRAC L reactor model: Geometry review and benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the Design Basis Loss of Coolant Acident (LOCA) for Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors involves the best estimate reactor system thermal-hydraulics code TRAC-PFI/MOD1. Power levels for the L-3.1 and P-10.2 subcycles were determined based, in part, on TRAC analyses of the first few seconds of a plenum inlet break LOCA. The TRAC code is currently being used to analyze reactor system response for the Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) LOCA, the Expansion Joint Bellows Break LOCA, the Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA), and the Pump Shaft Break event. Currently, the DEGB LOCA analysis is performed with TRAC only for the flow instability (FI) phase of the accident. This analysis provides input to the determination of operating power limits for the K-14.1 subcycle

  2. Investigation on the reliability of expansion joint for piping with probabilistic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of the plant size is necessitated as one of the major targets in LMFBR design. Usually, piping work system is extensively used to absorb thermal expansion between two components anywhere. Besides above, expansion joint for piping seems to be attractive lately for the same object. This paper describes the significance of expansion joint with multiple boundaries, breakdown probability of expansion joint assembly and partly the bellows by introducing several hypothetical conditions in connection with piping. Also, an importance of in-service inspection (ISI) for expansion joint was discussed using a comparative table and probabilities on reliability from partly broken to full penetration. In conclusion, the expansion joint with ISI should be manufactured with excellent reliability in order to cope with piping work system; several conditions of the practical application for piping systems are suggested. (author)

  3. Electronic structure of ZnO and its defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The electronic structure of ZnO and its native point defects has been calculated using full potential linear Muffin_tin orbital (FP_LMTO) method for the first time. The results show that Zn3d electrons play an important role in the bonding of ZnO. Vacant Zn (VZn) and interstitial O (Oi) produce the shallow acceptor levels at 0.3 eV and 0.4 eV above the top of the valence band (VB), while interstitial Zn (Zni) produces a shallow donor level at 0.5 eV bellow the bottom of the conduction band (CB). However, Vacant O (Vo) produces a deep donor level at 1.3 eV below the bottom of CB. On the basis of these results, we confirm that Zni is the main factor to induce the native n_type conductivity in ZnO.

  4. Beam Vacuum Interconnects for the LHC Cold Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Veness, R J M; Gröbner, Oswald; Lepeule, P; Reymermier, C; Schneider, G; Skoczen, Blazej; Kleimenok, V; Nikitin, I N

    1999-01-01

    The design of the beam vacuum interconnect is described in this paper. Features include a novel RF bridge design to maximise lateral flexibility during cryostat Cold arcs of the LHC will consist of twin aperture dipole, quadrupole and corrector magnets in cryostats, operating at 1.9 K. Beam vacuum chambers, along with all connecting elements require flexible 'interconnects' between adjacent cryostats to allow for thermal and mechanical offsets foreseen during machine operation and alignment. In addition, the beam vacuum chambers contain perforated beam screens to intercept beam induced heat loads at an intermediate temperature. These must also be connected with low impedance RF bridges in the interconnect zones.alignment and so-called 'nested' bellows to minimise the required length of the assembly.

  5. Reducing the SPS Machine Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Paul; Guinand, R; Jiménez, J M; Rizzo, A; Spinks, Alan; Weiss, K

    2002-01-01

    The SPS as LHC Injector project has been working for some time to prepare the SPS for its role as final injector for the LHC. This included major work related to injection, acceleration, extraction and beam instrumentation for the LHC beams [1]. Measurements carried out with the high brightness LHC beam showed that a major improvement of the machine impedance would also be necessary [2]. In addition to removing all lepton related components (once LEP operation ended in 2000), the decision was made to shield the vacuum system pumping port cavities. These accidental cavities had been identified as having characteristic frequencies in the 1-1.5GHz range. Since the SPS vacuum system contains roughly 1000 of these cavities, they constitute a major fraction of the machine impedance. As removal of the ports and associated bellows is not possible, transition shields (PPS) had to be designed to insert within the pumping port cavities.

  6. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  7. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage to light water reactor metal containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a generic procedure for estimating aging damage, evaluating structural integrity, and identifying mitigation activities for safe operation of boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I metal containments and ice-condenser type pressurized water reactor (PWR) cylindrical metal containments. The mechanisms of concern that can cause aging damage to these two types of containments are corrosion and fatigue. Assessment of fatigue damage to bellows is also described. Assessment of corrosion and fatigue damage described in this paper include: containment design features that are relevant to aging assessment, several corrosion and fatigue mechanisms, inspection of corrosion and fatigue damage, and mitigation of damage caused by these mechanisms. In addition, synergistic interaction between corrosion and fatigue is considered. Possible actions for mitigating aging include enhanced inspection methods, maintenance activities based on operating experience, and supplementary surveillance programs. Field experience related to aging of metal containments is reviewed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented

  8. Determinação de resíduos de cloranfenicol em amostras de leite e mel industrializados utilizando a técnica de espectrometria de massas em "tandem" (CLAE-EM/EM Determination of chloramphenicol residues in industrialized milk and honey samples using LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Alves Martins Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP antibiotic in milk, powder milk and honey. The solid phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction were applied as a clean-up and pre-concentration strategies followed by LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The recovery was studied for different fortification levels from 0.05 to 1.00 µg L-1 in milk, showing values between 91 101% and RSD bellow 8.0%, while honey was spiked with a concentration of 0.20 µg kg-1 yelding a mean recovery of 83% and RSD of 6.5%. The quantification transition 321>152 showed a LOD of 0.52 ng kg-1 and LOQ of 1.85 ng kg-1.

  9. Halden IASCC programme activities for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes two new investigations on IASCC, which begin in 1996. In one of the investigations (IFA 618) the initiation of cracks in pressurised tube specimens prepared from common structural component materials 304, 316 and 347 SS is being studied as function of stress level and fluence. In the second investigation (IFA 612) the benefits of hydrogen additions in suppressing crack growth also in materials with high accumulated fluence are addressed. Bellows loaded Compact Tension specimens, fabricated from irradiated 304 and 347 SS, and instrumented for in-pile crack growth monitoring are being used in the study. Also described are plans for the validation of miniaturised three point bend specimens which are expected to be used in the future test programme together with already qualified crack growth sensors and the evaluation of the electrochemical noise technique which is to be used in conjunction with pressurised tube specimens in crack initiation studies. (author)

  10. HRS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  11. ALEGEREA MIJLOACELOR DE COMUNICARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Vit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the material bellow are presented promotional materials that can be used for theadvertising of organizations, products and services offered by them. Also there aredisplayed the advantages and disadvantages of each one. There is a wide range ofcomunication mediums, that can be used by the organizations that wish to promote theirown products and services. These include external mediums of comunication: the printedpress, television, radio, cinematografy, and also internal means like direct corespondence.An efficient comunication program of an organization takes notice of the strenghts ofcertain products and services, promotes the brand and creates and edge for the organization.The comunication medium that the organization chooses depends on budget, the targetedaudience and chosen objectives.

  12. Pressure and temperature fluctuation simulation of J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Ohtsu, K.; Aso, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system provides supercritical cryogenic hydrogen to the moderators at a pressure of 1.5 MPa and temperature of 18 K and removes 3.8 kW of nuclear heat from the 1 MW proton beam operation. We prepared a heater for thermal compensation and an accumulator, with a bellows structure for volume control, to mitigate the pressure fluctuation caused by switching the proton beam on and off. In this study, a 1-D simulation code named DiSC-SH2 was developed to understand the propagation of pressure and temperature propagations through the hydrogen loop due to on and off switching of the proton beam. We confirmed that the simulated dynamic behaviors in the hydrogen loop for 300-kW and 500-kW proton beam operations agree well with the experimental data under the same conditions.

  13. The effect of phosphorus application and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and symbiotic N fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment consisting of seven treatments and six replications was arranged in a randomized block design. The objectives of experiment were to study the effect of phosphorus placement and liming in corn and soybean intercrop on the plant yield and the amount of N fixed symbiotically by soybean. Results obtained shows the grain yield of soybean was influenced significantly by phosphorus placement, but corn was not. Fertilizer which was banded in the plant rows bellow seeds shows the higher grain yield of soybean that those broad-casted and incorporated with the soil or banded near the plant rows. Liming increased grain yield of soybean or corn as much as 31 percent higher than without lime. Lime also increased the amount of soybean N obtained from symbiotic N fixation. The partitioning of plant N requirement from soil, fixation, and fertilizer were subsequently 58, 36 and 6 percent. (author). 14 refs

  14. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  15. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  16. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Frank [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  17. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  18. Safety indicators in borehole disposal of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory (RWML) at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is developing the concept of a geological repository adequate for the Brazilian inventory of disused sealed radioactive sources. Sealed sources are numbered to hundreds of thousands, have increasingly been used in industry as well as in medical applications in the last decades, and are believed to have a growing number of applications in the near future. The concept of repository under development is a borehole, drilled to a depth of some four hundred meters bellow ground surface in the crystalline bedrock, preferably in the same site of the national low-level waste disposal facility. In this paper, we present the work being carried out at RWML to identify safety indicators and explore their use as a tool to demonstrate the safety of a borehole disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources in Brazil. (author)

  19. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide review manuals and technical database for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. A research programs have been conducted based on a contract with well-equipped organization since F.Y.2006. Four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant, which have experienced many corrosion problems. TOKAI plant is the pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec. 1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr. 2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. (author)

  20. EPS Confidentiality and Integrity mechanisms Algorithmic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Orhanou, Ghizlane; Bentaleb, Youssef; Laassiri, Jalal

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Evolution of UMTS is one of the latest steps in an advancing series of mobile telecommunications systems. Many articles have already been published on the LTE subject but these publications have viewed the subject from particular perspectives. In the present paper, a different approach has been taken. We are interested in the security features and the cryptographic algorithms used to ensure confidentiality and integrity of the transmitted data. A closer look is taken to the two EPS confidentiality and integrity algorithms based on the block cipher algorithm AES: the confidentiality algorithm EEA2 and the integrity algorithm EIA2. Furthermore, we focused on the implementation of both algorithms in C language in respect to the specifications requirements. We have tested our implementations according to the testsets given by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) implementation document. Some examples of the implementation tests are presented bellow.

  1. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station——Technical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2007-01-01

    This is the 3 rd topic of "A series dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station", which focuses on the technical characteristics. The type of this Nuclear Power Station is a Russian AES-91 (WWER-1000/V428) pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power unit. It is an improved concept by the Russian Saint Petersburg Nuclear Power Research and Design Institute based on the experiences in design, construction and operation of WWER-1000/V320 units. Since WWER-1000/V320 is a mature type which has more than 260reactor-year operation experiences, the author guesses the technical characteristics of WWER-1000/V320 are well known, thus the comparison of their technical characteristics is described bellow.

  2. Anaesthesia for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Bilateral Bullous Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sahajanandan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS has become an accepted modality for chronic pulmonary emphy-sema. Bilateral involve excision of emphysematous alveoli, which results in a 20% to 30% reduction in the volume of each lung. The goal of LVRS is to improve the respiratory mechanics in severe emphysema by re-expanding func-tional lung tissue that has been compressed by over-distended emphysematous alveoli, thus restoring diaphragmatic mobility and improving the bellows function of the chest wall structures. Anaesthesia for LVRS is a significant challenge to the anaesthetist as a result of high risk patient population and the nature of surgery. Management requires good understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and surgical procedure. Close co-ordination be-tween the anaesthetist, surgeon and other support staff are of paramount importance.

  3. Application of CAESAR II in nuclear pipelines stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines system is the important component of nuclear power plant. Its disposal and support decide force state and may influence the safety of the whole equipment. The stress analysis model is set up by CAESAR II and used to analyze the pipelines system of No.1 unit in Daya Bay nuclear power plant. The invalid cause of part bellows type expansion joint is found by this means. The calculation of this model is corresponded with actual measurement. The disposal and support project of pipelines system are regulated based on the calculations. It is shown that the appropriate model set up by CAESAR II can be used in pipelines stress analysis of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  4. Development of vacuum components for the project of x-ray free electron laser (XFEL/SPring-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several new vacuum components have been developed for the XFEL/SPring-8 project. Vacuum waveguide flanges were successfully developed. These flanges provide both RF seal and vacuum seal. The vacuum seal mechanism of these flanges can make seal completely even with a deep scratch on the gasket. Solid-lubricated clean bolt and nut were developed for this flange to avoid organic dust pollution in the vacuum that induces RF discharge. A small RF contact for 28 mm inside diameter bellows was developed. This free ends structure RF contact can move freely in all directions and realize large displacement. The vacuum system of in-vacuum type undulator that commonly used in the accelerators is also described briefly. (author)

  5. City gates: commissioning and start-up; Comissionamento e pre-operacao de estacoes de entrega de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Cipriano Homem; Roz, Fabio da; Batista Filho, Jaire Medeiro; Pinto, Jose Eduardo Christovao [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Owner and sole operator in Brasilian territory of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline (GASBOL), the largest of its kind in South America, TBG started operations on July 1 st, 1999. Since then, it has ensured transportation of Bolivian natural gas into Brazil swiftly and safely. This paper relates the TBG experiences on Natural Gas City Gates commissioning and pre-operation. It describes the maintenance and operation vision from the phases of the implementation project since the documents analysis and going through the risks analysis, works permissions, area liberation to gasification, calibration, and equipment adjusts. The special conditions related to the beginning of operation is also described: Consumption bellow the City Gate specification and relationship with the distribution concessionaire. (author)

  6. A cryogenic valve for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, L. J.; Spivak, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Space-compatible cryogenic valves are now required to operate between room and liquid helium temperatures. A remotely controllable cryogenic valve is described, which is made of bellows-type stainless steel and is operated by a miniature dc motor with integral gearset (485:1) at a nominal voltage of 28 Vdc. The power transmission provides a further reduction of 7.2:1 to give an overall gear ratio of nearly 3500:1, assuring reliability of operation at low temperatures. Valve performance (leak rate) data are presented at LN2, LHe, and SfHe temperatures at delivered torques of 18, 27, 31, and 35 N-m. At a closing torque of 31 N-m, a leak rate of 0.028 scc/sec was achieved at 2 K, while at a torque of 18 N-m the leak rate at 300 K was less than 3 x 10 to the -9th scc/sec.

  7. Air riding seal for a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Brown, Wesley D; Sexton, Thomas D; Jones, Russell B

    2016-07-19

    An air riding seal between a rotor and a stator in a turbine of a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is movable in an axial direction within a housing that extends from the stator, and a bellows is secured to the annular piston to form a flexible air passageway from a compressed air inlet through the annular piston and into a cushion cavity that forms an air riding seal between the annular piston and the rotor sealing surface. In another embodiment, a flexible seal secured to and extending from the annular piston forms a sealing surface between the annular piston chamber and the annular piston to provide a seal and allow for axial movement.

  8. Development of hard-seal gate valve and fast shutter for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 600 mm hard-seal valve and a fast shutter for the JT-60 Neutral Beam Injector were developed. The 600 mm hard-seal gate valve was fabricated and tested for 500 cycles at various temperatures of up to 2500C. In consequence, requirements of the endurance and vacuum tightness were satisfied. Major components of the fast shutter, i.e., swing action bellows and a high-speed pneumatic cylinder, were tested for 30,000 cycles, and their reliability was confirmed. Then the fast shutter was fabricated and tested. The test result indicated that the fast shutter fully satisfied the requirements of the molecular gas flow conductance and opening/closing speed. (author)

  9. Uni axial tensile graphite creep capsules with continuous strain registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two irradiation devices are described for the in pile measurement of tensile irradiation creep of graphite. In each machine a single sample is maintained under a controlled load by a pneumatic bellows system. Irradiation creep is measured relative to unstressed reference shells which surround the stressed sample. This differential strain is detected by linear displacement transducers, and recorded automatically by the out of pile installation. Irradiation temperatures are in the 800 to 11000C range, and the stresses up to 60% of the U.T.S. One machine has been specifically designed for a flux change experiment, other irradiation parameters remaining fixed. Temperature control is achieved through varying gas mixtures in control gas gaps. The paper details the design principles of the machines and gives an account of the cold and hot commissioning tests. (Auth.)

  10. Uni axial tensile graphite creep capsules with continuous strain registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two irradiation devices are described for the in pile measurement of tensile irradiation creep of graphite. In each machine a single sample is maintained under a controlled load by a pneumatic bellows system. Irradiation creep is measured relative to unstressed reference shells which surround the stressed sample. This differential strain is detected by linear displacement transducers, and recorded automatically by the out of pile installation. Irradiation temperatures are in the 800 to 11000C range, and the stresses up to 60% of the U.T.S. One machine has been specifically designed for a flux change experiment, other irradiation parameters remaining fixed. Temperature control is achieved through varying gas mixtures in control gas gaps. The paper details the design principles of the machines and gives an account of the cold and hot commissioning tests, with particular reference to the accuracy of the in pile measuring system. Finally, the early irradiation experience is evaluated

  11. GO-DEVILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-01-28

    This patent relates to a device normally termed a godevil for use in clearing pipes of sludge, and in particular describes an arrangement for housing a radioactive source within a go-devil whereby the source is removed from a radioactivity shield for detection purposes only when the go-devil is in use. In the described go-devil the radioactive source is housed in a member attached to a piston. Under normal pressure conditions the piston is forced in a direction to position the source within a lead shield. A bellows senses the pressure external to the go-devil and acts through a hydraulic line to force the piston in a direction to remove the source from the shield as long as the pressure is above a pre-set value.

  12. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the 3He solute in a superfluid 3He--4He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid 4He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the 3He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the 3He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the 3He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs

  13. Simultaneous deposition of carbon nanotubes and decoration with gold-palladium nanoparticles by laser-induced forward transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Federico; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Souza Carmona, Nicolás; Roble, Martín; Ramos-Moore, Esteban; Diaz-Droguett, Donovan E.; Mücklich, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Decorating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoparticles has proved to be an intelligent approach to improve the gas adsorption properties of CNTs for the development of new sensors, including hydrogen sensors. However, in order to take advantage of this hybrid structure, methods are needed that ensure a proper decoration and the fabrication of small features without compromising the sensing surface. Within this paper, we report a novel technique to simultaneously decorate multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold-palladium nanoparticles and transfer them to a substrate by laser-induced forward transfer using femtosecond laser pulses. The nanoparticles decorating the MWCNTs present a spherical shape with a Feret diameter bellow 200 nm. The nanoparticle size can be tuned by varying the amount of pulses within the transfer. Finally, hydrogen adsorption showed up to a 20-fold increase compared to a sample composed of non-transferred, non-decorated MWCNTs.

  14. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  15. Rotary filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, David T.; Maxwell, David N.

    2011-04-19

    A rotary filtration apparatus for filtering a feed fluid into permeate is provided. The rotary filtration apparatus includes a container that has a feed fluid inlet. A shaft is at least partially disposed in the container and has a passageway for the transport of permeate. A disk stack made of a plurality of filtration disks is mounted onto the shaft so that rotation of the shaft causes rotation of the filtration disks. The filtration disks may be made of steel components and may be welded together. The shaft may penetrate a filtering section of the container at a single location. The rotary filtration apparatus may also incorporate a bellows seal to prevent leakage along the shaft, and an around the shaft union rotary joint to allow for removal of permeate. Various components of the rotary filtration apparatus may be removed as a single assembly.

  16. Step brazing a multi-target TRAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of a target holder for a multi-target transmission anode x-ray tube (TRAX) involved joining of five different materials. The TRAX will generate a nearly mono-energetic x-ray beam useful for instrument calibration and dosimetry studies. Each of three different targets will provide a different energy. The design will allow the experimenter to place a different target in front of the electron beam without breaking vacuum each time. The procedure is described for attaching three 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) diameter targets - made of tungsten, gold and uranium 238 (D-38) - to an OFHC copper support bar. The joining of the copper bar to a welded stainless steel bellows and flange is also described

  17. Beam splitting mirror for advanced photon source sector 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insertion device beamline at APS sector 34 is intended for tandem operation of two, high brilliance, experimental stations. Each station will require only a small fraction of the total cross-sectional area of the undulator beam, allowing both to operate simultaneously without compromise. A Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXD) station will be supplied with pink beam from a horizontally reflecting, beam splitting mirror, while a Micro-Focus Diffraction (MFD) station will operate with white beam that passes beside the mirror. Use of a mirror as a beam splitter requires good thermal and mechanical stability from the mirror and its associated positioning system. The mirror substrate is liquid nitrogen cooled to minimize the thermal bump and increase its thermal conductivity. The principal motions of the mirror (2 translations, 2 rotations) are handled outside the chamber and passed into vacuum via two sets of bellows

  18. Preliminary Guideline for the High Temperature Structure Integrity Assessment Procedure Part I. High Temperature Structure Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, S. H

    2007-02-15

    A preliminary guideline for the design and evaluation of LMR high temperature structure is presented based upon ASME B and PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The main contents of this guideline are the materials, general design, vessel, piping, core support structure, pumps, valves, fabrication, examination, and testing for the class 1 components. The ratcheting evaluation, enhanced creep assessment, welds design and evaluation, inelastic analysis approach, piping design alternatives, and bellows design method are described in appendices. A user of this guideline should follow the essential procedures and may refer to other pertinent codes, standards, laws, regulations, or other pertinent documents when this guideline does not lead to proper design of the structure. While this guideline adopts major procedures of Subsection NH, it refers to the RCC-MR and/or DDS in some amount for the items where these codes have excellency to improve this guideline.

  19. Development of a controlled-distance electrochemistry arrangement to be used in power plant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the state-of-the-art of the controlled-distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement developed at VTT. Due to the possibility to control accurately the distance between two electrodes, the CDE arrangement makes possible electrochemical measurements in poorly-conductive media such as simulated coolants of light water reactor systems. This experimental arrangement has now been developed into a versatile electrochemical tool, which can be used for thin-layer electrochemistry (TLEC), wall-jet ring-disc and contact electric impedance (CEI) as well as contact electric resistance (CER) measurements. This report comprises results from the years 1997-1999 and summarises the different possible TLEC configurations and electrode locations as well as the development of a bellows-driven CDE system. (orig.)

  20. 自我·他者·责任--《受害者》中的伦理思想之管见%Self,Others,Responsibility-On Ethical Ideas in The Victim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀兰

    2014-01-01

    In The Victim ,Saul Bellow dramatically represented the conflicts between Asa Leventhal and Kirby Allbee ,reflected the plight in human life ,explored the meaning of life ,displayed such ethi-cal ideas as the moral choices ,loving others and social responsibilities of the individual .%在《受害者》中,贝娄通过戏剧性地展现主人公阿萨·莱文撒尔(Asa Leventhal)和科比·阿尔比(Kir-by Allbee)之间的冲突,揭示人类生活的困境,探索人生的意义,表现出贝娄坚信人本善良、爱人类和个人负有社会责任等积极入世的伦理思想。

  1. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  2. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  3. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  4. Modern methods for designing air spring systems; Moderne Verfahren zur Auslegung von Luftfedersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeyer, A.; Massmann, C. [ContiTech Luftfedersysteme GmbH, Hannoverr (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The performance of air spring systems is only partly determined by the actual spring element, the air. The dynamic properties of air spring systems are, on the one hand, essentially dependent on the properties of the rubber mixture employed and the textile reinforcement of the bellows wall and, on the other hand, on the interaction of the different components of the air spring system to be considered in the design of a modern vehicle suspension system. The authors present a number of calculation methods for a rough prediction of the system performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Federverhalten von Luftfedersystemen wird nur zu einem Teil durch das eigentliche federnde Medium, die Luft, bestimmt. Wesentlichen Anteil an den dynamischen Eigenschaften von Luftfedersystemen hat einerseits das Verhalten der eingesetzten Gummimischung und der Textilverstaerkung in der Balgwand, andererseits das Zusammenspiel der unterschiedlichen Systemkomponenten der Luftfederung, das bei der Auslegung einer modernen Fahrzeugabfederung zu beruecksichtigen ist. Die Authoren stellen einige Berechnungsmethoden zur naeherungsweisen Vorhersage des Systemverhaltens vor. (orig.)

  5. Elastoplastic fracture mechanics approach for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural materials used for LMFBR are austenitic steels from Type AISI 304, 316, or steels which are similar. Investigations show that a leak-before-break concept can be established for LMFBR piping systems and components, due to the ductile behaviour of these steels and operating conditions. A major element of this concept is the knowledge of fatigue crack growth patterns. The experiments which were carried out show that initial flaws will only grow slowly during the lifetime. The investigations should be extended into the plastic range. A test facility is under construction, where components such as nozzles, elbows and bellows can be tested under operational conditions with specified flaws in stress concentration areas. (author)

  6. PIE of a failed rod from IFA 597.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two rods in IFA 597.2 were refabricated from fuel rod 33-25065 irradiated in Ringhals 1. The irradiation of the father rod in Ringhals was prolonged to 'two lives' to reach high burnup. The objective of the test at Halden was to study the thermal behaviour and the fission gas release of high burnup commercial BWR-LWR fuel. The rods in the test were instrumented with fuel centreline thermocouples and bellows pressure transducers. Fuel rod 5 in IFA 597.2 failed during the test at Halden. The failed rod was transported to Studsvik for post irradiation examination. The main purpose of the examination was a study of the failure. The examination of the failed rod, described in this paper, was financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (author) (ml)

  7. Development of an in vitro bioassay method to determine the intake q natural thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and economic method for analytical determination of the Th-232 concentration in excreta samples (urine and feces) was developed, using Th-229 as a tracer. Solvent extraction followed by alpha spectrometry was employed. The minimum activity detectable for urine samples was (0,36 ± 0,05) mBq/dm3 and for fecal samples (0,52 ± 0,12) mBq/dm3. Two groups of persons were analyzed. The first one, A, contituted by persons non ocupationally exposed and the second one, B, by workers ocupationally exposed. The results of thorium concentration in excreta samples from group A were compared with the daily excretion due to alimentary diet of thorium and the results obtained from the second group were compared with the limits of excretion derived from the annual limits of intake recommended by the ICRP. All the samples analyzed showed thorium concentration levels bellow the limits recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  8. Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Bordalo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26‰ and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90‰ and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have delta87Sr‰ around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.

  9. Investigation on the reliability of expansion joint for piping with probabilistic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of the plant size if necessitated as one of the major target in LMFBR design. Usually, piping work system is extensively used to absorb thermal expansion between two components anywhere. Besides above, expansion joint for piping seems to be attractive lately for the same object. This paper describes about the significance of expansion joint with multiple boundaries, breakdown probability of expansion joint assembly and partly the bellows by introducing several hypothetical conditions in connection with piping. Also, an importance of inservice inspection (ISI) for expansion joint was discussed using by comparative table and probabilities on reliability from partly broken to full penetration. In the conclusion, the expansion joint with ISI should be manufactured with excellent reliability in order to cope with piping work system, and several conditions of the practical application for piping systems are suggested. (author)

  10. Can the new resonance at LHC be a CP-odd Higgs boson?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečirević, D.; Bertuzzo, E.; Sumensari, O.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2016-06-01

    A plausible explanation of the recent experimental indication of a resonance in the two-photon spectrum at LHC is that it corresponds to the CP-odd Higgs boson. We explore such a possibility in a generic framework of the two Higgs doublet models (2HDM), and combine mA ≈ 750 GeV with the known mh = 125.7 (4) GeV to show that the charged Higgs boson and the other CP-even scalar masses become bounded from bellow and from above. We show that this possibility is also consistent with the electroweak precision data and the low energy observables, which we test in a few leptonic and semileptonic decay modes.

  11. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  12. Development of High RF Power Delivery System for 1300 MHz Superconducting Cavities of Cornell ERL Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Belomestnykh, S A; Medjidzade, V; Padamsee, H; Veshcherevich, V G

    2004-01-01

    Development of a 150 kW CW RF power delivery system for 1300 MHz superconducting cavities is under way at Cornell University in collaboration with MEPhI. The system is based on a twin-coupler consisting of two identical coaxial antenna-type couplers derived from the TTF-3 input coupler design. Because the average power is much higher than in the TTF-3 coupler, the required coupling is stronger and we wanted to avoid multipacting phenomena, major changes were made to the prototype design. Presented coupler has completely redesigned cold part and significantly improved cooling of warm bellows. The results of thermal and mechanical stress calculations are reported. The magnitudes and phases of RF fields applied to each side of the twin-coupler must be very close to each other. This imposes very strict requirements upon a power dividing system. These requirements and proposed layout of a system satisfying them are discussed.

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Anodic Functionalities and Processes in LSCM-CGO-Ni Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2015-07-17

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize anode compositions made of (La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) and gadolinia doped ceria (CGO) with and without additional submicron Ni, or exsoluted Ni nanoparticles. In addition, the effects of the anode gas flow rate and the working temperature were investigated. Higher content of the ionic conductor leads to a decrease of the impedance in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 Hz. The effect of the catalyst component was investigated while keeping the electronic conductivity unchanged in the tested materials. Enhanced catalytic activity was demonstrated to considerably decrease the impedance especially in the frequency range between 100 Hz to 1 Hz. The change in the gas flow rate affects mainly the impedance bellow 1 Hz. © The Electrochemical Society.

  14. Incorporation of high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from recent process-engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisioned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository

  15. Ecotoxicological monitoring at CEA - Centro Experimental Aramar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental preservation has been one of the major targets of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), since its foundation. The research center is located near Ipero, SP, and is maintained by Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo - CTMSP. An Environmental Monitoring Program is developed with many types of matrices being periodically collected and analysed, including all the gaseous and liquids emissions liberated by the facilities. Besides radiometric and chemical analysis we have been testing bioassays for the effluents to accomplish the new recommendations from governmental agencies. The microcrustacean Daphnia similis has been tested in toxicity assays on liquid effluents and the garden plant Tradescantia pallida has been used to assess the genotoxicity effects from gaseous emissions. The results show that liquid and gaseous emissions from CEA are bellow the regulatory levels. (author)

  16. Ecotoxicological monitoring at CEA - Centro Experimental Aramar; Monitoramento ecotoxicologico no CEA - Centro Experimental Aramar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiolo, Sandra Regina; Machado, Alessandra Carla Fattori Ergesse [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sandra@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; alessan@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2005-07-01

    The environmental preservation has been one of the major targets of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), since its foundation. The research center is located near Ipero, SP, and is maintained by Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo - CTMSP. An Environmental Monitoring Program is developed with many types of matrices being periodically collected and analysed, including all the gaseous and liquids emissions liberated by the facilities. Besides radiometric and chemical analysis we have been testing bioassays for the effluents to accomplish the new recommendations from governmental agencies. The microcrustacean Daphnia similis has been tested in toxicity assays on liquid effluents and the garden plant Tradescantia pallida has been used to assess the genotoxicity effects from gaseous emissions. The results show that liquid and gaseous emissions from CEA are bellow the regulatory levels. (author)

  17. Retrofit of a Rubotherm ISOSORP® 2000 for PVT-x and sorption measurements at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. A.; Leachman, J. W.; Blackham, T. M.; Penoncello, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Type V composite storage tanks have significantly increased the working pressures of cryogenic systems for aerospace applications. However, the current operating pressures often exceed the range of available mixture property models and measurements. The majority of cryogenic mixture property measurements are historical, having not been reviewed in over 40 years, which represents a growing problem. This paper describes the retrofit of an established Rubotherm ISOSORP® 2000 dual-sinker densimeter for cryogenic service. Design of a cryostat with vibration-isolation bellows to minimize vibration from the pulse-tube cryocooler is presented. Parasitic heat load calculations are provided to estimate the minimum operating temperature. The system is capable of achieving pressure up to 30 MPa. The design and anticipated capabilities of the experimental system are described.

  18. Modern nuclear medicine methods as a topic of biophysics in veterinary training at UVM in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)

  19. A semi-automatic method for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing commercial software often inadequately determines respiratory peaks for patients in respiration correlated computed tomography. A semi-automatic method was developed for peak and valley detection in free-breathing respiratory waveforms. First the waveform is separated into breath cycles by identifying intercepts of a moving average curve with the inspiration and expiration branches of the waveform. Peaks and valleys were then defined, respectively, as the maximum and minimum between pairs of alternating inspiration and expiration intercepts. Finally, automatic corrections and manual user interventions were employed. On average for each of the 20 patients, 99% of 307 peaks and valleys were automatically detected in 2.8 s. This method was robust for bellows waveforms with large variations

  20. Increasing nuclear safety and operational reliability by upgrading the charging pump mechanical sealing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowserve Corporation, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Nilsson, Peter [Flowsys Technologies AB, Moelndal (Sweden); Jehander, Magnus [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    For the Ringhals-2 nuclear power plant, three installed centrifugal pumps were designated to have a combined High Head Safety Injection function, as well as a Chemical Volume Control System function. The pumps were originally installed with rubber bellow type mechanical seals, which over time had demonstrated an unreliable sealing performance by displaying high leakages. In 2002, the Ringhals Maintenance engineers initiated to identify a more reliable and robust shaft sealing solution. In 2007, the project was launched and the installation of the first, new mechanical sealing solution took place in the autumn of 2011. In October 2014, these mechanical seals were dismantled and inspected. The inspection confirmed the expected reliability of the new solution.

  1. Comments on IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center for Ecotoxicological Researches of Montenegro participated last year in the IAEA-CU-2006-11 Proficiency Test on the Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Air Filters. Test was organized as a part of the IAEA Project RER/8/009 Air pollution monitoring in Mediterranean region. In our analyses of the test samples obtained from IAEA, we have found very obvious proofs that a significant quantity of radionuclides has been transferred from the inner filter papers - samples, to the outer - protective ones. For example, for Cs isotopes this transfer goes up to 40 % of the activity of a sample. The Test Report, published by IAEA, confirms indirectly our conclusion. It follows from that Report that the most of participating laboratories have had results which are bellow the 'exact' values given by the IAEA test organizers

  2. ANALYZING THE SILVER COINS FROM POTAISSA LEGIONARY FORT VS. ANCIENT TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Bogdan Gaspar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is centered on the study of Roman silver coins from the archaeological site of Potaissa using as its main source M. Pîslaru’s book “The Roman coins from Potaissa: legionary fortress and ancient town”.The book focuses on the presentation of analysis results of monetary finds coming from Potaissa area while the article presents a different approach to the subject, by integrating part of the results in graphs that show a close-up perspective for the monetary evidence in chronological periods.How this task was accomplished is explained bellow, in two chapters, one dedicated for the study of the two areas from Potaissa, legionary fortress and civilian town, and another dedicated for the study of private coin collections from all of Potaissa.

  3. Development of a Compact, Efficient Cooling Pump for Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boeyen, Roger; Reeh, Jonathan; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A compact, low-power electrochemically-driven fluid cooling pump is currently being developed by Lynntech, Inc. With no electric motor and minimal lightweight components, the pump is significantly lighter than conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps. Reliability and robustness is achieved with the absence of rotating or moving components (apart from the bellows). By employing sulfonated polystyrene-based proton exchange membranes, rather than conventional Nafion membranes, a significant reduction in the actuator power consumption was demonstrated. Lynntech also demonstrated that these membranes possess the necessary mechanical strength, durability, and temperature range for long life space operation. The preliminary design for a Phase II prototype pump compares very favorably to the fluid cooling pumps currently used in space suit primary life support systems (PLSSs). Characteristics of the electrochemically-driven pump are described and the benefits of the technology as a replacement for electric motor pumps in mechanically pumped single-phase fluid loops is discussed.

  4. Excited charmonium states from Bethe-Salpeter equation

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    We solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a system of a heavy quark-antiquark pair interacting with a screened linear confining potential. First we show the spinless QFT model is inadequate and fail to describe even gross feature of the quarkonia spectrum. In order to get reliable description the spine degrees of freedom has to be considered. Within the approximation employed we reasonably reproduce known radial excitation of vector charmonium. The BSE favors relatively large string breaking scale $\\mu\\simeq 350MeV$ . Using free charm quark propagators we observe that $J/\\Psi$ is the only charmonium left bellow naive quark-antiquark threshold $2m_c$, while the all excited states are situated above this threshold. Within the numerical method we overcome obstacles related with threshold singularity and discuss the consequences of the use of free propagators for calculation of excited states above the threshold.

  5. EXPERIENCE OF UTILIZATION OF CAPACITY BANKS AND SCHEMES OF FREQUENCY REGULATION IN MUNICIPAL CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM OF CHISINAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNEI M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper provides a brief summary of the district heating system of the municipality Chisinau, including heat power sources, heat distribution network, production and consumption development over the past two decades and other data. Also, the priority investment projects realized by JSC "Termocom" are being presented. The company had implemented an automated monitoring system for the heat power production, transportation and distribution. For many years, the company used bellows pipes with polyurethane insulation, ball valves and plate heat exchangers. 14 out of 21 district heating boiler stations were upgraded 10 were completely automated having as a result no further need in full-time duty personnel there. The experience gained in the implementation of capacity banks and frequency inverters, summarizing the benefits and achieved results, is also presented in the current paper. It is to be underlined that in 2011 the company achieved decrease in electricity consumption by about 30% in comparison with 2005.

  6. Thermal control of electronic equipment by heat pipes; Controle thermique de composants electroniques par caloducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, M.; Schneider, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme; Sartre, V.; Chaker Zaghdoudi, M.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Upresa CNRS

    1998-05-01

    In the frame of the BRITE-EURAM european programme (KHIEPCOOL project), a literature survey on the main beat pipe and micro heat pipe technologies developed for thermal control of electronic equipment has been carried out. The conventional heat pipes are cylindrical, flat or bellow tubes, using wicks or axial grooves as capillary structures. In the field of micro heat pipes, the component interconnection substrate. The best performances were achieved with Plesch`s axially grooved flat miniature heat pipe, which is able to transfer a heat flux of about 60 W.cm{sup -2}. Theoretical models have shown that the performance of micro heat pipe arrays increase with increasing tube diameter, decreasing tube length and increasing heat pipe density. The heat pipe technologies are classified and compared according to their geometry and location in the system. A list of about 150 references, classified according to their subjects, is presented. (authors) 160 refs.

  7. Intact soil-core microcosms for evaluating the fate and ecological impact of the release of genetically engineered microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Van Voris, P.; Li, S.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bentjen, S.A. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Intact soil-core microcosms were studied to determine their applicability for evaluating the transport, survival, and potential ecosystem effects of genetically engineered microorganisms before they are released into the environment. Soil-core microcosms were planted with wheat and maize seeds and inoculated with Azospirillum lipoferum SpBr17 and SpRG20a Tn5 mutants, respectively. Microcosm leachate, rhizosphere soil, plant endorhizosphere, insects, and xylem exudate were sampled for A. lipoferum Tn5 mutant populations. A. lipoferum TN5 populations, determined by most-probable-number technique-DNA hybridization, varied from bellow detection to 10{sup 6} g of dry root{sup {minus}1} in the rhizosphere, with smaller populations detected in the endorhizosphere. Intact soil-core microcosms were found to maintain some of the complexities of the natural ecosystem and should be particularly useful for initial evaluations of the fate of plant-associated genetically engineered bacteria.

  8. MRI of ventilated neonates and infants: respiratory pressure as trigger signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: motivated by the difficulties often encountered in the setup of respiratory trigger in MR imaging of mechanical ventilated pediatric patients, a simplified approach in terms of time and reliability was sought. Method: with the help of a male-to-male Luer-Lock adapter in combination with a 3-way adapter the tube of the respiratory compensation bellow was fixed to the output channel for capnography of the airway filter. Ten patients (age 4 months to 6 years) were tested with spin echo imaging and either respiration compensation (T1-weighted imaging) or respiratory triggered (T2-weighted imaging). Results: a clear trigger signal was achieved in all cases. No negative influence on the quality or security of the mechanical ventilation of the patients was observed. Summary: the proposed adapter is safe, efficient and fast to install in patients undergoing MR imaging in general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  9. 索尔·贝娄的生态观--小说《院长的十二月》的启示%SauL BeLLow’s EcoLogy View ReVeLation of Dean’s December

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍晓红; 李政文

    2015-01-01

    Saul Bellow voices his sound ecological criticism in his novels which displays his strong sense of urgency towards hu_man environment and his harmonious ecological view. His novel Dean’s December is an excellent example. The novel presents not only the alienation between man and nature,but also the profound alienation human being themselves in their confrontation and antagonism with nature. In the novel,Bellow calls for the establishment of a harmonious relationship between men and nature which helps to fundamentally change the natural and social environment,so that the relation between men and nature,men and society will enter into the track of healthy development,thus men can ultimately realize the“romantic return”to nature as well as the beautiful encounter between men and nature.%贝娄在其小说中发出了生态批评的声音,其作品呈现了他的和谐生态观以及他对人类生存环境所具有的强烈的忧患意识。小说《院长的十二月》就是一个极好的例证。小说不仅表现了人与自然关系的异化,而且表现了人在与自然的对抗中自我的深刻异化。贝娄在小说中呼唤通过建立一种人与自然的和谐关系,使得人与自然、人与社会关系走上良性发展的轨迹,实现人对自然的“浪漫式回归”、人与自然的美好相遇。

  10. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stephan A; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-08-01

    Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians. PMID:26246611

  11. Design and characterization of a movable emittance meter for low-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize and optimize the beam emittance compensation scheme [L. Serafini and J. B. Rosenzweig, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7565 (1997)] of the Sorgente Pulsata Autoamplificata di Radiazione Coerente project [D. Alesini et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 507, 345 (2003)] high brightness preinjector a system to accurately measure the beam rms emittance evolution downstream of the rf gun has been developed. Since in a space charge dominated beam the quadrupole-scan method is not applicable, a movable emittance measurement device has been built based on the pepper-pot technique. The device consists of a double system of horizontal and vertical slit arrays and a downstream screen, all installed on a longitudinally movable support equipped with bellows and spanning the ≅1.2 m long drift space between gun and first accelerating section. The system allows the measuring of the beam rms emittance all along the spanned region so as to accurately reconstruct its evolution along the beam trajectory. More than a simple improvement over more conventional beam emittance measurement tools this device defines a new strategy for characterizing high performance photoinjectors as it allows a detailed analysis of the beam behavior over a section of the accelerator where crucial beam shaping takes place. Numerical simulations of the measurement, mainly based on PARMELA [J. Billen, PARMELA Report No. LA-UR 96-1835, 1996 (unpublished)], have been used to estimate the achievable accuracy and to optimize the experimental setup. Wake field effects induced by the beam propagation through the bellows have also been investigated with HOMDYN [M. Ferrario et al., LCLS Report No. SLAC-PUB 84000, 1999 (unpublished)]. A series of laboratory tests to evaluate its performance has been carried out at LNF in Frascati. The system was then moved to DESY Zeuthen and installed on the Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ, for further testing with beam. Design criteria and tests carried out to

  12. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  13. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR's fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system's vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm2 density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner

  14. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  15. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  16. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described

  17. Design of the critical components in the ITER ECH upper launcher steering mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the ITER electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) antennae located in the upper port launcher will be to stabilize the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) by driving currents locally inside either the q=3/2 or 2 island. The ITER reference design uses a front steering (FS) concept with the moveable mirror close to the plasma. The FS launcher is capable of steering eight 2 MW beams via two sets of steering mirrors [R. Chavan, M. Henderson, R. Bertizzolo, J.-D. Landis, F. Sanchez, H. Shidara, The ECH front steering launcher for the ITER upper port, this conference. ]. In the adverse invessel operating conditions, reliable operation is required to guarantee the availability of the mirror steering mechanism during the 20-year lifetime of ITER. The dynamic performance and steering accuracy of the mirror system are essential for the localized beam power deposition. In order to increase the steering reliability and accuracy, traditional bearing and push-pull rods are avoided, which tend to introduce backlash or grip. The proposed frictionless and backlash free mechanism design uses elastically compliant structural components to guide and drive the rotating mirror. The actuator system is based on a pressure controlled helium filled bellows array working against a set of preloaded compressive springs. The radiation and temperature sensitive pressure control servovalves are located in the port duct behind the closure plate. Resistance to cyclic fatigue is the critical design requirement for compliant systems. In order to achieve the high reliability, four critical components are identified and described in detail. The bellows, the flexure pivots, the return springs and the spiral cooling tubes are the core elements of the mechanism allowing the controlled rotation of the mirror. Prototypes of the critical components are being tested. Corresponding analytical and cyclic fatigue numerical models of the compliant components are to be validated by fatigue bench

  18. Process development report: 0.40-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables

  19. The accurate simulation of the tension test for stainless steel sheet: the plasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The overall aim of this research project is to achieve the accurate simulation of a hydroforming process chain, in this case the manufacturing of a metal bellow. The work is done in cooperation with the project group for numerical research at the computer centre of the University of Karlsruhe, which is responsible for the simulation itself, while the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart is responsible for the material modeling and the resulting differential equations to describe the material behavior. Hydroforming technology uses highly compressed fluid media (up to 4200 bar) to form the basic, mostly metallic material. One hydroforming field is tube hydroforming (THF), which uses tubes or extrusions as basic material. The forming conditions created by hydroforming are quite different from those originated by other processes as for example deep drawing. That's why today's available simulation software is not always able to show satisfying results when a hydroforming process is simulated. The partners of this project try to solve this problem with the FDEM simulation software, developed by W. Schoenauer at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was designed to solve systems of partial differential equations, which in this project are delivered by the IFU. The manufacturing of a metal bellow by hydroforming leads to tensile stress in longitudinal and tangential direction and to bend load due to the shifting and rollforming process. Therefore as a first step, the standardized tensile test is simulated. For plastic deformation a material model developed by D. Banabic is used. It describes the plastic behavior of orthotropic sheet metal. For elastic deformation Hooke's law for isotropic materials is used. In permanent iteration with the simulation the used material model has to be checked for its validity and must be modified if necessary. Refs. 3 (author)

  20. Process development report: 0. 40-m primary burner system. [Spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.T.

    1978-04-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is required in reprocessing the graphite-based fuel elements from high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) cores. This burning process requires combustion of beds containing both large particles and very dense particles, and also of fine graphite particles which elutriate from the bed. This report documents the successful long-term operation of the 0.40-m primary burner in burning crushed fuel elements. The 0.40-m system operation is followed from its first short heatup test in September 1976 to a > 40-h burning campaign that processed 20 LHTGR blocks in September 1977. The 0.40-m perforated conical gas distributor, scaled up from the 0.20-m primary burner, has proven reliable in safely burning even the largest, densest adhered graphite/fuel particle clusters originating from the crushing of loaded fuel elements. Such clusters had never been fed to the 0.20-m system. Efficient combustion of graphite fines using the pressurized recycle technique was demonstrated throughout the long-duration operation required to reduce a high carbon fresh feed bed to a low carbon particle bed. Again, such operation had never been completed on the 0.20-m system from which the 0.40-m burner was scaled. The successful completion of the tests was due, in part, to implementation of significant equipment revisions which were suggested by both the initial 0.40-m system tests and by results of ongoing development work on the 0.2-m primary burner. These revisions included additional penetrations in the burner tube side-wall for above-bed fines recycle, replacement and deletion of several metal bellows with bellows of more reliable design, and improvements in designs for burner alignment and feeder mechanisms. 76 figures, 8 tables.

  1. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Tore supra (TS) has used from the beginning of operation in 1989 actively cooled plasma facing components. Since the operation and baking temperature of all in vessel components has been defined to be up to 230 deg. C at 40 bars, a special water chemistry of the cooling water plant was suggested in order to avoid eventual water leaks due to corrosion (general corrosion, galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion, etc.) at relative high temperatures and pressures in tubes, pipes, bellows, water boxes, coils, etc. From the beginning of TS operation, in vessel components (e.g. wall protection panels, limiters, ergodic divertor coils, neutralisers and diagnostics) represented a unique combination of metals in the hydraulic circuit mainly such as stainless steel, Inconel, CuCrZr, Nickel and Copper. These different materials were joined together by welding (St to St, Inconel to Inconel, CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to St-St via a Ni sleeve adapter), brazing (St-St to Cu and Cu-LSTP), friction (CuCrZr and Cu to St-St), explosion (CuCrZr to St-St) and memory metal junction (Cryo-fit to Cu - only test sample). Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralized water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/ 7.0 (25 deg. C/ 200 deg. C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 deg. C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal

  3. Effect of water on olivine single crystal plasticity, deformed under upper mantle condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J.; Chen, J.; Raterron, P. C.; Holyoke, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The earth upper mantle, mainly composed of olivine, is seismically anisotropic. Seismic anisotropy attenuation has been observed at 200km depth. Karato et al. (1992) attributed this attenuation to a transition between two deformation mechanisms, from dislocation creep above 200km to diffusion creep bellow 200km. This transition occurs because of hydroxyl concentration. Mainprice et al.(2005) predicted a change in LPO induced by a change of slip system, from [100] slip to [001] slip, though theoritical modeling. According to his study, pressure is the parameter inducing the slip system transition, which is responsible for the seismic anisotropy attenuation. Raterron et al. (2007) performed single crystal deformation experiment under anhydrous conditions and observe that slip system transition occurring around 8 GPa. However this pressure would correspond to 300km depth which doesn't match the seismic anisotropy attenuation depth, observed by seismologist. In this study, experiments have been performed to quantify the effects of water on olivine single crystals deformed using Deformation DIA press and synchrotron beam. Deformation was carried out in uniaxial compression along the so-called [110]c and [011]c crystallographic direction in order to activate [100](010) and [001](010) dislocation slip system respectively, at P ranging from 4 to 8GPa and T=1200°C. Both single crystals were loaded in the cell to directly compare their deformation in same condition of stress temperature and pressure. We used a sleeve (talc = enstatite + coesite + H2O) about the annulus of the single crystals as source of water in the assembly. Stress and specimen strain rates were calculated by in-situ X-ray diffraction and time resolved imaging, respectively. By direct comparison of single crystals strain rates, we observed that [110]c deform faster than [011]c bellow 5GPa. However above 6GPa [011]c deform faster. This revealed that [100](010) is the dominant slip system bellow 5GPa, and

  4. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil; Caracterizacao dos processos geoquimicos atuantes na mobilizacao de radionuclideos e metais na bacia de rejeitos do complexo minero-industrial de Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Patricia Freitas

    1995-08-01

    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and {sup 238} U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. {sup 226} Ra and {sup 210} Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO{sub 4} was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the

  5. Preparation for the Proof of Concept Flight of the Veggie Plant Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Morrow, Robert; Hummerick, Mary; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Veggie is a small plant growth chamber designed and built by ORBITEC that will fly to the International Space Station on SpaceX-3, scheduled for the summer of 2013. Ultimately Veggie will be used for research, education and outreach, and crew recreation. We want to demonstrate the functionality of this hardware by testing a scenario that could allow the crew to grow and consume fresh vegetables. Veggie will be collapsed and transported flat in a cargo transfer bag, and deployed on orbit, where it will be installed in an EXPRESS rack. The chamber consists of three subsystems: an LED light cap, a transparent bellows, and a root mat reservoir assembly. The bellows and flexible support arms allow the distance between plants and light cap to be adjusted for different ages and types of plants. Researchers at Kennedy Space Center and ORBITEC have been working to develop the plant growth interfaces for the proof of concept flight. We have developed a rooting pillow, consisting of a small bag containing media, time release fertilizer, seeds, and a wicking surface to conduct water from the root mat reservoir. Prototype pillows have been tested and results have influenced the design of flight pillows, which will be modified for microgravity from flight-approved materials. Several studies have been conducted selecting species and comparing media types in analog systems. Water content seems to be the most important factor differentiating media types in these small growth volumes (100 mL). Media type also influenced microbial levels on plants. Since produce sanitizing agents are not currently approved for growing food crops on orbit, plants and media types having very low microbial levels are being selected. Lettuce, mizuna, and other salad greens typically have microbial counts less than 10(exp 4) colony forming units and thus are good candidates for spaceflight. As we approach flight verification testing, we will finalize species, media selection, harvesting, and microbial

  6. COMPATIBILIDADE DO INSETICIDA THIAMETHOXAM COM FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE FEIJOEIRO COMPATIBILITY OF THE INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM WITH FUNGICIDES APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring tem causado sérios prejuízos em muitas áreas produtoras de feijão no Brasil. O dano indireto através da transmissão do vírus do mosaico dourado é um dos fatores limitantes na produção do feijão, podendo causar perdas de até 100%. Uma das medidas recentemente desenvolvidas para o controle desta praga é o tratamento das sementes com inseticida. Neste trabalho foi testada a compatibilidade do inseticida thiamethoxam com alguns dos fungicidas utilizados para tratamento de sementes de feijão destinadas ao plantio (difenoconazole, fludioxonil e carboxin. As variáveis utilizadas na avaliação foram: porcentagens de germinação, de sanidade das sementes e de eficiência de controle da mosca-branca. Considerando todas as variáveis, constatou-se que não houve incompatibilidade do inseticida com os fungicidas utilizados. Os tratamentos thiamethoxam+carboxin e thiamethoxam+fludioxonil foram os que apresentaram maior eficiência no controle de fungos incidentes em sementes e da mosca-branca em plântulas até os onze dias após a emergência.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mosca-branca; Bemisia argentifolli; fungos de sementes; controle químico.

    The white fly (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring causes serious damage to the common bean crop in Brazil. The indirect damage through the transmission of bean gold mosaic virus can cause losses of up to 100%. One measure recently developed to control this pest is insecticide seed dressing. In this study, the compatibility of the insecticide thiamethoxam with the fungicides used for dry beans seed dressing was tested. These treatments included the fungicides difenoconazole, fludioxonil and carboxin. The variables evaluated were

  7. Results of water corrosion in static cell tests representing multi-metal assemblies in the hydraulic circuits of Tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following experiences obtained with steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants, a cooling water quality of AVT (all volatile treatment) has been defined based on demineralised water with adjustment of the pH value to about 9.0/7.0 (25 C/200 C) by addiction of ammoniac, and hydrazine in order to absorb oxygen dissolved in water. At that time, a simplified water corrosion test program has been performed using static (no circulation) test cell samples made of above mentioned TS metal combinations. All test cell samples, prepared and filled with AVT water, were performed at 280 C and 65 bars in an autoclave during 3000 hours. The test cell water temperature has been chosen to be sufficient above the TS component working temperature, in order to accelerate an eventual corrosion process. Generally all above mentioned metal combinations survived the test campaign without stress corrosion cracking, with the exception of the memory metal junction (creep in Cu) and the bellows made of St-St 316L and Inconel 625 while 316 Ti bellows survived. In contrary to the vacuum brazed Cu-LSTP to St-St samples, some of flame brazed Cu to St-St samples failed either in the braze joint or in the copper structure itself. For comparison, a spot weld of an inflated 316L panel sample, filled voluntary with a caustic solution of pH 11.5 (25 C), failed after 90 h of testing (intergranular cracking at the spot weld), while an identical sample containing AVT water of pH 9.0 (25 C) survived without damage. The results of these tests, performed during 1986 and 1997, have never been published and therefore are presented more in detail in this paper since corrosion in hydraulic circuits is also an issue of ITER. Up to day, the TS cooling water plant operates with an above mentioned water treatment and no water leaks have been detected on in-vessel components originating from water corrosion at high temperature and high pressure. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of the geochemical processes present in the radionuclides and metals mobilization in the tailing dam at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities - Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, the first step of nuclear fuel cycle - the mining and milling of the uranium ore - is developed at the Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities of Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais state. The wastes management is a very important aspect of the process. The understanding of the geochemical processes that occur in the tailings dam is a key question to define a plan of action concerning the decommissioning strategy of the facility. The objective of the present work was to give some issues to help in the adoption of the remedial actions concerning the decommissioning of the facility. It focused on the characterization of the most important geochemical processes regulating the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals in the tailings dam. Two cores from the tailings dam (uncovered area) were collected. Seepage and drainage waters were sampled, the same being true for the tailings dam lake. Groundwater form an aquifer bellow the tailings dam and superficial waters from a river that receives the effluents of the dam (Soberbo River) were also sampled. Data from the mining company were used to calculate the inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals deposited in the waste dam.The obtained results showed that pyrite oxidation is the key process in the mobilization of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes. Pyrite oxidation is a process regulated by oxygen diffusion and water. In the studied scenario it could be shown that the process was limited to a one meter deep layer in the uncovered part of the waste dam. Because of this, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Th and 238 U showed higher concentrations in the bottom layers of the cores in relation to the upper ones. 226 Ra and 210 Pb showed opposite patterns. The coprecipitation with Ca SO4 was the most relevant mechanism in both radionuclides immobilization in the wastes. Sulfate was the only chemical species that could be assigned as a contaminant in aquifer bellow the waste dam. As a conclusion, the target environmental

  9. Tfficacy to efficacy of thyroid/parotid ratio in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in different environmental conditions: a multi-centric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and different ethnic populations as has been confirmed in this multi-centric prospective study. The morphological information obtained from the scan and the objective TPR value for functional status is sufficient to start definitive therapy on the same day in most cases without waiting for biochemical test results. This is important for patients coming from far off places and from poor socio-economic conditions. Thyroid Scan of a normal patient showing Thyroid to Parotid Ratio (TPR) of 1.30 which is within normal range (left panel bellow). Thyroid Scan of a hyperthyroid patient showing Thyroid to Parotid Ratio (TPR) of 15.26 which is more than six times of the normal value ±2SD (right panel bellow)

  10. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  11. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  12. Characteristics of outage radiation fields around various reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Activity monitoring surveys, consisting of gamma spectroscopy and dose rate measurements, of various CANDU station components such as the reactor face, feeder cabinet, steam generators and moderator heat exchangers are often performed during shutdown in order to trend the transport of activity around the primary heat transport and moderator systems. Recently, the increased dose expenditure for work such as feeder inspection and replacement in the reactor vault has also spurred interest in improved characterization of the reactor face fields to facilitate better ALARA decision making and hence a reduction in future dose expenditures. At present, planning for reactor face work is hampered by insufficient understanding of the relative contribution of the various components to the overall dose. In addition to the increased dose expenditure for work at the reactor face, maintenance work associated with horizontal flux detectors and liquid injection systems has also resulted in elevated dose expenditures. For instance at Darlington, radiation fields in the vicinity of horizontal flux detectors (HFD) and Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) nozzle bellows are trending upwards with present contact fields being in the range 16-70 rem/h and working distance fields being in the range 100-500 mrem/h. This paper presents findings based on work currently being funded by the CANDU Owners Group. Measurements were performed at Ontario Power Generation's Pickering and Darlington nuclear stations. Specifically, the following are addressed: Characteristics of Reactor Vault Fields; Characteristics of Steam Generator Fields; Characteristics of Moderator Heat Exchanger Fields. Measurements in the reactor vault were performed at the reactor face, along the length of end fittings, along the length of feeders, at the bleed condenser and at the HFD and LISS nozzle bellows. Steam generator fields were characterized at various elevations above the tube sheet, with and without the

  13. Rheological and dynamical characterization of blood analogue flows in a slit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We study blood analogue potential of H2O/glycerine/xanthan mixtures through viscosity. • Water/glycerine (35% w/w)/xanthan (0.02% w/w) solution mimics well blood viscosity. • We characterize dynamics of blood analogue flows in open slits with μPIV and CFD. • Results refer to flow rates 4.3 ⩽ Q ⩽ 25.3 L/h. • Wall shear stresses are bellow haemolysis threshold but may trigger thrombus formation. - Abstract: Thrombus formation and haemolysis are blood destructive phenomena depending on the flow hydrodynamics, particularly the shear stresses. This work addresses this issue by characterizing experimentally (using the micro-PIV technique) and numerically (using CFD) steady-state Newtonian (water and water/glycerine solutions) fluid flows and non-Newtonian (water/glycerine/xanthan) blood analogue flows, in a slit with a height of 1.3 mm and a width of 30 mm. The results obtained may provide useful information in the design of extracorporeal devices manipulating blood for diagnosis and therapeutics. Results from CFD showed that the Herschel–Bulkley viscosity model yields velocity predictions in excellent agreement with the experimental data obtained with the micro-PIV. Viscosity measurements evidenced that the water/glycerine (35% w/w)/xanthan (0.02% w/w) solution mimics well the blood global viscosity, exhibiting velocity profile shapes in fully developed flows flattened at the centre, typical of shear-thinning fluids. The maximum shear stresses obtained experimentally (1.39–3.11 Pa) for the blood analogue flows at the studied rates (6.7–25.3 L/h) evidence that haemolysis is unlikely to occur since lysis threshold values are 150 Pa for erythrocytes, 10 Pa for leucocytes and 7.5 Pa for platelets. However, the smallest flow rate cases may be of concern in blood circulation by yielding clot formation near the walls since the shear stresses there are bellow the thrombus/coagulation threshold (1.0–1.8 Pa)

  14. Instruments for subsurface monitoring of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.E.; Ranson, B.B.

    1979-07-01

    The requirements for a subsurface geothermal subsidence instrument were reviewed. Available instruments for monitoring subsurface displacements, both vertical and horizontal, were studied and the most capable instruments identified. Techniques and materials for improving existing or developing new instruments were evaluated. Elements of sensor and signal technology with potential for high temperature monitoring of subsidence were identified. Drawing from these studies, methods to adapt production wells for monitoring were proposed and several new instrumentation systems were conceptually designed. Finally, four instrumentation systems were selected for future development. These systems are: triple sensor induction sensor probe (with casing collar markers); triple sensor gamma ray detector probe (with radioactive markers); triple sensor reed switch probe (with magnet markers); and triple sensor oscillator-type magnet detector probe (with magnet markers). All are designed for use in well casing incorporating slip couplings or bellows sections, although the gamma ray detector probe may also be used in unlined holes. These systems all measure vertical moement. Instruments to measure horizontal displacement due to geothermal subsidence were studied and the required instrument performance was judged to be beyond the state-of-the-art. Thus, no conceptual designs for instruments to monitor horizontal movement are included.

  15. Design of a micro-robot with an electro-pneumatic servo-actuator for the intra-pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are integrated in many current products and are not only the concern of military defence or medicine. Nowadays micro actuators are diversified by using different kind of energy, and creating different motions. Several applications require small systems to inspect confined and hostile places. Vapour generators in nuclear plants are composed with 3000 to 5000 vertical pipes of 17 mm diameter. These pipes endure high mechanical constraints and have to be inspected to detect eventual cracks. Our study is based on the design, modelling and implementation of a micro-robot enable to move up and carry sensors in these pipes. It moves as an inchworm and then is composed by 2 blocking modules that brace the robot on the pipe sides, and one stretching module that creates a step. This actuator is pneumatic and composed by metal bellows. By this original design, the micro-robot have a good power to volume ratio and thus it can carry a load higher than 1 kg. Its good positioning accuracy is proved with a 90 mm course where the error of positioning is less than 60μm. A PID control law is used to control the robot but state feed back control law is planed. (author)

  16. An effective model of DNA like helicoidal structure: with length fluctuation nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Tseytlin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural helicoidal nanostructure, which thermomechanical features are studied carefully with the help of different mechanical models, is a DNA cell / molecule. Our study proves that the experimentally determined nonlinear fluctuations of the molecular length of DNA can be better understood by modeling the molecule as a helicoidal pretwisted nanostrip sensor with nonlinear function. The calculations presented here are in good agreement with the experimental data within 10%. Other used by many researchers mechanical models such as an elastic rod, wormlike chain (WLC, accordion bellows, or an elastic core wrapped with rigid wires do not show the possible variance nonlinearity of thermomechanical DNA molecular length fluctuations. We have found that the nonlinear variance of the length fluctuations is an intrinsic property of the micro-nano-sensors with helicoidal shape. This model allows us to estimate the persistence length and twist-stretch coupling of a DNA molecule as well. It also shows the molecule's overwinding possibility at initial stretching with correct numerical representation.

  17. The SPATE 8000 Thermo-Elastic Camera For Dynamic Stress Measurement On Nuclear Plant Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bream, R. G.; Gasper, B. C.; Lloyd, B. E.; Page, S. W. J.

    1987-04-01

    Structural dynamics for integrity assessment and condition monitoring of electrical power station plant can be approached using a variety of methods combining theoretical modelling with experimental measurements. In recent years experimental approaches have broadened to include non-contacting full-field response measurement techniques using laser holography and more recently, stress pattern analysis from thermal emission (SPATE) to obtain dynamic stress information. This paper presents two examples of the application of a SPATE 8000 camera system to the determination of the dynamic stress distributions on nuclear reactor components. In the first project a Magnox reactor compensating bellows unit was dynamically tested in the laboratory using an electromagnetic shaker to excite resonances in the frequency range 300 to 400Hz. The dynamic stress data collected is compared with finite element model prediction. The second example describes a similar modal response investigation performed on an AGR gas circulator inner casing ring which is designed to isolate the stress concentrations present. This test was carried out in the power station maintenance facility during a routine reactor overhaul.

  18. Study of the interaction potential between 12 C and 24 Mg: an example of anomalous transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete angular distributions of the 12 C + 24 Mg elastic scattering were measured at ECM = 10.67 and 11.33 MeV, and from ECM = 12.0 to 16.0 MeV, using a 12 C beam produced at Pelletron Accelerator. This energy range is close to the Coulomb barrier of tue system, which is 12.53 MeV. Surprisingly all the angular distributions show strong oscillations even at energies bellow the Coulomb barrier. The angular distributions were fitted by optical model calculations and we determined the shallowest real potential, without continuous ambiguity. The main features of this potential are: very transparent even at the nuclear interior and strong dependence with energy of the real imaginary depths Vo and Wo. At five energies the inelastic scattering data were also analysed and well fitted by coupled-channels calculations. The optical potentials of all channels present the threshold anomaly and are well reproduced by dispersion relation calculations applied to the volume integrals of the optical potentials. (author). 50 refs., 41 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Some quantity aspects of the solar radiation in Mexicali, B.C., Mexico; Algunos aspectos cuantitativos de la radiacion solar en Mexicali, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Cueto; Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria, U.A.B.C., Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Study of the global solar radiation is very useful for assesing the potential efficiency of systems designed for solar energy utilization. This paper explore some aspects of solar in Mexicali, B.C., Mexico, analysis of the monthly averages global solar radiation and general atmospheric transparency for the year 1998 are discussed. The statistical distribution of the clearness index is determined using histograms of frequencies. The percentage number of days with solar radiation values bellow a certain value is analyzed and discussed. The period of successive days having radiation less than 10 MJ/m{sup 2} dia-1 and 13 MJ/m{sup 2} dia{sup -}1 is examined and presented graphically. [Spanish] El estudio de la radiacion solar global es muy util para evaluar la eficiencia potencial de sistemas que en su diseno esten basados en la utilizacion de energia solar. En particular, en este articulo se exploran algunos aspectos cuantitativos de la radiacion solar en Mexicali, B.C., Mexico: se analizan los promedios mensuales de radiacion solar global y la transparencia atmosferica para el ano de 1998. Se determina la distribucion estadistica del indice de claridad usando histogramas de frecuencias. Se analizan y discuten el porcentaje de dias con valores de radiacion solar inferiores a cierto valor y se presentan graficamente el periodo de dias sucesivos que tienen valores de radiacion menores a 10 MJ/m{sup 2} dia{sup -}1 y 13MJ/m{sup 2} dia{sup -}1.

  20. Detection of effect cytotoxic of the alpha hemolysin of E. Coli (HLY A) in leukocytes polymorphonuclear neutrophils by means of cytometry of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell viability of Hly A exposed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was assessed by propidium uptake, measured by flow cytometry. Hemolytic supernatant, but not the non hemolytic controls, caused a dose-dependent fluorescence signal in PMN. Cells exposed to low hemolytic activities (bellow 0.5 HU50/ml) did not fluoresce, although cell size, estimate by Forward Scatter (FSC), increased slightly, and returned to normal within 30-60 minutes suggesting both membrane damage in absence of propodium uptake and term cell recovery from the effects of Hly A. The fluorescent signal from permeated PMN decrease 15 minutes after exposure to Hly a, a decrease which was prevented by chelation ok extracellular Ca+2 with EGTA. Whereas Ca+2 entry into the cell is responsible for triggering mechanisms leading to loss of fluorescence, low or chelated extracelular Ca+2 facilitate propidium uptake, but the fluorescent signal does not decrease only when both intracellular and extracellular Ca+2 are chelated. The findings of this study, together whit data from other authors, are taken as basis to formulate a hypothetical sequence of events to explain the cytometric data obtained from Hly A exposed PMN, including the significance of increases in cell size without propidium uptake. (Author)

  1. Component tests for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Transmission Line and Matching System - Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Deibele, C. E.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Campbell, I. H.; Gray, S. L.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Sanabria, R. M.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2015-11-01

    New Z0 = 50 Ω gas-cooled component designs for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System have been successfully tested at high RF power levels. They include two types featuring spoke-ring assembly (SRA) inner conductor supports: 20° elbows, and variable length assembly bellows, both achieving RF voltages > 35 kV peak, and currents ~ 760 A peak during quasi-steady state operation. The SRA utilizes mechanically preloaded fused quartz spokes, increasing lateral load handling capability. Components with SRA supports have been seismically tested, with no variation in low power electrical performance detected after testing. A 3 MW four-port switch has also been successfully tested at high RF power, and tests of a 6 MW hybrid power splitter are planned in the near future. Latest results will be presented. Plans for arc localization tests in a 60 m SRA transmission line run, and RF tests of Z0 = 50 Ω and Z0 = 20 Ω matching components with water-cooled inner conductors will also be discussed. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Thimble guide extender for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extender in combination with a thimble guide, and a lower core plate of a nuclear reactor is described. The extender has a longitudinal axis and being installed on and coaxially with the thimble guide mounted on the lower core plate of a nuclear reactor vessel and projecting toward and terminating at a distance from an underface of a bottom nozzle forming part of a fuel assembly and supported on a top face of the lower core plate, comprising: (a) a lower fitting surrounding the thimble guide at a bottom length portion thereof adjacent the top face of the lower core plate; (b) an upper fitting being axially displaceable relative to the lower fitting and surrounding the thimble guide at a top length portion thereof; (c) an axially compressible, generally cylindrical resilient bellows arranged between the lower and upper fittings generally in axial alignment therewith and being sealingly secured thereto; (d) circumferential sealing means provided at the lower fitting and sealingly surrounding the thimble guide

  3. Development and performance measurement of micro-power pack using micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop micro-power pack using automotive alternator and micro-gas turbine. ► We measure rotordynamic and power generation performance of micro-power pack. ► Micro-power pack shows dramatic increases in mass and volumetric power densities. ► Test results assure feasibility of micro-power pack for electric vehicles. -- Abstract: This paper presents the development of a micro-power pack using automotive alternators powered by a micro-gas turbine (MGT) to recharge battery packs, in particular for electric vehicles (EVs). The thermodynamic efficiency for the MGT with the power turbine is estimated from a simple Brayton cycle analysis. The rotordynamic and power generation performance of the MGT driven alternator was measured during a series of experiments under electrical no-loading and loading conditions, and with belt-pulley and flexible bellows couplings. The flexible coupling showed superior rotordynamic and power generation performance than the belt coupling due to the enhanced alignment of the alternator rotor and the reduced mechanical frictions. Furthermore, the micro-power pack showed dramatic increases in the mass and volumetric power densities by ∼4 times and ∼5 times, respectively, compared with those of a commercial diesel generator with similar power level. As a result, this paper assures the feasibility of the light-weight micro-power pack using a MGT and automotive alternators for EVs.

  4. A study for disaster prevention in the case of the underground fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    There are three categories of possible disaster or hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating. 1) Disasters by exhaust pollutants: The equipment specially designed for underground use are strongly recommended. Workings using diesel equipment should be properly ventilated all the time to maintain the gas concentration bellow the permissible level. The fume diluter is recommended as the most practical after treatment device in Korean mines. 2) Underground fire: The main cause of diesel fire is over heated engine and spillage of hydraulic liquid. Therefore, protecting the over heat of engine, using fire resistive hydraulic liquid and high flash point fuel is requested. Fuel and the other oils are recommended to be stored at surface. To protect the smoke return in case of underground fire, the ventilation velocity must be kept more than 1.5m/sec. The fire smoke starts to return on 1.5m/sec and stops to return on 2.0m/sec. The fire smoke flows through upper half of the tunnel and it`s temperature is 10 degrees higher than ventilation air flow. For taking an immediate measure on fire, keeping the updated simulation is essential matter. 3) Other disasters. (author). 9 tabs., 15 figs.

  5. Design of UHV chamber assembly and mirror mounts for high resolution VUV beam line at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflecting optical system is designed for the high resolution VUV spectroscopy facility to be installed at INDUS-1. The fore-optics system consists of three cylindrical mirrors (M1, M2 and M3) to accept a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) diverging synchrotron beam from the storage ring in order to focus the image on the entrance slit of the vacuum spectrometer located at 13 m from the source point. In this paper we present some important details regarding mechanical design of the high resolution beam line consisting of mirror mounts, UHV chambers, associated mechanisms and beam pipes. The mirrors are mounted in an adjustable three point kinematic holder. In addition, these mounts are provided with a multi-plane alignment provision. Mirror mounts are placed inside VHV chambers which are provided with three translational and two rotational movements to facilitate initial as well as final on-line fine-tuned alignments. Beam pipes are connected to the VHV chambers through flanged bellows. Chambers, associated mechanisms, beam pipes with its non-rigid support and related pumping stations are positioned in the support structure rigidly. (author). 2 figs

  6. Thermodynamic properties of HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Higashi, Yukihiro [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design Engineering, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Iino, Chuodai, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Measurements of the thermodynamic properties of HFO-1234yf were conducted. The critical temperature T{sub C}, critical density {rho}{sub C}, and critical pressure P{sub C}, were measured by the visual observation of the meniscus disappearance, and were determined to be 367.85 {+-} 0.01 K, 478 {+-} 3 kg/m{sup 3}, and 3382 {+-} 3 kPa, respectively. Vapor pressures were measured by a batch-type calorimeter with a metal-bellows in the temperature range from 310 K to 360 K and correlated by the Wagner-type equation. Surface tensions were measured by the differential capillary-rise method in the temperature range from 273 K to 340 K and correlated by the van der-Waals type equation. The acentric factor was determined to be 0.280 with the vapor pressure correlation. Based on the critical parameters and acentric factor, saturated vapor and liquid densities were estimated by the Peng-Robinson equation and the Hankinson-Thomson equation, respectively. The heat of vaporization was also calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. (author)

  7. Mirror movement mechanism in ultra high vacuum for synchrotron radiation mirror box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a synchrotron radiation (SR) beamline pre and post mirrors are important optical components for precisely focussing SR on a monochromator and on the target in an experimental station. These mirrors are mounted in the ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) along with high precision mirror movement mechanism. The mirror movement mechanism provides backlash free six degrees of freedom to the mirror. Three precision motions are linear in nature and three are rotational. Two rotational precision motions are performed by elastic movement of spring steel fork with a backlash free resolution of 10 arc seconds and with a range of 0 to +/-1 degree. The another rotational motion has been performed by angular displacement of a plate through precision high tensile bolts with backlash free resolution of 10 arc seconds and with a range of 0 to +/-1 degree. Three linear motions have been performed by linear displacement of a plate through precision high tensile bolts with backlash free resolution of 10 microns with a range of 0 to +/- 10 mm. Two rotational precision motions are transferred to the mirror in UHV through a bellow and other four precision motions are transferred through the UHV chamber. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  8. Precision motion and control for the plane grating monochromator at SRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nearly stigmatic Plane Grating Monochromator (PGM) under commissioning for the new undulator beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center will provide a resolving power > 10,000 as it scans from 8 to 240 eV. Scanning requires the precise, simultaneous rotation of a plane mirror and a combined rotation-translation of a plane grating in close proximity to one another inside a UHV chamber. The required scanning motions are significant due to the large energy range covered by a single grating. The mirror and grating rotate nearly 23 and 33 degrees respectively and the grating translates approximately 200 mm. Sub-arcsec angular resolution allows several steps to be taken across the monochromator's energy resolution. Both rotations utilize a combination stepping motor-piezoelectric actuator scan drive that is controlled with a feedback loop using a laser interferometer to measure the in-situ rotation of the optics. The grating mechanism is supported via bellows to an external stepping motor driven stage that travels directly on an inspection grade granite block. The stage position is controlled with a feedback loop using a precision linear encoder. A positional accuracy and vertical stability of a few micrometers is achieved on the grating translation which prevents the image from shifting at the exit slit and introducing energy calibration errors

  9. Separation film module. Bunri maku module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Takada, N. (, Chiba (Japan))

    1990-10-09

    The separation film module used for the production of dry air by separating vapor from air and for the concentration of alcohol from a mixed gas of alcohol and water has hollow yarn of polyimide resin in a tubular container. The gas permeated through the separation film is discharged from the permeated gas exit provided at an end of the container, and the unpermeated gas is exhausted from the core pipe provided at the center of the tubulsr container. However, the module has a problem of poor airtightness at the connection when the machining is not accurate or when thermal expansion occurs because the core pipe is communicated with the unpermeated gas discharge pipe via a rigid joint pipe. This invention relates to a solution to the problem by providing an expansion joint between the discharge end of the core pipe and the unpermeated gas discharge pipe. A joint pipe with a bellows in the middle is used as the said joint pipe. 3 figs.

  10. Initial high-power testing of the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] ECH [electron cyclotron heating] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO2 mode absorbers, two 900 miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE02 mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE01, 82.6% TE02, 2.5% TE03, and 1.9% TE04. 4 refs

  11. The new low gap BPM system at ELETTRA: Description and prototype tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype Low Gap BPM system has been installed at ELETTRA and it is now undergoing the first tests. The main purpose of this system is to provide ultra-stable position signals, at the micrometer level, to the Orbit Feedback processors. The system consists of a new Low Gap monitor and a new digital BPM electronics. The monitor was designed at ELETTRA and fits to the 14 mm low gap ID vacuum chamber. Full advantage has been taken from the reduced gap button distance. To reach maximum stability of the BPM itself, a new support system has been designed where, by means of two bellows, the BPM movements are de-coupled from the vacuum chamber slow drifts. Furthermore an external system monitors the BPM position with respect to a reference column made of carbonium. The Low Gap BPM system adopts the digital BPM electronics that was conceived at the Paul Scherrer Institut for the Swiss Light Source (SLS). One of its features is the programmable bandwidth that offers sub-micron position data when set to low bandwidth (<1 kHz). The project evolved into a successful collaborative development between ELETTRA, APL, SLS and the company Instrumentation Technologies. In this paper the first results obtained on the ELETTRA Storage Ring are presented and future system integration is outlined

  12. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 μg kg-1 for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg-1 for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg-1 established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 μg kg-1 for the predator species and 1000 μg kg-1 for the predator species)

  13. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg-1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg-1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  14. Analysis on Wind Valume Optimization Adjusting After Low NOx Burner Reformation of 600 MW Unit Boiler%600 MW锅炉低NOx 燃烧器改造后风量优化调整试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇胜; 吕旭阳; 李春曦; 闫慧博

    2014-01-01

    以经过低 NOx 燃烧器改造的600 MW 煤粉锅炉为例,结合实际运行工况,从改变辅助风风量、紧凑燃尽风风量、高位燃尽风风量、总风量以及燃烧器摆角等方面对优化调整试验进行分析,得出氧量、风箱差压、风门开度、燃烧器摆角等在各负荷下的最佳控制量,为电厂运行提供参考。%The object of the paper is some 600 MW coal boil-er with retrofited low NOx burner,combined with the actual operating conditions,analyzes the test from the aspects of changing the secondary air,compact burning wind air vol-ume, high burning wind volume, total air volume and swinging angle of burner,gets the best antrol volume of the oxygen content,bellows differential pressure,throttle open-ing and swinging angle of burner and the amount of optimal control under various load,for the reference of the power plant operation.

  15. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility

  16. Development of new transport line (TL-1) for Indus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport Line-1 (TL-1) is a part of pre-injector system of Synchrotron Radiation Sources Indus-1 and Indus-2. In order to insert more number of diagnostic devices, especially Beam Slit Monitors for observing the beam position at various locations on TL-1, and to study the angular divergence etc., one new UHV system for TL-1 was designed and developed. Total length of TL-1 is ∼ 13.6 metres. This line transports the electron beam from the Microtron to the Booster Synchrotron. TL-1 comprises of Stainless Steel (SS grade: AISI 316) chambers, with ports for pumps, gauges, bellows for mechanical flexibility, isolation valves, and different Beam Diagnostic Devices like Beam Slit Monitors (BSM), Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Secondary Emission Wire Monitors (SEWM) and Fast Current Transformers (FCT). All the associated UHV components were fabricated and qualified for UHV, individually in the UHV Lab. Vacuum in the range of 10-9-10-8 mbar was achieved. Ultimately all the components, (including the Beam Diagnostic Devices), are assembled in a mock assembly as per their original positions and tested. The aim of this exercise is to resolve the various unforeseen minor problems, in assembly, well in advance, so that the final assembly in actual position can be completed within minimum time period, (minimum down period of Indus facility), with more efficiency. This paper describes the testing procedures and the results of this exercise. (author)

  17. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate as an option to treat a neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Almeida, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ischaemic diabetic foot is associated with a faster evolving atherosclerosis affecting preferentially the bellow knee arteries. This distal ischemia associated with a wide distribution of multiple stenosis and occlusions throughout lower limb arteries, makes revascularization very hard or even impossible. This represents a major factor responsible for non-healing diabetic foot ulcer. In these cases all efforts should be made to find treatment alternatives that can promote ulcer healing. Case presentation Male patient with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer with exposure tendon, without possibility for endovascular or surgical revascularization, was treated unsuccessfully with prostaglandin and several types of dressings for 7 months. Skin graft failed. Weekly dressings with collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate were then started and continued in an outpatient setting. Evolution was very positive, with 99% of epithelisation in 9 months. No pain or infection since the beginning of this treatment. Discussion Successful treatment of a neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer rests with the possibility of increasing the perfusion to the foot. Whether or not a revascularization procedure is possible will set the tone for the ensuing treatment. Using collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate, collagen is delivered to the wound bed helping in the granulation tissue formation, will increase microcirculation, and topic gentamicin will decrease bacterial load, exudate and proteases production, increasing cicatrisation. Conclusion In neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer weekly dressings with collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate can be a good option for ulcer healing. PMID:26927956

  18. Method development for studies of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the use of nuclear reactors the properties of the structural materials change. Variations in the operation environment, such as changes in water chemistry, may enhance the development and growth of flaws. Neutron radiation causes embrittlement for in-core vessel materials. Radiation, together with water chemistry, increases the possibility of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels and superalloys used in the reactor internal parts. Research on structural materials endeavours to study the ageing mechanisms of materials, and the possibilities and methods of preventing or forecasting the damage caused to structures by ageing. The objective within the subproject 'Material degradation due to corrosive environment' of the RATU2 project was to evaluate the factors affecting the changes in material properties due to the environment and stresses, and to assess their interrelationship. The subproject included among others the following tasks: (1) Development of routine EAC crack growth testing method for small test specimens, (2) Application of rising displacement testing to study irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). New simplified techniques for determination of fracture resistance curves in simulated reactor environments. Multi-specimen bellows loading system to provide more experimental EAC data than can be obtained with previous servo hydraulic or mechanical loading systems. (author)

  19. Monitoring, characterization and comparison. Operation-project of oil and oil water systems in platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the process of petroleum production, water are also commonly produced. Usually, a standard oil-water separation process will not lead to water phase ready to be discharged - the present legislation requires oily contents (oil and/or greases) bellow 20 mg/L concentration level value. Thus, secondary treatment is required to bring such oily concentration to the allowed level or lower, prior to the water discard in the environment. This paper describes the adopted systematic work in the Campos Basin Petroleum Production Platforms, which has allowed to evaluate and optimize the water treatment performed in there. Such description includes the typical water treatment systems installed, the typical physical-chemistry of the effluents and also presents comparisons between the basic designs that guided such systems construction and their present operational conditions and set-ups. The analysis of such results has allowed the introduction of minor modifications leading to the process optimization. The common use of Pilot Plants in such optimization process is also described and their contribution reported. (author)

  20. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungdae [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hyoungdo; Schroeder, Allan; Shih, Chih-Kang, E-mail: shih@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Qin, Shengyong [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Kim, Sang-ui [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Daejin [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  1. On-line measurements to control the forming process of glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Francesco; Bianchini, Gianandrea; Fanti, Giulio; Mozzi, Massimo

    1993-02-01

    The most relevant parameters to control the quality of glass vials are the internal and external diameters of the mouth and the height of the rim. A low cost vision system based on a 486 PC, a frame grabber, 4 CCD cameras (768 X 512 pixels) and I/O device to control the production of vials, by adjusting the flames temperature in the moulding section of the machine, has been developed and tested. A 24 mandrel machine rotating at about 300 rpm with a production capability of about 4200 pieces/hour had to be monitored with an accuracy of +/- 0.02 mm in the measure of the mouth diameters and +/- 0.04 mm on the rim height. In order to minimize the time delay required for the machine temperature compensation, the measurements had to be taken during the forming process. The system must be fast enough to follow the process, able to take into account the temperature variation of different classes of vials and far enough from the high temperature of the flames. A direct calibration procedure, using a reference vial, and a pyrometer to check the temperature range was derived. A long focus lens coupled with a bellow to put the system away from the flames was adopted. The algorithm implemented for the measurements and the machine temperature control is presented.

  2. Asteroid hyalosis: clinical review of 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nuno Vargas Galveia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Understand the behavior, functional repercussion and relationship with epidemiological factors of asteroid hyalosis (AH and retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with AH (24 women and 34 men were studied. All patients were submitted to a thorough ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: We observed a statistical association between the presence of AH and male sex (p=0,042. An increase in prevalence of this pathology was observed with increasing age. We determined an odds ration of 5,24 of a patient over 50 years old having AH, when compared to patients bellow this threshold. Eighty-six percent of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. We measured a lower IOP in the affected eye, with the difference being in average 2,68 ± 1,45 mmHg (p=0,037. We observed no statistical association between AH and age related macular degeneration, diabetes or glaucoma. Five eyes were submitted to facoemulsification combined with pars plana vitrectomy with an average gain of 7 lines (Snellen in visual acuity (p=0,03. CONCLUSION: In our sample a clear association between AH, ageing and male sex was observed. The majority of patients had unilateral vitreous deposits. Vitrectomy in association with facoemulsification is a safe and effective intervention in this group of patients.

  3. Safety design features of the KLT-40S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KLT-40S is a modular reactor unit developed for a pilot floating nuclear cogeneration plant (PATES, in Russian), currently under construction in Severodvinsk, the Russian Federation. The KLT-40S nuclear installation belongs to a class of pressurized water reactors. The KLT-40S reactor unit is shown. Major specifications of the KLT-40S nuclear installation are given. A detailed design description of a floating NPP with KLT-40S reactor installations is provided. The main design features of the KLT-40S are the following: - Modular design of reactor unit: the reactor, the steam generators (SGs) and the main coolant pumps (MCPs) are connected with short nozzles, without using long pipelines; - Four-loop reactor cooling system with forced and natural convection of the coolant in the primary circuit; - Leaktight primary circuit with canned motor pumps and leaktight bellows type valves; - Once-through coil type SGs; - Gas based pressurizer system in the primary circuit; - Use of passive safety systems; - Use of proven techniques for equipment assembly, repair and replacement; incorporation of proven diagnostics equipment and proven monitoring systems

  4. Eddy currents calculation in the TEXTOR 94 modified liner/vacuum vessel system during plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dynamic Ergodic Divertor--to be installed inside the vacuum vessel of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak--requires a new liner design. The new liner represents a thin toroidal shell with numerous holes. One-third of the liner shell, facing the ergodic coils, is cut out for purposes of the ergodic divertor structures. To sustain the electromagnetic loads the cut-off edges of the inconel liner shell are reinforced with massive steel structures. Edges of the liner holes are reinforced with different types of steel structures. Calculation of the induced currents in the liner and vacuum vessel and electromagnetic forces on the structures due to interaction of the induced currents with the electromagnetic field during a plasma disruption is presented. The eddy currents in the segments of the vacuum vessel separated by bellows form closed loops. Because of numerous ports in the vacuum vessel and numerous holes in the liner, there are currents flowing perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field. This leads to bending and twisting of the structures. The calculated electromagnetic forces were used for the subsequent structural analysis

  5. Analysis of eddy current in the Indus-2 dipole vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum chambers, made of an aluminium alloy, have been used in Indus-2. An unwanted effect of the low electrical resistance of these chambers is that when the current of the magnets is varied to change the magnetic field, eddy current flows through the dipole vacuum chambers, which are placed within the pole gap of the dipole magnets. No detectable eddy current flows in the chamber in case of normal operating condition. In a (unusual) situation, when the dipole magnet power supply trips, the current of the magnets falls rapidly and the chambers are consequently subjected to a huge force. In Indus-2, the movement of the vacuum chambers caused by the force produced due to tripping of the power supply damaged some metallic bellows connecting the chambers with the adjacent straight sections. In this paper, we present the studies carried out to estimate the nature and magnitude of the eddy current and the amplitude of the resulting force. Here, we also propose some concepts to cancel the eddy current effects. (author)

  6. Development of UHV compatible machined diamond profile gaskets for INDUS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, D. P.; Shiroman, R.; Shukla, S. K.; Kotaiah, S.

    2008-05-01

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible demountable joints are needed in Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300mA) electron storage ring for connecting Al-alloy vacuum chambers (homogeneous joints) as well as Al-alloy vacuum chambers to well proven stainless steel components like beam diagnostic components and RF-shielded bellow assemblies (heterogeneous joints). Bakeable & reliable diamond profile Al-alloy gaskets have been developed for Helium leak rate less than 2×10-10 Std. CC/sec, which eliminated the need of any Al to SS transition pieces onto the Aluminium vacuum chambers. Salient features of these gaskets are: high reliability, low cost, reduced flange thickness, self alignment, ease in installation, less torque requirement, formability to non-circular shape & ultra cleanliness. These diamond profile gaskets were machined from extruded Al-alloy 6061-T5 pipes using specially developed high-speed steel formed cutting tools. Thermal cyclic tests were carried to check the reliability of these gaskets. No leaks were found even after several bakeouts at 150°C. Non-circular metallic gaskets like the one used in UHV gate valve bonnet seal can also be manufactured using specially developed formed toolings. This paper describes basic design philosophy, manufacturing process and testing details of these gaskets.

  7. Development of UHV compatible machined diamond profile gaskets for INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible demountable joints are needed in Indus-2 (2.5 GeV, 300mA) electron storage ring for connecting Al-alloy vacuum chambers (homogeneous joints) as well as Al-alloy vacuum chambers to well proven stainless steel components like beam diagnostic components and RF-shielded bellow assemblies (heterogeneous joints). Bakeable and reliable diamond profile Al-alloy gaskets have been developed for Helium leak rate less than 2x10-10 Std. CC/sec, which eliminated the need of any Al to SS transition pieces onto the Aluminium vacuum chambers. Salient features of these gaskets are: high reliability, low cost, reduced flange thickness, self alignment, ease in installation, less torque requirement, formability to non-circular shape and ultra cleanliness. These diamond profile gaskets were machined from extruded Al-alloy 6061-T5 pipes using specially developed high-speed steel formed cutting tools. Thermal cyclic tests were carried to check the reliability of these gaskets. No leaks were found even after several bakeouts at 150 deg. C. Non-circular metallic gaskets like the one used in UHV gate valve bonnet seal can also be manufactured using specially developed formed toolings. This paper describes basic design philosophy, manufacturing process and testing details of these gaskets

  8. Indirect detection analysis: wino dark matter case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow ≅ 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges

  9. Research on 3-D base isolation system applied to new power reactor 3-D seismic isolation device with rolling seal type air spring: Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional seismic base isolation device was developed for heavy structures and buildings such as nuclear power reactor buildings. The device realizes 3-D isolation by combining a LRB (laminated rubber bearing) for horizontal isolation with an air spring for vertical isolation in series. In this study, scale models of the 3-D base isolation device were made and were tested to examine the dynamic properties and ultimate strengths of the device. The performance of the device under earthquake excitation was examined through shaking table tests of 1/7 scale models. As the results, it was confirmed that the device worked smoothly under the horizontal and vertical excitations, and that the theoretical formulae of the orifice damping could explain the test results. The high-pressure air springs of trial production were forced to burst to find out which factor influenced ultimate strength. It was confirmed from results of the burst test that the strength of the air spring depended upon the diameter of rolling part of the bellows and the number of layers of the reinforcing fibers. Judging from the results of the shaking table test and the burst test, the developed 3-D base isolation device was applicable to a nuclear power plant building. (authors)

  10. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  11. A word from the DG: LHC commissionning 
enters the home straight

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In an age of blogs there are seemingly no secrets, so by the time Lyn Evans gave his talk on the status of LHC commissioning on 13 September, everyone seemed to know about plug-in modules, beam position monitors and transmitters embedded in ping-pong balls. All the on-line speculation made for interesting reading, and is a clear sign of the growing interest there is in CERN as we approach LHC start-up. We are now entering the final phase of commissioning, and things are going well given the unprecedented complexity of the task in hand. Following the cool-down, powering and warm-up of Sector 7-8 earlier this year, we have learned a great deal about what it means to commission the LHC. There have inevitably been hitches, including the plug-in modules, or PIMs. When the LHC is cooled down, each sector shrinks by about 10 metres in length, and this has to be absorbed by bellows between components and a system of sliding copper fingers (PIM) that ensure electrical connectivity ar...

  12. The design and manufacture of television systems for inspection and maintenance in the JET torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak fusion reactor requires regular inspection for plasma damage. This required the development of television inspection equipment that could be deployed without breaking the vacuum seal of JET. The operational conditions also required that the camera be able to operate in high temperature and be radiation tolerant. The equipment had to be small and light and yet provide maximum viewing coverage from a few vantage points. Opening the vacuum vessel to the atmosphere involves a lengthy phase of reconditioning for high vacuum, so a system for inspecting the interior of the vessel without breaching the vacuum seal was required. As penetrations into the tokamak have to be kept to the minimum, the major constraint on the design was the small size of the ports through which to insert the viewing probes. The camera, its bellow, deployment system, and on-board lighting had to be contained within a vacuum-tight viewing probe of 54 mm in diameter. Only four entry ports were available, so to cover the large volume of the vacuum vessel, variable focal length lenses and high-intensity lighting were essential. Four IVIS cameras have been in successful operation at JET since 1984. They are currently subjects to an improvement program to increase sensitivity, high-temperature operation (to 300 degree C), and radiation tolerance. 2 refs., 2 figs

  13. Studies on the reproduction of water buffalo in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-partum (pp) reproductive activity was studied in water buffalo kept under traditional and improved management conditions. A comparison of monthly calving patterns showed that in a herd subjected to variations in fodder availability between the rainy and dry seasons, parturitions occurred mainly between April and August. In contrast, in a herd for which reasonable pastures were available all year round and supplements were provided, calvings occurred throughout the year but were more frequent between November and March. These results indicate that, in the absence of an imposed breeding season, calvings occur throughout the year. Buffalo heifers reach sexual maturity between 2.1 and 3.3 years of age; it may be possible to reduce this by improving nutrition. Analysis of sequential milk progesterone profiles during the pp period showed that cows under improved management first ovulated 30.2±14 days pp; under traditional management conditions, this was delayed until 102.4±42.7 days pp, making remating impossible in many cows in time to calve at yearly intervals. Approximately one quarter of the water buffalo cows in oestrus engaged in homosexual behaviour; substantially more exhibited increased bellowing and urination, accompanied by characteristic pelvic movements. The teaser bull, however, is still the most reliable aid for the detection of oestrus in buffaloes. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Development efforts on helium vessel for 5 cell - 650 MHz SRF cavity at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work focuses on the development of helium vessel which houses a 5 cell - 650 MHz SRF niobium cavity and serves as a helium bath to maintain the cavity at 2 K. The vessel has provision for changing the axial length of the cavity for tuning purpose by using a tuning mechanism and a large bellow. Titanium has been chosen as a material of construction of the vessel due to its coefficient of thermal expansion being close to that of niobium. Efforts have been initiated to understand the functional requirements, design requirements, acceptance criteria for design and analysis, non-destructive examination requirements, inspection and testing requirements, manufacturing technology of the titanium vessel and its integration with the SRF cavity. The welding assumes a special significance as titanium is highly reactive and ductility of the weld joint is lost in the presence of air and other impurities. A trial vessel has been conceptualised having typical sizes and geometries. The manufacturing features of vessel are based on ASME B and PV Code, Section VIII Division-1 and manufacturing of this vessel has been started at an Indian industry. Quality assurance plan for this work is developed. The paper describes the work done at RRCAT on the functional and integration requirements, overall design requirements, design methodology to achieve code conformance, manufacturing technology and QAP being used in the development of helium vessel. (author)

  15. Chromatographic sample collection from two-phase (gas+liquid) flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Windom, Bret C

    2011-12-01

    A particularly challenging sample presentation in analytical chemistry is a flowing stream that consists of both a gas and liquid phase, combined with the common situation in which a reliable analysis is needed for both phases, separately. In these cases, the vapor and liquid must be physically separated (without change to either), before the individual phases can be collected and analyzed. It is not possible to analyze two-phase flows otherwise. Although the two phases are at equilibrium, it is imperative that no liquid contaminate the vapor, and no vapor be entrained in the liquid at a given temperature and pressure. In this paper, we describe a simple on-line device that can individually separate and collect the vapor and liquid phases of a two-phase flow. The apparatus, which we call P(2)SC, uses an adaptation of the branch point separator, with vapor collection done downstream in a metal bellows. The liquid collection is done in a length of Teflon tube. The separated vapor and liquid phases are then easily transferred into any desired analytical instrument with a syringe, although any sample introduction method, such as a valve, could be used as well. We discuss the application of this device with a stream of thermally stressed rocket kerosene. PMID:22036084

  16. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert D M; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  17. Method of processing radioactive waste water from WWER power plants and equipment for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste water with mechanical impurities removed is thickened by evaporation to a salt concentration of more than 100 g/l. It is then cooled to a temperature below 40 degC which results in the crystallization of boric acid salts and/or double or multi-component salts, which are then separated by filtration from the mother solution. The salts are used as secondary raw materials or are dissolved by the action of H2SO4 or HCl; a conversion salt and boric acid are formed. After evaporation and having cooled down a bellow 35 degC, H3BO3 becomes crystallized and is separated by filtering. Radioactive emitters contained in the radioactive waste water accumulate in the minimized-volume mother liquors. The equipment consists of a crystallization evaporator, a tickener, a centrifuge and a separator. The centrifuge is connected to the reactor via a pipe and via another pipe to the crystallizer which in turn is connected to the separator. (J.P.)

  18. NESC Peer-Review of the Flight Rationale for Expected Debris Report. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Stadler, John H.; Piascik, Robert S.; Kramer-White, Julie A.; Labbe, Steve G.; Ungar, Eugene K.; Rotter, Hank A.; Rogers, James H.; Null, Cynthia H.

    2005-01-01

    Since the loss of Columbia on February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) has significantly improved the understanding of launch and ascent debris, implemented hardware modifications to reduce debris, and conducted tests and analyses to understand the risks associated with expected debris. The STS-114 flight rationale for expected debris relies on a combination of all three of these factors. A number of design improvements have been implemented to reduce debris at the source. The External Tank (ET) thermal protection system (TPS) foam has been redesigned and/or process improvements have been implemented in the following locations: the bipod closeout, the first ten feet of the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank protuberance air load (PAL) ramp, and the LH2 tank-to-intertank flange closeout. In addition, the forward bipod ramp has been eliminated and heaters have been installed on the bipod fittings and the liquid oxygen (LO2) feedline forward bellows to prevent ice formation. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) bolt catcher has been redesigned. The Orbiter reaction control system (RCS) thruster cover "butcher paper" has been replaced with a material that sheds at a low velocity. Finally, the pad area has been cleaned to reduce debris during lift-off.

  19. Excavation of shafts and research galleries at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). Construction progress report, fiscal year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report, in fiscal year 2009. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned in 2009: the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. The safety patrol report is based on defects recording by the safety manager of the Geoscience Facility Construction Section. Regarding the plan and actual performance of the construction work of MIU part III (March 16, 2008 - March 15, 2010) performance carried out from April 1, 2009 until March 15, 2010 is described in this report and the performance started from March 16, 2010 is supposed to be described in construction progress report from fiscal year 2010 onward. The attached appendices have been provided: regarding content in the excavated material bellowing the environmental standards, technical specifications of fiscal year 2009 in construction work of MIU part III, also photos of construction activities. (author)

  20. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  1. MANAGEMENT BOARD OF 2/06/08 (MB116)

    CERN Multimedia

    Schedule The outcome of the meeting with the CERN Directorate, the Machine builders, the LHCC, and the other experiments on May 6th had been reported to the collaboration. The mid-July date was set for closing the experiments. This is five weeks after the then foreseen beam-pipe bake-out for CMS. Injection of beam would occur two weeks later and collisions at 10 TeV after two months. There would be a winter shutdown of “normal” duration. LHC The progress on the machine was outlined. All sectors were now either cold or had started cooling. It was now expected that the machine would be cold in early July. Magnet quench training in sector 56 was continuing. CMS Progress The beam-pipe was now installed (apart from the compensation bellows) and leak-tight. The low current test of the solenoid had been cancelled, but other critical tests of the magnet system had been successfully carried out. Trial insertion of the pixels and the BCM had been successful. The optical fibre installation for the...

  2. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  3. Experiments on the rapid mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through its superfluid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, V B; Griffiths, O J; Hendry, P C; Kolmakov, G V; McClintock, P V E; Skrbek, L

    2006-11-01

    Phenomena following a rapid mechanical quench of liquid 4He from its normal to its superfluid phase are reported and discussed. The mechanical expansion apparatus is an improved version of that described previously. It uses a double-cell geometry to effect a partial separation of the sample from the convolutions of the bellows that form the outer wall of the cell. Consistent with earlier work, no evidence is found for the production of quantized vortices via the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) mechanism. Although the expansion is complete within 15ms , the second-sound velocity and attenuation continue to increase for a further approximately 60ms ; correspondingly the temperature decreases. Subsequently, the temperature rises again toward its final value as the second-sound velocity and attenuation decrease. It is shown that this unexpected behavior is apparently associated with a large-amplitude second-sound oscillation produced by the expansion, and it is suggested that the observed vortices are created by the normal fluid-superfluid counterflow that constitutes the second-sound wave. If production of large-amplitude second sound is inherent to the mechanical expansion of liquid 4He through the superfluid transition, as appears to be the case for final temperatures more than 3mK from the lambda transition, the phenomenon sets a lower bound on the density of KZ vortices that can be detected in this type of experiment. PMID:17279991

  4. Influence of the gate edge on the reverse leakage current of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongHe Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By comparing the Schottky diodes of different area and perimeter, reverse gate leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high mobility transistors (HEMT at gate bias beyond threshold voltage is studied. It is revealed that reverse current consists of area-related and perimeter-related current. An analytical model of electric field calculation is proposed to obtain the average electric field around the gate edge at high revers bias and estimate the effective range of edge leakage current. When the reverse bias increases, the increment of electric field is around the gate edge of a distance of ΔL, and perimeter-related gate edge current keeps increasing. By using the calculated electric field and the temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements, the edge gate leakage current mechanism is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling at gate bias bellows -15V caused by the lateral extended depletion region induced barrier thinning. Effective range of edge current of Schottky diodes is about hundred to several hundred nano-meters, and is different in different shapes of Schottky diodes.

  5. The Pliocene and Quaternary formations of El Abalario, in the Huelva province littoral (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of new and ancient boreholes in El Abalario area (Lower Guadalquivir basin) permitted to identify four main plio-quaternary formations above the Miocene marls, namely: Huelva Sands, Bonares Sands, Almonte Sands and Gravels, and El Abalario Sands. Respectively, they are interpreted as shallow marine, deltaic, alluvial and eolian sediments, together forming a marine to continental sequence that reaches a thickness of more than 250 metres. All sediments are arranged as a gentle dipping and thickening structure to the southeast. Only a few boreholes of the western border of El Abalario reach the top of the Miocene marls. In the rest of the Abalario area the Miocene marls are confined to an unknown level bellow the deepest boreholes. Upward, the marls grade to the Huelva sands, without any appreciable break in the sediments. To the north, the upper part of the Huelva formation grades to the Bonares sands, which is mainly developed outside the study area. Both formations are covered by the coarse clastic deposits of the Almonte formation. At the top, El Abalario sands recover all previous deposits and configure the current relief. This study improves the early existing geology profile and the connection with the surrounding areas (Author).

  6. The Pliocene and Quaternary formations of El Abalario, in the Huelva province littoral (Spain); Las formaciones Plio-Cuaternarias de El Abalario, en el litoral de la provincia de Huelva (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvany, J.M.; Mediavilla, C.; Rebollo, A.

    2010-07-01

    The study of new and ancient boreholes in El Abalario area (Lower Guadalquivir basin) permitted to identify four main plio-quaternary formations above the Miocene marls, namely: Huelva Sands, Bonares Sands, Almonte Sands and Gravels, and El Abalario Sands. Respectively, they are interpreted as shallow marine, deltaic, alluvial and eolian sediments, together forming a marine to continental sequence that reaches a thickness of more than 250 metres. All sediments are arranged as a gentle dipping and thickening structure to the southeast. Only a few boreholes of the western border of El Abalario reach the top of the Miocene marls. In the rest of the Abalario area the Miocene marls are confined to an unknown level bellow the deepest boreholes. Upward, the marls grade to the Huelva sands, without any appreciable break in the sediments. To the north, the upper part of the Huelva formation grades to the Bonares sands, which is mainly developed outside the study area. Both formations are covered by the coarse clastic deposits of the Almonte formation. At the top, El Abalario sands recover all previous deposits and configure the current relief. This study improves the early existing geology profile and the connection with the surrounding areas (Author).

  7. Chronology of Holocene lacustrine sediments in Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yanhong; WANG Sumin; HOU Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    Chronology is the basis for using lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of environmental change. Radioactive-nuclides such as 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating are mainly used to establish the chronology for recent several ten thousand years. Because of being mixed with "dead carbon", the measured 14C age is always older than the actual age which is recognized as "reservoir effect". Cs is a kind of active metal element, and easy to migrate vertically in the sediment that leads to the error of the time marker. 210Pb dating should make sure to select CIC model or CRS model. On the Tibetan Plateau, most of the lakes are alkaline closed lake where Cs is more moveable in the sediment and the reservoir effect caused by "dead carbon" on 14C dating is stronger. Based on the analysis on results of 14C, 210Pb and 137Cs of the lacustrine sediments from Co Ngoin, central Tibetan Plateau, we use the simple regression method to re-calculate the 14C calendar ages, and establish the time sequence for cores CE-1 and CE-2 with result of 210Pb CRS model for the upper 35 cm and recalculated 14C calendar age for sediments bellow 35 cm. Since 1400 cal. a BP, sedimentation interrupted for more than 1000 years. According to this time sequence, variations of environmental proxies confidently reflect the major climatic events in Holocene.

  8. LS1 Report: achieving the unachievable

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling and extraction of a defective DFBA module from LHC Point 6, announced a few weeks ago, has been completed without a hitch. The DFBAs in the LHC are unique and irreplaceable components that must be handled with care.   The Transport team extract the defective module in one of the two DFBAs at Point 6. This module was brought to the surface, where it is currently being repared. Dismantling and extracting part of an electrical feed box (DFBA) had not been planned and could not have been foreseen. Nonetheless, that is what had to be done. When the LS1 teams discovered that the bellows of one of the DFBAs in Sector 5-6 were damaged - and completely inaccessible - they were not exactly overwhelmed with solutions. In fact, they had only one option: to dismantle them and take them up to the surface. Step 1: measure the alignment of the module to be taken out in relation to the beam lines to ensure that when the DFBA is put back in, it is in the right position for the beam to pass thr...

  9. Simultaneous sonication-assisted extraction, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates and polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge from wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NPEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic pollutants in sewage sludge which have to be monitored in the European Union according to a future Sludge Directive. In the present work, an analytical method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of DEHP, NPEs and PCBs is proposed for the routine analysis of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. All the compounds were simultaneously extracted by sonication with hexane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electronic impact mode. Recoveries achieved were 105% for DEHP, 61.4-88.6% for NPEs and 55.8-108.3% for PCBs with relative standard deviation bellow 10%. Limits of quantification were 65 μg kg-1 for DEHP, from 630 to 2504 μg kg-1 for NPEs and from 5.4 to 10.6 μg kg-1 for PCBs in dried sludge. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Seville (South Spain)

  10. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  11. GPU accelerated processing of astronomical high frame-rate videosequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Švihlík, Jan; Krasula, Lukáš; Fliegel, Karel; Páta, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical instruments located around the world are producing an incredibly large amount of possibly interesting scientific data. Astronomical research is expanding into large and highly sensitive telescopes. Total volume of data rates per night of operations also increases with the quality and resolution of state-of-the-art CCD/CMOS detectors. Since many of the ground-based astronomical experiments are placed in remote locations with limited access to the Internet, it is necessary to solve the problem of the data storage. It mostly means that current data acquistion, processing and analyses algorithm require review. Decision about importance of the data has to be taken in very short time. This work deals with GPU accelerated processing of high frame-rate astronomical video-sequences, mostly originating from experiment MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser), an instrument primarily focused to observing of faint meteoric events with a high time resolution. The instrument with price bellow 2000 euro consists of image intensifier and gigabite ethernet camera running at 61 fps. With resolution better than VGA the system produces up to 2TB of scientifically valuable video data per night. Main goal of the paper is not to optimize any GPU algorithm, but to propose and evaluate parallel GPU algorithms able to process huge amount of video-sequences in order to delete all uninteresting data.

  12. Study of europium and selected actinides uptake on composite material CMPO-PAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameník, J.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    Modified CMPO-PAN production was used and the resulting composite material was tested for purposes of extraction chromatography. A commercially avaialble extraction agent octyl(phenyl)-N,N’-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were used. The europium uptake kinetics by composite material was studied in two different nitric acid solutions. The dependences of weight distribution coefficients (Dg) of europium, americium, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium on nitric acid concentration (0.01 5 mol L-1) in the presence of sodium nitrate (0.1 mol L-1) were determined. High Dg-values were found in 0.1 5 M nitric acid for all elements tested. Increase in europium and americium Dg-values with decrease in nitric acid concentration (bellow 0.1 mol L-1) was observed. This behaviour in diluted nitric acid solutions differs from the behaviour of the similar materials with another support. CMPO-PAN composite material was compared with commercially available TRU Resin. Dg-values of the tested elements in all solutions used were higher for CMPO-PAN than for TRU Resin. The retention of the studied elements on CMPO-PAN in hydrochloric acid was made as a screening study.

  13. An in vitro comparison of nickel and chromium release from brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Soares Santos Haddad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing amounts of nickel (Ni and chromium (Cr released from brackets from different manufacturers in simulated oral environments. 280 brackets were equally divided into 7 groups according to manufacturer. 6 groups of brackets were stainless steel, and 1 group of brackets was made of a cobalt-chromium alloy with low Ni content (0.5%. International standard ISO 10271/2001 was applied to provide test methods. Each bracket was immersed in 0.5 ml of synthetic saliva (SS or artificial plaque fluid (PF over a period of 28 days at 37ºC. Solutions were replaced every 7 days, and were analyzed by spectrometry. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Amounts of Ni release in SS (µg L-1 per week varied between groups from "bellow detection limits" to 694, and from 49 to 5,948.5 in PF. The group of brackets made of cobalt-chromium alloy, with the least nickel content, did not release the least amounts of Ni. Amounts of Cr detected in SS and in PF (µg L-1 per week were from 1 to 10.4 and from 50.5 to 8,225, respectively. It was therefore concluded that brackets from different manufacturers present different corrosion behavior. Further studies are necessary to determine clinical implications of the findings.

  14. Pressure vessel code construction capabilities for a nickel-chromium-tungsten-molybdenum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYNES alloy 230 (UNS NO6230) has achieved wide usage in a variety of high-temperature aerospace, chemical process industry and industrial heating applications since its introduction in 1981. Combining high elevated temperature strength with excellent metallurgical stability, environment-resistance and relatively straight forward fabrication characteristics, this Ni-Cr-W-Mo alloy was an excellent candidate for ASME Pressure vessel Code applications. Coverage under case No. 2063 was granted in July, 1989, for both Section I and Section VIII Division 1 construction. In this paper, the metallurgy of 230 alloy will be described, and its design strength capabilities contrasted with those for more established code materials. Other important performance capabilities, such as long-term thermal stability, oxidation-resistance, fatigue-resistance, and resistance to other forms of environmental degradation will be discussed. It will be shown that the combined properties of 230 alloy offer some significant advantages over other materials for applications such as expansion bellows, heat-exchangers, valves and other components in the fossil energy, nuclear energy and chemical process industries, among others

  15. Overabundance of alpha-elements in exoplanet host stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adibekyan, V Zh; Sousa, S G; Israelian, G; Mena, E Delgado; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Mayor, M; Lovis, C; Udry, S

    2012-01-01

    We present the results for a chemical abundance analysis between the planet host and non-host stars for 12 refractory elements for a total of 1111 nearby FGK dwarf stars observed within the context of the HARPS GTO programs. 109 of these stars are known to harbour high-mass planetary companions and 26 stars are hosting exclusively Neptunians and super-Earths. We found that the [X/Fe] ratios for Mg, Al, Si, Sc, and Ti both for giant and low-mass planet hosts are systematically higher than those of comparison stars at low metallicities ([Fe/H] < from -0.2 to 0.1 dex depending on the element). The most evident discrepancy between planet host and non-host stars is observed for Mg. Our data suggest that the planet incidence is greater among the thick disc population than among the thin disc for mettallicities bellow -0.3 dex. After examining the [alpha/Fe] trends of the planet host and non-host samples we conclude that a certain chemical composition, and not the Galactic birth place of the stars, is the determi...

  16. Twin Rotating Coils for Cold Magnetic Measurements of 15 m Long LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Billan, J; Buzio, M; D'Angelo, G; Deferne, G; Dunkel, O; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Siemko, A; Sievers, P; Schloss, S; Walckiers, L

    2000-01-01

    We describe here a new harmonic coil system for the field measurement of the superconducting, twin aperture LHC dipoles and the associated corrector magnets. Besides field measurements the system can be used as an antenna to localize the quench origin. The main component is a 16 m long rotating shaft, made up of 13 ceramic segments, each carrying two tangential coils plus a central radial coil, all working in parallel. The segments are connected with flexible Ti-alloy bellows, allowing the piecewise straight shaft to follow the curvature of the dipole while maintaining high torsional rigidity. At each interconnection the structure is supported by rollers and ball bearings, necessary for the axial movement for installation and for the rotation of the coil during measurement. Two such shafts are simultaneously driven by a twin-rotating unit, thus measuring both apertures of a dipole at the same time. This arrangement allows very short measurement times (typically 10 s) and is essential to perform cold magnetic ...

  17. Evaluation of a Mark I containment system under severe accident pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mark I containment system of the Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant is presently being evaluated for a specified set of severe accident conditions. The goals are to establish a best estimate of the pressure capacity of the containment structure and to identify the most likely failure location. First of all, global analyses of the drywell and suppression chamber shells have been carried out in order to capture the overall response of the structure and to determine upper bounds for their ultimate capacity. The global analyses of the drywell and suppression chamber shells have been carried out in order to capture the overall response of the structure and to determine upper bounds for their ultimate capacity. The results obtained up to date show that the weakest points of the system are the expansion bellows connecting the vent lines to the suppression chamber shell; with that exception, the rest of the structure supports 2.5 times the design pressure of 0.43 MPa. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  18. New woman escape from prison--the typical image Madelin in Herzog%逃出牢笼的新女性--试析《赫索格》中马德琳的形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉莉

    2015-01-01

    《赫索格》在20世纪美国文坛中占有重要地位。作者索尔贝娄也因此于1976年获得诺贝尔文学奖。但是,作者却对马德琳这样一个冲出夫权牢笼的现代妇女,寻找自我价值的新女性展现出了种种的偏激。本文就贝娄先生的代表作《赫索格》中的典型人物马德琳进行分析,进而对贝娄先生保守的女性观进行评论。%Herzog plays an important role in the 20th century literature in America. The author, Saul Bellow won the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the work. The author has shown great prejudice for such a modern new woman who tries to escape the authority of husband and find her own value. This paper would analyze the typical image Madelin in Herzog and criticize the stereotypical thoughts towards women of the author.

  19. Chitosan-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems for doxorubicin: Optimization and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paula I P; Sousa, Ana Isabel; Silva, Jorge Carvalho; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-08-20

    In the present work, two drug delivery systems were produced by encapsulating doxorubicin into chitosan and O-HTCC (ammonium-quaternary derivative of chitosan) nanoparticles. The results show that doxorubicin release is independent of the molecular weight and is higher at acidic pH (4.5) than at physiological pH. NPs with an average hydrodynamic diameter bellow 200nm are able to encapsulate up to 70% and 50% of doxorubicin in the case of chitosan and O-HTCC nanoparticles, respectively. O-HTCC nanoparticles led to a higher amount of doxorubicin released than chitosan nanoparticles, for the same experimental conditions, although the release mechanism was not altered. A burst effect occurs within the first hours of release, reaching a plateau after 24h. Fitting mathematical models to the experimental data led to a concordant release mechanism between most samples, indicating an anomalous or mixed release, which is in agreement with the swelling behavior of chitosan described in the literature. PMID:27178936

  20. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  1. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ellis

    Full Text Available Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas.

  2. The Role of Bioacoustic Signals in Koala Sexual Selection: Insights from Seasonal Patterns of Associations Revealed with GPS-Proximity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, William; FitzGibbon, Sean; Pye, Geoff; Whipple, Bill; Barth, Ben; Johnston, Stephen; Seddon, Jenny; Melzer, Alistair; Higgins, Damien; Bercovitch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a charismatic and well-known species, the social system of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus--the only extant member of the family Phascolarctidae) is poorly known and much of the koala's sociality and mating behaviors remain un-quantified. We evaluated these using proximity logging-GPS enabled tracking collars on wild koalas and discuss their implications for the mating system of this species. The frequency and duration of male-female encounters increased during the breeding season, with male-male encounters quite uncommon, suggesting little direct mating competition. By comparison, female-female interactions were very common across both seasons. Body mass of males was not correlated with their interactions with females during the breeding season, although male size is associated with a variety of acoustic parameters indicating individuality. We hypothesise that vocal advertising reduces the likelihood of male-male encounters in the breeding season while increasing the rate of male-female encounters. We suggest that male mating-season bellows function to reduce physical confrontations with other males allowing them to space themselves apart, while, at the same time, attracting females. We conclude that indirect male-male competition, female mate choice, and possibly female competition, mediate sexual selection in koalas. PMID:26154295

  3. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  4. Environmental protection at the Los Azufres, Michoacan geothermal field; La proteccion ambiental en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Rangel, Ernesto; Hernandez Ayala, Cuauhtemoc [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    Geothermal-electric development is a sustainable activity from an environmental viewpoint, as is proved by the operation and management of the Los Azufres geothermal field. Impacts to soil and vegetation can be prevented and adequately mitigated. Liquid residues can be returned to the reservoir avoiding contaminating surface and ground waters and aquifers; and atmospheric emissions can kept bellow allowable limits. The main environmental technical experiences of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in this field are presented in this paper. [Spanish] El desarrollo geotermoelectrico es una actividad sustentable desde el punto de vista ambiental, como lo prueba el manejo del campo geotermico de Los Azufres. Los impactos al suelo y a la vegetacion pueden prevenirse y mitigarse con las medidas adecuadas. Los desechos liquidos pueden regresarse al yacimiento sin contaminar cuerpos de agua superficiales o acuiferos someros, y las emisiones a la atmosfera pueden controlarse para mantenerlas dentro de limites permisibles. Se presentan las principales experiencias tecnicas de tipo ambiental obtenidas por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en ese campo.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of low intensity laser radiation on the osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rabbits' tibia; Avaliacao biomecanica da acao da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade no processo de osseointegracao de implantes de titanio inseridos em tibia de coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho Filho, Thyrso

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on bone repair process after titanium implant surgeries performed in rabbits' tibia. Thirty three Norfolk rabbits were divided into three different groups according to the implant removal period (14, 21 and 42 days). Two titanium-pure implants were inserted one in each tibia and one side was randomly chosen to be irradiated. Irradiations were performed employing a GaAlAs laser ({lambda}=780 nm) during 10 seconds, with an energy density of 7.5 J/cm{sup 2} on 4 spots: above, bellow, on the right and on the left side of the implants with an interval between irradiations of 48 hours during 14 days. Animals were sacrificed according to the observation times, tibias were removed and the strength removal values recorded. Results showed that, for the 21 and 42 days sacrifices periods, the irradiated side presented a statistically higher implant strength removal values when compared to the non-irradiated side. (author)

  6. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  7. Electron cyclotron heating and current drive on Tore Supra 2002-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECRH/ECCD (electron cyclotron resonance heating/electron cyclotron corral drive) system on Tore Supra, with its front steering antenna and its long pulse capability makes it ideal for testing essential technical and physics issues for ITER. This paper report the experimental results obtained and the technical evolution of the system since the last 'Strong Microwaves in Plasmas' workshop. The observation of a clear synergistic effect between Electron cyclotron current drive and Lower Hybrid Current Drive in fully non-inductively driven plasmas allowing a significant reduction in the Lower Hybrid power required to drive the plasma current is one of the major results of recent experiments. In another series of experiments ECCD has been exploited for studies of advanced scenarios with strongly or weakly reversed shear, resulting in high core electron temperatures and steep gradients. The operation of the system was halted for a year following a water leak in the armored water bellows feeding cooling water to the antenna mobile mirror. This incident highlighted the difficulty of cooling mobile components inside the vacuum vessel and a major modification in the mirror cooling system was implemented as a consequence. With these modifications the first test of control of the ECRH/CD injection angle in real time should proceed in the upcoming experimental campaign. (authors)

  8. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  9. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  10. Collagen type I alpha 1 gene polymorphism in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism in women bellow 40 years. Osteoporosis is one of the late complications of POF. Objective. To correlate collagen type I alpha1 (COLIA1 gene polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD in women with POF. Methods. We determined the COLIA1 genotypes SS, Ss, ss in 66 women with POF. Single nucleotide polymorphism (G to T substitution within the Sp 1-binding site in the first intron of the COLIA1 gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the lumbar spine region by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Statistics: Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Chisquare test, Spearman correlation test. Results. The relative distribution of COLIA1 genotype alleles was SS - 54.4%, Ss - 41.0% and ss - 4.5%. No significant differences were found between genotype groups in body mass index, age, duration of amenorrhea or BMD. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI and parity. Conclusion. The COLIA1 gene is just one of many genes influencing bone characteristics. It may act as a marker for differences in bone quantity and quality, bone fragility and accelerated bone loss in older women. However, in young women with POF, COLIA1 cannot identify those at higher risk for osteoporosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173056

  11. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkman, C. M.; Highland, M. J.; Perret, E.; Kim, S. K.; Baldo, P. M.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Fister, T. T. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zhou, H.; Seifert, S. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10{sup -6}-10{sup 3} Torr and 25 Degree-Sign C-900 Degree-Sign C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO{sub 3} thin films on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates were investigated.

  12. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, C. M.; Highland, M. J.; Perret, E.; Kim, S. K.; Fister, T. T.; Zhou, H.; Baldo, P. M.; Seifert, S.; Eastman, J. A.; Fuoss, P. H.; Fong, D. D.

    2013-02-01

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10-6-103 Torr and 25°C-900°C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO3 thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates were investigated.

  13. Modular instrument mounting system for variable environment in operando X-ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the growing field of in operando and in situ X-ray experiments, there exists a large disparity in the types of environments and equipment to control them. This situation makes it challenging to conduct multiple experiments with a single mechanical interface to the diffractometer. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a modular instrument mounting system that can be installed on a standard six-circle diffractometer (e.g., 5021 Huber GmbH). This new system allows for the rapid changeover of different chambers and sample heaters and permits accurate sample positioning (x, y, z, and azimuthal rotation) without rigid coupling to the chamber body. Isolation of the sample motion from the chamber enclosure is accomplished through a combination of custom rotary seals and bellows. Control of the pressure and temperature has been demonstrated in the ranges of 10−6–103 Torr and 25°C–900°C, respectively. We have utilized the system with several different modular instruments. As an example, we provide in situ sputtering results, where the growth dynamics of epitaxial LaGaO3 thin films on (001) SrTiO3 substrates were investigated.

  14. Long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control residues: leaching characterization and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-02-15

    Long-term leaching of Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, S, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, P, Cl, and dissolved organic carbon from two different municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control residues was monitored during 24 months of column percolation experiments; liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios of 200-250L/kg corresponding to more than 10,000 years in a conventional landfill were reached. Less than 2% of the initially present As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Sb had leached during the course of the experiments. Concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mg, Hg, Mn, Ni, Co, Sn, Ti, and P were generally bellow 1microg/L; overall less than 1% of their mass leached. Column leaching data were further used in a two-step geochemical modeling in PHREEQC in order to (i) identify solubility controlling minerals and (ii) evaluate their interactions in a water-percolated column system over L/S of 250L/kg. Adequate predictions of pH, alkalinity, and the leaching of Ca, S, Al, Si, Ba, and Zn were obtained in a simultaneous calculation. Also, it was suggested that removal of Ca and S together with depletion of several minerals apparently caused dissolution of ettringite-like phases. In turn, significant increase in leaching of oxyanions (especially Sb and Cr) was observed at late stage of leaching experiments. PMID:18583034

  15. Field-Amplified Sample Injection-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography for the Determination of Benzophenones in Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Félez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (FASI-MEKC method for the determination of 14 benzophenones (BPs in a food simulant used in migration studies of food packaging materials was developed, allowing almost baseline separation in less than 21 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution as sample matrix was mandatory to achieve FASI enhancement of the analyzed BPs. A 21- to 784-fold sensitivity enhancement was achieved with FASI-MEKC, obtaining limits of detection down to 5.1–68.4 µg/L, with acceptable run-to-run precisions (RSD values lower than 22.3% and accuracy (relative errors lower than 21.0%. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying BPs in the food simulant spiked at 500 µg/L (bellow the established specific migration limit for BP (600 µg/L by EU legislation. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.55, showing that the proposed FASI-MEKC method is suitable for the analysis of BPs in food packaging migration studies at the levels established by EU legislation.

  16. PρT Property for HFO-1234yf in the Gaseous Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Higashi, Yukihiro

    Measurement of the PρT property for HFO-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene) in the gaseous phase was carried out using metal-bellows volumometer. Two hundreds and three PρT properties were obtained in the range of temperatures from (310 to 360) K, of pressures from (927 to 2895) kPa and of densities from (52 to 239) kg/m3. The experimental uncertainties are estimated to be 10 mK for temperatures, 2 kPa for pressures, and (0.11 to 0.31) kg/m3 for densities. The sample purity was better than 99.85 % in mole fraction. On the basis of the present data, the virial equation of state was correlated and the virial coefficients were obtained. In addition, the saturated vapor densities were determined from present virial equation of state by substituting the available vapor pressure values. Moreover, the present data were compared with values calculated from existing equations of state.

  17. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  18. Imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, M W; Oetting, R D; Hall, D B

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by subirrigation. Different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before the imidacloprid application. These treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175 ml of imidacloprid solution by the growing medium. These treatments were compared with untreated control plants and plants that were treated with a standard drench application (100 ml) to the top of the growing medium. All imidacloprid treatments resulted in a significant decrease in both the survival of adult whiteflies and number of immature whiteflies on the plants. Subirrigation treatments resulted in better control of adult and immature whiteflies than drench application. Withholding water for 2 or 4 d before the imidacloprid application by subirrigation improved control of immature whiteflies. This indicates that the application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by subirrigation is a practical and efficient method to control silverleaf whiteflies. PMID:10902335

  19. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  20. Reversal of the Asymmetry in a Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Ar/Cl2 Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of the asymmetry in the plasma sheath voltages of a cylindrical coaxial capacitively coupled plasma is crucial for efficient surface modification of the inner surfaces of concave three-dimensional structures, including superconducting radio frequency cavities. One critical asymmetry effect is the negative dc self-bias, formed across the inner electrode plasma sheath due to its lower surface area compared to the outer electrode. The effect on the self-bias potential with the surface enhancement by geometric modification on the inner electrode structure is studied. The shapes of the inner electrodes are chosen as cylindrical tube, large and small pitch bellows, and disc-loaded corrugated structure (DLCS). The dc self-bias measurements for all these shapes were taken at different process parameters in Ar/Cl2 discharge. The reversal of the negative dc self-bias potential to become positive for a DLCS inner electrode was observed and the best etch rate is achieved due to the reduction in plasma asymm...

  1. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber; Determinacao da atenuacao do ar e perda eletronica para a camara de ionizacao de ar livre de cilindros concentricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-07-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k{sub e}) and air attenuation (k{sub a}). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  2. A new SPE/GC-fid method for the determination of cholesterol oxidation products. Application to subcutaneous fat from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Rivas, Mónica; Pham, Alessandra J; Schilling, M Wes; León-Camacho, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the isolation and analysis of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) using solid phase extraction (SPE) and silica columns was developed using gas chromatography-flame ion detection (GC-FID). The method comprises of saponification and liquid-liquid extraction of the unsaponifiable fraction prior to the isolation and derivatization of the COPs to trimethylsilyl ethers. The COPs used in this study are cholestane-5α-6α-epoxide, cholestane-3β-5α-6β-triol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5-cholesten-3β-ol-7-one. In order to identify the COPs fraction a GC-ion-trap-mass spectrometry experiment were conducted using authentic standards to verify the presence of the COPs. The method was effective at rapidly separating the COPs (25 min run). Calibration curves were linear with the LODs and LOQs bellow 0.03 and 0.07 mgkg(-1) for all cases, respectively. This methodology gave a total recovery for every compound that was used in the study. Betulin was used as an internal standard to monitor the recovery. The method was validated with a standard mixture of COPs. The method has been applied to characterize the COP fraction of subcutaneous fat from Iberian dry-cured ham. Cholestane-5α-6α-epoxide, cholestane-3β-5α-6β-triol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5-cholesten-3β-ol-7-one have been identified for the first time in these samples. PMID:24720962

  3. Individual dosimetry in a radiotherapy department - evaluation between 1997 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The occupational exposure is the exposure of workers due to their work. With the individual monitorization of the external radiation it is possible to get an approximated value of the effective dose and of the equivalent dose to the skin. The effective doses evaluation allows us to verify if these values are bellow the threshold established by law (a Portuguese law from 1990 established levels under 50 mSv/year for professionals and another law from 1997 established levels under 0,4 mSv/week, which is equivalent to 20 mSv/year, also for professionals). Methods and materials: we analyzed the values of the TLD dosimeters used by the workers during their professional activity between 1997 and 2004, in a Radiotherapy Department. Results: we separed the workers by professional groups and analyzed the equivalent dose in depth achieved (mSv/year). The workers were separed by physicians, medical physicists, technicians, nurses, helpers and secretaries. Conclusions: from the analysis of the results it is possible to demonstrate that the equivalent dose in depth achieved by the workers are under the threshold established and that we work under good conditions of radiation protection. (author)

  4. Geochemical signal in drip waters and carbonates from three year monitoring of Drac Cave in Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Isabel; Cisneros, Mercé; Torner, Judit; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Bladé, Ileana; Fornos, Joan

    2016-04-01

    In order to establish the potential connection between climatic conditions over Mallorca and the chemistry of speleothem growths, a still ongoing monitoring exercise is in development in Drac Cave in Mallorca (Spain) starting from April 2013. This location in the Western Mediterranean was selected to represent Mediterranean semi-arid climatic conditions within a wider monitoring plan covering a transect across the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, from the Catabric realm, across the Pyrenees and Iberian ranges until the Mediterranean, within the framework of the OPERA research project. Drip waters have been recovered at weakly resolution and carbonate precipitates represent seasonal periods. This monitoring is complemented with drip water and carbonate collection at seasonal scale in another cave close to Drac Cave. This second cave was selected in order to represent comparable climatic conditions but far of any human land-intervention since the Drac cave is partially located under an urban developed area, although drip water and carbonate collection is performed in a location bellow autochthonous forest. First results show that drip flow has a rather constant rate along the year even though the large contrast on rain availability. In contrast, chemical signal of the drip waters shows a rapid response (few days) to changes in rain patterns but of relatively small magnitude. Isotopes in the carbonate precipitates present a seasonal signal and trend that reflect changes in the drip water composition. This data set, although preliminary, will be discussed in the context of the changing meteorological conditions of the last three years.

  5. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungdae; Nam, Hyoungdo; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Sang-ui; Schroeder, Allan; Eom, Daejin; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening. PMID:26429448

  6. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  7. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn't been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  8. Conceptual design and application studies of piezoelectric crystal motors under ultra-high vacuum conditions; Konzepterstellung und Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten eines Piezokristallmotors im Ultrahochvakuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, Jens

    2009-08-15

    For the operation of accelerators it is important that motions in the vacuum occur. The here produced diploma thesis deals with the possibility to perform thes motions with piezocrystal motors in order to abandon wear-susceptible membrane bellows. For this studies have been performed, which should show for which it is useful to apply a piezocrystal motor. Limits are shown, advances and disadvantages are weighted in the thesis. Construction with with subsequent test of a tandem facility and an outlook on possible future concepts form the main content. [German] Fuer den Betrieb von Beschleunigern ist es wichtig, dass Bewegungen im Vakuum stattfinden. Die hier angefertigte Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit der Moeglichkeit, diese Bewegungen mit Piezokristallmotoren durchzufuehren, um auf verschleissanfaellige Membranbaelge zu verzichten. Hierfuer sind Studien durchgefuehrt worden, die zeigen sollen, wofuer es ratsam ist, einen Piezokristallmotor zu verwenden. Grenzen werden aufgezeigt, Vor- und Nachteile werden in der Arbeit abgewogen. Konstruktion mit anschliessenden Tests eines Tandemaufbaus und ein Ausblick auf moegliche zukuenftige Konzepte bilden den Kerninhalt. (orig.)

  9. Aberrant metastatic behavior and particular features of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Kadar, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have focused on the metastatic behavior of EGC and its particularities. The main factors that are currently considered as predictors of the metastatic behavior and that are used in the therapeutic decision (endoscopic resection vs surgical removal) are the tumor size (upper or bellow 2 cm), depth of infiltration, angiolymphatic invasion, the presence or absence of ulceration, and histologic type (undifferentiated vs differentiated carcinomas). However, most of the metastatic cases were published as case reports or case series. This is the reason why a proper estimation of metastatic risk in EGC is not well known. To date, 79 cases presenting bone metastases, three reports of brain metastases, and one EGC that was associated with skin metastasis were published. However, occult metastasis, lymph node micrometastasis, and skip metastasis can also occur and should be identified. Making a synthesis of the literature data that is correlated with our experience, we finally proposed the inclusion of the six Japanese subgrouping system, tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and micrometastasis as components of the pTNM staging system, which should be particularly adapted for EGC. PMID:26547366

  10. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  11. Preparation and study of U/Co multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of uranium multilayers has been so far almost unexplored. Most of the work done is still restricted to the pioneering study at the IBM, more than ten years ago, of some uranium amorphous films and multilayers in search for possible magneto-optic effects. With the aim of expanding the studies on this type of materials, U/Co multilayers were recently prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. Here we report on the preparation of U/Co multilayers and their magnetic characterization. The depositions were performed onto glass at room temperature, using two different current values, the thickness of each layer ranging from 50-200 A. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to check the thickness and the interfacial roughness of the deposited layers. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID magnetometer. RBS measurements indicate that the layers have a roughness or mixing depth of a few tens of A that increases with the increasing thickness. The multilayers have a ferromagnetic behaviour bellow 300 K, with a saturation magnetization increasing with the layer thickness. The easy magnetic direction is on the plane of the films and the anisotropy field increases with the thickness of the layers. (author)

  12. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of commercial reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program has been carried out to provide technical database and review manuals for evaluating the adequacy of Tokai plant's Ageing Management report from F.Y.2006 to F.Y.2011. In the near future, the regulator will be to carry out the evaluation of Rokkasho plant, which is commercial-size plant mainly designed by the technologies in Britain and France. This plant is different from Tokai plant in a technique of the prevention of corrosion. The purpose of the research program is to provide supplementary database and improve the review manual in order to evaluate the adequacy of Rokkasho plant's Ageing Management report. We selected three experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program on the basis of the result of the operational experience of the foreign plants and the related previous studies. Effect of solid deposit adhering on the metal, Np(VI) and nitrous ions in solution on the corrosion of stainless steel made reduced pressure evaporator in boiling nitric acid solutions, Conditions of initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking of the zirconium made components in boiling nitric acid solutions including highly-concentrated plutonium, Conditions of initiation of Hydrogen Embrittlement Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipe Fittings Composed of Zirconium, Tantalum and Stainless Steel in high radioactive nitric acid solutions. (author)

  13. Research on technological assessment for ageing management of reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research program is to provide the review manual and the relevant technical data for Ageing Management Technical Evaluation Reports performed by licensees of spent fuel reprocessing plants in accordance with ordinance on Periodic Safety Review. We have been conducted the research program based on a contract with well-equipped organization since FY2006. We selected four experimental subjects on ageing phenomena listed bellow in this program for the technological assessment of TOKAI plant experienced in much corrosion problems, which is pilot plant for reprocessing service commissioned in Dec.1980 and shifted to R and D in Apr.2006. Corrosion of stainless steel made components in boiling nitric acid solutions at heating portions. Corrosion of titanium alloy made components in nitric acid condensates at condensate portions. Hydrogen degradation of titanium alloy made components in highly radioactive nitric acid solutions. Creep and fatigue of nickel-base alloy made furnaces which is operated in the conditions of daily cyclic heating. This annual report presents the summary of research activities in FY2010. (author)

  14. On the Use of 3dB Qualification Margin for Structural Parts on Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2007-01-01

    The standard random vibration qualification test used for Expendable Launch Vehicle components is Maximum Predicted Environment (MPE) + 6dB for a duration of 4 times the service life of the part. This can be a severe qualification test for these fatigue-sensitive structures. This paper uses flight data from several launch vehicles to establish that reducing the qualification approach to MPE+3dB for the duration of the peak environment (1x life) is valid for fatigue-sensitive structural components. Items that can be classified as fatigue-sensitive are probes, ducts, tubing, bellows, hoses, and any non-functional structure. Non-functional structure may be flight critical or carry fluid, but it cannot include any moving parts or electronics. This reduced qualification approach does not include primary or secondary structure which would be exclusively designed by peak loads, either transient or quasi-static, that are so large and of so few cycles as to make fatigue a moot point.

  15. ATLAS gets its own luminosity detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    During the winter shutdown, the ATLAS collaboration has completed the installation of ALFA, the detector system that aims at the LHC absolute luminosity at Point 1 analysing the elastic scattering of protons at small angles.   Upper and lower ALFA Roman Pots as installed in sector 8-1 of the LHC tunnel, 240 metres from the ATLAS Interaction Point. The detectors of the ALFA system are installed at ± 240 meters from the interaction point 1, on either side of the ATLAS detector. The whole system consists of four stations, two on each side of the interaction point. Each station is equipped with two Roman Pots; each pot – that is separated from the vacuum of the accelerator by a thin window but is connected with bellows to the beam-pipe – can be moved very close to the beam. “The Roman Pot technique has been used successfully in the past for the measurement of elastic scattering very close to the circulating beam,” says Patrick Fassn...

  16. Prepare to be blown away

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 16 April, the TE-VSC team began identifying and repairing the LHC’s faulty radiofrequency fingers. Their main tool: an “RF ball” that will be – quite literally – blown through the beam pipe.   RF ball tests carried out in 2007. In the bellows of the LHC interconnects, you’ll find the vacuum pipe held together by some flexible metallic connectors known as “RF fingers”. These RF fingers maintain the electrical contact between the LHC magnets, ensuring the continuity of the beam pipe. As the magnets contract and expand when heated up and cooled down, the fingers preserve their connection by simply sliding over each other. However, experience has shown that the movement of the LHC magnets can cause the fingers to buckle. “It’s not a question of bad design,” explains Vincent Baglin, from TE's Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (TE-VSC) group. “Rather, there were slight non...

  17. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungdae; Nam, Hyoungdo; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Sang-ui; Schroeder, Allan; Eom, Daejin; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  18. An Integrated MCDM Method in Ranking BSC Perspectives and key Performance Indicators (KPIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alvandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The balanced scorecard (BSC approach is an effective technique for performance evaluation. BSC can better reflect the dependence and feedback problems of each factor in real world situations. This study aims at developing a set of appropriate key performance indicators according to (BSC approach for SAPCO using multiple criteria decision making(MCDM method. We provide key performance indicators through literature reviews and experts' idea in SAPCO, which is one of the biggest vehicle spare suppliers in Iran. The proposed study uses decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL and analytic network process (ANP, respectively to measure the casual relationship between the perspectives as well as the relative weights. The results based on ANP method shows that ‘‘Customer’’ is the most influential factor. In addition, internal process, financial and learning and growth are in two to four positions. Three important key performance indicators are as bellow: Total price of parts, Customer satisfaction and Lack of parts in production.

  19. Summary of ACSL Simulations of the MSRE Auxiliary Charcoal Bed Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, B

    2000-10-26

    The simulation of the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed (ACB) Vacuum System was performed to evaluate the original vacuum system design, detect and identify design deficiencies, investigate the effects of proposed corrections on system performance, and generally aid in refining the system design before construction and mockup testing. The simulation was performed by using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). The vacuum system design goals are to provide approximately 20 SCFM of both booster gas and purge gas through the system and maintain a flow of approximately 40 SCFM with a velocity of 50 to 75 f/sec at the entrance to the cyclone separator. The model results showed that the original system design was incapable of meeting the system performance goals. Further simulations showed that the following modifications to the original vacuum system design were required to make the system performance acceptable; (1) Remove valve PCV4. (2) Modify the flow controllers FTC3 and FTC4 from the original flow range of 0-17.6 SCFM (0-500 SLM) to 0-35.3 SCFM (0-1000 SLM). (3) Replace the bellows sealed valves SV-1, SV-3A, SV-3B, SV-4A, and SV-4B with less restrictive ball valves. The simulation results saved considerable time and effort by identifying flaws in the original system design. Early identification of these flaws and the use of the simulation model to investigate possible solutions allowed corrective modifications to be made before construction of the mock up test facility.

  20. Vacuum system for monochromatic polarized photon beam channel of electron synchrotron in Institute for Nuclear Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monochromatic polarized photon beam channel was constructed in December 1985 for the 1.3 Ge synchrotron installed in the Institute for Nuclear Study, The University of Tokyo. This report addresses the vacuum system for this channel. It consists of a vacuum tank equipped with thin-wall bellows, three-axis totational and single-axist translational goniometers, and an aluminum vacuum tank with a large-diameter window. Their functions, performances and structures are described in detail, and experimental data on the system in operation with the channel are presented. With the features of the accurate tagging of the momentum of ecoil electrons, production of polarized photons by a single crystal target and duty-up of the electron beam deriving system, the channel is called TAGPOL (tagged and polarized) channel. The two deflection electromagnets mouted on the channel is excited by a combination of direct and alternating currents to increase the beam transport duty. A see-through type goniometer is developed which can be compatible with such operating conditions as high vacuum, radiation exposure, magnetic field exposure and complete remote control. Measurements are made of the energy loss distribution in a crystal containing high-energy electrons. (Nogami, K.)