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Sample records for beliefs coping behaviors

  1. Positive parenting, beliefs about parental efficacy, and active coping: three sources of intergenerational resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Neppl, Tricia K

    2014-12-01

    Prior research involving parents (G1) and their adult children (G2) shows intergenerational continuity in positive parenting. Previous research, however, has not shown circumstances under which the typically modest effect size for intergenerational continuity is augmented or attenuated. Using a multigenerational data set involving 290 families, we evaluated 2 potential moderators of intergenerational continuity in positive parenting (i.e., beliefs about parenting efficacy and active coping strategies) drawn from prior theoretical work on predictors of parenting (Belsky, 1984). These personal resources of the second-generation (G2) parent interacted with G1 positive parenting to predict G2 parenting behavior. Beliefs about parental efficacy and active coping both compensated for low levels of G1 positive parenting by promoting G2 positive parenting when G1 parents were comparatively low on positive parenting. An alternative interpretation of this moderation is that G1 positive parenting compensated for low levels of these personal resources by promoting G2 positive parenting when G2 parents were comparatively low on parenting efficacy and effective coping. These findings indicate the different roles that these personal resources and a history of positive parenting appear to play in promoting a positive parenting environment for the next generation of children.

  2. Parental and child health beliefs and behavior.

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    Dielman, T E; Leech, S; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1982-01-01

    Personal interviews concerning health beliefs and behaviors were conducted with a parent and child in each of 250 households. Index scores were constructed for parental and child health beliefs, and these scores were entered, along with demographic variables, in a series of multiple regression analyses predicting child health beliefs and behaviors. The age of the child was the variable most highly associated with three of four child health behaviors and four of six child health beliefs. The children's snacking between meals and cigarette smoking were related to several parental behaviors and, to a lesser extent, parental health beliefs. The children's health beliefs were less predictable than were their health behaviors, and the observed significant relationships were with parental health beliefs and demographics. The implications for the design of health education programs are discussed.

  3. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

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    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  4. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Mohammad Ahmadpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts.In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software.Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002, but not in the control group (P= 0.105. Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003 that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174. On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse.Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  5. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

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    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  6. Therapist stress, coping, career sustaining behavior and the working alliance.

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    Briggs, Denise Broholm; Munley, Patrick H

    2008-10-01

    Relations were examined among therapist stress, coping styles, career sustaining behaviors and therapist working alliance. 160 therapists completed a demographic questionnaire, a rating of stress experienced in work as a psychotherapist, a rating of stress experienced in work with an individual client, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Career Sustaining Behavior Questionnaire, the COPE, and the Working Alliance Inventory. After controlling for demographic and therapists' stress variables, and alternating entry of Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores in the regression model, Career Sustaining Behavior contributed significant variance to predicting working alliance, and COPE scores accounted for significant variance in working alliance with active coping a significant predictor. Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores entered together accounted for significant unique variance in Working Alliance with career sustaining behavior and avoidant coping identified as significant predictors.

  7. Measuring illness beliefs in patients with lower extremity injuries : Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping questionnaire (SPOC-NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Anita; Busse, Jason W.; Ebrahim, Shanil; Wendt, Klaus W.; el Moumni, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Positive coping strategies, illness perceptions and recovery expectations are associated with better clinical outcomes and earlier return to work after injuries. The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire captures illness beliefs and coping towards recovery of physical

  8. Estructura factorial del inventario Leisure Coping Belief Scale en una muestra mexicana (Structure Factor of the Leisure Coping Belief Scale Inventory in a Mexican Sample

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    Minerva Vanegas-Farfano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los pasatiempos, vistos como actividades que fomentan el desarrollo de habilidades, aptitudes y redes sociales, fuera de la escuela o el trabajo, presentan opciones físicas, intelectuales y económicas, capaces de apoyar el desarrollo personal y el manejo del estrés en todo tipo de poblaciones. Por ello, este estudio analiza las propiedades psicométricas de cuatro subescalas del cuestionario Leisure Coping Belief Scale (LCBS en 132 adultos de población mexicana. El análisis factorial apoya su dimensionalidad y estructura factorial en cuatro factores, como en el modelo original. La consistencia interna del inventario refleja una adecuada confiabilidad. Se evidencia que la LCBS-M es una medida válida y fiable para continuar realizando estudios sobre las creencias en torno al uso de los pasatiempos como estrategias de afrontamiento en adultos mexicanos. Abstract Hobbies, seen as activities that promote the development of abilities, skills, and social networks, outside of school or work, present physical, intellectual and economic options, able to support the personal development and stress management in all types of populations. Therefore, this study analyzes the psychometric properties of four subscales of the questionnaire Leisure Coping Belief Scale (LCBS in 132 adults of Mexican population. The factorial analysis supports its dimensionality and factorial structure in four factors, such as in the original model. The internal consistency of the inventory reflects adequate reliability. It is evident that the LCBS-M is a valid and reliable measure to continue the studies on beliefs about the use of the hobbies as coping strategies in Mexican adults.

  9. Long distance related stressors and coping behaviors in parents of children with cancer.

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    Aitken, T J; Hathaway, G

    1993-01-01

    This descriptive comparative study addresses long distance related stress and coping behaviors of 53 parents of children with cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in the stress and coping behaviors of parents living 100 miles from the tertiary treatment center compared with those who live less than 100 miles from the center. The theoretical framework used was Lazarus' theory on stress and coping. The study participants were from several Pediatric Oncology Group member institutions. The parents completed Hymovich's Parent Perception Inventory and a demographic data sheet. Parametric (one-tailed t-test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests) were included in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant differences in demographic data, concerns, beliefs/feelings, and coping. Implications for the pediatric oncology treatment team include specific interventions that will improve the quality of care for the children/parents who live a long distance from the tertiary treatment center.

  10. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

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    Kin-ya Kubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  11. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

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    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  12. The burnout syndrome in palliative home care workers: the role of coping strategies and metacognitive beliefs

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    Vittorio Lenzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare professionals are daily confronted with events involving the suffering of others, which are likely to generate highly negative and stressful emotions. In palliative care the emotional commitment is exacerbated by the constant confrontation with the theme of suffering and death. The failure to successfully down-regulate negative emotions is a key risk factor for a severe form of discomfort, known as burnout syndrome. Burnout is a psychological state of exhaustion, related to stress at work. Maslach (1996 describes it as a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Recent studies have shown that healthcare worker coping strategies may function either as a risk or aprotective factor for the development of distress and emotional problems. Furthermore, other studies highlighted the role of the dimensions of metacognition as vulnerability factors in predicting the development of psychological symptoms. The aim of this study is to examine and assess the relationships between burnout, coping strategies and metacognitive beliefs in workers involved in home palliative care. The hypothesis of the present work is that the appropriate use of positive and flexible coping strategies and functional metacognitive beliefs may relate to the management of distress and emotional problems. A group of operators working in a team of Integrated Home Palliative Care participated in the research.The study was based on a protocol including the Italian version of MCQ-30, used to assess a range of metacognitive beliefs and processes relevant to vulnerability and maintenance of emotional disorders; the Brief Cope (BC to survey coping strategies; Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI to measure burnout. The questionnaire includes a socio-demographical section. The results show the presence of a statistically significant correlation between the variables investigated.

  13. Who Participates in Support Groups for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? The Role of Beliefs and Coping Style

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    Clifford, Tessen; Minnes, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    One hundred forty-nine parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) completed online questionnaires measuring their beliefs about support groups and ASD, coping style, social support, mood, and use of support groups. Those currently using parent support groups (PSGs) reported using more adaptive coping strategies than both parents who…

  14. Relationship of pain coping strategies and pain specific beliefs to pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels; Zachariae, R.

    2005-01-01

    compared using t-tests for independent samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the direct associations between each individual coping and belief scale, and the pain measure. RESULTS: Only the CHAQ and the cognitive belief composite factor score made statistically significant...... subscale of harm (mean +/- SD 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.7, respectively). Significant correlations were obtained between the pain measure and the pain-coping subscale of catastrophizing, the pain belief subscales of disability, harm, solicitude (inverse), control, and medical cure. CONCLUSION...

  15. Customers' values, beliefs on sustainable corporate performance, and buying behavior

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    Collins, Christy M.; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable corporate performance (SCP) requires balancing a corporation's economic, social, and environmental performance. This research explores values, beliefs about the importance of SCP, and buying behaviors of supermarket customers from within a stakeholder framework. Beliefs about the importa

  16. Teachers' views and beliefs about bullying: influences on classroom management strategies and students' coping with peer victimization.

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    Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Pelletier, Marie E

    2008-08-01

    A multilevel design was used to test a model in which teachers' attitudes (beliefs) about bullying (e.g., it is normative; assertive children do not get bullied; children wouldn't be bullied if they avoided mean kids) were hypothesized to influence if and how they intervene in bullying interactions. In turn, it was hypothesized that teachers' strategies would influence how their students cope with victimization and the frequency of victimization reported by their students. Data were gathered on 34 2nd and 4th grade teachers and 363 ethnically-diverse students (188 boys; 175 girls; M age=9 years 2 months). Results indicated that teachers were not likely to intervene if they viewed bullying as normative behavior, but were more likely to intervene if they held either assertion or avoidant beliefs. Moreover, avoidant beliefs were predictive of separating students which was then associated both directly and indirectly (via reduced revenge seeking) with lower levels of peer victimization. No grade differences emerged for teachers' views or management strategies; however, minor sex differences were detected which will be discussed.

  17. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

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    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Comparison of type of irrational beliefs, marital conflicts and coping styles in women seeking divorce and women with intact marriages

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    Davoud Akbarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family is a basic institution of society whose structure and relationships it affect the community. Obviously, studying the factors contributing to maintaining the family and strategies to deal with family problems are very important. The aim of the present study was to compare the type of irrational beliefs, marital conflicts and coping styles in divorce-seeking women and women with intact marriages in Tabriz, Iran. Method: The study method was descriptive, causal-comparative. The study sample included all 18-30 year-old married women seeking divorce and all 18-30 year-old married women with intact marriages in Tabriz, Iran. 200 women (2 groups of 100 women, one seeking divorce and one with intact marriage were selected through convenience sampling in the first group and via simple random sampling in the second group. The instruments for data collection were standardized scales: Jones Irrational Beliefs Test, Sanaei’s Marital Conflict and Endler and Parker coping styles. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and MANOVA test. Results: The results showed a significant difference between the couples seeking divorce and women with intact marriages in terms of irrational beliefs, marital conflicts and coping strategies (P<0.001. The women seeking divorce had irrational beliefs, marital conflicts and emotion-oriented coping strategies. Conclusion: Irrational beliefs, marital conflicts and coping strategies in couples seeking divorce are important to be taken into account.

  19. Depersonalization, fantasies, and coping behavior in clinical context.

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    Wolfradt, U; Engelmann, S

    1999-02-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to determine the relation between specific dissociative experiences (depersonalization, fantasies) and self-reported coping behavior in a clinical (depression, anxiety, schizophrenia) and nonclinical sample (normal adults). Dissociative experiences were assessed with the Questionnaire of Experiences of Dissociation (QED) of Riley (1988) and coping behavior with the Stress-Process Questionnaire (SPQ; Janke, Erdmann, & Boucsein, 1985). A factor analysis of the QED items revealed a two-factor extraction: Factor 1 "depersonalization" and Factor 2 "fantasies/daydreams." The clinical group scored higher on the QED factor "depersonalization" and had more passive forms of coping behavior (resignation, social isolation, self-compassion, self-blame) than the normal adults. Similar correlation patterns were found for both groups: The QED factor "depersonalization" correlated highly with the coping behaviors "resignation," "social isolation," "self-blame," "self-compassion," and "rumination." No correlation between Factor 2 "fantasies/daydreams" and the coping behavior was found. Finally, correlations between depersonalization, trait anxiety, and personal need for structure were reported.

  20. Personality and coping with professional demands: a behavioral genetics analysis.

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    Maas, Heike; Spinath, Frank M

    2012-07-01

    Work-related mental health problems lead to individual ill-being but also absenteeism and early retirement from work. As such, it is desirable to diagnose strain and coping deficits before mental or physical symptoms occur in order to provide interventions early. Work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life are three facets of coping with professional demands that are related to psychological health (Kieschke & Schaarschmidt, 2003). Personality, defined as characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors over time and across situations, is also associated with health and well-being. To understand who becomes ill and why and to provide adequate interventions, we investigated the relations between personality and coping with professional demands, as well as the etiological basis of this relation. Personality and coping with professional demands (work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life) were assessed in a sample of 302 monozygotic and dizygotic adult twin pairs. Correlations between personality and coping with professional demands were moderate (r range: -0.61 to 0.37). All scales except occupational attitude toward life showed significant heritabilities. Genetic and environmental influences on coping with professional demands were largely independent of genetic and environmental effects on personality. These findings suggest that interventions should focus on work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life without specific considering of personality.

  1. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

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    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  2. Beliefs and Behaviors in Learning Critical Thinking Skills

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    Octavian REPOLSCHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are presented. The results of the periodic testing procedures that were taking place according to the established methodology are to be discussed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the relations between beliefs, behaviors and knowledge that have emerged in the process of learning are going to be presented.

  3. Associations of self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs and coping style with depression in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary survey.

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    Xu, Zi-Yan; Zu, Si; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Na; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Kilbourne, Amy M; Brabban, Alison; Kingdon, David; Li, Zhan-Jiang

    2013-10-30

    Psychological models of depression in schizophrenia have proposed that cognitive structures (e.g., self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs) may have a role in the development and maintenance of depression. However, it has not been clear what the characteristics of these cognitive structures were in people with schizophrenia and whether they have an independent association with depression, especially in those from a Chinese cultural background. The present investigation examined 133 people with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls and indicated that compared to the controls people with schizophrenia showed lower self-esteem, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs and negative coping styles. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only low frustration tolerance, problem solving and self-blame were found to be the independent correlates of depression in schizophrenia. Results are discussed with the view of clinical implications of cognitive formulation and therapy for schizophrenia in China.

  4. Social Work Practice Behaviors and Beliefs: Rural-Urban Differences?

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    Tom A. Croxton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available There is continuing debate within the social work profession on whether there are significant differences in the practice behaviors and beliefs between rural and urban clinical social workers and whether different standards should be applied in defining ethical practices. This study measures those differences with regard to five practice behaviors: bartering,maintaining confidentiality, competent practice, dual relationships, and social relationships. Differences were found in beliefs regarding the appropriateness of professional behavior though such differences did not translate into practice behaviors.More significantly, the research suggests considerable confusion about the meanings of ethical standards and the utilization of intervention techniques without formal training across both urban and rural social workers.

  5. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

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    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior.

  6. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

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    Ariane Alves Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a structured interview that was designed based on the Health Belief Model, from March to December 2013. Participants perceived the disease’s severity and felt susceptible to develop complications from hypertension. They reported receiving treatment correctly; however, the values ​​of blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index were high. Thus, it is necessary that health professionals implement strategies that favor hypertensive patients who are undergoing treatment to have healthy behavior.

  7. Health behaviors of people with hypertension: health belief model

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Alves Barros; Maria Vilaní Cavalcante Guedes; Denizielle de Jesus Moreira Moura; Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes; Letícia Lima Aguiar; Gleudson Alves Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the lifestyle of hypertensive patients, focusing on their health behaviors in light of the Health Belief Model. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 133 patients over 18 years old, with hypertension, registered in the Clinical Management System for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care, and monitored in five health centers in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, chosen randomly and probabilistically. Data collection happened through a struct...

  8. Examining a Teacher's Negotiation through Change: Understanding the Influence of Beliefs on Behavior

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    Talbot, Jennelyn; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previous research asserts the connection between teacher beliefs and behaviors in the classroom. However, using broad, general constructs collected in teacher self-reported surveys has provided neither clear connections between beliefs and behaviors, nor explanatory power between connected or disparate beliefs. This research examines teacher…

  9. Mediating Effects of Coping, Personal Belief, and Social Support on the Relationship among Stress, Depression, and Smoking Behaviour in University Students

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    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…

  10. Religious belief as a coping strategy. An explorative trial in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Xander, C. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Adamietz, I.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marienhospital Herne Univ. Clinic, Herne (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  11. How Beliefs about HIV Status Affect Risky Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    De Paula, A.; Shapira, G.; Todd, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how beliefs about own HIV status affect decisions to engage in risky sexual behavior, as measured by having extramarital sex and/or multiple sex partners. The empirical analysis is based on a panel survey of males from the 2006 and 2008 rounds of the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP). The paper develops a behavioral model of the belief-risky behavior relationship and estimates the causal effect of beliefs on risky behavior using the Arellano and Carras...

  12. Coping with contraception: cognitive and behavioral methods with adolescents.

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    Gilchrist, L D; Schinke, S P

    1983-01-01

    Teenagers' sporadic use or nonuse of contraception is 1 explanation for the high rates of unwanted pregnancies in the US. Past efforts have had limited impact as they focused on simply providing adolescents with information and increased access to birth control. The argument here points to specific cognitive and behavioral skills, which adolescents lack, and which are required for effective contraception. Previous research documents an increase in teenagers' use of contraception following a skills-training program presented in intensive small-group format. The present study evaluates cognitive and behavioral skills training methods implemented with large groups (n=120), in the natural environment. The subjects are male and female students of a middle class suburban public high school. Training in this preventive approach stresses verbal and nonverbal components of effective interpersonal communication--approach, refusal and request responses--as important behavioral skills. Cognitive skills training emphasizes the application of facts about reproduction and contraception to make optimal decisions in situations involving sexual activity. Leaders help the subjects relate abstract facts and observable risks to their own life circumstances and choices. Additional skills practice involves the completion of written assignments outside the group setting. At the end of the 2-week training period, the students are evaluated along 4 measures: a knowledge inventory, a contraceptive attitudes and intentions inventory, and a videotaped performance test. Analyses of findings support the feasibility of large-group procedures for helping adolescents cope with sexuality and contraception. Future investigations are needed to replicate the present research as are longitudinal follow-up data to assess the long-term effects of this treatment approach.

  13. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

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    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  14. Studying Abroad: Understanding the Relationships among Beliefs, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions

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    Zhuang, Weiling; King, Kristen; Carnes, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Increased globalization highlights the importance of encouraging university students to participate in an international experience. In this study, the authors investigate how behavioral belief, subjective belief, and control belief influence students' perceived value and intention to study abroad. The authors further examine the moderation effects…

  15. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less sev

  16. Age Differences in Coping, Behavioral Dysfunction and Depression Following Colostomy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Kathryn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the responses of a group of middle-aged and older adults (N=34) to colostomy surgery. Analyzed the relationship between the method and focus of coping and age, sickness-related dysfunction, and depression. Found that neither a lower level of active behavioral coping nor age itself was correlated with depression or dysfunction. (Author/ABB)

  17. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  18. Realities of Work Life Balance in Nigeria: Perceptions of Role Conflict and Coping Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.

  19. Relationship between Beliefs and Basic School Teachers’ Coping with Negative Emotions in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Šimonka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinging excessively to the myths about the ideal teacher leads into teacher’s excessive expectations, which in consequence leads to burnout and the emergence of negative feelings (Bečaj, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between agreeing with the myths about good teacher and negative emotional experiences and the correlation between self-assessed fitness to the myth of the good teacher and negative emotional experiences. The study involved 137 teachers in basic school. The results showed that teachers excessively cling to myths about good teacher and that on average they all to a certain extent experience negative emotions in the classroom. They most frequently look for reasons of the negative emotions in student behaviour. In the discussion we have suggested some possible solutions that could help teachers cope with negative emotions in the classroom.

  20. Relationships between Teachers' Creativity Fostering Behaviors and Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Nese

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine primary and secondary school teachers' creativity fostering behaviors and self-efficacy beliefs according to gender and subject matters taught by teachers and to investigate the relationships between teachers' creativity fostering behaviors and their self-efficacy beliefs. The study was conducted with the participation…

  1. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.

  2. Illness behavior: prediction by symptoms, the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck Personality Types, neuroticism, life events, coping, health locus of control, social support, and attribution style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orejudo Hernández, Santos; Froján Parga, María Xesús; Malo Aznar, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    A study was carried out with 501 persons to analyze the predictive capacity of various psychosocial variables-symptom perception, neuroticism, Personality Types 2 and 4 of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck, beliefs about health, social support, or certain coping styles-on two health-related behaviors: the frequency of visits to the doctor and self-medication. The results were analyzed by two structural equation models that revealed that some of the variables have direct effects on the behaviors, whereas other variables, such as attribution style, coping styles, or the impact of the stressors, have indirect effects via the reported symptoms or neuroticism. In addition, self-medication and the frequency of health service visits are independent of each other, which shows that their determinants are different. It is concluded that to address these factors in the two health indicators, it is also necessary to take in account the psychosocial variables considered herein.

  3. Contextual Factors Impacting Practice Beliefs and Practice Behaviors among Social Workers with Lesbian and Gay Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author explores contextual factors that impact practice beliefs and behaviors among social workers with lesbian and gay clients. The Gay Affirmative Practice scale was used to measure levels of gay affirmative practice beliefs and practice behaviors among social workers in a medical setting. A model is presented that illustrates how contextual factors related to education, training, relationships with lesbian and gay individuals, and religiosity affects social workers' practice behaviors. The results illustrate the importance of educational exposure and affirming practice beliefs on practice behaviors.

  4. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  5. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  6. Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P

    2001-12-01

    Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.

  7. The caregiver's perception of behavioral disturbance in relatives with schizophrenia: a stress-coping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, H L; Fournier, J P; Perreault, M; Vezina, J

    2000-06-01

    This article suggests some theoretical orientations in studying behavioral disturbance from a stress-coping perspective. First, an overview of Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive theory of stress is presented. Secondly, some linkages are proposed between the rating scales used to measure behavioral disturbance and the concepts of this theory. Future research directions are then suggested to further explore the affective, cognitive and behavioral responses related to the management of disturbing behaviors.

  8. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.

  9. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals.

  10. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  11. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Behaviors in Predicting Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechting, Emily H.; Brown, Tamara L.; Salsman, John M.; Sauer, Shannon E.; Holeman, Virginia T.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Religious beliefs have consistently emerged as significantly and inversely related to alcohol use. This article seeks further understanding of this relationship by exploring the role of religious behaviors in this relationship in three ways. First, we aim to determine whether the relationship between religious beliefs and alcohol use differs with…

  12. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT, irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin James Turner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  15. BELIEFS OF TEACHERS ABOUT BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gavia P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermeneutic research study conducted with seventeen primary regular and special education teachers to examine their beliefs about intellectual disabilities and behavior problems. Teachers beliefs about the influence that the context has the proliferation of conduct and disability issues is unveiled. It is an approach to the theoretical reference from beliefs, teachers in regular and special education, they have in common that their beliefs about intellectual disabilities are circumscribed or based on his work experience, rather than in references up-to-date intellectual disability. On the other hand found that teachers, based their beliefs on behavioural problems in the characteristics that have been observed through the experience with his students. Finally the strategies and style for setting the order were also based on their beliefs, elementary and special education teachers were using corrective strategies, although the latter also used cognitive strategies.

  16. Parent beliefs and children's social-behavioral functioning: the mediating role of parent-teacher relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M; Kwon, Kyongboon; Koziol, Natalie

    2013-04-01

    This research investigated whether parent-teacher relationship quality mediated the relation between parents' motivational beliefs and children's adaptive functioning and externalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of kindergarten through third-grade children with behavioral concerns (N=206). Parents reported on their motivational beliefs (i.e., role construction and efficacy), and teachers reported on the quality of their relationships with parents and children's adaptive functioning (i.e., social and adaptive skills) and externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that parents' motivational beliefs were related significantly and positively to children's adaptive functioning and negatively to children's externalizing behaviors. Parents' motivational beliefs were also significantly associated with enhanced parent-teacher relationship quality. There was a significant medium-sized indirect effect of parents' motivational beliefs on children's adaptive functioning through parent-teacher relationship quality (k(2)=.12) and a small indirect effect of parents' motivational beliefs on children's externalizing behaviors (k(2)=.05). This research suggests that parent-teacher relationship quality may be one mechanism by which the benefits of parents' motivational beliefs are transmitted to children.

  17. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.

  18. The Mediating Role of Dysfunctional Coping in the Relationship between Beliefs about the Disease and the Level of Depression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ziarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most severe chronic diseases. In many cases it leads to disability and results in a decreased quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. The problem that needs to be addressed is the following: which mental processes lead to increased levels of depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Methods. 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis hospitalized in rheumatology wards took part in the research. They filled in illness perception questionnaires (IPQ-R and questionnaires for testing strategies of handling stress (Mini-COPE and the level of depression (CES-D. Results. The observed correlation coefficients indicate that several elements of the perception of one’s disease moderately contribute to a high level of depression. Moreover, frequent use of dysfunctional coping strategies contributed to high levels of depression. Dysfunctional coping was moderately linked to depression. Conclusion. The conducted analyses confirmed the links between the beliefs about the disease and levels of depression and showed that the use of dysfunctional coping strategies mediates the relationship between the following elements of the representation of the disease: illness coherence, emotional representation, psychological attribution, risk factors, and the level of depression.

  19. Causal beliefs about obesity and associated health behaviors: results from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.

  20. DISPOSITION DIAGNOSTIC MEANS OF DEFENSIVE AND COPING BEHAVIOR IN THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational environment today is one of the most effective mediums for self-development and acquisition of new competencies. But due to its structural complexity this environment is highly stressful. However, up to now there are no procedures that would diagnose complex formations (eg, disposition of the defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to close this gap.Methods. After analyzing the existing problems of the theoretical aspects of psychological defense mechanisms of defensive and coping behavior, and taking as a basis the theory of protective dispositions and coping behavior different ways were allocated to show these dispositions in the educational environment.Scientific novelty. The personality questionnaire «Dispositions of defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment» is designed. This questionnaire has sufficient level of validity and reliability. A total of 402 people took part herein the study including different stages.Practical significance. The ready-made questionnaire can be applied by teachers who want to improve the quality of educational process. It will also be useful for students seeking to understand and eliminate the possible cause of own difficulties encountered while studying.

  1. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  2. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.

  3. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs.

  4. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Trading Volume, and Seemingly Emotional Stock Market Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhanhui; YANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Various information types and rational learning methods have shown that heterogeneous belief changes in a rational expectation model can explain many empirical findings in stock markets, such as momentum, contrarians, and technical trading. The methods have also shown that momentum and price movements can coexist in an asset market with only rational agents. The purpose of this paper is to provide a rational economic theory to explain these phenomena. Results of a dynamic programming model with heterogeneous beliefs show that the dynamic interactions between information diffusion and belief changes create continuation and reversals. The duration and magnitude of momentum and price movements are associated with trading volume. Therefore, rational investors should incorporate price and volume information in their trading decisions.

  5. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agorastos A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs, and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive–compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive–compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive–compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders. Keywords: spirituality, religiosity, religion, paranormal beliefs, magical ideation anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, OCD, anxiety, coping

  6. Violence Against Widows in Nepal: Experiences, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers in Seeking Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Sabarwal, Shrutika; Decker, Michele R; Shrestha, Abina; Sharma, Kunda; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Widows are a vulnerable population in Nepal. This study examined Nepalese widows' experiences of violence, their coping strategies, and barriers faced in seeking help. Study participants were recruited from Women for Human Rights, an NGO in Nepal. A stratified purposive sampling approach was used to select 51 widows and 5 staff members for in-depth interviews. Twenty-seven women who experienced violence were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Widows reported a range of violent experiences perpetrated by family and community members that spanned psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Women dealt with abusive experiences using both adaptive (e.g., attempting to move ahead, seeking social support, using verbal confrontation) and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., suicidal thoughts or self-medication). However, they faced barriers to seeking help such as insensitivity of the police, perceived discrimination, and general lack of awareness of widows' problems and needs. Findings highlight the need for interventions across the individual, family, community, and policy levels. Avenues for intervention include creating awareness about widows' issues and addressing cultural beliefs affecting widows' lives. Furthermore, efforts should focus on empowering widows, promoting healthy coping, and addressing their individual needs.

  7. [Coping of cybervictimization in adolescence - emotional and behavioral reactions to cyberbullying ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.

  8. Coping with an acute psychosocial challenge: behavioral and physiological responses in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villada

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.

  9. Gender differences in collaborative learning over online social networks: Epistemological beliefs and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Y.-Y. Chan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are popular venues for computer-supported collaborative work and computer-supported collaborative learning. Professionals within the same discipline, such as software developers, often interact over various social network sites for knowledge updates and collective understandings. The current study aims at gathering empirical evidences concerning gender differences in online social network beliefs and behaviors. A total of 53 engineering postgraduate students were engaged in a blogging community for collaborative learning. Participants’ beliefs about collaboration and nature of knowledge and knowing (i.e. epistemological beliefs are investigated. More specifically, social network analysis metrics including in-degree, out-degree, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are obtained from an 8-interval longitudinal SNA. Methodologically speaking, the current work puts forward mixed methods of longitudinal SNA and quantitative beliefs survey to explore online social network participants’ beliefs and behaviors. The study’s findings demonstrate significant gender differences in collaborative learning through online social networks, including (1 female engineering postgraduate students engage significantly more actively in online communications, (2 male engineering postgraduate students are more likely to be the potential controllers of information flows, and (3 gender differences exist in belief gains related to social aspects, but not individual's epistemic aspects. Overall, participants in both genders demonstrated enhanced beliefs in collaboration as well as the nature of knowledge and knowing.

  10. The relationship between beliefs about sleep and adherence to behavioral treatment combined with meditation for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Jamie A; Crawford, Megan R; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to 3 specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with completion of daily meditation. These preliminary findings suggest that pre-treatment beliefs about sleep may impact patient engagement with behavioral recommendations regarding time in bed and consistent rise time during treatment for insomnia.

  11. Using an Emic lens to understand how Latino families cope with dementia behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel M; Hinton, Ladson; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Tzuang, Marian; Tran, Cindy; Valle, Ramón

    2015-08-01

    Focus group data collected for a larger project to develop a fotonovela for Latino caregivers was used to conduct a meaning-centered thematic analysis in order to elicit Latino family caregiver perspectives on how behavior problems occurring in the context of dementia are perceived and managed. A sample of 42 Spanish-speaking Latino caregivers were recruited from organizations affiliated with the Alzheimer's Association near San Diego, California. Caregivers were queried on challenging behaviors, coping strategies, as well as other daily challenges. Focus group sessions were conducted in Spanish, translated and transcribed into English, and analyzed using qualitative, grounded anthropological methods. In addition to a range of behavior problems, five indigenous approaches to managing challenging behaviors were identified: acceptance, love, patience, adaptability, and establishing routines of care. Additionally, participants identified persistent challenges which deter effective coping. These include: issues with providers, problems with family members, limited knowledge of resources, emotional distress, and financial strain. To our knowledge, this is one of the few qualitative studies to report indigenous coping strategies for dementia behavioral problems. These findings have the potential to inform culturally-tailored intervention.

  12. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  13. From Narcissistic Exploitativeness to Bullying Behavior: The Mediating Role of Approval-of-Aggression Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Ong, Eileen Y. L.; Lim, Joylynn C. Y.; Lim, Eulindra W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of approval-of-aggression beliefs in the relationship between narcissistic exploitativeness and bullying behavior in an Asian sample (N = 809) comprising elementary children and middle school adolescents. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with both bullying behavior and…

  14. Parent Beliefs and Children's Social-Behavioral Functioning: The Mediating Role of Parent-Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.; Kwon, Kyongboon; Koziol, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated whether parent-teacher relationship quality mediated the relation between parents' motivational beliefs and children's adaptive functioning and externalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of kindergarten through third-grade children with behavioral concerns (N = 206). Parents reported on their motivational beliefs…

  15. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  17. Emergency Workers' Quality of Life: The Protective Role of Sense of Community, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Pietrantoni, Luca; Palestini, Luigi; Prati, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    This study, involving a sample of 764 emergency workers, investigates dimensions of quality of life at work (Compassion fatigue, Burnout and Compassion satisfaction), and their relationships with Coping strategies and some psychosocial variables (Sense of Community, Collective Efficacy and Self-efficacy). Results indicate the usefulness of…

  18. The Big Bang Theory--Coping with Multi-Religious Beliefs in the Super-Diverse Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2013-01-01

    Large urban schools have to cope with a "super-diverse" population with a multireligious background in their classrooms. The job of the science teacher within this environment requires an ultra-sensitive pedagogical approach, and a deeper understanding of students' backgrounds and of scientific epistemology. Teachers must create a…

  19. The Big Bang Theory--Coping with Multi-Religious Beliefs in the Super-Diverse Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2013-01-01

    Large urban schools have to cope with a "super-diverse" population with a multireligious background in their classrooms. The job of the science teacher within this environment requires an ultra-sensitive pedagogical approach, and a deeper understanding of students' backgrounds and of scientific epistemology. Teachers must create a safe…

  20. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  1. Evolutionary background for stress-coping styles: Relationships between physiological, behavioral, and cognitive traits in non-mammalian vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Overli, Øyvind; Sørensen, Christina; Pulman, Kim G. T.; Pottinger, Tom G.; Korzan, Wayne; Summers, Cliff H.; Nilsson, Göran E.

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to stress vary between individuals, and physiological and behavioral responses tend to be associated in distinct suites of correlated traits, often termed stress-coping styles. In mammals, individuals exhibiting divergent stress-coping styles also appear to exhibit intrinsic differences in cognitive processing. A connection between physiology, behavior, and cognition was also recently demonstrated in strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) selected for consistently high or lo...

  2. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  3. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  4. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  5. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  6. Beliefs and Behaviors of Elementary Principals of Successful Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Margie

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the behaviors and beliefs of eight Texas principals in high achieving Title I elementary schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell (2007) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings suggested that successful Title I…

  7. A Developmental Study of the Relationship Among Irrational Beliefs, Behavior Problems, and Neuroticism in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…

  8. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors : when public education is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Douglas P.; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the

  9. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...

  10. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  11. The Impact of Reality Television on the Alcohol-Related Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Valerie; Cantu, Vanessa C.; Graf, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the effects of reality television and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors of Hispanic college students (N = 285). Reality television is a new form of media that is gaining popularity and provides increased exposure to glamorized alcohol use. There is a lack of research studies focused on the impact that reality…

  12. Academic Beliefs and Behaviors in On-Campus and Online General Education Biology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because…

  13. Epistemic Beliefs, Online Search Strategies, and Behavioral Patterns While Exploring Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Online information searching tasks are usually implemented in a technology-enhanced science curriculum or merged in an inquiry-based science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the role students' different levels of scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs) play in their online information searching strategies and behaviors. Based on…

  14. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Freire Jannuzzi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior.METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories.RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and disadvantages of adhering to medication emerged, such as the possibility of avoiding complications from diabetes, preventing or delaying the use of insulin, and a perception of side effects. The children of patients and physicians are seen as important social references who influence medication adherence. The factors that facilitate adherence include access to free-of-cost medication and taking medications associated with temporal markers. On the other hand, a complex therapeutic regimen was considered a factor that hinders adherence. Understanding how to use medication and forgetfulness impact the perception of patients regarding their ability to adhere to oral antidiabetic agents.CONCLUSION: medication adherence is a complex behavior permeated by behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs that should be taken into account when assessing determinants of behavior.

  15. Beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-09-01

    The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function). When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  16. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M. F. Law

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function. When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  17. Impaired cannabinoid receptor type 1 signaling interferes with stress-coping behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M A; Wanisch, K; Monory, K; Marsicano, G; Borroni, E; Bächli, H; Holsboer, F; Lutz, B; Wotjak, C T

    2008-06-01

    Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system is known to interfere with emotional processing of stressful events. Here, we studied the role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) signaling in stress-coping behaviors using the forced swim test (FST) with repeated exposures. We compared effects of genetic inactivation with pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors both in male and female mice. In addition, we investigated potential interactions of the endocannabinoid system with monoaminergic and neurotrophin systems of the brain. Naive CB1 receptor-deficient mice (CB1-/-) showed increased passive stress-coping behaviors as compared to wild-type littermates (CB1+/+) in the FST, independent of sex. These findings were partially reproduced in C57BL/6N animals and fully reproduced in female CB1+/+ mice by pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors with the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. The specificity of SR141716 was confirmed in female CB1-/- mice, where it failed to affect behavioral performance. Sensitivity to the antidepressants desipramine and paroxetine was preserved, but slightly altered in female CB1-/- mice. There were no genotype differences between CB1+/+ and CB1-/- mice in monoamine oxidase A and B activities under basal conditions, nor in monoamine content of hippocampal tissue after FST exposure. mRNA expression of vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 was unaffected in CB1-/- mice, but mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was reduced in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that impaired CB1 receptor function promotes passive stress-coping behavior, which, at least in part, might relate to alterations in BDNF function.

  18. Modeling Land-Use Decision Behavior with Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Aalders

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to incorporate and manage the different drivers of land-use change in a modeling process is one of the key challenges because they are complex and are both quantitative and qualitative in nature. This paper uses Bayesian belief networks (BBN to incorporate characteristics of land managers in the modeling process and to enhance our understanding of land-use change based on the limited and disparate sources of information. One of the two models based on spatial data represented land managers in the form of a quantitative variable, the area of individual holdings, whereas the other model included qualitative data from a survey of land managers. Random samples from the spatial data provided evidence of the relationship between the different variables, which I used to develop the BBN structure. The model was tested for four different posterior probability distributions, and results showed that the trained and learned models are better at predicting land use than the uniform and random models. The inference from the model demonstrated the constraints that biophysical characteristics impose on land managers; for older land managers without heirs, there is a higher probability of the land use being arable agriculture. The results show the benefits of incorporating a more complex notion of land managers in land-use models, and of using different empirical data sources in the modeling process. Future research should focus on incorporating more complex social processes into the modeling structure, as well as incorporating spatio-temporal dynamics in a BBN.

  19. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas P Gross; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Researc...

  20. Self-reported coping behavior in health and disease: assessment with a card sort game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. E.; Peng, C. K.; Lester, N.; Daltroy, L. H.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with a variety of severe chronic illnesses and the healthy elderly exhibit a loss of flexibility in their response to a variety of stressors, compared with healthy adults. A card sort game designed to assess self-reported coping behavior under different stressful life situations was used to compare healthy adults with individuals with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the elderly. The healthy adults were found to exhibit more variability than any of the illness groups or the elderly. Healthy function is marked by a complex type of variability.

  1. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  2. Children's Understanding of Behavioral Consequences of Epistemic States: A Comparison of Knowledge, Ignorance, and False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneault, Joane

    2015-01-01

    The author addressed the issue of the simultaneity of false belief and knowledge understanding by investigating children's ability to predict the behavioral consequences of knowledge, ignorance, and false belief. The second aim of the study was to explore the role of counterfactuals in knowledge understanding. Ninety-nine (99) children, age 3-7 years old, completed the unexpected transfer task and a newly designed task in which a protagonist experienced 1 of the following 4 situations: knowing a fact, not knowing a fact, knowing a procedure, and not knowing a procedure. The results showed that factual ignorance was as difficult as false belief for the children, whereas the other conditions were all easier than false belief, suggesting that the well-known lag between ignorance and false belief may be partly methodologically based. The results provide support for a common underlying conceptual system for both knowing and believing, and evidence of the role of counterfactual reasoning in the development of epistemic state understanding. Methodological variations of the new task are proposed for future research.

  3. Contamination Appraisals, Pollution Beliefs, and the Role of Cultural Inheritance in Shaping Disease Avoidance Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Yitzhaq

    2016-08-01

    Despite the upsurge of research on disgust, the implications of this research for the investigation of cultural pollution beliefs has yet to be adequately explored. In particular, the sensitivity of both disgust and pollution to a common set of elicitors (e.g., bodily emissions, disease, and death) suggests a common psychological basis, though several obstacles have prevented an integrative account, including methodological differences between the relevant disciplines. Employing a conciliatory framework that embraces both naturalistic (evolutionary) and humanistic levels of explanation, this article examines the dynamic reciprocal process by which contamination/contagion appraisals in individuals serve to shape-and are in turn shaped by-culture-specific pollution beliefs. This complex interrelationship is illustrated by examining ancient Near Eastern and modern ethnographic documentation of pollution beliefs, highlighting the underappreciated function of these pollution beliefs as folk theories for the spread of infectious disease. By evaluating how pollution beliefs (as also modern germ theory) shape contamination appraisals in individuals, it will be argued that cultural inheritance has played a much larger role in guiding disease avoidance behavior than has been previously recognized.

  4. Childhood Sexual Trauma and Subsequent Parenting Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M

    2016-01-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that, when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655

  5. Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Juan P; Barragán, Elena; Botella, Cristina; Braun, Silke; Bridler, René; Camussi, Elisabetta; Chafrat, Verónica; Lott, Petra; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Inés; Papagno, Costanza; Sanchez, Susana; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to quantify insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress is of major clinical relevance. In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms. Since freshmen students experience constantly high levels of stress due to tight schedules and frequent examinations, we carried out a 3-center study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina in order to develop socioculturally independent means for quantifying coping behavior. The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions. A neural network approach was used to determine the structural properties inherent in the COPE instrument. Our analyses revealed 2 highly stable, socioculturally independent scales that reflected basic coping behavior in terms of the personality traits activity-passivity and defeatism-resilience. This replicated previous results based on Swiss and US-American data. The percentage of students exhibiting insufficient coping behavior was very similar across the study sites (11.5-18.0%). Given their stability and validity, the newly developed scales enable the quantification of basic coping behavior in a cost-efficient and reliable way, thus clearing the way for the early detection of subjects with insufficient coping skills under chronic stress who may be at risk of physical or mental health problems.

  6. Peer victimization and subsequent disruptive behavior in school: The protective functions of anger regulation coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Ovgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth's anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7(th)-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressive behavior at follow-up were the primary outcome, with statistical adjustments for baseline aggressive behavior and demographics. Results from multilevel models showed significant interactive effects of baseline anger regulation and peer victimization on residualized teacher-rated aggressive behaviors that were consistent with the hypothesis that anger regulation played a protective role: under high levels of peer victimization, youth with higher levels of anger regulation displayed lower levels of aggressive behavior than their counterparts with lower levels of anger regulation. These findings suggest that targeting and improving students' ability to regulate their anger may be protective in the face of peer victimization and reduce subsequent aggressive behavior.

  7. Young Children's Trust Beliefs in Peers: Relations to Social Competence and Interactive Behaviors in a Peer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between children's trust beliefs and social competence as well as social preference. In addition, this study examined how children with different trust belief profiles may differ in their peer interactive behaviors. A total of 47 children ages 5 to 6 participated in this study.…

  8. Impact of Beliefs about HIV Treatment and Peer Condom Norms on Risky Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…

  9. The effects of teaching contrastive skills of Islam and cognitive-behavioral for coping on anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Asadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of teaching contrastive skills of Islam originated from versus of holly book of Quran and cognitive-behavioral for coping on anxiety among some high school students in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses a standard method developed by Cattell and Scheier (1963 [Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1963. Handbook for the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire: Self Analysis Form. Institute for Personality & Ability Testing.] to measure the anxiety. The results have indicated that both methods, contrastive skills and cognitive-behavioral, not only could reduce anxiety in short term but also it could reduce the anxiety over the long term period.

  10. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  11. Anorexia nervosa and family relationships: Perceived family functioning, coping strategies, beliefs, and attachment to parents and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto ha explorado las diferencias entre la percepción de características familiares de 34 mujeres jóvenes con anorexia nerviosa y 34 mujeres jóvenes sin patología alimentaria. Todas las participantes completaron los siguientes instrumentos de auto-respuesta: FACES II, F-COPES, IPPA y el Cuestionario de Creencias Familiares. Los resultados demostraron que, en comparación con el grupo de mujeres sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes consideran a sus familias menos unidas y menos capaces de redefinir de una forma más aceptable las experiencias y situaciones de estrés. Sin embargo, consideran a sus familias más capaces de buscar y aceptar ayuda, y presentan más creencias familiares relacionadas con la responsabilidad individual/ auto-censura. En comparación con el grupo sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes parecen confiar menos en sus madres y amigos, parecen comunicarse menos con los amigos, y tienden a demostrar una mayor alienación en relación a la madre, al padre y a los amigos. De todas las variables en estudio, la alienación en relación a los amigos y a la madre, así como la mayor capacidad para buscar y aceptar ayuda fueron las variables más importantes para discriminar los grupos.

  12. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hosseini; Zeynab Karimi; Siamak Mohebi*; Gholamreza Sharifirad; Ahmad Rahbar; Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a ...

  13. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  14. Relationship of burnout with personality, alexithymia, and coping behaviors among physicians in a semiurban and rural area in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taycan, Okan; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Celik, Cihat

    2014-01-01

    This present study aimed to assess levels of burnout, to investigate the extent to which personal characteristics and coping behaviors are related to burnout, and to establish the predictors of burnout among physicians in a semiurban and rural area. A sample of 139 physicians was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Ways of Coping Inventory. The level of burnout was found to be moderately higher than those reported among urban physicians. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that neuroticism, occupation (specialist vs general practitioner), helpless, self-confident, and social support seeking approaches were predictors of burnout. The results showed that burnout was negatively related with problem-focused copping strategies, and positively with emotion-focused coping strategies. Fostering problem-focused coping strategies in physicians might be useful in the reduction of burnout.

  15. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  16. Breast-cancer patients' participation behavior and coping during presurgical consultations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Maria K; Robinson, Jeffrey D; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the context of breast-cancer care, there is extremely little research on the association between observed (i.e., taped and coded) communication behaviors and patients' health outcomes, especially those other than satisfaction. In the context of presurgical consultations between female breast cancer patients and a surgeon, the aim of this exploratory study was to test the association between communication-based participation behaviors and pre-post consultation changes in aspects of patients' mental adjustment to cancer (i.e., coping). Participants included 51 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and a surgical oncologist from a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center in the northeastern United States. Outcomes were changes in patients' fighting spirit, helplessness/hopelessness, anxious preoccupation, cognitive avoidance, and fatalism (measured immediately before and after consultations via survey), and the main predictors were three communication-based participation behaviors coded from videotapes of consultations: patient question asking, patient assertion of treatment preferences, and surgeon solicitation of patient question/concern/opinion. Patients who more frequently asserted their treatment preferences experienced increases in their fighting spirit (p = .01) and decreases in their anxious preoccupation (p = .02). When companions (e.g., sister, spouse) asked more questions, patients experienced decreases in their anxious preoccupation (p = .05). These findings suggest that, in the present context, there may be specific, trainable communication behaviors, such as patients asserting their treatment preferences and companions asking questions, that may improve patients' psychosocial health outcomes.

  17. EFFECT OF INVOCATION (DO’A ON PAIN-COPING BEHAVIORS OF PRIMIPAROUS MUSLIM WOMEN DURING THE FIRST THREE HOURS OF THE ACTIVE PHASE OF LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain-coping behavior of primiparous women may have adverse effects on the mother and fetus. In Tangerang, the majority of pregnant women have negative experiences of pain and pain-coping behaviors during labor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the invocation (do’a on pain-coping behaviors of primiparous Muslim women during the first 3 hours of the active phase of labor. Methods: It was an experimental study with pre-posttest design. Ten primiparos women were randomly selected and assigned to the control and intervention group. Each group conssisted of 5 participants. Pain-coping behavior was measured by the Pain Behavior Observation Scale (POBS. Results: Findings revealed that pain-coping behaviors were increased for those who received the invocation (do’a with p-value < .05 than those who received the routine care. The effectiveness of do'a could be seen from the average difference of scores of pain-coping behaviors before and after intervention. The intervention group significantly had higher pain-coping behaviors than the control group during three hours of posttest, while controlling for the pretest measure, F (3.24 = 15.68, p< .001. Conclusions: The invocation (do’a program for primiparos women during labor is feasible to be conducted, and effective to increase pain-coping behaviors. Therefore, it is suggested to provide this program for primiparos women during the first 3 hours of active phase of labor.

  18. The Influence of (Dis)belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Vuillaume, Laurène; Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A.; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one’s own actions in a paradigm that engages morality. To do so, we asked participants to choose to inflict or to refrain from inflicting an electric choc to another participant in exchange of a small financial benefit. Our results show that participants who were primed with a text defending neural determinism – the idea that humans are a mere bunch of neurons guided by their biology – administered fewer shocks and were less vindictive toward the other participant. Importantly, this finding only held for female participants. These results show the complex interaction between gender, (dis)beliefs in free will and moral behavior. PMID:28144228

  19. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

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    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  20. Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors and Dysfunctional Beliefs Mediate the Efficacy of Online CBT for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancee, Jaap; Eisma, Maarten C; van Straten, Annemieke; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts to further improve the efficacy of insomnia treatment. The current study therefore has two aims: (1) to replicate the finding that online CBT is effective for insomnia and (2) to test putative mechanism of change (i.e., safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs). Accordingly, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in which individuals with insomnia were randomized to either online CBT for insomnia (n = 36) or a waiting-list control group (n = 27). Baseline and posttest assessments included questionnaires assessing insomnia severity, safety behaviors, dysfunctional beliefs, anxiety and depression, and a sleep diary. Three- and six-month assessments were administered to the CBT group only. Results show moderate to large statistically significant effects of the online treatment compared to the waiting list on insomnia severity, sleep measures, sleep safety behaviors, and dysfunctional beliefs. Furthermore, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviors mediated the effects of treatment on insomnia severity and sleep efficiency. Together, these findings corroborate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia, and suggest that these effects were produced by changing maladaptive beliefs, as well as safety behaviors. Treatment protocols for insomnia may specifically be enhanced by more focused attention on the comprehensive fading of sleep safety behaviors, for instance through behavioral experiments.

  1. Attitudes, Beliefs, Behavioral Intentions, and Behaviors of Women and Men toward Regular Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Patricia K.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the beliefs and practices of women and men toward regular jogging demonstrated significant differences between joggers and nonexercisers. Nonexercisers thought jogging required too much time and discipline. Joggers believed that regular jogging has positive effects. (Author/CJ)

  2. An evaluation of high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilika, F; Jamshidimanesh, M; Hoseini, M; Saffari, M; Peyravi, H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Because of the physiological nature of the female reproductive system, women are susceptible to infectious diseases, especially STD and AIDS. Addiction and high-risk behaviors also grow danger of these diseases. The reason of this paper was to examine high-risk behaviors among female drug users based on the Health Belief Model. Methods. Participants of this study were 106 female drug users aged 18 years and older; by the undermost level of literacy skills and been involved in sexual relationships. They came to Drop-In-Centers (DIC) in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Data study was controlled by using a logistic reflux investigation and Pearson correlation analysis. Results. The conclusion showed that women's overall awareness was moderate. There were a considerable relationship among awareness and years old (p=0.006), awareness and education (p> 0.0001), and awareness and conjugal situation (p=0.062). Perceived sensitivity and severity were clearly compared by education level (p=0.007) and (p=0.014), respectively. Mean scores of perceived benefits and perceived severity of high-risk behaviors were estimated to be superior to other components. Conclusion. Awareness and perceived susceptibility must be raised regarding the educational schedule, which is according to the health belief model in the addiction field, to reduce perceived barriers to risky behavior prevention of women who use drugs.

  3. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  4. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents : cognition, perceived control, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). P

  5. Cognitive Change and Enhanced Coping: Missing Mediational Links in Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Anxiety-Disordered Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins; T.H. Ollendick

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we examine the recent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome literature with anxiety-disordered children and, specifically, explore the status of cognitive change and increased coping ability as (1) specific treatment effects, and (2) possible mediators of the efficacy of CBT. In t

  6. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  7. Academic beliefs and behaviors in on-campus and online General Education biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because the growing impact of the expansion of online education on undergraduate success, particularly in science courses, has not been fully studied. The specific questions guiding the study examined: whether course delivery mode impacted individual interest in biology; whether course delivery mode impacted help-seeking beliefs and behaviors; and whether course delivery mode, individual interest, and academic self-efficacy predicted academic performance in the course. Participants (N = 183) were enrolled in either online or on-campus sections of a biology course at a large public university in California. Quantitative data for the study were collected through two online surveys in a pre- and post-test design and analyzed via Chi-square, t-tests, and regression analysis using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate that course delivery mode does not impact individual interest in biology. The data further indicate that academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors vary by course delivery mode. This study also finds that while neither self-efficacy nor individual interest predict performance in the course, course delivery mode is shown to impact performance, although the reasons for this difference are unclear. The results of the study will be useful to course designers and administrators of online education as they seek to maximize the experiences of online students.

  8. Epistemic Beliefs, Online Search Strategies, and Behavioral Patterns While Exploring Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    Online information searching tasks are usually implemented in a technology-enhanced science curriculum or merged in an inquiry-based science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the role students' different levels of scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs) play in their online information searching strategies and behaviors. Based on the measurement of an SEB survey, 42 undergraduate and graduate students in Taiwan were recruited from a pool of 240 students and were divided into sophisticated and naïve SEB groups. The students' self-perceived online searching strategies were evaluated by the Online Information Searching Strategies Inventory, and their search behaviors were recorded by screen-capture videos. A sequential analysis was further used to analyze the students' searching behavioral patterns. The results showed that those students with more sophisticated SEBs tended to employ more advanced online searching strategies and to demonstrate a more metacognitive searching pattern.

  9. Relationship among mental stress, coping style and self-efficacy beliefs of highland recruits%高原集训新兵的心理应激与应对方式和自我效能感的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 谢远俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高原某部集训新兵的心理应激状况及其与应对方式和自我效能感的关系,并据此对高原新兵的心理健康教育提出建议.方法 采用问卷调查法,在驻青海某部新兵训练基地按照建制序列随机选取3个新训连队共256名新兵,施测军人心理应激自评问卷、简易应对方式问卷和一般自我效能感问卷.结果 新兵的心理应激反应主要表现为紧张、睡眠不好和身心疲惫;心理应激与消极应对有显著的正相关(r=0.349,P<0.01),与积极应对和自我效能感有显著的负相关(r=-0.179,P<0.01;r=-0.210,P<0.01),而自我效能感则与积极应对有显著的正相关(r=0.532,P<0.01);消极应对方式与自我效能感对心理应激反应有显著的预测作用.结论 可以通过增强高原新兵的自我效能感,并指导他们采用适当的应对方式来减轻集训期间的心理应激.%Objective To explored the mental stress situations and the relationship between mental stress, coping style and self-efficacy beliefs of the highland training recruits, and suggestions about mental health education of the recruits to be proposed.Methods The solider mental stress self-reported questionnaire, simplied coping style questionnaire, and generalized self-efficacy beliefs scale were administrated to 256 recruits from 3 companies have been randomly selected in a military training base of Qinghai province.Results The mental stress of the recruits included tension, sleepless, physical and mental exhaustion.The mental stress was significant positive correlation with negative coping style( r=0.349, P<0.01 ), and significant negative correlation with active coping style( r= -0.179, P<0.01 ), and with self-efficacy beliefs( r= -0.210, P<0.01 ).Meantime selfefficacy beliefs was significant positive correlation with active coping style( r = 0.532, P < 0.01 ).Negative coping style and self-efficacy beliefs could significantly predict mental stress

  10. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a standard questionnaire based on health belief model. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. ResultsKnowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.04, r=0.12 and P=0.004, r=0.18, respectively. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers had a negative and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.02, r=-0.14 and P

  11. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  12. Refining the Conceptualization of an Important Future-Oriented Self-Regulatory Behavior: Proactive Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Moyer, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Proactive coping, directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology research. However, two differing conceptualizations of this construct create confusion. This study compared how each operationalization of proactive coping relates to well-being. Participants (N = 281) facing an upcoming college examination completed the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI; consisting of two subscales that each assess one of the conceptualizations), the Proactive Com...

  13. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  14. Coping behavior of women with breast cancer with visible postsurgery deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirota N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to explore coping strategies in cancer patients. In all, 70 women with breast cancer were studied: 35 of them had visible postsurgery deformity, and 35 did not have visible postsurgery deformity. The purpose of the research was to uncover their preferences for using various strategies and resources to cope with their illness. The results showed that both groups of women had a special set of strategies for coping with stress. The women with visible postsurgery deformity made significantly less use of resources for coping with their illness than did the subgroup of women without visible postsurgery deformity.

  15. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunt...

  16. Health Promoting Self-Care Behaviors and Its Related Factors in Elderly: Application of Health Belief Model

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    Mojtaba Azadbakht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health beliefs significantly affect health promoting self-care behaviors. The most important model designed based on health beliefs is the Health Belief Model. This study examined the association between health belief model constructs and demographic factors with behaviors in elderly. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 465 elders referring to Tehran's cultural centers recruited with a multi-stage sampling method. Study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information, health beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting self-care behaviors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by Independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Multiple linear regression. Results: The mean (±SD age of subjects was 68.24±6.12 years and the mean of general self-care score was 1.79±0.36. Gender (P=0.011, economy (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001 and age (P=0.008 were significantly associated with self-care behaviors. Regression analysis showed that perceived barriers, self-efficacy and perceived severity were determinants of behavior (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is essential to pay special attention to self-efficacy, perceived severity and perceived barriers to design health education for elderly.

  17. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  18. The association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P; Lunsford, Natasha Buchanan; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-03-17

    Major health organizations recommend obtaining most of one's vitamin D through dietary sources rather than from sun exposure, given the link between sun exposure and increased skin cancer risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between beliefs about vitamin D and skin cancer risk-related behaviors, a topic on which research is limited. We analyzed cross-sectional online survey data collected in the summer of 2015 from 4127U.S. adults aged 18years and older. Overall, 19.7% of adults believed that sun protection would put them at risk of not getting enough vitamin D. However, less than half (43.1%) thought they could get enough vitamin D from dietary sources. Individuals with this belief were more likely to protect their skin when spending time outdoors (71.3%) compared with those who were neutral or disagreed (56.5%; Pvitamin D. Compared to those who disagreed or were neutral, those who thought it was effective were more likely to be outdoor tanners (45.1% vs. 28.5%; Pvitamin D were associated with skin cancer risk-related behaviors. Including information about vitamin D in skin cancer prevention messages may be beneficial.

  19. [Change in feelings of regret over time: relation to decision-making style, behavior, and coping methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueichi, Hideo; Kusumi, Takashi

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the change in feelings of regret over time in relation to decision-making style, critical thinking, behavior, and coping methods with the regret. Seventy undergraduate students completed a questionnaire on critical thinking, decision-making styles, feelings of regret and the coping methods in five different situations: entrance examinations, declarations of love, skiing, career changes, and investments. Results showed the following. First, in situations which normally occur only once (i.e., entrance examinations), subjects who indicated inaction felt increased regret over time, but those who indicated action felt decreased regret. Conversely, in situations which occur regularly (i.e., declarations of love and skiing), both of those who indicated action and inaction felt decreased regret. Second, people who indicated action coped with their regret using the method of rationalization more often than those who indicated inaction. In situations which normally occur only once, analytic decision-makers tended to cope with their regret by improving their behavior more than intuitive decision-makers. Finally, critical thinkers tended to adopt an analytic style more often than an intuitive style.

  20. Refining the Conceptualization of an Important Future-Oriented Self-Regulatory Behavior: Proactive Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Moyer, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Proactive coping, directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology research. However, two differing conceptualizations of this construct create confusion. This study compared how each operationalization of proactive coping relates to well-being. Participants (N = 281) facing an upcoming college examination completed the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI; consisting of two subscales that each assess one of the conceptualizations), the Proactive Competence Scale (PCS; that assesses the proactive coping process), and measures of well-being. The results demonstrated that conceptualizing proactive coping as a positively-focused striving for goals was predictive of well-being (the shared variance from affect, subjective well-being and physical symptoms), whereas conceptualizing proactive coping as focused on preventing a negative future was not. The first conceptualization of proactive coping's unique association with well-being was explained by two of the proactive competencies, use of resources and realistic goal setting, and the remaining variance in well-being was explained by the first factor of optimism. These results demonstrated that aspiring for a positive future is distinctly predictive of well-being and that research should focus on accumulating resources and goal setting in designing interventions to promote proactive coping.

  1. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  2. Skin protective behavior amongst girl students; based on health belief model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Davati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in most of the countries and more than 90% of cancer cases are related to ultra violet rays of the sun. Therefore protective behaviors against sunlight are considered the most essential measures for skin cancer prevention. This study has been conducted to determine the frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among female students of Tehran city high schools. The Health Belief Model has been used for this cross-sectional study to analyze the factors related to protective behaviors. A multi-phase sampling method was used. 941 female student of Tehran city high schools were studied using a probed question form. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. During the study of protective behaviors against the sunlight, 24.7% of participants mentioned that they always use sunscreen. The behavior of using sunscreen is related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit amongst the students (P<0.05. Also 3.8% of the students who participated in our study were always using gloves in summer to protect against sunlight. The behavior of using gloves in summer was also related to perceived sensitivity, severity and benefit (P<0.05. Physicians were the most effective influencing people with 84.9% influence on the appropriate decision making by these students. There is a low frequency of protective behavior against sunlight among the female students of Tehran city high schools. These findings show the necessity of training the students in this regard and promote the protective behaviors amongst them.

  3. Leader power and leader self-serving behavior: The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Diana; Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving behavior is determined more by internal states like effective leadership beliefs and less by external cues like performance information. We found support for this prediction acr...

  4. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  5. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  6. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-10-15

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights.

  7. Evolutionary background for stress-coping styles: relationships between physiological, behavioral, and cognitive traits in non-mammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Øyvind; Sørensen, Christina; Pulman, Kim G T; Pottinger, Tom G; Korzan, Wayne; Summers, Cliff H; Nilsson, Göran E

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to stress vary between individuals, and physiological and behavioral responses tend to be associated in distinct suites of correlated traits, often termed stress-coping styles. In mammals, individuals exhibiting divergent stress-coping styles also appear to exhibit intrinsic differences in cognitive processing. A connection between physiology, behavior, and cognition was also recently demonstrated in strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) selected for consistently high or low cortisol responses to stress. The low-responsive (LR) strain display longer retention of a conditioned response, and tend to show proactive behaviors such as enhanced aggression, social dominance, and rapid resumption of feed intake after stress. Differences in brain monoamine neurochemistry have also been reported in these lines. In comparative studies, experiments with the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveal connections between monoaminergic activity in limbic structures, proactive behavior in novel environments, and the establishment of social status via agonistic behavior. Together these observations suggest that within-species diversity of physiological, behavioral and cognitive correlates of stress responsiveness is maintained by natural selection throughout the vertebrate sub-phylum.

  8. Risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge: experiences and beliefs of minority adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak-Griffin, D; Nyamathi, A; Vasquez, R; Russo, A A

    1994-12-01

    Using a qualitative focus-group methodology, this study investigated risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge among minority pregnant and parenting adolescents at risk for heterosexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 48 young women recruited from alternative schools and residential facilities for pregnant adolescents and young mothers in Southern California. Participants also completed a background questionnaire soliciting sociodemographic information and an AIDS knowledge test. The sample included 33 Latinas and 15 African-Americans, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. There were bipolar findings regarding risk-taking behaviors. At one end of the continuum were young women with a history of one of more of the following behaviors: multiple sex partners, drug and alcohol use, carrying weapons, and participating in gang-related activities. Contrasting with these, were those who had one or two sex partners and no history of alcohol or drug abuse. A majority of the participants were having unprotected sex. A variety of factors affected condom use, including gender inequality, embarrassment, and personal preferences and values. Risk-taking was also influenced by lack of security and safety in daily living, emotion-focused coping and peer pressure.

  9. Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; Sánchez, Mercedes

    2012-12-30

    This paper analyses whether the environmental profile of park visitors as defined by the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory, determines their willingness to pay for park conservation. The sample consists of 194 visitors to a suburban Spanish park. Under these theories, it is shown that positive attitudes, a strong orientation towards biospheric and altruistic values with strong pro-environmental and normative beliefs determine the visitors' willingness to pay. Various fit statistics and the proportion of explained variance reveal that Theory of Planned Behavior has a greater influence on willingness to pay. The managers of urban spaces should direct their efforts to obtaining greater knowledge of people's attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental values given their importance in their decisions regarding economic valuation of this sort of resources.

  10. Determine the Effectiveness of Learning of Coping Strategies with Irrational Beliefs Based on the Theory of Rational-Emotional Alice on Attitudes to Communicate Before Married Female High School Students in Yazd- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forat Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research was done with the objective of "Determine the effectiveness of learning coping strategies with Irrational Beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice on students’ attitude toward premarital relations in Yazd city". Materials and Methods In this semi experimental research 60 female students of Yazd-Iran, selected by using of Cochran’s formula and divided in two groups of control (30 persons and experiment (30 persons randomly. Learning of coping strategies with Irrational beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice during the 8 sessions of 90 minutes was conducted on experiment group, and the control group did not training; then post-test was conducted in two groups. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used in order to data analysis in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The adjusted mean attitude scores of the relationship with the opposite sex in control group, on the pre-test and post-test was 51.27+12.16, 50.30+14.46 and in experimental group was 69.53+8.91, 43.63+10.96 respectively. The result Alice rational-emotional treatment method is effective on attitude to relationship before marriage of high school girls (P

  11. Unethical behavior in the name of the company: the moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphress, Elizabeth E; Bingham, John B; Mitchell, Marie S

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relationship between organizational identification and unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB)-unethical behaviors conducted by employees to potentially benefit the organization. We predicted that organizational identification would be positively related to UPB and that positive reciprocity beliefs would moderate and strengthen this relationship. The results from 2 field studies support the interaction effect and show that individuals who strongly identify with their organization are more likely to engage in UPB when they hold strong positive reciprocity beliefs. Given the nature of reciprocity, our findings may suggest that highly identified employees who hold strong reciprocity beliefs may conduct UPB with an anticipation of a future reward from their organization. Theoretical and managerial implications of our results for understanding unethical behaviors are discussed.

  12. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  13. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  14. Patient beliefs and behaviors about genomic risk for type 2 diabetes: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patrick; King, Heather A; Haga, Susanne B; Orlando, Lori A; Joy, Scott V; Trujillo, Gloria M; Scott, William Michael; Bembe, Marylou; Creighton, Dana L; Cho, Alex H; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major health burden in the United States, and population trends suggest this burden will increase. High interest in, and increased availability of, testing for genetic risk of type 2 diabetes presents a new opportunity for reducing type 2 diabetes risk for many patients; however, to date, there is little evidence that genetic testing positively affects type 2 diabetes prevention. Genetic information may not fit patients' illness representations, which may reduce the chances of risk-reducing behavior changes. The present study aimed to examine illness representations in a clinical sample who are at risk for type 2 diabetes and interested in genetic testing. The authors used the Common Sense Model to analyze survey responses of 409 patients with type 2 diabetes risk factors. Patients were interested in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes risk and believed in its importance. Most patients believed that genetic factors are important to developing type 2 diabetes (67%), that diet and exercise are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes (95%), and that lifestyle changes are more effective than drugs (86%). Belief in genetic causality was not related to poorer self-reported health behaviors. These results suggest that patients' interest in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes might produce a teachable moment that clinicians can use to counsel behavior change.

  15. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL, teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs on promoting SRL, as well as their predictive value on teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. Forty-seven primary school teachers completed questionnaires on knowledge and beliefs towards both components of the promotion of SRL: strategy instruction and a constructivist learning environment. In addition, teachers had to answer open-ended questions on their understanding of SRL, as well as their implementation of SRL in their classroom. The results show that teachers are more positive towards constructivist than towards SRL (teacher beliefs, and most teachers mentioned characteristics of constructivist learning environments, while only few teachers addressed strategy instruction when being asked about their understanding of SRL (teacher knowledge. Moreover, teacher beliefs are the only predictor for teacher behavior. The results indicate how teacher education could support teachers to learn how to promote SRL effectively.

  16. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake.

  17. Lecturers' Behaviors and Beliefs about the Use of Social Media in Higher Education: A Study at Mahasarakham University in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seechaliao, Thapanee

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes lecturers' behaviors and beliefs regarding social media in higher education at the Faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University. Thirty-one lecturers were surveyed about their attitudes toward the use of social media in their classes. Their responses were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results are…

  18. The Effect of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Osteoporosis Prevention Behaviors in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousaviasl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.

  19. Engaging students: The role of teacher beliefs and interpersonal teacher behavior in fostering student engagement in vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, van Jolien M.; Ritzen, Henk; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important precursor for learning. In this study we used teacher (N = 200) and student (N = 2288) questionnaires to investigate whether perceived interpersonal teacher behavior and teacher beliefs concerning motives for being a teacher, attitudes toward teacher knowledge doma

  20. Mindset, Motivation and Metaphor in School and Sport: Bifurcated Beliefs and Behavior in Two Different Achievement Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    The belief that a trait can be cultivated with effort, known as an "incremental theory or growth mindset," promotes behavior that leads to higher levels of achievement, such as the enthusiastic embrace of challenges and resilience to obstacles. Roughly 40% of the general student population in the United States, however, conceptualizes…

  1. Variable Effects of Children's Aggression, Social Withdrawal, and Prosocial Leadership as Functions of Teacher Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei

    2003-01-01

    Examined link between Chinese teachers' beliefs about classroom aggression and withdrawal and their support of middle schoolers, and student behaviors, peer acceptance, and self-perceived social competence. Found that teachers' aversion to aggression and empathy toward withdrawal enhanced self-perceptions of both aggressive and withdrawn children…

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Beliefs of Chinese Teachers Concerning Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…

  3. Tutorial teaching assistants in the classroom: Similar teaching behaviors are supported by varied beliefs about teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Michelle Goertzen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of a long-term program to develop effective, research-based professional development programs for physics graduate student teaching assistants (TAs, we first identify their current classroom practices and why they engage in these practices. In this paper, we identify a set of teaching practices we call “focusing on indicators,” which occurs when TAs use signs such as key words or diagrams as evidence that students understand the target idea; these indicators are more superficial than a detailed explanation. Our primary finding is that although the three TAs discussed here share a common behavior, the beliefs and motivations that underlie this behavior vary. We argue that TA professional development focused on changing these TAs’ focus-on-indicator behavior is unlikely to be effective. Instead, responsive TA professional development will need to address the TAs’ beliefs that guide the observed classroom behavior.

  4. Freud, Piaget, or neither? Beliefs in controlling others by wishful thinking and magical behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikan, A; Clausen, S E

    1993-09-01

    Tests showed that 4- to 6-year-old children believe that people can be influenced or "controlled" both by thinking (e.g., both wishful thinking and magical behavior) and by realistic means (e.g., positive reinforcement, example, and group pressure). Belief in control by thinking did not vary by the subjects' sex or age, influence type (wishing or magical behavior), or target response (behavior, emotion, or thought). Quantitative measures, however, suggested that magical behavior was seen by subjects as being more efficient than wishing, and that emotion was considered easier to influence than thinking. Beliefs in control by thinking were not related to a measure of fantasy-reality differentiation (realism).

  5. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

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    Axelsson M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  6. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM. The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier (, and self-efficacy (, were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history.

  7. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

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    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  8. Cross-cultural Exploration of Consumers’ Beliefs and Behavioral Intentions towards QR Codes in Marketing: An Experimental Study in India and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study focuses on examining consumers‟ beliefs and behavioral intentions towards QR Codes in marketing across different cultures such as India & USA. Study also examines select variables that moderate the relationship between beliefs and behavioral intentions. For this a scenario based experimental design was used. Findings suggest positive relationship between beliefs & behavioral intention and between culture & beliefs. Based on the empirical findings, study make important implications for the marketers so as to bring effectiveness in QR Code based marketing campaigns. Use of QR Codes in marketing is prevailing rapidly, however its effective integration in marketing mix remains mysterious as very little is known about consumers‟ beliefs and behavioral intentions towards it. Reason is that such academic research is practically non-existent, thus current study is of particular value.

  9. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  10. Adolescent beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence: does violent behavior change them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Victoria; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interplay between teens' beliefs about the acceptability of dating violence and dating violence perpetration. The final sample included 82 teens aged 14 to 17 years. Families were recruited from truancy courts and juvenile probation and victim services offices. Teens participated in a baseline and a follow-up assessment spaced 3 months apart. At each assessment, teens reported on their beliefs about dating violence acceptability and their dating violence perpetration. Dating violence perpetration at baseline predicted beliefs accepting of violence at follow-up, after accounting for baseline levels of beliefs. Beliefs at baseline, however, did not predict dating violence perpetration at follow-up. Dating violence perpetration may lead to beliefs more accepting of such violence.

  11. Social Physique Anxiety in Adolescence: An Exploration of Influences, Coping Strategies, and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…

  12. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  13. Enhancing health knowledge, health beliefs, and health behavior in Poland through a health promoting television program series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Fiona; Palmer, Sushma; Slonska, Zofia; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a health promoting television program series on health knowledge and the key factors of the health belief model (HBM) that have led people to engage in healthy behavior (exercising, losing weight, changing eating habits, and not smoking/quitting smoking). Using data from a posttest comparison field study with 15) viewers and 146 nonviewers in Poland, we found that hierarchical regression analysis showed stronger support for the HBM factors of efficacy, susceptibility, seriousness, and salience in their contribution toward health behavior among television viewers compared with nonviewers. Cues to action variables (including television viewing) and health knowledge boosted efficacy among viewers. Without the advantage of receiving health information from the television series, nonviewers relied on their basic disease fears on one hand, and interest in good health on the other to take steps toward becoming healthier. A health promoting television series can increase health knowledge and enhance health beliefs, which in turn contribute to healthy behaviors.

  14. The Role of Effective Factors in Preventive Behaviors of Brucellosis in Stockbreeder of Charaoymaq County: A Health Belief Model

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    Vahid Babaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Prevention and control of brucellosis is necessary to identify the influential factors. Therefore, this study has aimed to investigate the effective factors in preventive behaviors of brucellosis in ranchers of Charaoymaq County. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 ranchers participated who were selected via stratified random sampling from 5 health centers. To collect information, a questionnaire was used based on health belief model. The data analysis was performed, using SPSS 21, statistical tests of linear regression analysis, and correlation and description tests at a significance level of p < 05/0. Results: In this study, there was a significant correlation between education level and preventive behaviors and among the structures of health belief model. According to regression analysis of health belief model structures, the strongest predictors of behavior were tips to action, self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility. Conclusion: Based on these results, using educational models can be effective in identifying factors influencing health behaviors. The findings of this study also showed that tips to action, self-efficacy, and perceived susceptibility are the most important predictors of behavior, and special attention must be paid to designing and implementing educational interventions on them.

  15. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.

  16. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  17. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

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    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  18. Behavior and performance of the deep belief networks on image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We apply deep belief networks of restricted Boltzmann machines to bags of words of sift features obtained from databases of 13 Scenes, 15 Scenes and Caltech 256 and study experimentally their behavior and performance. We find that the final performance in the supervised phase is reached much faster if the system is pre-trained. Pre-training the system on a larger dataset keeping the supervised dataset fixed improves the performance (for the 13 Scenes case). After the unsupervised pre-training, neurons arise that form approximate explicit representations for several categories (meaning they are mostly active for this category). The last three facts suggest that unsupervised training really discovers structure in these data. Pre-training can be done on a completely different dataset (we use Corel dataset) and we find that the supervised phase performs just as good (on the 15 Scenes dataset). This leads us to conjecture that one can pre-train the system once (e.g. in a factory) and subsequently apply it to many ...

  19. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-17

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  20. Proactive Coping Behavior in Sample of University Students in Helping Professions

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    Jitka Vaculíková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is twofold. First is to carry out item and scale analysis of the Czech version of the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI on a selected sample of university students in helping professions (n = 176. Second is to identify the use of proactive coping strategies by gender, age, specialization and year of study. The PCI scales reached satisfactory item-total correlations, besides the items presented (8, 39 and 48. Internal consistency of the PCI scales ranged from .71 to .8, except low α for Strategic Planning. Students reached the highest use of emotional and instrumental support seeking with no overall socio-demographic differences. Further, interrelationships among the PCI scales and correlations within a subjective well-being, depression and social support are presented.

  1. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Ruiz-Gomez, Maria; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Huntingford, Felicity A.; Sørensen, Christina; Pottinger, Thomas G.; Bakken, Morten; Winberg, Svante; Korzan, Wayne J.; Øverli, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented in vertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) and a high responsive (HR) strain. A suite of behavioural traits is associated with this physiological difference, with LR (proactive) fish feeding more rapidly after transfer to a new environment and...

  2. Improve Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Undergraduate Female Nursing Students in Al-Alzhar University toward Breast Self-Examination Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mohsen, Afaf S. Abd; El-Maksoud, Mona M. Abd

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem that is most common form of cancer among females in both developed and developing world, The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used as a theoretical framework to study Breast Self-Examination and other breast cancer detection behaviors. The aim of this study: Was to improve knowledge, beliefs and behavior…

  3. A Comparative Study of Elementary Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom and Behavior Management in the USA and Korean School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Myung-sook; Shin, Sunwoo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study is to investigate elementary teachers' beliefs and inter-cultural perspectives in classroom management (instructional environment and behavior management) for students in public schools of the U.S. and Korea. The results supported that the two groups of teachers showed similar beliefs in instructional…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Teachers' Beliefs and Strategies on Classroom Behavior Management in Urban American and Korean School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' beliefs on classroom behavior management strategies for students in urban public high schools between teachers in the United States and the Republic of Korea. This study incorporates data collected from teacher self-reported survey questionnaire, which is the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom…

  5. Myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Gupta, Avni; Jiloha, Ram Chander; Bantman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the myths, beliefs and perceptions about mental disorders and health-seeking behavior in general population and medical professionals of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 436 subjects (360 subjects from urban and rural communities of Delhi and 76 medical professionals working in different organizations in Delhi). A pre-tested questionnaire consisting items on perceptions, myths, and beliefs about causes, treatment, and health-seeking behavior for mental disorders was used. The collected data were statistically analyzed using computer software package Epi-info. Appropriate tests of significance were applied to detect any significant association. Results: The mental disorders were thought to be because of loss of semen or vaginal secretion (33.9% rural, 8.6% urban, 1.3% professionals), less sexual desire (23.7% rural, 18% urban), excessive masturbation (15.3% rural, 9.8% urban), God's punishment for their past sins (39.6% rural, 20.7% urban, 5.2% professionals), and polluted air (51.5% rural, 11.5% urban, 5.2% professionals). More people (37.7%) living in joint families than in nuclear families (26.5%) believed that sadness and unhappiness cause mental disorders. 34.8% of the rural subjects and 18% of the urban subjects believed that children do not get mental disorders, which means they have conception of adult-oriented mental disorders. 40.2% in rural areas, 33.3% in urban areas, and 7.9% professionals believed that mental illnesses are untreatable. Many believed that psychiatrists are eccentric (46.1% rural, 8.4% urban, 7.9% professionals), tend to know nothing, and do nothing (21.5% rural, 13.7% urban, 3.9% professionals), while 74.4% of rural subjects, 37.1% of urban subjects, and 17.6% professionals did not know that psychiatry is a branch of medicine. More people in rural areas than in urban area thought that keeping fasting or a faith healer can cure them from mental illnesses, whereas

  6. Overgeneralized Beliefs, Accommodation, and Treatment Outcome in Youth Receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, C Beth; Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly W; Webb, Charles; Gallop, Robert; Deblinger, Esther; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of fear generalization with new learning is an important process in treatments for anxiety disorders. Generalization of maladaptive cognitions related to traumatic experiences (overgeneralized beliefs) have been demonstrated to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult populations, whereas more balanced, accommodated beliefs are associated with symptom improvement. It is not yet clear whether (a) overgeneralization and accommodation are associated with PTSD treatment outcome in youth, or (b whether accommodated beliefs can interact with or inhibit cognitive overgeneralization, as has been demonstrated in research on behavior-based fear generalization. The current study examined the relationships between overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs, child age, and symptom reduction in a sample of 81 youth (age 7-17 years), who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs expressed during the exposure phase of treatment were coded in audio-recorded therapy sessions. Overgeneralization predicted (a) higher internalizing symptom scores at posttreatment, particularly for younger children, and less improvement over treatment, and (b) higher externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up and steeper symptom increases over this period. In contrast, accommodation was associated with (a) lower posttreatment internalizing symptoms and greater improvement over treatment, and (b) lower externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up, particularly for younger children. High levels of accommodation moderated the relationship between overgeneralization and worse symptom outcomes, except when predicting the slope of internalizing scores over treatment, and age did not moderate these effects. There were no significant predictors of child-reported PTSD-specific symptoms, although PTSD symptoms did decrease significantly over the course of treatment and maintain 1year after treatment.

  7. The relationship of health beliefs and complication prevention behaviors of Chinese individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming Yeong

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship of health beliefs and complication prevention behaviors among Chinese individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia. A correlation study using the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework was undertaken with 128 Chinese subjects with Type 2 Diabetes of both gender, mean age 60.5 +/- 8.42 years from one urban hospital and four rural health centers. Research tool was a 60-item questionnaire with responses recorded on 5-point Likert scale. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Spearmen correlation and Mann-Whitney U-test. The majority of the subjects had less than 6 years of education. Seventy-two percent of them were aware of diabetes complications and its risk factors. However, few subjects practiced complication preventive measures because of lack of perceived seriousness of diabetes and lack of perceived susceptibility to diabetes complications. There were significant correlations between complication prevention behaviors and perceived severity (P health beliefs and settings; genders; disease duration and treatment mode. In conclusion, poor complication preventive behavior among the subjects was associated with lack of perceived seriousness of diabetes and lack of perceived susceptibility to diabetes complications.

  8. The Relationship between Beliefs about Sleep and Adherence to Behavioral Treatment Combined with Meditation for Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Cvengros, Jamie A.; Crawford, Megan; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to three specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with comp...

  9. Male circumcision in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya: beliefs about protection, risk behaviors, HIV, and STIs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Westercamp

    Full Text Available Using a population-based survey we examined the behaviors, beliefs, and HIV/HSV-2 serostatus of men and women in the traditionally non-circumcising community of Kisumu, Kenya prior to establishment of voluntary medical male circumcision services. A total of 749 men and 906 women participated. Circumcision status was not associated with HIV/HSV-2 infection nor increased high risk sexual behaviors. In males, preference for being or becoming circumcised was associated with inconsistent condom use and increased lifetime number of sexual partners. Preference for circumcision was increased with understanding that circumcised men are less likely to become infected with HIV.

  10. Predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients Referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Centre Based on Extended Health Belief Model

    OpenAIRE

    MH Baghianimoghadam; N Rouhani Tonekaboni; MA Morowati -Sharifabad

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is the most common disease related to metabolism disorders with long term complications. It needs lifelong specific self-care, as it causes a promotion in quality of life and decreases disease costs. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The model has been used for studying diabetes self care behaviors. The aim of this study was d...

  11. Fostering a need-supportive teaching style: intervention effects on physical education teachers' beliefs and teaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2014-12-01

    The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers' beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers' in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers' beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers' actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  13. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

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    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  14. Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: the effect of coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Sheila; Lin, Huey Shyan; Hwang, Shiow Li

    2002-02-01

    Initial clinical practice is stressful. Nursing students entering clinical practice for the first time in a five-year associate degree program in Taiwan are young and have questionable coping skills, all of which can affect their own health. This study examined the following: (1) the degree of stress perceived and types of stressful events; (2) the physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during the practice; (3) the coping behaviors of these students; and (4) the effect of different coping behaviors on their physio-psycho-social health. The subjects were 561 nursing students who had completed their initial clinical practice at the largest nursing school in Taiwan. Three measurements, including Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Physio-Psycho-Social Response Scale (PPSRS), and Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI), were adopted. Results showed that stress for these students came mainly from the lack of professional knowledge and skills as well as caring of patients. The most common response to stress was social behavioral symptoms. Staying optimistic had a positive main effect, which reduced the occurrence of physio-psycho-social symptoms and improved physio-psycho-social status. Finally, problem-solving behavior also had a positive main effect, while avoidance had a negative main effect, which deteriorated physio-psycho-social status. This study has important implications for nursing educators in helping their students to overcome stress during clinical practice.

  15. [Assessing the effect of health belief, knowledge, and social support on compliance behaviors in chronic hemodialysis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C C; Ko, N Y; Tsai, L C; Chen, C H

    1995-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of hemodialysis patients' health belief, knowledge on uremia, and social support upon their compliance behavior. The convenience sample of 330 hemodialysis (HD) patients was obtained at HD centers in southern Taiwan. With the use of a questionnaire developed by the researcher, all subjects were interviewed during hemodialysis. Data analyses were processed by a personal computer with SPSS/PC. Pearson correlation, ANOVA, chi-square, multiple regression and factor analysis were selected as the analysis methods for this study. The results indicated: (1) The average overall rate of compliance was 72.1% by patient self report for fluid limit, diet restriction and taking PBM. (2) Two factors of subject's health belief were identified by factor analysis. (3) Those who had more positive motivation for compliance with therapeutic regiments, more knowledge on uremia and stronger social support were positively correlated with compliance behaviors. (4) The best predictive variables of compliance behaviors of HD patients included positive motivation, knowledge on uremia, educational level, current daily urine amount and age; these five variables explained 23% of variance in compliance behaviors. (5) The instruments with a satisfactory validity and reliability developed by the researcher could provide a valuable basis for relevant future research. Implications of these findings for nursing practice are also discussed.

  16. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  17. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  18. The Message Matters: The Role of Implicit Beliefs about Giftedness and Failure Experiences in Academic Self-Handicapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Malin, Jenessa L.; Dent, Amy L.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Insight into causal mechanisms underlying underachievement among gifted students has remained elusive. Based on the premise of self-worth theory and implicit beliefs about intelligence, it was hypothesized that entity-focused messages about giftedness would lead to maladaptive academic coping behaviors when gifted status was threatened. Therefore,…

  19. On Defining "Imaginary" Beings and Attributes: How Do Lexicographers Cope with Culturally Determined Differences in Beliefs about Cosmology, Ontology and Epistemology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Swanepoel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Members of linguistic communities often have opposing beliefs about the existence of beings denoted by lexical items or about the truth of the attributes ascribed to entities. As very little research has been forthcoming in this regard, this article focuses on how people's beliefs about existence and truth are encoded in explanatory dictionaries, and on the kind of semantics that is needed to account for these beliefs. The way in which dictionaries define issues of existence and truth against a default world view is outlined in Section 2. Section 3 indicates what happens if the default world view of lexicographic descriptions changes and how cultural biases operate in the treatment of the meaning of lexical items that denote "imaginary" beings or "imaginary" attributes. Section 4 summarizes the main findings of the article and delimits topics for further research.

    Keywords: IMAGINARY BEINGS, FABULOUS CREATURES, DEFINING ATTRIBUTES, LEXICOGRAPHIC DEFINITIONS, EXISTENCE, TRUTH, SENSE, REFERENCE, DENOTATION, IDEALIZED COGNITIVE MODELS, COGNITIVE SEMANTICS, CULTURAL BIAS, CULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Oor die definiëring van "denkbeeldige" wesens en eienskap-pe: Hoe hanteer leksikograwe kultureel bepaalde verskille in beskouings oor die kosmologie, ontologie en epistemologie? Lede van taalgemeenskappe het dikwels opponerende beskouings oor die bestaan van wesens waarna leksikale items verwys of oor die waarheid van die eienskappe wat aan entiteite toegeskryf word. Omdat baie min navorsing in dié verband beskikbaar is, fokus hierdie artikel op hoe mense se beskouings oor die bestaan en waarheid ten opsigte hiervan in verklarende woordeboeke gekodeer word, en op die soort seman-tiek wat benodig word om hierdie opvattings te verantwoord. Die manier waarop woordeboeke kwessies van bestaan en waarheid teen 'n verstekwêreldbeskouing omskryf, word in Afdeling 2 geskets. Afdeling 3 dui aan wat gebeur indien die

  20. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  1. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  2. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Huber, Christian G

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an overview on the most important and clinically relevant research results on the topic. The relationship between religiosity/spirituality, personal beliefs (ie, magical ideation and paranormal beliefs), and mental health has lately been studied extensively, and results have indicated significant associations among these variables. However, scientific approaches to this field are complex and multidimensional, partly leading to poor operationalization, incomparable data, and contradictory results. Literature demonstrates that higher religiosity/spirituality and magical ideation scores have often been associated with increased obsessive-compulsive traits. Similar results could not be confidently replicated for other anxiety disorders. However, it is still unclear if these differences suggest a specific association with obsessive-compulsive traits and reflect deviating etiopathogenetic and cognitive aspects between obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, or if these results are biased through other factors. Religiosity/spirituality and personal beliefs constitute important parameters of human experience and deserve greater consideration in the psychotherapeutic treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  3. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  4. Moral Reasoning and Consistency of Belief and Behavior: Decisions about Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide, Marcia M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Ramsay, Shula G.

    2001-01-01

    In view of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, two hypotheses were considered: individuals who consider use of illegal substances to be morally wrong will be less likely to use such substances; and, compared to those who are less mature, more mature moral reasoners display more consistency between expressed beliefs about morality of drug use…

  5. Does Framing the Hot Hand Belief Change Decision-Making Behavior in Volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous discussions of the hot hand belief, wherein athletes believe that they have a greater chance of scoring after 2 or 3 hits (successes) compared with 2 or 3 misses, have focused on whether this is the case within game statistics. Researchers have argued that the perception of the hot hand in random sequences is a bias of the…

  6. The Relation between the Epistemological Beliefs of Teachers and Students and Their Behavior in Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Jaime; Gómez, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the relation of the epistemological beliefs of students and teachers and the actions deployed in the classroom. The framework is the study of personal epistemology, which was developed, among other researchers, by Hofer, Pintrich and Schommer. The research method was, within the qualitative paradigm, through case studies,…

  7. Helping police officers to cope with stress: a cognitive--behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarason, I G; Johnson, J H; Berberich, J P; Siegel, J M

    1979-12-01

    Police Academy trainees participated in a stress management program which focused on developing skills for coping with anxiety and anger. Stress management training took place in six 2-hour sessions and included instruction and practice in the self-monitoring of reactions to stressful situations, muscular relaxation, and the development of adaptive self-statements. Self-report measures of anxiety and anger were obtained before and after the stress management program. In addition, self and observer ratings of trainees' performance in stressful simulated police activities were utilized as posttreatment dependent measures. In comparison to a control group of trainees, the performance of the treatment group was rated, by academy personnel, as superior in several of the simulated police activities. The results of the present study suggest that stress management with law enforcement officers may be most effective when the program focuses on the specific situations which are likely to be encountered by trainees. Limitations of the present program are examined and suggestions for future efforts with law enforcement personnel are discussed.

  8. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Social Annotation Valence: The Impact on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Orit; Okerlund, Johanna; Westendorf, Lauren; Ball, Madeleine; Nov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media, mobile and wearable technology, and connected devices have significantly expanded the opportunities for conducting biomedical research online. Electronic consent to collecting such data, however, poses new challenges when contrasted to traditional consent processes. It reduces the participant-researcher dialogue but provides an opportunity for the consent deliberation process to move from solitary to social settings. In this research, we propose that social annotations, embedded in the consent form, can help prospective participants deliberate on the research and the organization behind it in ways that traditional consent forms cannot. Furthermore, we examine the role of the comments’ valence on prospective participants’ beliefs and behavior. Objective This study focuses specifically on the influence of annotations’ valence on participants’ perceptions and behaviors surrounding online consent for biomedical research. We hope to shed light on how social annotation can be incorporated into digitally mediated consent forms responsibly and effectively. Methods In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study that contained social annotations embedded in its margins. Individuals were randomly assigned to view the consent form with positive-, negative-, or mixed-valence comments beside the text of the consent form. We compared participants’ perceptions of being informed and having understood the material, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. Results We find that comment valence has a marginally significant main effect on participants’ perception of being informed (F2=2.40, P=.07); specifically, participants in the positive condition (mean 4.17, SD 0.94) felt less informed than those in the mixed condition (mean 4.50, SD 0.69, P=.09). Comment valence also had a marginal main effect on the

  10. The Role of Health Beliefs in Preventive Behaviors of Individuals at High- Risk of Type2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    S Mazloomy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important health problem that leads to severe complications, is the cause of early death, and is showing an increase in frequency. Development of positive health behaviors is extremely important for prevention of diabetes in at high- risk individuals. This study aims to identify the relationship between health beliefs and diabetes preventive behaviors in individuals at high-risk for developing type2 diabetes mellitus in Taft city. Methods: A study using the Health Belief Model (HBM framework was undertaken with 114 subjects of both genders aged 30 years and above from three urban health centers who were diagnosed as at high risk for type2 diabetes during the screening program. Research tool was a 66-item questionnaire. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Of the total, 29.8% of subjects were male and 70.2% were female. Regarding education, 68.4% of the subjects had not completed high school and 89.4% of them was married. Mean score of knowledge and preventive behaviors was 5.80 ±2.87 and5.41 ±2.83, respectively such that subjects scored 30.05% of maximum obtainable score of preventive behaviors. There were significant correlations between preventive behaviors and perceived susceptibility, r=0.243(P<0.009, perceived severity, r=0.312(P<0.001, perceived barrier, r=0.245 (P<0.006 and perceived self-efficacy, r=0.497 (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preventive behaviors among the subjects at high- risk for developing type 2 diabetes despite the presence of risk factors was poor due to lack of susceptibility, severity, barriers and self-efficacy perception.

  11. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers' Beliefs Regarding Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents' decision-making about the extent of their young children's viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents' belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants' and toddlers' TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children's TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children's estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers' attitudes and intentions and children's viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Effects of the Health Belief Model (HBM-Based Educational Program on the Nutritional Knowledge and Behaviors of CABG Patients

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    Sarallah Shojaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing blood pressure through diet decreases the possibility of heart attacks, and lowering blood cholesterol can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of education based on the Health Belief Model on the dietary behavior of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG at the Heart Surgery Department of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom.Methods: In this semi-experimental clinical trial, data were collected on 64 patients, at an average age of 59.9 ± 7.26 years in the intervention group and 58.5 ± 7.6 years in the control group. Seventy percent of the study subjects were male and 30% were female. Intervention and control groups were given a questionnaire, comprising 56 questions in 5 parts. The educational intervention was aimed at creating perceived susceptibility and perceived severity in the intervention group. After 1 month. Both groups were tested, and the resulting data were analyzed to investigate the effects of the educational intervention on the nutritional knowledge and behavior of the patients.  Results: According to the results, educational intervention caused a significant increase in the mean scores of knowledge (p value = 0.001, perceived severity (p value = 0.007, and perceived benefits and barriers (p value = 0.003 in the intervention group but did not cause a significant increase in the mean score of nutritional behavior (p value = 0.390. Conclusion: Education based on the Health Belief Model seems to be effective in improving nutritional knowledge, but more consistent and comprehensive educational programs are necessary in order to change behavior and improve nutritional behavior.

  13. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  14. Influence of religious aspects and personal beliefs on psychological behavior: focus on anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Agorastos A; Demiralay C; Huber CG

    2014-01-01

    Agorastos Agorastos,1 Cüneyt Demiralay,1 Christian G Huber2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: The current paper presents literature relevant to the relationship of religiosity, spirituality, and personal beliefs with mental health and, in particular, anxiety disorders as an empirical narrative review, providing an ov...

  15. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  16. Integration of the interaction model of client health behavior and transactional model of stress and coping as a tool for understanding retention in HIV care across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucy J

    2015-01-01

    Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. Integration of these models may more comprehensively inform care retention research and practice across the lifespan as it incorporates not only intra- and inter-personal characteristics and relationships but also the stress and coping experiences inevitable when living with a chronic illness such as HIV.

  17. Sexual assault programming on college campuses: using social psychological belief and behavior change principles to improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Gray, Matt J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual assault programming is often delivered without a theoretical framework and does not typically utilize applicable research that could help to induce change among participants. Such interventions may target male and/or female students, although the focus of this review is on men. It is important to examine these programs in light of current theoretical knowledge and empirical findings from the social psychological attitudinal and behavioral change literatures. To this end, current programming efforts and their limitations are briefly reviewed. Three social psychological theories targeting belief and behavior change (i.e., social norms, hypocrisy salience, decision, and deterrents) are discussed and their application to such programming is elaborated. Given this information, recommendations for the research and practice of such interventions are provided.

  18. The Effect of Educational Package on Nutritional Knowledge and Behavior toward the Coping with Complication and Supplement Consumption

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    S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi

    2013-07-01

    Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly divided into two groups (Intervention and control group. Two sessions of approximately 60 minutes including classes on nutrition during pregnancy was held for the intervention group using presentation, booklets, and educational film sex education with similar method was held for the control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyzes. Results: In the intervention group, in the field of knowledge dealing with problems during pregnancy and after the intervention supplements in two stages were significantly higher than the control group (p˂001. Scores in the intervention group in the field of nutritional problems during pregnancy included constipation, heartburn, swollen hands and feet, anemia and urinary tract infections during both stages of the intervention were better than the control group (p˂005. Iron and multivitamin supplementation in the intervention group during two phases after the intervention phase was better than the control group (p˂005. Conclusion: The content of educational package was evaluated as an appropriate policy in promoting nutritional knowledge and behavior among pregnant women. Key words: Education, knowledge behavior, nutritional supplements, pregnancy

  19. Using an emic lens to understand how Latino families cope with dementia behavioral problems

    OpenAIRE

    TURNER, Rachel M.; Hinton, Ladson; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Tzuang, Marian; Tran, Cindy; Valle, Ramó n

    2015-01-01

    Focus group data collected for a larger project to develop a fotonovela for Latino caregivers was used to conduct a meaning-centered thematic analysis in order to elicit Latino family caregiver perspectives on how behavior problems occurring in the context of dementia are perceived and managed. A sample of 42 Spanish-speaking Latino caregivers were recruited from organizations affiliated with the Alzheimer's Association near San Diego, California. Caregivers were queried on challenging behavi...

  20. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: the story of Temple Grandin, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratey, J J; Grandin, T; Miller, A

    1992-11-01

    The causal factors in the behaviorally defined syndrome of autism remain unclear, although the past decade has brought to bear two significant developments that shape our view of the disorder. The first of these developments is a growing body of biomedical research that indicates there are multiple etiologies associated with the disorder. This research has allowed for the formation of subgroups based upon neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurophysiological abnormalities (Damasio 1984; Piggot 1979; Ritvo et al. 1990). The second is neuropsychological research indicating that the socioemotional deficits are primary to the disorder and may underlie much of the behavioral symptomatology (Fein et al. 1986). These areas of concern undoubtedly have enhanced our understanding of the disorder, yet in their achievements they may too easily absorb what we know about autistics who experience a chronic state of physiological hyperarousal, evidence of which has been found in neurophysiological studies (Delius 1967; Hutt et al. 1965), neurochemical studies (Lake et al. 1977), psychopharmacologic studies (Ratey et al. 1987a), and behavioral studies (Kinsbourne 1980; Kootz et al. 1982; Tinbergen and Tinbergen 1972; Zentall and Zentall 1983). These individuals, perhaps constituting a subgroup of their own, experience an inner state of disorganization that markedly impairs their functioning (Sands and Ratey 1986).

  1. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  2. Sociopsychological factors relating to suicide prevention in a Japanese rural community: coping behaviors and attitudes toward depression and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Eriko; Neichi, Keiko; Sato, Kyoko; Ono, Yutaka

    2006-12-01

    In response to the rise in suicide in Japan since 1998, some suicide prevention measures in local communities have been put into action. However, in the previous suicide prevention measures, sociopsychological factors were not fully taken into consideration. In the present study, the authors surveyed sociopsychological factors relating to suicide and depression (i.e. people's coping behavior and thoughts about depression and suicidal ideation, and their attitudes toward suicide and psychiatric treatment), and their differences in gender and generations. The present study was conducted in a rural area of Japan (Town A), where the suicide rate is much higher than the national average. The authors randomly selected 10% of the residents (i.e. 532 people) aged between 40 and 79 years on the basis of resident registration. Health promotion volunteers in Town A visited these 532 people individually, distributed questionnaires, and asked them to anonymously answer the questionnaire within 4 weeks. Data from 450 residents (193 men, 257 women) were analyzed in the present study. Although there were few gender differences, some significant differences were found between the younger (40-59 years) and older (60-79 years) residents. Generally, the younger were more pessimistic about their mental health than the elderly. It was also noteworthy that about 10% of the people thought that it was natural for them to have suicidal ideation, and about 18% reported that they had experienced suicidal ideation. Some suggestions were given to provide more effective suicide prevention measures.

  3. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  4. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

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    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  5. Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…

  6. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

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    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  7. Predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients Referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Centre Based on Extended Health Belief Model

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    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is the most common disease related to metabolism disorders with long term complications. It needs lifelong specific self-care, as it causes a promotion in quality of life and decreases disease costs. The Health Belief Model (HBM is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The model has been used for studying diabetes self care behaviors. The aim of this study was determination of predictors of self-care behaviors among diabetes patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre based on extended health belief model. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out on 120 diabetic patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre who were entered in the study by convenience sampling. A questionnaire was used for data collection with a private interview which included questions regarding extended health belief model constructs including perceived benefits, barriers, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and locus of control and some demographic variables. Results: There was a positive significant correlation between model variable of perceived benefits, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and internal locus of control with self-care behaviors, and also a negative significant correlation between perceived barriers (P=0.001,chance locus of control (P=0.037 and self-care behaviors. The above variables explained 45.3 % of variance in diabetes self-care behaviors, with self-efficacy as the strongest predictor. Conclusion: The results of this study approved the effectiveness of extended health belief model in predicting self-care behaviors among diabetic patients, which can therefore be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational intervention programs for control of diabetes.

  8. Variation in Response to Evidence-Based Group Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Behavior Problems: A View from 938 Coping Power Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas J; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin

    2017-01-05

    Prior research suggests that under some conditions, interventions that aggregate high-risk youth may be less effective, or at worse, iatrogenic. However, group formats have considerable practical utility for delivery of preventive interventions, and thus it is crucial to understand child and therapist factors that predict which aggressive children can profit from group intervention and which do not. To address these questions we video-recorded group Coping Power intervention sessions (938 sessions), coded both leader and participant behavior, and analyzed both leader and children's behaviors in the sessions that predicted changes in teacher and parent, reports of problem behavior at 1-year follow up. The sample included 180 high-risk children (69% male) who received intervention in 30 separate Coping Power intervention groups (six children assigned per group). The evidence-based Coping Power prevention program consists of 32 sessions delivered during the 4th and 5th grade years; only the child component was used in this study. The behavioral coding system used in the analyses included two clusters of behaviors for children (positive; negative) and two for the primary group leaders (group management; clinical skills). Growth spline models suggest that high levels of children's negative behaviors predicted increases in teacher and parent rated aggressive and conduct problem behaviors during the follow-up period in the three of the four models. Therapist use of clinical skills (e.g., warmth, nonreactive) predicted less increase in children's teacher-rated conduct problems. These findings suggest the importance of clinical training in the effective delivery of evidence-based practices, particularly when working with high-risk youth in groups.

  9. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening.

  10. 师范生应对方式对心理健康的影响——以精神信仰为中介%The Effects of Normal School Students' Coping Style on Mental Health: the Spiritual Beliefs as Intermediary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅华; 张灵聪; 陈佳丽

    2012-01-01

    We research on 400 normal college students as subjects, use the questionnaires of College Students' Spiritual Beliefs, Coping Style and SCL - 90. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Normal school students' coping style has signifi- cant differences on gender and grades, while no differences on area; Mental health has significant differences on gender, grades and area; Spiritual beliefs has significant differences on gender, grades, while no differences on area. (2)there are great differences among spiritual beliefs, coping style and mental health, spiritual beliefs plays the role of mediating vari- ables on predictive relationship of copin~ style and mental health.%以400名师范院校学生为被试,使用大学生精神信仰、应对方式和SCL-90问卷。得出以下结论:(1)师范生的心理应对方式在性别、年级上存在显著差异,在城乡上不存在显著差异;心理健康在性别、年级、城乡上存在显著差异;精神信仰在性别、年级上存在显著差异,在城乡上不存在显著差异。(2)应对方式、心理健康、精神信仰三者之间存在显著相关,精神信仰在应对方式对心理健康有预测关系中起中介变量的作用。

  11. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  12. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin James Turner

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...

  13. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain m...

  14. Genetic susceptibility testing from a stress and coping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Organista, Kurt; Burack, Jeffrey; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2006-04-01

    Four theories of health behavior and of stress and coping are reviewed for their ability to illuminate interest in uptake and outcomes of genetic testing for adult-onset diseases. These theories are the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the Common Sense Model of Self-regulation (CSM), and the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TMSC). Basic concepts of each theory are discussed, followed by evidence from the literature supporting the relevance of these concepts to the understanding of genetic testing for four adult-onset diseases: Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, and hereditary colorectal cancer. Emphasis is placed on the finding that a decision to undergo genetic testing may be considered as a way to cope with both the cognitive and affective concerns that arise from living at increased risk of developing a disease in the future. The potential value of genetic testing for reducing uncertainty about and gaining a sense of control over one's risk of developing a chronic disease is highlighted. We argue that theories which focus on stress and coping provide a useful framework for future studies of genetic testing decisions for adult-onset disease risk.

  15. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy on Communicative Beliefs of the Couples Referred to Counseling Centers in Isfahan

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    Shakib Johari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and the goal of the study: The major communicative problems, after marriage, include weakening the couples' communication, unrealistic beliefs, prejudgments and negative attitudes. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy,through group training, on communication beliefs of the couples who referred to counseling centers in Isfahan. Methods: The proposal of the study is a quasi-experimental research design with a pretest – posttest which includes a control group. The study samples encompass all the couples referred to counseling centers in Isfahan. In order to select a sample size, out of the applicants, through voluntary and available sampling method, 30 individuals were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The elicitation tool used in this study was Relationship Beliefs Questionnaire. The experimental group was trained by a Rational- Emotive Behavior therapeutic approach and the control group did not receive any training at all. Then for all the participants a post-test was taken and finally after 2 months a follow-up test was conducted. In order to analyze the data, variance with repeated measures and Bonferroni correctionviausing SPSS 20 statistical software were used. Results: The results showed that the group training ofRational- Emotive Behavior therapeutic approach has impact on communicative beliefs and accordingly, there is a significant difference between the communicative beliefs of experimental and control groups(P < 0.01. Discussion: Based on the findings of this study,Rational- Emotive Behavior Therapy can be used to improve the couples' communicative beliefs.

  16. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  17. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  18. Associations between partner-venue specific personal responsibility beliefs and transmission risk behavior by HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Horvath, Keith J; Simon Rosser, B R

    2013-06-01

    Personal responsibility beliefs of HIV-positive individuals to protect sex partners are an important determinant of engagement in transmission risk behavior. However, the degree to which such beliefs vary across different partners is unknown. HIV-positive men who have sex with men (n = 248) completing an online survey rated their personal responsibility beliefs for partners met in up to four different ways: (a) in a bar; (b) through the internet; (c) in a public sex environment (PSE); or (d) through friends or family. For those reporting two or more partner-meeting venues in the prior 3 months (n = 98), about a third reported variation in responsibility ratings. Means among the venues were compared in pairwise fashion, with the strongest beliefs accruing to partners met through friends or family and the least with partners met in PSEs. These results provide further evidence that identifying ways to increase personal responsibility beliefs is an important goal, as well as is the application of Bandura's theory of moral agency to HIV transmission risk behavior.

  19. Examining the Effect of External Factors and Context-Dependent Beliefs of Teachers in the Use of ICT in Teaching: Using an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sallimah; Laxman, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Research into teachers' attitudes, beliefs, competence, and inhibitions in relation to their use of technology may provide answers to a series of questions from administrators that relate to teachers' classroom implementation of Information and Communication Technology. The theory of planned behavior is a useful model for providing a framework for…

  20. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

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    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  1. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  2. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro eShiba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e. human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e. a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied aetiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies.

  3. Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.

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    Thomas H Riess

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.

  4. Coping changes the brain

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    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  5. The role of religion and spirituality in coping with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namageyo-Funa, Apophia; Muilenburg, Jessica; Wilson, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Religion and spirituality are instrumental to coping with health; however, there is limited literature on the use of religion and spirituality among Black men with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study is to explore how Black men use religion or spirituality to cope with diabetes management. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 Black men recruited from a diabetes clinic in Atlanta, Georgia as part of a larger study. This article reports on data from 12 of the 30 Black men who reported the use of religion and spirituality as a coping strategy for diabetes management. The following coping strategies were reported: prayer and belief in God, keeping me alive, turning things over to God, changing my unhealthy behaviors, supplying my needs, reading the Bible, and religious or spiritual individuals helping me. Healthcare professionals and researchers involved in diabetes management among Black men should consider these findings in their efforts.

  6. Understanding Customers\\' Healthy Eating Behavior in Restaurants using the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Tak

    2013-01-01

    A large portion of the American public is overweight and many are classified as being obese.  Obesity and unhealthy eating behavior are partially related to the increase in our society""s consumption of foods away from home. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has suggested new menu labeling regulations to help educate customers on healthy items among menu selections. Few studies have tried to understand customers"" healthy eating behavior in restaurants. Therefore, the purpos...

  7. Parenting cognitions and treatment beliefs as predictors of experience using behavioral parenting strategies in families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mah, Janet W T; Regambal, Marci

    2010-12-01

    We tested a model of mothers' parenting efficacy and attributions for child ADHD behaviors as predictors of experiences with behavioral treatment. The model proposed that mothers' beliefs regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of behavioral strategies would intervene between mothers' cognitions about parenting and child behavior and their treatment experiences. Participants were 101 mothers of 5- to 10-year-old children (82% male) with ADHD. Mothers reported their parenting efficacy and attributions for child behavior, and then received a single session of treatment teaching 2 behavior management strategies. Then, mothers reported their beliefs regarding the acceptability and effectiveness of these strategies. A follow-up phone interview 1 week later assessed mothers' experiences in using the behavioral strategies. The overall model fit the data. Attributions of child ADHD behavior as more pervasive, enduring, and within the child's control were related to seeing behavioral treatment as more acceptable, but neither attributions nor treatment acceptability predicted treatment experience. However, mothers with higher parenting efficacy viewed the behavioral strategies as more likely to be effective, and this pathway significantly predicted positive treatment experience. Implications for understanding the variables that contribute to parental decision-making and treatment participation for childhood ADHD are considered.

  8. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...

  9. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  10. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  11. Beyond Beliefs: Parent and Child Behaviors and Children's Perceived Academic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry M.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    Third graders with high achievement levels were observed while they worked with their parents on solvable and unsolvable problems. The children's perceptions of their academic competence were related to the father's warmth during the work on the problems and to the child's type of behavior while working on unsolvable problems. (BC)

  12. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was conducte

  13. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  14. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  15. HIV transmission risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals: stress and coping in the aftermath of 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Carol S Dawson; Ress, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Using case studies, this article discusses a nursing approach for working with HIV-positive clients who have experienced stress as the result of the 9/11 attack on the United States. The stress and coping framework developed by Lazarus and Folkman is used to guide nursing care.

  16. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  17. Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: the health belief model perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketema Ayele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. METHODS: From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three different hospitals in Harar town, from March to April, 2011. The sample was taken using simple random sampling method. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistics multiple logistic regression analysis were also used to assess the predicators of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. RESULT: Majority of the study respondents 134 (60.4% were female and the mean age was 49.7 (SD ± 14.7 years. More than half 147(66.2% of them were medically diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. 208(93.7% had general knowledge about diabetes and specific knowledge about diabetes self care 207(93.2%. Large proportion of them had moderate perceived susceptibility 174(78.4% and severity 112(50.5%. More than half of the respondents 149(67.1% had less perceived barrier while only 30 (13.5% of them had high self efficacy to self care practices related to diabetes mellitus. Only 87(39.2% followed the recommended self care practices on diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with less frequent information were less likely to take diabetes self care. Patients who were more educated, middle income, had high perceived severity of diabetes and less perceived barrier to self care were more likely to take diabetes self care. To increase the self care behavior, diabetes messages should focus on severity of diabetes and how to overcome barriers for self care by segmenting the audiences based on income and educational status with increasing the frequency and reach of message

  18. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  19. An Investigation of the Life Experiences and Beliefs of High School Teachers Exhibiting Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the life experiences and beliefs of high school teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management skills. The research for this phenomenological study utilized the narrative inquiry method of data collection. This study investigates the life experiences and beliefs of nine teachers…

  20. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  1. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  2. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  3. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the followings: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behavior. Data were analyzed by t-test, chisquare and regression analysis. Results: The multiple regression models revealed 59.9% of the variance of self-care behavior with self-efficacy, perceived barrier, benefit and susceptibility. Additionally, the highest weight for β (β=0.87) was found for self-efficacy. Self-care behavior was positively correlated with all HBM variables except for perceived barriers showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model may be used as a framework to design intervention programs in an attempt to improve adherence to self-care behaviors of women with diabetes. In addition, the results indicated that self-efficacy might play a more crucial role in developing self-care behaviors than t other HBM components. Therefore, if the focus is placed on self-efficacy when developing educational programs, it may increase the likelihood of adherence to self-care behavior. PMID:27493912

  4. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    OpenAIRE

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the...

  5. Coping Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

  6. The 5-4-3-2-1 go! Brand to promote nutrition and physical activity: a case of positive behavior change but negative change in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Wallace, Jasmine; Snider, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, community-based obesity prevention programs have taken an ecological approach and addressed social determinants of obesity. The branded 5-4-3-2-1 Go! obesity prevention program aims to change obesity risk behaviors in low-income neighborhoods in Chicago with a multilevel approach. This study follows a previous evaluation, which showed 5-4-3-2-1 Go! exposure to be associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption. The authors examined whether increased positive beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with exposure to program messages. Exploratory factor analysis identified a fresh fruit/vegetable availability satisfaction factor. The authors compared outcome measures between baseline and follow-up samples and between exposure and control conditions. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate the effects of program exposure on changes in nutrition beliefs. The study found that participants' (n = 246) beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption were negatively associated with exposure to the program and that demographic factors, social environment, and physical environment were strongly associated with beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption. These findings merit further research and may indicate the environmental factors that are associated with attitude formation among those reached by obesity prevention interventions, especially when many participants live in neighborhoods lacking convenient fruit and vegetable shopping options.

  7. Childhood trauma and the development of paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowski, Monisha; MacDonald, Douglas A

    2014-04-01

    Belief in the paranormal is fairly prevalent in the general population. Previous research has shown a link between several personological characteristics and paranormal beliefs. The current study attempted to further investigate this link by replicating previous models that have shown a link between childhood trauma, fantasy proneness, and paranormal beliefs. In addition, the study attempted to expand on this model by including other variables such as stigma, resiliency, and coping style. The study used a sample of 198 undergraduate students. A significant correlation between trauma and paranormal beliefs was found. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that fantasy proneness and avoidant coping style fully mediate the relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs. The results imply that researchers need to take into account how a person responds to trauma via the development of coping strategies to accurately understand any observed relationship between trauma and paranormal beliefs.

  8. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  9. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  10. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  11. Attributes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm in dogs among members of a national hunting dog club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Barton W; Lutzy, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2011-03-22

    The Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) has cited an increasing number of reports of failure of heartworm prophylaxis in dogs. Failures may be due to resistance of L(3)-L(4) stage Dirofilaria immitis to the macrocyclic lactone class of compounds used for prophylaxis, lack of compliance with and understanding of administration of prophylactics, individual differences in drug absorption or metabolism, or a combination of these factors. Using the latest scientific information, the American Heartworm Society (AHS) and Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of heartworm infection in dogs. This study summarizes the knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm among members of a national hunting dog club, visitors to the club website, and attendees at club-sponsored events. These factors can have a direct effect on the success of heartworm prophylaxis. Results suggest that the dog owners lack confidence in the accuracy of the heartworm test to identify infection, the efficacy of products sold for prevention of heartworm, and the effectiveness of treatment to eliminate adult heartworms from infected dogs. Knowledge about when to begin heartworm preventive medication in a new puppy and the timing of heartworm tests was also lacking among a substantial number of respondents. In order to increase acceptance of prophylaxis and reduce the likelihood of a false conclusion of prophylactic failure, education of dog owners should focus on the need for an appropriately timed annual heartworm test and the importance of administering the last dose of monthly heartworm preventative after the last possible day of potential transmission.

  12. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  13. 大学生应对效能与学业行为的关系研究∗%Relationship between Coping Efficacy and Learning Behaviors of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红瑞

    2016-01-01

    基于277名在校大学生的调查数据,考察大学生应对效能与学业行为的现状及两者之间的影响关系。研究发现:大学生的应对效能和学业行为在性别、是否学生干部两个因素上存在显著差异,男生的应对效能及学习策略的得分显著高于女生,学生干部的应对效能及学业行为得分显著高于非学生干部;应对效能各维度与学业行为各维度间存在显著正相关;应对效能的三个维度胜任力、自信程度、认知水平均能够显著预测大学生学业行为。%Abstracts:To study the relationship between coping efficacy and learning behaviors of college students,277college students were selected as a sample to complete coping efficacy scale and learning behaviors questionnaire.Results:Coping efficacy and learning behaviors of college students display significant gender difference and difference between the cadre students and the non-cadre students, and in the coping efficacy and the learning strategy scores,male students were higher than female students;in the coping efficacy and the learning behaviors scores,the cadre students were higher than the non-cadre students.Coping efficacy is positively correlated with learning behaviors.Competence perception,self-confidence degree and cognition level were mainly contributed to learning behaviors.

  14. Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Weiner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors

  15. Objectively Assessed Exercise Behavior in Chinese Patients with Early-Stage Cancer: A Predictor of Perceived Benefits, Communication with Doctors, Medical Coping Modes, Depression and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunzhun; Zhang, Lanfeng; Shi, Songsong; Xia, Wenkai

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14.065; p = 0.029), monthly individual monthly income level (χ2 = 24.795; p = 0.003), BMI (χ2 = 15.709; p = 0.015) and diagnosis (χ2 = 42.442; p Benefit Finding (BF) (F = 24.651; p communication with doctors (F = 15.285; p benefit finding, medical coping modes, communication with doctors, social support, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with exercise. The variance in several psychosocial factors (benefit finding, medical coping modes, the communication with doctors, depression and quality of life) could be explained by exercise. Psychosocial factors should be addressed and examined over time when evaluating the effect of physical exercise that is prescribed as a clinically relevant treatment.

  16. Relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers%汽车驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为和事故的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章; 贾杰; 尹莲; 唐勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为、事故的关系.方法 采用简单随机抽样方法,抽取347名驾驶员进行应对方式问卷、驾驶行为问卷的调查.结果 (1)除回避性应对与驾驶行为相关不显著外,对抗性应对、情绪性应对与驾驶行为有显著正相关( r=0.18~0.56,P<0.01);积极评估应对与驾驶行为有显著负相关(r=-0.34~-0.41,P<0.01).(2)积极评估应对、对抗性应对和情绪性应对对错误行为和疏忽行为均有显著的预测作用,解释率分别为33.5%和23.5%.对抗性应对和积极评估应对对超速及违规行为有显著预测作用,解释率为40.2%.(3)在轻微事故和一般事故中,事故驾驶员和安全驾驶员均在对抗性应对上差异有统计学意义(t=-2.75;2.80,P<0.01).结论 驾驶员应对方式是影响驾驶行为和事故安全的重要因素.%Objective To explore the relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers.Methods Three hundreds and thirty-seven drivers were randomly surveyed by Driving Coping Questionnaire ( DCQ),Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).Results ( 1 ) Except avoidance coping style,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping were correlated positively with the three driving behaviors ( r =0.18 ~ 0.56,P < 0.01 ),and positive appraisal coping had negatively correlations with them (( r =-0.34 ~-0.41,P<0.01 ).(2)Positive appraisal coping,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping could predict 33.5% of error behaviors and 23.5% of slip behaviors.And confrontive coping and positive appraisal coping could predict 40.2% of speeding and violation behaviors.(3) Compared with safety drivers,accident drivers had significantly differences in confrontive coping in mild and moderate crashes( t=-2.75,2.80,P< 0.01 ).Conclusion Driving coping styles are the important factors influencing drivers' behaviors and road safety.

  17. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being.

  18. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    to better understand how different cultural, personal and contextual issues influence teacher belief and teaching practices. Encountering new cultures in a new country and adjusting to a new teaching context, CFL teachers taught and learned and in the process many of them developed and changed their beliefs......-oriented beliefs and different teaching methods and resources depending on the situational context. However, teachers’ belief change is a non-linear process of learning to teach and developing towards professionalism, involving struggles and uncertainties. This study has provided insights for teachers teaching......SUMMARY Teacher belief has been considered crucial for teachers’ classroom behaviors, their learning and development as well as students’ outcomes. This PhD study has provided a better understanding of the factors and forces shaping teacher belief and how this changes during their course...

  19. Unsupportive Partner Behaviors, Social-Cognitive Processing, and Psychological Outcomes in Couples Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, Sharon; Kashy, Deborah A.; Siegel, Scott; Myers, Shannon; Heckman, Carolyn; Ryan, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between partner unsupportive behaviors, social and cognitive processing, and adaptation in patients and their spouses using a dyadic and interdependent analytic approach. Women with early stage breast cancer (N=330) and their spouses completed measures of partner unsupportive behavior, maladaptive social (holding back sharing concerns) and cognitive processing (mental disengagement, and behavioral disengagement), and global well-being and cancer distress. Resu...

  20. Application of a modified health belief model to HIV preventive behavioral intentions among gay and bisexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Siero, F.W.; van den Eynden, R.J.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The utility of a modified health belief model (Janz and Pecker, 1984) for predicting the intention to use condoms was tested in a study among gay and bisexual men. The model explained a reasonable amount of variance. It was found that younger men's decision to have safe sex was guided by factors oth

  1. The Role of Beliefs about the Importance of Social Skills in Elementary Children's Social Behaviors and School Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive attitudes toward school have been suggested as a meaningful indicator of school engagement among elementary children. The current study was guided by a social cognitive developmental perspective which suggests that social cognitions, including beliefs, play an important role in children's adjustment outcomes. Objective: The…

  2. The Health Belief Model: A Qualitative Study to Understand High-risk Sexual Behavior in Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley

    2016-01-01

    The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use.

  3. Related Factors of Physical Activity Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis Based on Health Belief Model among Teen Girls in Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Karimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although osteoporosis is a disease of adulthood, it can start from childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle, especially physical activity, mobility, and proper nutrition during adolescence are among the important osteoporosis preventive factors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine related factors of physical activity preventive behavior of osteoporosis based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among teen girls in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade girl students in Qom city. The participants were selected via multistage sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire based on Health Belief Model used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results The current study, knowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a significant and positive relationship with physical activity behavior (r=0.13, P0.05. Conclusion The results of the study showed that educational interventions and programs must focus on increasing knowledge and perceived self-efficacy to enhance physical activity behavior and reduce the perceived barriers associated with osteoporosis preventive physical activity.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of hyperinsulineamia in rats depends on coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Steimer, Thierry J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Passive and proactive coping styles are associated with marked differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses. Previous studies revealed that the passive individuals are more prone to hyperinsulineamia. Likewise, we hypothesize that different coping styles may require different drugs to trea

  5. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  6. 学前儿童攻击应对策略的研究%Preschool Children's Coping Strategies with Aggressive Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董会芹; 张文新

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate preschool children's coping strategies with aggressive behaviors. Methods: Self-Report Coping Scale (SRCS) were used, and 276 children aged 3-6 from Jinan were interviewed to assess children's responses to four different aggressive contexts. Results: Children tended to use more escaping and social-support seeking than other strategies in all contexts. Escaping and externalizing strategies were influenced by aggressive contexts. Age difference was found in children's externalizing and problem-focused strategies, but gender difference was found in children's internalizing strategies. Coping strategies used by victims were different from normal children. Conclusion: Children tend to use social-support seeking and escaping in all aggressive contexts. Girls tend to endorse more internalizing strategies than boys. Victims favor externalizing and internalizing strategies more than normal children.%目的:探讨学前儿童攻击应对策略的一般特点.方法:以Kochenderfer-Ladd修订过的应对策略问卷为研究工具,通过个别访谈法考察276名3-5岁儿童在四种攻击情境下的应对策略.结果:四种攻击情境下,寻求支持和回避策略显著多于其它应对策略;回避和外化策略受攻击情境的影响;外化和问题解决策略存在显著的年龄组差异;内化策略的使用上存在显著的性别差异;受侵害者与一般儿童在同一攻击情境中所使用的应对策略存在明显差异.结论:寻求支持和回避策略是学前儿童使用最多的两种攻击应对策略,女孩较男孩更多使用内化策略,受侵害者与一般儿童相比更多使用内化与外化策略.

  7. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  8. Promoting Prosocial Beliefs And Behavior Toward People With Disabilities In Nepal Through A Children’s Entertainment-Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brown

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis quasi-experimental field study examines the prosocial influences of a children's entertainment-education television programme, Khushi Ko Sansar, on children’s beliefs and intended behaviour towards people with disabilities in Nepal.MethodPre-test and post-test survey data were gathered from 357 Nepali children from nine communities that took part in the study. The children were shown two television episodes in which the star of the programmes, a dog named Khush, befriends and visits people with disabilities.ResultsPost-test results show that children developed strong identification with Khush and adopted his prosocial beliefs and behaviour towards people with disabilities.ConclusionsThe authors conclude that the entertainment-education television programme, Khushi Ko Sansar, provided a positive role model for children who encounter people with disabilities. Implications of these findings suggest that entertainment-education media can improve the treatment of people with disabilities and can promote beneficial health beliefs and practices.Key words: Children’s television, entertainment-education, Nepal, people with disabilities, role modelsdoi 10.5463/DCID.v22i2.33 

  9. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups.

  10. Development of self-report scales measuring collaborative vs. directive support: Assessing beliefs and behaviors in carers of adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Geller, Josie; Iyar, Megumi

    2016-12-01

    Collaboration is more acceptable and likely to produce favorable outcomes when providing care to individuals with eating disorders compared to directive care. We developed two self-report instruments that assess the extent to which carers (e.g., family, friends) of individuals with eating disorders provide collaborative vs. directive support (Support Behaviors Scale; SBH) and the extent to which carers believe that such approaches are helpful (Support Beliefs Scale; SBL). Participants were mothers, fathers, partners, friends and siblings (N=141) of eating disorder patients in hospital or residential treatment. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test measurement models comprising collaborative and directive approaches identified in previous research. A 19-item three-factor model exhibited best fit for each scale and included three distinct caregiving approaches: two that were collaborative (encouraging, concerned), and one that was directive. The scales exhibited acceptable internal consistency. Reported caregiving behaviors (SBH) were correlated with beliefs about caregiving (SBL). The scales can be used to assess caregiving stance and outcomes for interventions aimed at promoting collaboration in carers.

  11. School Age Children's Coping with Sexual Abuse: Abuse Stresses and Symptoms Associated with Four Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…

  12. Psychometric properties of the Chinese craving beliefs questionnaire for heroin abusers in methadone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi-Lien

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CCBQ, an easy-to-administer assessment instrument of measurement of craving beliefs for heroin abusers. Methods Participants were 445 heroin abusers from four methadone clinics in Northern Taiwan. Fifty-one of the participants were tested twice within a two-week period at a different hospital to examine test-retest reliability. Results Three-factor solution using principal component analysis was identified in the CCBQ: will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping, accounting for 54.6% of the variance. Internal consistency analysis indicated that the three factors have strong reliability, with Cronbach alphas ranging from .81 to .92. The test-retest ICC coefficient is .80. The test-retest coefficients for the subscales will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping are .76, .51, and .64, respectively. Overall, the data show that the CCBQ has acceptable reliability and validity, demonstrating that it can be a research instrument for assessing heroin craving beliefs. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the CCBQ seem promising for both research and clinical purposes, and the scale thus deserves further refinement and validation with heroin abusers.

  13. Beliefs about the use of nonprescribed antibiotics among people in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia: a qualitative study based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayati, Aris; Suryawati, Sri; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-03-01

    Although antibiotics are prescription-only medicine in Indonesia, they can be purchased without prescription. This qualitative study elicited beliefs about nonprescribed antibiotics use informed by the theory of planned behavior to develop a questionnaire for an expanded theory of planned behavior survey. Twenty-five (N = 25) adults with experience of using nonprescribed antibiotics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied. Participants reported that the use of nonprescribed antibiotics was advantageous in term of saving time and money and of reducing the number of medicines that need to be purchased, in contrast to a perception of what occurs with medical prescriptions. Potential adverse effects, poor health outcomes, and antimicrobial resistance were the perceived disadvantages. Facilitators of such use were the availability of over-the-counter antibiotics and successful experience in using antibiotics. Medication for children was the perceived barrier to such use. Family members and friends, especially those with health education background, approved of such use.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  15. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model: Integrating Anxiety and Phobia Coping Strategies into Fundamentals of Public Speaking College Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumano, Elena

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of the "Fear and Loathing of Speaking Out in Public" program. The program, a personal initiative, adapts primary features of the treatment offered by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for clients suffering from fears and phobias. CBT strategies include progressive desensitization, identifying…

  16. Coping with the Culturally Unpredictable: An Ethnically Encapsulated Beginning Teacher's Struggle with African-American Students' Ethnic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined how one ethnically encapsulated white beginning teacher responded to African American students' unfamiliar ethnic behavior. Interviews, observations, and journal data indicated that he was underprepared to teach in multicultural settings and noted that ineffective interracial classroom relationships stifled learning…

  17. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  18. Stress Management Apps With Regard to Emotion-Focused Coping and Behavior Change Techniques: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic stress has been shown to be associated with disease. This link is not only direct but also indirect through harmful health behavior such as smoking or changing eating habits. The recent mHealth trend offers a new and promising approach to support the adoption and maintenance of appropriate stress management techniques. However, only few studies have dealt with the inclusion of evidence-based content within stress management apps for mobile phones. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate stress management apps on the basis of a new taxonomy of effective emotion-focused stress management techniques and an established taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Methods Two trained and independent raters evaluated 62 free apps found in Google Play with regard to 26 behavior change and 15 emotion-focused stress management techniques in October 2015. Results The apps included an average of 4.3 behavior change techniques (SD 4.2) and 2.8 emotion-focused stress management techniques (SD 2.6). The behavior change technique score and stress management technique score were highly correlated (r=.82, P=.01). Conclusions The broad variation of different stress management strategies found in this sample of apps goes in line with those found in conventional stress management interventions and self-help literature. Moreover, this study provided a first step toward more detailed and standardized taxonomies, which can be used to investigate evidence-based content in stress management interventions and enable greater comparability between different intervention types. PMID:28232299

  19. STRES DITINJAU DARI ACTIVE COPING, AVOIDANCE COPING DAN NEGATIVE COPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantoro Safaria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStres  merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan  kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga  lanjut usia.  Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat  kronis.  Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh  dan  kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor  faktor tersebut adalah strategi  coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara  tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping  dan  negative coping  dengan  stres  pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah  41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil  analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan  yang signifikanantara   active coping, negative coping dan  avoidance coping  secara bersama-sama dengan  stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi  product momentpearson antara  active coping  dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p =  0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping  dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241.  Korelasiantara  negative coping  dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan  r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative  coping  menyumbang  9.3 %  terhadap  stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat  90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.

  20. Personality and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  1. Coping in caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, Kimberly B; Russell, Heather F; Kelly, Erin H; Gorzkowski, Julie A; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2011-12-01

    This study examined coping among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Using a cross-sectional survey study design, 164 caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire and the Brief COPE. Their children, youth with SCI ages 7-18, completed the Kidcope. T-tests were conducted to examine differences in caregiver coping by demographic and injury-related factors. Further, logistic regression models were evaluated to examine predictive relationships between caregiver coping and youth coping. Several demographic and injury-related factors were related to caregiver coping, including caregiver gender, race, and education, as well as youth gender, age at injury, and time since injury. In the logistic regressions, two caregiver coping strategies were related to youth coping: caregiver self-blame coping was related to youth self-criticism, and caregiver behavioral disengagement coping (giving up attempts to cope) was related to youth blaming others coping. The findings suggest that caregiver coping may play a role in the coping of their children, and should be considered when addressing coping among youth with SCI.

  2. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothe

  3. Left lateral prefrontal activity reflects a change of behavioral tactics to cope with a given rule: An fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Miura

    2016-11-01

    to successfully catch the red-colored ball. Thus, activation of the left LPFC corresponded more closely to the increase in cognitive control underlying the behavioral change made to cope with the additional rule.

  4. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors.

  5. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  6. The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention Based on the Health Belief Model in the Empowerment of Stockbreeders Against High-Risk Behaviors Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2005-12-01

    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  8. Leader power and leader self-serving behavior : The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving beha

  9. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10

  10. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... resonance imaging) experiments and use experimental pain stimuli to assess how a target group of religious participants react to and experience pain during religious activities/stimuli, prayer and religious symbols. In addition, different biomarkers will be measured to register the somatic response...

  11. Examination of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: the contribution of injury beliefs and Leventhal's common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Surgenor, Lois J; Siegert, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Associations between components of Leventhal's common sense model of health behaviour (injury beliefs, coping, distress) and outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) were examined. Participants (n = 147) were recruited within three months following MTBI and assessed six months later, completing study questionnaires at both visits (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised, Brief COPE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Outcome measures included the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Rivermead Head Injury Follow-Up Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses examined associations between injury beliefs, coping and distress at baseline, and later outcome. Participants endorsing stronger injury identity beliefs (p model. Consistent with Leventhal's model, participant beliefs about their injury and recovery had significant associations with outcome over time. Coping also appeared to have important associations with outcome but more research is required to examine these. Current reassurance-based interventions may be improved by targeting variables such as injury beliefs, coping and adjustment soon after injury.

  12. [Breast and cervical cancer screening: beliefs and behaviors among the female population of the city of Liege (Belgium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoyez, B; Mairiaux, Ph

    2003-05-01

    Several surveys have shown that in Belgium the coverage of the female population for both breast and cervix cancers screening is too low and not evenly distributed in the target population. In order to highlight modifiable behavioural factors about cancer screening and to know the profile of women who exhibit an inadequate preventive behaviour, a postal survey has been conducted in the city of Liège. A self-administrated questionnaire was sent to a randomised sample of 1.000 women from two age groups (25-37 and 45-57 years); 444 women returned the questionnaire (response rate: 45.4%). The results show that the responders who do not comply with the recommendations for cancer screening are more often unemployed women with a low educational level, women who have a poor perception of their health, or women who are not regularly followed by a gynaecologist. Those women have more often poor knowledge and wrong beliefs about prevention, a negative perception of the curability of a cancer detected early and of the efficacy of screening tests. In spite of an overrepresentation of women with an university degree among the responders, it was also observed that more than 1 woman out of 4 in the 25-37 years age group is not convinced of the pap smear efficacy. In view of these results, the design of screening campaigns for cancer prevention has to involve specific efforts targeted at under-privileged subgroups within the female population.

  13. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  14. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  15. Predictors of condom use behaviors based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM constructs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the 'low-tier' entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r=0.07. Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r=0.23 and r=-0.62, respectively. Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r=0.36. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs.

  16. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  17. Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors and Dysfunctional Beliefs Mediate the Efficacy of Online CBT for Insomnia : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, Jaap; Eisma, Maarten C.; van Straten, Annemieke; Kamphuis, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts t

  18. Sleep-related safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs mediate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Eisma, M.C.; van Straten, A.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts t

  19. Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the climate crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Spears, Russell; Leach, Colinn Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the psychological power of fear and group efficacy beliefs to increase environmental action intentions against the climate crisis Extending a dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage results showed evidence for emotion-focused approach coping Environmental a

  20. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  1. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  2. 健康信念模式与糖尿病患者健康行为的相关性分析%Analysis on the Correlation Between Health Belief Model and Health Behavior in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱新

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨糖尿病(DM)患者的健康信念与健康行为的关系.[方法]采用健康促进生活方式量表Ⅱ和健康信念模型量表对102例DM患者进行问卷调查.[结果]DM患者的健康信念总分为(104.91±12.47)分,条目平均得分(2.99±0.59)分;DM患者的健康行为总分为(124.87±8.69)分,条目平均得分(2.57±0.61)分;健康动力、自我效能和健康信念与患者的各项健康行为均呈正相关.[结论]DM患者的健康信念及健康水平均呈中等水平,应重点关注患者"易感性"的健康信念.%[Objective]To describe the health beliefs and health behaviors of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) , and to analyze the correlation between health beliefs and health behaviors in DM patients. [Methods] A total of 102 DM patients were investigated by health promoting lifestyle profile II and the health belief model scale. [Results] The total health belief scores of diabetes patients were 104. 91±12. 47, and the mean scores were 2. 99 ±0. 59. The total health behavior scores of diabetes patients were 124. 87± 8. 69 , and the mean scores were 2. 57 ± 0. 61. There was positive correlation of health motivation, self-efficacy and health beliefs with health behaviors of patients. [Conclusion] The health beliefs and health level of DM patients shows the medium level. The "susceptibility" in health beliefs of patients should be paid more attention.

  3. Measuring the Ability to Cope with Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    104 Description of Scale ...................................... 107 X. SELF ESTEE ~I/BODY HIAGE 109 Item Description...control, coping ability III. SELF - ESTEE ~l General self -esteem Body image Change in body image as a result of illness IV. SOCIAL SUPPORTS General...obtained from self -administered queslionnaires. Measures were constructed in beliefs about recovery from the illness, attitudes about death, attribution

  4. The Effect of an Educational Intervention Program on the Adoption of Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors in Nurses: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions.

  5. Changes in Colorectal Cancer Screening Knowledge, Behavior, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Barriers among Community Health Clinic Patients after a Health Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Connie L.; Rademaker, Alfred; Liu, Dachao; Davis, Terry C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective in this pre- and post-survey assessment was to compare the effectiveness of a health literacy-directed intervention designed to increase knowledge, beliefs, barriers, self-efficacy and behavior associated with CRC screening with FOBT among patients cared for in predominantly rural community clinics and the change in these characteristics over the first 15 months after enrolling in a study designed to assess screening strategies. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in 8 predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers. Patients were orally administered a 15-minute survey at enrollment by a clinic research assistant (RA) and at 15 months by phone by a central RA. Participants included 428 community clinic patients aged 50–85 (mean 58.5); the majority (79%) were female, 69% were African American, and 54% had limited health literacy. Results There was significant improvement across all groups with the number of patients reporting they had been given information /education on CRC testing (p83%) as confirmed by study records.

  6. Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-05-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with less reactive temperaments will reach certain milestones in theory-of-mind (ToM) development more quickly. We examined relations between temperament and false-belief understanding in 102 preschool-age children from China and the United States. Temperament was measured via parental ratings of behavior as well as with physiological measures of children's reactivity (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity gauged via salivary cortisol). In accord with an emotional reactivity hypothesis, children with certain reactive temperaments--specifically, those who were more aggressive and those who were both socially withdrawn and physiologically reactive--evidenced poorer social-cognition. However, our findings also force amendment to the ontogenetic emotional reactivity hypothesis. For the majority of children in both countries, physiological reactivity predicted more advanced ToM, perhaps by facilitating social engagement and attention to social stimuli. Moreover, children who were withdrawn from social interaction yet nonreactive, especially Chinese children of this temperament, evidenced advanced ToM. Thus, some forms of social disengagement may foster social-cognitive development in certain sociocultural contexts.

  7. 大学生危险行为与自我和谐应对方式的关系%Relationship between risk behaviors of university students and self congruency, coping mechanims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤琼; 黄进; 张华东; 马爱霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand risk behaviors among university students and its relationship with self congruency and coping mechanisms, and to provide evidence for reducing the risk behaviors. Methods A total of 1 085 students of a university in Chongqing were investigated with Self Congruency Checklist (SCCS) , Simple Coping Strategy Questionnaire (SCSQ) and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). Results The incidence rate of IS risk behaviors among different genders was significantly different) P <0.05 or P<0.01). The incidence rate of 5 risk behaviors among different grades was significantly different( P <0.01). The incidence rate of 4 risk behaviors among different professional disciplines was significantly different) P <0.05 or P <0.01). Correlation analysis showed that the risk behaviors among university students were closely related to self congruency and coping mechanisms. Multiple regression showed that influencing factors of risk behaviors included overall self congruency , negative coping and self stiffness. Conclusion Comprehensive measures should be taken to raise the overall self congruency and reduce the negative coping mechanisms in order to decrease the incidence and severity of risk behaviors among university students.%目的 了解大学生危险行为的现状及其与自我和谐和应对方式的关系,为减少危险行为的发生提供依据.方法 采用自我和谐量表、简易应对方式问卷和青少年危险行为监测问卷,对重庆市某高校大学生1 085名进行问卷调查.结果 不同性别大学生15种危险行为报告率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),不同年级大学生5种危险行为报告率差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01),不同专业学科大学生在4种危险行为报告率的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).相关分析显示,大学生的危险行为与自我和谐和应对方式相关(P <0.05或P<0.01).多元回归分析显示,大学生危险行为的

  8. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Ospina Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004, in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the “behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands”. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986, a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible.Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation.Methodology: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations.Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services.

  9. [Quality assurance in therapy of chronic pain. Results obtained by a taskforce of the German Section of the Association for the Study of Pain on psychological assessment of chronic pain. V. Instruments for the assessment of pain-related cognitions and coping with pain.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, H; Klinger, R; Kröner-Herwig, B; Nilges, P; Redegeld, M; Weiß, L; Glier, B

    1995-07-01

    The present paper is one of a series of publications, reviewing German instruments for psychological assessment of pain. Their main focus is on the results of a task force on quality testing for each subject. This paper describes and comments on methods regarding self-reporting of pain cognitions and both cognitive and behavioral strategies for coping with pain. Concerning pain cognitions one focus is on patients' attributions of causes of pain and the modes of controlling pain (subjective pain model). The other focus is on instruments recording "pain beliefs" in the sense of dysfunctional congitions associated with the experience of pain. Each instrument was examined with reference to approved psychometric criteria, empirical foundation and clinical relevance. It was noted that several instruments are deficient in their psychometric criteria and their empirical foundations. We used these data as a basis to elaborate a specific and differential recommendation. A similar procedure was followed with instruments for the assessment of pain-related coping strategies. According to our research there are two subgroups of coping instruments, one more specifically for cognitive coping with pain, and the other combined with behavioral coping strategies. Once again, we elaborated a specific and differential recommendation, giving priority to instruments taking account of both cognitive and behavioral dimensions of coping with pain.

  10. Religious Coping in Caregivers of Family Members With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression.

  11. Coping with chronic illness: A study with end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies coping styles and strategies used by 40 end-stage renal disease patients over 20 years old who receive treatment in a general hospital in Peru. The instruments applied were a personal sociodemographic questionnaire and the Coping Inventory (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub, 1989. Results showed that emotion focused coping were most frequently used followed by problem focused coping. Planning, acceptance and positive reinterpretation-growth coping strategies were more frequently used by these patients, whereas mental disengagement, suppression of competing activities and behavioral disengagement were the less frequently used coping strategies. Other differences between coping styles and strategies and sociodemographic and medical variables were analyzed.

  12. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  13. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  14. RELIGION AND FOLK BELIEFS

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa SEVER

    2011-01-01

    Folk beliefs, transmitted from generation to generation since the transfer from pre-writing and not included in any divine religion, but his side continued vitality of beliefs. Folk beliefs that have traditional as well as the local folk beliefs, include beliefs and practices, and personal features, divide two main types as a magic and experiential people’s beliefs. In this study we’ll focus on the qualities, differences and functions in everyday life of divine religion and folk beliefs and f...

  15. Pain coping strategies predict perceived control over pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, J A; Menefee, L A; Heinberg, L J; Clark, M R

    1998-07-01

    Perceptions of control over pain and specific pain coping strategies are associated with a number of positive outcomes in patients with chronic pain conditions. Transactional models of stress have emphasized coping as a process that is both determined by, and influences appraisals of control. While perceptions of control and coping efforts are associated with better adjustment, little is known about the specific coping strategies that contribute to perceptions that pain is controllable. One hundred and ninety-five (65% female) individuals with chronic pain conditions admitted to an inpatient unit completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to predict perceived pain control from measures of pain severity and coping. After controlling for pain severity and education, coping self-statements and reinterpreting pain sensations predicted greater perceptions of control over pain, whereas ignoring pain sensations predicted lower perceptions of control over pain. The coping strategies did not interact with pain severity in predicting perceptions of control. Coping flexibility, or the number of pain coping strategies reported at a high frequency, also predicted perceptions of control over pain and did not interact with pain severity. The present findings suggest that, regardless of pain severity, the use of specific cognitive pain coping strategies may increase perceptions of control over pain. Since the existing coping literature largely identifies maladaptive pain coping strategies, it is especially critical to establish which pain coping strategies are adaptive. Specific cognitive strategies, particularly coping self statements, are important components for cognitive-behavioral interventions for chronic pain management. Future research will need to determine whether other adaptive cognitive strategies such as reinterpreting pain sensations can be

  16. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  17. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  18. Urban Parents' Perceptions about the Role of Organized Religion and Spiritual Beliefs in Their Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchlyn, Carol L.; Smith-Myles, Brenda; Cook, Virginia H.

    2007-01-01

    Parents with children with cognitive disabilities may rely on organized religion and/or spiritual beliefs as coping strategies in their lives. Fifteen parents of adolescents with cognitive disabilities were administered the Support From Religious Organizational and Personal Beliefs Scale-Revised to test this hypothesis. The results indicated that…

  19. 游客体育旅游风险认知及应对行为的调查研究%A Research Survey on Tourists' Perception of Sports Tourism Risk and Coping Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毅清; 张俊香

    2012-01-01

    运用访谈法、问卷调查法和数理统计法,对游客体育旅游风险的认知及应对行为进行调查研究。着重从游客的性别、年龄、职业、学历等基本属性入手,分析他们对风险认知的差异,从五个方面全面了解游客体育风险应对行为现状,分析影响因素,提出对策建议。%By using the methods of interview,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,the paper makes survey research on the tourists' perception of sports tourism risk and coping behaviors.The authors focus on studying the basic attributes of tourists' gender,age,profession,diploma and so on and analyse their risk perception differences.From five aspects,the paper takes a comprehensive study on the present situation of the tourists' coping behaviors of sports tourism risk.It analyses the impacting factors and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions.

  20. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral GUVEN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their patterns of behavior and learning approaches. The aim of this study was to determine the epistemological beliefs of the students attending to pre-school education and English language teaching departments in distance education, besides it was attempted to investigate these beliefs in terms of certain variables, namely, gender, department and grade that the students attend, and their academic achievement level, lastly the education level of their parents. The study was conducted through a descriptive method and 697 pre-service teachers composed the sampling of the study. To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale”, which was developed by Schommer (1990 and adapted to Turkish by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002, was used. As a result, it was obtained that the epistemological beliefs of the students in distance education developed at low level. Additionally, it was found that the epistemological beliefs of the pre-service teachers differed in terms of gender, department, grade, academic achievement, education level of parents.

  1. Influence of coping style on smoking behavior among middle school students in Xi'an%西安市中学生应对方式对尝试吸烟行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙果

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand smoking situation of middle school students and to provide the basis for prevention and treatment of smoking behavior, the article explores the relationship between coping style and smoking behavior.Methods The questionnaire was conducted among 1 028 middle school students by random sampling from Grade eight, Grade ten and Grade twelve of 6 districts in Xi'an.Students Coping style was investigated: the relation between problem solving, seeking help, abreaction, fantasy, patience and their smoking behavior.Results The rate of young people trying to smoke was 34.1% in Xi'an.It had statistical significant of students smoking behavior among different grade and sex.The girls adopted more withdraw, abreaction and endurance than boys.The students of Grade ten were more likely to adopted problem solving, and those of grade eight were more likely to adopt problem seeking and withdraw.The students' coping style of problem-solving, avoidance, trying to imagine was related with their smoking behavior.Conclusion Coping style of middle school students is closely related to their smoking behavior.Students should be guided to use scientific methods to deal with stress so as to reduce smoking behavior.%目的 了解西安市中学生吸烟状况及其与应对方式的关系,为预防和矫治中学生吸烟行为提供依据.方法 从西安市6个城区随机抽取8所中学初二、高一和高三年级的1 028名学生,采用问卷调查分析中学生日常应对方式中问题解决、求助、发泄、幻想、忍耐与吸烟行为的关系.结果 西安市中学生尝试吸烟率为34.1%;中学生应对方式的性别、年级差异有统计学意义,女生采取退避、发泄和忍耐的方式多于男生,高三学生更多采取问题解决的方式,初二学生更多采取求助和退避的方式.中学生的问题解决、退避和幻想等应对方式与尝试吸烟行为之间存在相关.结论 中学生吸烟行为与其应对方式有密

  2. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena Jacobsson; Svenson, Ola

    1997-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement

  3. 某医科大学研究生睡眠质量与应对行为的相关研究%Investigation of Medical Graduates'Coping Behavior and Sleep Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章莹; 胡贵方; 陈清; 周军华; 林锦彦; 张正刚; 江晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the coping behavior and sleep quality of graduates in medical university,to reveal the relationship between them. Methods 177 graduates from some Medical University were randomly chosen, then the self-made questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) were used to investigate the coping behavior and sleep quality. Results 10.7% of the graduates had sleep problem, there was no significant difference between different gender;the sleep quality declined in the higher grade, but the trend was not statistically significant. When encounted with failure, the graduates were more willing to alleviate the pressure through the intemet, and classmate and affection relationship were also affected. Graduates with the behavior of "over-internet" ," diterioration of affection" and "violence" had poor sleep quality. The logit regression analysis showed that "suicidal tendency" was a risk factor of sleep quality. Conclusion Though the investigation of sleep quality, the coping behavior and health of graduates can be improved effectively.%目的 调查当前研究生的应对行为及睡眠质量,并且分析两者之间的相关性.方法 随机抽取177名某医科大学研究生,采用自制调查表及匹兹堡睡眠质量调查表进行调查.结果 10.7%的研究生有睡眠质量问题,不同性别研究生的睡眠质量差异没有统计学意义;随着年级的增高睡眠质量下降,但这种趋势没有统计学意义.当遇到挫折时,研究生多数选择通过上网来缓解压力,同学关系、恋人关系较多受到影响.有"通过过度上网缓解压力"、"恋人关系恶化"、"暴力行为"的研究生睡眠质量较差,且差异具有统计学意义.Logit回归分析结果显示"自杀倾向"是影响睡眠质量的危险因素.结论 通过调查学生的睡眠质量,有针对性地改善研究生的应对行为及身心健康.

  4. Scientific faith: Belief in science increases in the face of stress and existential anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Kahane, Guy; de Toledo, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations.

  5. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  6. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, L.J. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden).Dept. of Man-Technology Organization; Svenson, O. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    1997-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator`s appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author).

  7. 认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式的影响%The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Coping Style of Patients With Bipolar Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心蕊; 王奎

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式的影响。方法选择我院2014年1月~2015年9月收治的66例双相抑郁患者作为观察对象,给予连续10周、每周2次的认知行为治疗,采用应对方式量表对患者的治疗结果进行评价。结果患者应对方式中的幻想、求助、退避与解决因子得分相对于治疗前的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式具有积极影响,对于改善病情具有较好的作用。%Objective To study the cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar depression cope with the effects of the way.Methods 66 cases of bipolar depression treated in our hospital from January 2014 to September 2015 were selected as the observation objects, for 10 consecutive weeks, 2 times a week cognitive behavioral therapy, the use of coping style scale to evaluate the results of the treatment of patients.Results Patients with fantasy, help seeking, avoidance and solve factor scores compared with before treatment, the difference has statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). ConclusionThe cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar depression, has a positive influence to deal with to improve disease has good effect.

  8. On Consumer Behavior and Motivation about the Perspectives of Death Awareness Coping Merchandises%死亡意识应对机制视域中消费动机和行为解读及其整合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东进; 杜立婷

    2012-01-01

    死亡意识是否会让消费者买得更多,已有研究对该问题给出了不同的答案。本文首先基于恐惧管理理论中重要假设,对死亡恐惧下的消费动机和行为进行解读。针对恐怖管理理论的局限性,本文尝试从宽广的视角对死亡意识应对机制进行阐析。通过对不同死亡意识应对机制之间内在联系的梳理,以期从解释水平的角度对消费动机进行整合,并指出未来的研究方向,即关注死亡意识的细分,及其与消费动机及行为之间的内在机制。%It is a controversial issue that whether the death awareness could cause more shopping. Existing relevant researches have given different answers. The paper will firstly summarize consumer behaviors coping with the death fear based on both the classic terror management theory and other boarder perspectives. Through the analysis of the inherent connection of the death awareness coping strategies, the paper aims to theoretically integrate a framework of consumer behaviors facing to the mortality awareness which can be divided into abstract death awareness and concrete death awareness by eonstrual level, as well as indicate that marketing researchers should pay more attention on how the death information affect consumer's motivation and behavior by the distinct information processing in the future.

  9. [Pain and coping strategies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels; Thastum, Mikael

    2008-02-18

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA patients have reduced pain tolerance and pain threshold compared to healthy controls. In children with JIA the greater use of coping strategies such as problem-solving, positive self-statements and distraction consistently have predicted less arthritis-related pain, even after controlling for relevant medical and demographic variables. Interventions specifically designed to modify maladaptive pain coping strategies and pain-related health beliefs may be effective in reducing pain in children with JIA.

  10. 基于认知行为理论的高职学生压力应对教育%Education to Vocational College Students' Stress Coping Based on Theory of Cognitive Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳侠

    2012-01-01

    随着社会的发展,职场人士面临越来越大的压力,学会应对压力是正常生活和工作必须的能力。作为在校大学生,尤其是高职院校的学生,更要学会应对压力,才能在走向社会后从容面对挑战。根据认知行为理论,研究者设计了一套适合高职学生的压力应对教育模式。%With the development of the society, people in workplace are facing increasing pressure. Learning to deal with stress is a necessary skill for them to have successful life and work. Students, especially vocational college students, need to learn how to cope with stress, to calmly face the challenges in the society. According to the cognitive behavior theory, researchers have designed a suitable education mode to vocational college students' stress coping.

  11. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability.

  12. The Impact of Anti-dumpling Coping Behavior on China's Guild Development Under Market Economy%市场经济下反倾销应对对我国行业协会发展方向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利

    2009-01-01

    The fact that most of China' s guilds are created within different system results in a variety of problems in function orientation, inner mechanism and membership, as well as the failure in coordination, organization and service. Through a comprehensive analysis of the anti-dumpling coping behavior in China, this paper suggests that the guilds should be transconformed as sson as possible to be international, multi-regionalizaed, and folk so as to improve their capability to cope with ant-dumplings.%由于我国的行业协会多为体制内生成,在职能定位、内部机制和成员组成上存在诸多问题,在反倾销应对中出现了协调、组织和服务职能的缺失现象.针对于我国反倾销的现实必须尽快实现,行业协会的转型,促使其向国际化、泛区域化和民间化的方向发展,提高其应对反倾销的能力.

  13. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  14. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...

  15. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

  16. Coping with College Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  17. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

  18. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  19. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Personal Stories from Survivors Survivors of heart disease and stroke are not alone. Read their stories ...

  20. Coping with Rosacea: Tripwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form Search You are here Home Coping With Rosacea Tripwires - Weather Sun exposure, hot weather, humidity, cold ... you select rosacea-friendly meals: Monitor how your rosacea reacts to alcoholic beverages . Alcoholic beverages often induce ...

  1. Peirce on Educational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Torill

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) may enhance our understanding of educational beliefs and that Peirce's logic may be a tool to distinguish between a dogmatic and a pragmatic justification of such beliefs. The first part of the article elaborates on Peirce's comprehension of beliefs as mediated, socially situated and…

  2. Alcohol Abuse as a Rite of Passage: The Effect of Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience on Undergraduates' Drinking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our…

  3. Magical beliefs and rituals in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Milanak, Melissa E; Medeiros, Bethany; Ross, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that assesses children's rituals, habits and sensory-perceptual experiences that we have termed "compulsive-like" behavior. Results indicated that children's rituals and compulsions were positively related to their magical beliefs, and inversely related to their uses of concrete, physical explanations to describe various phenomena. In particular, children's beliefs about the effects of wishing were most consistently correlated with their compulsive-like rituals and routines. The findings extended the work on magical beliefs and obsessive-compulsive phenomena to the normative manifestation of compulsive behaviors found in typical development.

  4. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  5. Exploring Coping and Social Support with Gender and Education Among People Living with HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Social support promotes positive coping strategies among people living with HIV (PLH); however, little is known about the various aspects of social support and their distinct effects on coping. The present study investigates the specific links between coping and perceived social support with respect to gender and education among PLH. A total of 522 PLH in Anhui, China, participated in an assessment that collected data on demographics, perceived tangible and emotional support, and cognitive and behavioral coping. The assessment was conducted using the computer-assisted personal interviewing method. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Emotional support was significantly associated with both cognitive and behavioral coping. Tangible support was significantly associated with behavioral coping but not with emotional coping. Women reported significantly lower levels of emotional support, cognitive coping, and behavioral coping than men did. Significant associations between tangible support and coping were found only among illiterate males. Women living with HIV are in greater need of social support and coping strategies. Future interventions should be gender specific, with targeted support for women with lower education levels to enhance their coping strategies.

  6. Emotions, Coping Style and Aggression during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Escrivá, Vicenta; Universitat de Valencia; Samper García, Paula; Universitat de Valencia; Tur Porcar, Ana María; Universitat de Valencia; Richaud de Minzi, Cristina; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Mesurado, Belen; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between coping strategies and emotions to know to what extend these are processes related to aggressive behavior. We assume that the aggression influence coping mechanisms in solving problems and handling of emotions: emotional instability (lack of self-control in stressful situations) or empathy (feelings faced to “other” who has a problem or need). A sample of 1.557 boys and girls, with an age range of 12-15 years, enrolled in first-cycle of Compulsory Se...

  7. 医学专业大学生公正世界信念与亲社会行为的关系%Relationship between just world belief and pro-social behavior of the medical professional college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海丽; 郑佳莹; 耿楠楠; 张李斌

    2016-01-01

    ①目的探讨医学专业大学生公正世界信念和亲社会行为之间的关系。②方法采用公正信念量表、亲社会行为量表与自编讨论题对华北理工大学265名医学专业大学生进行问卷调查。③结果年级及家庭教养方式在公正世界信念总分及三个因子方面差异无统计学意义。是否独生子女与公正世界信念的内在公正因子的差异有统计学意义(t =2.728,P <0.05)。年级和家庭教养方式在亲社会行为总分与情绪性、依从、利他、匿名性、公开性及紧急性六个维度方面差异无统计学意义。是否独生子女在亲社会行为的利他性和紧急性两个维度上差异有统计学意义(t =-2.739,-3.014,P <0.05)。医学专业大学生公正世界信念总分与亲社会行为总分有显著正相关(r =0.301,P <0.05)。④结论医学专业大学生公正世界信念越高,其亲社会行为越高。%Objective To explore the relationship between just world beliefs and pro-social behav-ior of the medical professional college students.Methods A total of 265 medical professional college students were investigated by the Fair Beliefs Scale,Pro-social Behavior Scale and the Self-made Prob-lem.Results There were no significant difference among the just world belief total score and the three factors scores about family rearing patterns and grades.There was significant difference between whether the one child and the inner justice factor of just world beliefs (t =2.728,P <0.05).There were no significant difference among pro-social behavior total scores,emotional,compliance,altruistic, anonymous,openness and urgency the six dimensions about grade and family rearing style,There were significant difference between altruistic and urgency on whether the one child(t =-2.739,-3.014,P <0.05).There were significant positive correlation between just world belief scores and pro-social behav-ior scores.Conclusion The

  8. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  9. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  10. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander Karl;

    2014-01-01

    In empirical analyses of games, preferences and beliefs are typically treated as independent. However, if beliefs and preferences interact, this may have implications for the interpretation of observed behavior. Our sequential social dilemma experiment allows us to separate different interaction...... channels. When subjects play both roles in such experiments, a positive correlation between first- and second-mover behavior is frequently reported. We find that the observed correlation primarily originates via an indirect channel, where second-mover decisions influence beliefs through a consensus effect......, and the first-mover decision is a best response to these beliefs. Specifically, beliefs about second-mover cooperation are biased toward own second-mover behavior, and most subjects best respond to stated beliefs. However, we also find evidence for a direct, preference-based channel. When first movers know...

  11. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmoe A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrid Sandmoe, Solveig HaugeFaculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life.Methods: A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.Results: Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience.Conclusion: Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.Keywords: elder abuse, older parents, coping

  12. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica María Ospina Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the re­courses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004, in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Pro­cessing, defines Coping as the “behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands”. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986, a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that en­hance this adaptation. Methodology: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Syner­gy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Swimmers’ experiences of organizational stress: Exploring the roles of cognitive appraisal and coping behaviours.

    OpenAIRE

    Didymus, FF; Fletcher, D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive appraisal and coping are central components of transactional stress theory. Sport psychology research to date has adopted a reductionist approach to the categorization of coping and appraisal-coping associations have yet to be explored in a sport organizational context.\\ud AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate sport performers’ micro- and macro-level coping behaviors in response to organizational stressors, to examine the utility of Skinner, E...

  14. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  15. 父母教养方式与大学生志愿者利他行为的关系--前瞻性应对方式的中介作用%The Effect of Parenting Styles on a College Student Volunteer’Altruistic Behaviors---The Mediator Role of the Proactive Coping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊斌; 卢宁

    2015-01-01

    为了了解大学生志愿者父母教养方式、前瞻性应对方式对其利他行为的影响,采用父母教养方式量表、前瞻性应对方式与利他行为自陈问卷对广东省272名大学生志愿者进行调查.结果显示:父母教养方式的关爱维度、前瞻性应对方式和利他行为之间存在显著的正相关;母亲关爱和前瞻性应对方式作为抑制变量会增强父亲控制对利他行为的预测效应;父亲关爱通过前瞻性应对方式完全中介作用于利他行为,中介效应为79.42%,母亲关爱通过前瞻性应对方式部分中介作用于利他行为,中介效应为31.38%.由此可见,父母教养方式会通过前瞻性应对方式间接影响大学生志愿者的利他行为.%Parental bonding instrument (PBI),Proactive coping scale (PCS)and Altruistic behavior questionnaire were adopted to investigate 272 college student volunteers in an attempt to find out about the influence of parenting styles,the proactive coping on their altruistic behaviors in Guangdong.The results showed that:Altruistic behaviors were positively correlated with the care factor and proactive coping factor in the parenting styles;Mother care and proactive coping,as the suppression variables,can enhance the predictive validity of father control upon the altruistic behavior.The mediator effect of the Father care can fully effect upon the altruistic behavior via the proactive coping approach(the mediating effect value reaches as high as 79.42%),while the mediator effect of mother care is partially effected upon the altruistic behavior via the proactive coping with a mediating effect value of about 31.38%),indicating that the parenting style indirectly influences college student volunteer’altruistic behaviors via the mediation of proactive coping.

  16. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  17. Sex and age differences in coping styles among children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sex and age differences in coping strategies among pediatric patients with chronic pain. Sex differences are reported in the adult pain and coping literatures, but little attention has been given to possible distinctions in coping styles in the pediatric chronic pain population. Investigating pain coping skills at an early age may provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolution of characteristic coping styles and identify areas for intervention. Pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale), pain coping strategies (Pain Coping Questionnaire), and coping efficacy were assessed in children (ages 8-12 years) and adolescents (ages 13-18 years), presenting to a pediatric chronic pain clinic (n=272). Significant sex differences in coping strategies were found. After controlling for pain intensity, girls used social support seeking more than boys, while boys used more behavioral distraction techniques. Adolescents engaged in more positive self-statements (a cognitive strategy) than children. Both boys and girls showed a trend toward pain coping efficacy being negatively correlated with average pain intensity. For girls, pain coping efficacy was also significantly negatively correlated with internalizing/catastrophizing. However, no sex or age differences in coping efficacy were found. This study demonstrates the early emergence of sex- and aged-based preferences in coping strategies among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The findings establish a basis for further research on early social influences in the development of pain coping styles in males and females. Implications for further clinical research in this area are discussed.

  18. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking......-called skilled coping, rather than a distinct phenomenon, is a series of connected mental phenomena that span highly reflective stances as well as trance-like states of absorption. Therefore, I point out that Dreyfus’s problematic usage in fact prevents us from appreciating the phenomenological complexity...

  19. Teachers' self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness beliefs, and reported use of cognitive-behavioral approaches to bullying among pupils: effects of in-service training with the I DECIDE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Despite the promise of being effective in tacking bullying and conduct disorder, cognitive-behavioral (C-B) interventions are underused by teachers. Little detailed information exists as to why this is the case. The current study with junior school teachers in the U.K. (N=249) confirmed this low reported usage and showed that while teachers tended to believe that C-B approaches would be effective, most held rather low self-efficacy beliefs. Attending a workshop on a specific C-B approach, the I DECIDE program had positive effects on perceived effectiveness and self-efficacy beliefs, and longer durations of training (3days) were more beneficial than shorter durations (half/1day). In line with outcome-expectancy theory and the theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy and duration of training predicted an increase in reported usage of I DECIDE across an 8-month period, and self-efficacy fully mediated the association between duration of training and increase in reported usage. The implications of these findings for overcoming impediments to the more widespread use of C-B approaches by teachers to tackling bullying were discussed, particularly the notion that attending training of sufficient duration coupled with a more explicit attention on fostering self-efficacy will pay dividends.

  20. 健康信念模式教育对护士标准预防行为依从性的影响%Influence of health belief mode education to nurses compliance behavior of standard prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹何琼; 陈小凤; 邓春梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨运用健康信念模式教育对护士标准预防行为依从性的影响.方法 对155名外科护士进行健康信念模式教育,并分别于培训前及培训后对护士进行标准预防行为依从性调查.结果 健康信念模式培训前护士洗手及手消毒、戴手套、使用其他防护设备、锐器及伤口的处理等依从性行为评分分别为2.32±0.63、2.11±0.38、1.37±0.99、2.82±0.34分健康信念模式培训后护士洗手及手消毒、戴手套、使用其他防护设备、锐器及伤口的处理等依从性行为评分分别为3.64±0.36、3.31±0.54、2.86±0.65、3.43±0.52分,较培训前明显提高,两者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 运用健康信念模式教育能提高护士标准预防行为,有利于降低医院感染发生率.%OBJECTIVE To explore the influence of health belief mode education to the nurses' standard prevention behavior compliance. METHODS A total of 155 surgical nurses were held health belief mode education, and the survey of the standard prevention behavior compliance to the nurses respectively before and after education was conducted. RESULTS The scores of the compliance ba before health belief model education compliance behavior scores of nurses wash, hand disinfection, wearing gloves, using of other protective equipment, sharps devices,wound treatment and so on were 2.32 ± 0.63,2.11 ± 0.38,1.37 ± 0.99 and 2.82 ± 0.34, respectively, and the scores of compliance after health belief model education compliance behavior scores of nurses wash, hand disinfection, wearing gloves, using of other protective equipment, sharps devices, wound treatment and so on were 3.64±0. 36, 3. 31±0. 54, 2.86±0. 65 and 3.43±0.52, respectively, which was significantly improved before education. Compared with the two group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01).CONCLUSIONS The heath belief mode education can improve the nurses' standard prevention behavior

  1. Executive functions in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Omar; Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Moral, religious, and paranormal beliefs share some degree of overlap and play important roles in guiding peoples' behavior. Although partly cultural phenomena, they also have neurobiological components based on functional neuroimaging studies and research in clinical populations. Because all three show relationships to prefrontal system functioning, the current study examined whether they related to executive functions as measured by the Executive Function Inventory in a community sample. As in previous research, religious beliefs related positively to both moral attitudes and paranormal beliefs. Moral attitudes, however, did not relate to paranormal beliefs. Paranormal beliefs related inversely to impulse control and organization, whereas small positive correlations occurred between traditional religious beliefs, impulse control, and empathy. Moral attitudes, on the other hand, showed consistent positive correlations with all executive functions measured, independent of demographic influences. These findings concordantly support that prefrontal systems play a role in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

  2. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  3. Coping with Climate Change among Adolescents: Implications for Subjective Well-Being and Environmental Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ojala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this questionnaire study was to investigate how Swedish adolescents (n = 321 cope with climate change and how different coping strategies are associated with environmental efficacy, pro-environmental behavior, and subjective well-being. The results were compared to an earlier study on 12-year-olds, and the same coping strategies, problem-focused coping, de-emphasizing the seriousness of the threat, and meaning-focused coping, were identified. As in the study on children, problem-focused and meaning-focused coping were positively related to felt efficacy and environmental behavior, while de-emphasizing the threat was negatively related to these measures. As expected, the more problem-focused coping the adolescents used, the more likely it was that they experienced negative affect in everyday life. This association was explained by the tendency for highly problem-focused adolescents to worry more about climate change. In contrast, meaning-focused coping was positively related to both well-being and optimism. When controlling for well-known predictors such as values and gender, meaning-focused and problem-focused coping were independent positive predictors of environmental efficacy and pro-environmental behavior, while de-emphasizing the threat was a negative predictor of pro-environmental behavior. The results are discussed in relation to coping theories and earlier studies on coping with climate change.

  4. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  5. Joggers versus Nonexercisers: An Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)

  6. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og d...

  7. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  8. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions...... in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test for the empirical...

  9. Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; Chaves, Eliane Corrêa

    2008-01-01

    In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to identify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal.

  10. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  11. 高校学报对学术不端行为的应对策略%Strategy for Coping with Academic Misconduct Behaviors by College Journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玮华

    2011-01-01

    高校是学术不端行为的高发地,高校学报在编辑出版过程中应坚决杜绝学术不端行为。针对学术不端行为在高校学报中的表现形式,提出了应对策略:明确对学术不端行为的态度;严格执行匿名审稿制度;加快稿件处理速度;合理使用学术不端文献检测系统;加强对编辑的职业道德教育;重视对作者的学术规范教育。%Academic misconduct behaviors occur frequently in colleges,and the college journals must prohibit the academic misconduct behaviors in the editing and publishing process.Some strategies are proposed according to the representation forms of the academic misconduct behaviors in the college journals: determining the attitude to the academic misconduct behaviors;strictly executing anonymous reviewing;improving the paper processing speed;reasonably using the academic misconduct literature detection system;strengthening the professional ethics education of editors;and paying attention to the education in the academic norm of authors.

  12. Factors associated with attitudes and beliefs of elders with acute low back pain: data from the study Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza F. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The attitudes and beliefs that older people have about acute low back pain (LBP may influence the coping mechanisms and the adoption of treatment strategies in this population. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with the attitudes and beliefs of elderly patients with acute low back pain using the Back Beliefs Questionnaire. Method This is a cross-sectional study with a subsample of the study “Back Complaints in the Elders” (BACE, composed of 532 older Brazilians of both genders with acute LBP. We investigated sociodemographic and clinical aspects, self-perceived health, psychosocial and emotional state, falls, and functional capacity. Multiple regression models were constructed to measure possible associations. Results The percentage of female participants was 85.7% and the mean age was 69.04 (SD=6.2. Disability, symptoms of depression, and expectation of return to activities were independently associated with attitudes and beliefs concerning LBP. Conclusion Screening of psychosocial factors is essential to the prevention of persistent and recurrent LBP. Early signs of these factors can help identify symptoms and behaviors for effective interventions.

  13. [Defensive pessimists and coping: the goodness of fit hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2006-12-01

    The goodness of fit hypothesis (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) posits that it is adaptive to use emotion-focused coping and not to use problem-focused coping in uncontrollable situations. This study examines the coping skills that defensive pessimists (DPs) tend to use in uncontrollable situations. The participants were 282 Japanese college students, from which 61 DPs and 64 strategic optimists (SOs) were identified. Based on the controllability they reported about recalled stress situations, they were classified into controllable or uncontrollable subgroups. Eight coping skills, which are concerned with emotion-focused or problem-focused coping, were compared. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that DPs in uncontrollable situations tended not to use emotion-focused coping, which is not consistent with the goodness of fit hypothesis, but they also tended not to use problem-focused coping, which is consistent with the hypothesis. These results imply that DPs can control their behavior adaptively so they do not increase stress more in uncontrollable situations, although they have a vulnerability to feel stress easily because they can not use emotion-focused coping effectively.

  14. Violate my beliefs? Then you're to blame! Belief content as an explanation for causal attribution biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Hertzog, Christopher; Horhota, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    We examined the extent to which the content of beliefs about appropriate behavior in social situations influences blame attributions for negative outcomes in relationship situations. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated their level of agreement to a set of traditional and nontraditional beliefs. Five months later, we assessed the degree to which these same individuals blamed traditional and nontraditional characters who violated their beliefs in 12 social conflict situations. Older adults held more traditional beliefs regarding appropriate relationship behaviors (e.g., the acceptability of premarital sex). Individual differences in the content of one's beliefs were needed to understand age-related patterns in blame attributions; for example, adherence to traditional beliefs about appropriate relationship behaviors led to higher responsibility and blame attributions toward characters behaving in ways that were inconsistent with these beliefs. Structural regression models showed that beliefs fully mediated the effects of working memory and need for closure on causal attributions and partially mediated the effects of age and religiosity on attributions. Personal identification with the characters had additional, independent effects on attributions. Findings are discussed from the theoretical perspective of a belief-based explanation of social judgment biases.

  15. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...... of economic reality and by making empirically based assumptions rather than assumptions consistent to a theoretical model. If economic textbooks were to apply the same stringent principles not much would be left…...

  16. Gender Beliefs and Cooperation in a Public Goods game Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E-M. Sent (Esther-Mirjam); J. Vyrastekova (Jana)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of gender beliefs for cooperation in a public goods game experiment. Controlling for risk preferences and for subjects’ unconditional willingness to cooperate, we find that gender beliefs affect behavior in homogenous groups where the group composition was announced.

  17. Instructional Strategies to Promote Incremental Beliefs in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Cliff, Dylan P.; Okely, Anthony D.; Weintraub, Dana L.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit beliefs about the nature of human abilities have significant motivational, behavioral, and affective consequences. The purpose of this article was to review the application of implicit beliefs to the youth sport context and to provide theoretically derived and evidence-based instructional strategies to promote adaptive implicit beliefs…

  18. Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Expectations, and Learning Physics: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    It has been established by physics education researchers that there is a correlation between the learner's behavior, their epistemological beliefs with which they come to the classrooms, and their success in a course. This study of Indian students and teachers explores expectations and beliefs in learning physics at the secondary and tertiary…

  19. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  20. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  1. Job Stressors and Coping Strategies amongst Nigerian Ophthalmologists: an Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C Omolase

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The leading job stressor was no time for leisure followed by overwork and financial constraint. Most respondents drew inspiration from religious belief to cope with stress. There is need for creation of recreational facilities in the hospitals and improvement in the welfare package of medical practitioners [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 13-18

  2. Study on mobility-disadvantage group' risk perception and coping behaviors of abrupt geological hazards in coastal rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Anping

    2016-07-01

    China is a country highly vulnerable to abrupt geological hazards. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of abrupt geological disasters (such as rock avalanches, landslide, mud-rock flows etc) in mobility-disadvantage group living in coastal rural area of China. This research is to take into account all factors regarding disasters and to design the questionnaires accordingly. Two debris flow vulnerable townships are selected as study areas including Hedi Township in Qinyuan County and Xianxi Township in Yueqing City which are located in East China's Zhejiang Province. SPSS was applied to conduct descriptive analysis, which results in an effective empirical model for evacuation behavior of the disable groups. The result of this study shows mobility-disadvantage groups' awareness on disaster prevention and mitigation is poor and their knowledge about basic theory and emergency response is limited. Errors and distortions in public consciousness on disaster prevention and mitigation stimulate the development of areas with frequent disasters, which will expose more life and property to danger and aggravate the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. In conclusion, before drafting emergency planning, the government should consider more the disable group's expectations and actual evacuation behavior than the request of the situation to ensure the planning is good to work.

  3. Burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, T Y G; Goossens, P J J; van der Bijl, J J

    2007-10-01

    This study was aimed to highlight the factors which influence experienced burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder. Research articles meeting content and methodological quality criteria from January 1995 through October 2005 were reviewed. High objective and subjective burden is experienced by these caregivers. Subjective burden is extremely influenced by illness beliefs. High burden is associated more with severity of symptoms (than diagnosis), difficulties in the relationship with patient, lack of support and stigma. Coping is influenced by appraisal and burden. Different phases in the process of caregiving require different coping mechanisms. Little research is available on effectiveness of coping mechanisms and needs for support. Suggestions are nevertheless found in the literature for professional support. Caregivers of patients with a bipolar disorder experience high burden and try to cope in different ways. Little research is available on coping styles and needs for support. However, recommendations can be made to increase support for these caregivers.

  4. Effect of health belief model on type 2 diabetics mellitus self-care behavior%健康信念理论在2型糖尿病患者自护行为中的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贵霞; 谢虹; 郭贝清; 张珍珍; 徐亚梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the efficacy of health belief model on self-care behavior of the diabetic patients. Methods: A selfcontrol observation based-on health belief theory was carried out in 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. The diabetes knowledge, self-care ability and blood glucose control of the patients were compared before and after intervention. Results:After intervention, the patients'knowledge about diabetes, ability of diet control, regular exercise, medical order compliance, foot care and preventive management of high and low blood glucose were enhanced, and their blood sugar level improved significantly( P < 0.01 ), while their self-monitoring ability presented no significant difference before and after intervention( P > 0.05 ). Conclusions: Health belief model can improve the efficiency of diabetes healthy education as well as the self-care behavior of the diabetic patients.%目的:探讨健康信念模式在糖尿病教育中对糖尿病患者自护行为的有效性.方法:对65例2型糖尿病患者实施以健康信念理论为基础的干预模式,并进行自身对照观察,测评干预前后患者的糖尿病知识、自我护理能力和血糖控制情况.结果:65例患者在干预后糖尿病知识、饮食控制能力、规律锻炼、遵嘱用药、足部护理、预防处理高低血糖能力和血糖水平均较干预前有明显改善(P0.05).结论:健康信念模式可提高教育的效率,对改善糖尿病患者的自护行为有促进作用.

  5. Emotion awareness and coping in children with functional abdominal pain: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, H H F; de Haan, Else; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Literature on somatization suggests that patients suffering from medically unexplained symptoms are less aware of their emotions and use maladaptive coping strategies when coping with everyday problems. In addition, coping is hypothesized to mediate between emotion awareness and medically unexplained symptoms. Scientific evidence for the relevance of this hypothesis for children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) is, however, lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis in Dutch children with functional abdominal pain (FAP), aged 7-18 years. Between April 2007 and April 2010, a total of 114 referred children with FAP, 235 schoolchildren without abdominal pain and 407 schoolchildren with some abdominal pain (AP) of diverse etiology filled out questionnaires concerning their pain, emotion awareness and coping. MANOVA was used to investigate group differences in emotional awareness and coping. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the mediational role of coping. The results showed that children with FAP scored significantly lower on most aspects of emotion awareness than children without AP, although these differences were small. Contrary to expectations, children with FAP were more aware of a link between emotions and bodily sensations than children without AP. As for coping, we found that children with FAP used avoidant coping more often than children without AP. Overall, children with FAP mostly did not differ in their emotional awareness and coping compared to children with some AP. Problem focused coping had a small mediating effect for two aspects of emotion awareness. We conclude that children with FAP show only small differences in emotion awareness and coping compared to children without AP, and are practically no different from children with some AP. Contrary to common belief, it can be questioned whether emotion awareness and general coping are useful targets for psychological treatments of FAP to

  6. The Formation of Rational and Irrational Behaviors in Risky Investment Decision Making: Laboratory Experiment of Coping Theory Implication in Investors’ Adaptation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the stock investor's rational and irrational behavior formation through Investor's Adaptation model. Hypotheses testings were conducted by manipulating four market conditions using between-subject experimental design. The results supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. When given treatment one (opportunity-high control, investors tended to adapt the profit maximizing strategy (rational. Meanwhile, when given treatment two (opportunity-low control, three (threat-high control and four (threat-low control, they tended to adapt the profit satisfying strategy (rational-emotional, bad news handling strategy (emotional-rational, and self-preserving strategy (irrational respectively. The application of rational strategies are intended to obtain personal benefits and profit, while adapting irrational strategy is intended to recover emotional stability and reduce some other tensions. Another finding showed that for the investors, the relatively irrational decision formation was "harder" than that of rational.

  7. Where Do the Cultural Differences in Dynamics of Controlling Parenting Lie? Adolescents as Active Agents in the Perception of and Coping with Parental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiwen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate about the universal or culture-specific role of controlling parenting in children’s and adolescents’ development. This study addressed the possibility of cultural variability in how controlling parenting practices are perceived and dealt with. Specifically, we examined Belgian ('N' = 341 and Chinese ('N' = 316 adolescents’ perceptions of and reactions towards a vignette depicting parental guilt-induction, relative to generally controlling and autonomy supportive vignettes. Whereas Belgian adolescents perceived guilt-induction to be as controlling as generally controlling parental behavior, Chinese adolescents’ perception of guilt-induction as controlling was more moderate. Belgian and Chinese adolescents also showed some similarities and differences in their responses to the feelings of need frustration following from the controlling practices, with compulsive compliance for instance being more common in Chinese adolescents. Discussion focuses on cross-cultural similarities and differences in dynamics of controlling parenting.

  8. Parenting difficulties and coping behaviors of mothers of premature infants discharged from NICU%NICU出院早产儿母亲的育儿困难与应对行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明芳; 藤本荣子

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)出院早产儿母亲育儿生活中的困难及应对行为.[方法]采用质性研究法,在早产儿出院后1周、1个月时分别利用面谈和电话访谈的方式对18名母亲进行深度访谈.[结果]母亲在早产儿出院后经历了困难的母乳喂养、哺乳不确定性的困惑、自我育儿能力低下的无措与自责、对早产儿常见症状的担心与不安、疲劳及育儿负担感、育儿信息所致的混乱等育儿困难及不安,母亲采取积极应对和消极逃避两种方式应对育儿过程中所遇到的困难.[结论]早产儿母亲在育儿过程中存在育儿困难,为提高早产儿母亲的育儿能力,探讨医院—社区—家庭一体化的连续性护理服务模式势在必行.%Objective:To know about the difficulties and coping behaviors of mothers of premature infants discharged from NICU during parenting life.Methods:The qualitative study method and personal interview and telephone interview styles were used for taking a depth interview on 18 mothers whose premature infants discharged from NICU respectively after a week and a month.Results:After preterm infants discharging mothers experienced the parenting difficulties and anxiety including difficulties of breastfeeding,confusion on breastfeeding uncertainty,flawless and remorse on low self-parenting skills,fears and uncertainty to common symptoms of premature infants,fatigue and parenting burden sense,confusion caused by parenting information.Mothers took the positive coping and negative escape to deal with the difficulties during the parenting process Conclusion:Preterm infants' mothers had difficulties during the parenting.In order to promote mothers' parenting skills,it is necessary to probe into the continuity of nursing service model with hospital-community family integration.

  9. Breast Cancer Cause Beliefs: Chinese, Korean, and Mexican American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Lim, Jung-Won; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Flores, Katrina F; Allen, Kristi M; Castañeda, Sheila F; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined causal attribution beliefs about breast cancer and the influence that these beliefs exert on health behavior change among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Focus groups with Chinese (n = 21), Korean (n = 11), and Mexican American (n = 9) BCS recruited through community- and hospital-based support groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Three themes concerning beliefs about breast cancer cause common to all three groups included (a) stress, (b) diet, and (c) fatalism. Causal beliefs corresponded to behavioral changes with women describing efforts to improve their diet and manage their stress. Ethnic minority BCS adhere to beliefs about what caused their cancer that influence their health behaviors. Providing quality health care to ethnically diverse cancer survivors requires cultural sensitivity to patients' beliefs about the causes of their cancer and awareness of how beliefs influence patients' health behaviors post diagnosis.

  10. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  11. Southeast Asian Health Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…

  12. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs.

  13. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs on Education and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertemiz, Nese; Okut, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The beliefs held by preservice teachers will affect their classroom perceptions and behaviors. Therefore, understanding these beliefs is necessary to better understand preservice teachers, manage educational reforms successfully, and improving their teaching practice. From another perspective, understanding the belief structures of preservice…

  14. 冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病患者的应对方式在自尊及其健康行为中的中介效应%The Mediating Effects of Coping Modes between Self-esteem and Health Behaviors among Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田茜; 范秀珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自尊对冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(简称冠心病)患者健康行为的影响以及应对方式的中介效应.方法 便利抽样法选取2010年11月至2011年3月在山东省某三级甲等医院心内科住院的140例冠心病患者,采用健康促进生活方式量表Ⅱ(health-promoting lifestyle profile Ⅱ,HPLP Ⅱ)、自尊量表(self-esteem scale,SES)及医学应对方式问卷(medical coping modes questionnaire,MCMQ)对患者进行问卷调查.结果 患者自尊量表的平均得分为(27.59±5.17)分,应对方式中面对、回避、屈服的平均得分分别为(19.40±5.48)、(17.49±2.28)、(10.78±4.51)分.健康行为量表平均得分为(124.48±31.03)分.冠心病患者自尊、健康行为、应对方式之间存在相关性.面对型应对方式在自尊与健康行为的关系中起到完全中介效应;回避型及屈服型应对方式则在其中起到部分中介效应,中介效应占总效应的比例分别为17.17%、63.72%,对健康行为的方差变异解释力分别为17.61%、41.47%.结论 对冠心病患者的健康行为干预可以提升患者自尊水平及改善患者的应对方式.%Objective To explore the influences of self-esteem on health behaviors of patients with (CHD) and the mediating effects of coping modes. Methods From November 2010 to March 2011,140 CHD inpa-tients from a Grade-Ⅲ Class-A Hospital in Shandong Province were investigated with health-promoting lifestyle profile Ⅱ ( HPLP Ⅱ ), self-esteem scale (SES),and medical coping modes questionnaire (MC MQ). Results The average score of SES was 27. 59±5. 17. The average score of coping modes of confrontation, avoidance and compromising were 9. 40± 5. 48,17. 49±2. 28 and 10. 78±4. 51, respectively. The averagescore of HELP Ⅱ was 124. 48±31. 03. There was a correlation between the coping modes of confrontation, avoidance and compromising. The confrontation coping mode totally mediated the influence of self-esteem on

  15. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed a significant shift in policy competences away from central governments in Europe. The reallocation of competences spans over three dimensions: upwards; sideways; and downwards. This collection takes the dispersion of powers as a starting point and seeks to assess...... how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research...

  16. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    for other nitrogen cycle related functions. Potential bioindicators for nitrogen fixation status, soil nitrification capacity and heat tolerance were also indicated. The following two manuscripts are addressing the soil microbial capacity to cope with longterm stresses by studying the effects of a century...... as bioindicators of copper contamination status and copper resistance. Knowing that a century of copper exposure resulted in structurally different transcriptionally active communities, MANUSCRIPT 4 addresses the potential legacy burden that this restructuration had in the soil microbial response to seasonal...

  17. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  18. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina I M Martins

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum.

  19. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  20. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  1. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  2. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  3. Mental health, belief deficit compensation, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, J F

    1987-09-01

    The present study examined the relationship between religious and nonreligious paranormal beliefs and mental health, as well as the possibility that nonreligious subjects compensate for a lack of identification with traditional religion by increased nonreligious paranormal beliefs. Subjects were 80 undergraduates categorized as religious or nonreligious on the basis of scores on the Traditional Religion subscale of the Paranormal Belief Scale. Religious subjects had significantly higher total paranormal belief scores than nonreligious subjects. Those adopting religious paranormal beliefs were actually somewhat more likely to adopt other nonreligious paranormal beliefs. The failure of nonreligious subjects to compensate fully for this traditional religious belief deficit was reflected in their mental health ratings on the Langer's Mental Health Scale (Langer, 1962). Paranormal beliefs were found to be negatively correlated with reported symptoms of psychopathology, supporting the formulation that paranormal beliefs may serve to ensure psychic integrity by acting as "self-serving cognitive biases."

  4. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkas C

    2016-08-01

    promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. Keywords: military, training, stress, recruits, coping, leadership

  5. Difficulties and coping strategies of Sudanese refugees: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G; White, Katherine M; Schweitzer, Robert; Greenslade, Jaimi

    2008-09-01

    A qualitative approach was used to interview 23 Sudanese refugees residing in Brisbane, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine the participants' pre-migration, transit and post-migration experiences. Refugees reported traumatic and life-threatening experiences during the pre-migration and transit phases, and difficulties with resettlement during the post-migration phase. Nevertheless, participants reported using a number of coping strategies across all phases, including: reliance on religious beliefs, cognitive strategies such as reframing the situation, relying on their inner resources, and focusing on future wishes and aspirations. Social support also emerged as a salient coping strategy. The findings are useful for mental health professionals as they highlight the difficulties experienced by refugees across phases of migration as well as strategies they use to manage these traumas and stresses.

  6. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  7. Spirituality: A Panacea for Patients Coping with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolian Shahrbabaki, Parvin; Nouhi, Esmat; Kazemi, Majid; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many patients with heart failure grapple with related problems that threaten their feeling of well-being and quality of life. Patients look for ways to cope with the new situation. The present study aimed to explore religious coping from the perspective of patients with heart failure Methods: This qualitative study used the content analysis of the semi-structured interviews. The data were collected from 18 participants referring to training hospitals in Kerman University of Medical Sciences in southeastern Iran. The data were analyzed using Lundman and Graneheim qualitative content analysis. Results: The main theme of “Spiritual coping, a dominant strategy” was extracted with two categories: 1- “religious belief” having the sub-categories of “inner faith” and “search of meaning” 2- “connection to God as the supreme power” with sub-categories of “seeking healing through supplication and rituals”, “worship as a barrier to the flood of problems”, and “submission to and trust in God”. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a spiritual strategy helps the patients effectively to cope with heart failure. Patients learn to use religious beliefs and faith to accept the reality of the disease and its stages and to manage their condition with patience, tolerance, and hope calmly and confidently for a bright future. PMID:28097177

  8. Spirituality: A Panacea for Patients Coping with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients with heart failure grapple with related problems that threaten their feeling of well-being and quality of life. Patients look for ways to cope with the new situation. The present study aimed to explore religious coping from the perspective of patients with heart failure Methods: This qualitative study used the content analysis of the semi-structured interviews. The data were collected from 18 participants referring to training hospitals in Kerman University of Medical Sciences in southeastern Iran. The data were analyzed using Lundman and Graneheim qualitative content analysis. Results: The main theme of “Spiritual coping, a dominant strategy” was extracted with two categories: 1- “religious belief” having the sub-categories of “inner faith” and “search of meaning” 2- “connection to God as the supreme power” with sub-categories of “seeking healing through supplication and rituals”, “worship as a barrier to the flood of problems”, and “submission to and trust in God”. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a spiritual strategy helps the patients effectively to cope with heart failure. Patients learn to use religious beliefs and faith to accept the reality of the disease and its stages and to manage their condition with patience, tolerance, and hope calmly and confidently for a bright future.

  9. [Coping with chronic somatic disease according to the concept of psychological stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniszewska, Joanna; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the problem of coping with chronic disease according to the concept of psychological stress. The Lazarus and Folkman theory in which stress is regarded as a relational concept, the importance of cognitive assessment and functions of coping with disease are described. The attention is paid to the illness perception and its impact on the behavioral and emotional processes. The most known tools for stress assessment and coping with stress and current research directions are shown.

  10. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Rössler, Hannes; Sekutowicz, Maria; Brandl, Eva J.; Müller, Daniel J.; Petrovic, Predrag; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity toward unfounded beliefs. One hundred two healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680, also known as val158met) that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioral experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity toward unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was statistically mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world. PMID:26483654

  11. A Case-based Study and Countermeasure Analysis on the Relationship between Senior English Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Teaching Behaviors%高中英语教师信念与课堂教学行为关系的个案研究及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳冉; 黄彩霞

    2016-01-01

    教师信念指引教师确定相应的教学目标及教学方法,并影响着教师的课堂教学行为。由于高中英语教师的教师信念有相似之处也有不同之处,使得教师选择的课堂教学行为也有所不同。通过个案研究发现,教师信念和课堂教学行为在较多方面通常表现较为一致,但二者在某些方面也存在脱节现象。构建良好的学校及社会环境,促进教师信念重构,以及不断推进教师个人职业发展将有助于实现教师信念与教学行为的协同适应。%Teachers' beliefs guide them to make clear their teaching objectives and methods, and also influence their class-room teaching behaviors. As senior English teachers' beliefs possess both similarities and differences, their classroom teach-ing behaviors are also different. Through a case-based study, it is found that teachers' beliefs are often consistent with classroom teaching behaviors in many aspects, but they are also discon-nected in some aspects. To realize the collaboration and adapta-tion between teachers' beliefs and teaching behaviors, we should establish a good school and social environment, promote teach-ers' belief re-construction, and continuously promote teachers' personal professional development.

  12. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  13. A study of professional values,coping strategy and clinical practice behavior among undergraduate student nurses and correlations between these factors%护理本科生职业价值观、应对方式与临床实践行为的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆欣; 郭闯; 王东梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对某医学院校护理本科生实习第一个月的职业价值观、应对方式、临床实践行为的调查,了解其现状,分析人口统计学变量对临床实践行为的影响,明确三者之间的关系.方法:采取整群抽样的方法,对在该校附属第一医院实习的75名2006级护理本科生进行职业价值观、应对方式、临床实践行为的问卷调查.结果:①护理本科生职业价值观得分为(3.46±0.58)分;积极应对方式得分为(2.19±0.50)分,消极应对方式得分为(1.59±0.88)分;临床实践行为得分为(2.93±0.77)分.②职业价值观、积极应对方式、入学第一志愿是否是护理专业、是否热爱护理专业为临床实践行为的影响因素(P<0.05).③临床实践行为与职业价值观、积极应对方式呈正相关(r=0.35,P<0.01),与消极应对方式呈负相关.结论:职业价值观影响应对方式,应对方式与临床实践行为密切相关.%Objective: To understand undergraduate nursing students' professional values, coping ways and clinical practice behavior during their first month of clinical practice, in order to explore the influencing variables associated to their clinical practice behaviors and the relationships betweene factors. Methods: A questionnaire survey was adopted in this study which involved 75 undergraduate nursing students. Results: ① The score of professional values of nursing undergraduate was (3.46±0.58), positive respond to the way was (2.19±0.50), negative coping way was (1.59±0.88), and clinical practice behavior was (2.93±0.77); ②Factors associated to the behavior of undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice are professional values, active coping approach, nursing profession as their first career choice, their passion to nursing profession (P<0.05). ③ professional values, active coping style were positively related to clinical practice behavior, and negative coping style was negatively rrelated to clinical

  14. The Relationship between Irrational Beliefs and Foreign Language Anxiety among Jordanian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Rahman H. Abu-Melhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety among a sample of (118 undergraduate students at Ajloun National University in Jordan. To achieve the purpose of the study, two scales were used: An irrational scale and an Arabic version of Horwitz and Cope's foreign language anxiety scale. The correlation descriptive method was used for data analysis. The results showed that there is statistically significant correlation between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety. Significant differences were found in the strength of relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety according to gender in favor of meals. No Significant differences were found in the strength of relationship between irrational beliefs and foreign language anxiety due to academic level. Keywords: Anxiety, Irrational Beliefs, Foreign Language Anxiety, University Students

  15. The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

    2013-01-01

    Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

  16. Mental Health Literacy and Eating-Disordered Behavior: Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Concerning the Treatment of and Treatment-Seeking for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J. M.; Marks, P.; Hay, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Kelly, C.; Owen, C.; Paxton, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the "mental health literacy" of adolescents concerning eating-disordered behavior. A vignette describing a fictional 16-year old female meeting diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa was presented to 522 female high school students, followed by a series of questions concerning treatment of and treatment-seeking…

  17. The Myth of the Alpha Male: A New Look at Dominance-Related Beliefs and Behaviors among Adolescent Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Card, Noel A.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary and biological approaches tend to suggest that social dominance is predominately an aspect of male social organization. Furthermore, when females behave non-normatively, they are less positively evaluated than males engaging in the same behavior. Alternate, less familiar models of females and dominance/aggression underlie the present…

  18. Surveying Indian gay men for coping skills and HIV testing patterns using the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Jethwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveying vulnerable and incarcerated populations is often challenging. Newer methods to reach and collect sensitive information in a safe, secure, and valid manner can go a long way in addressing this unmet need. Homosexual men in India live with inadequate social support, marginalization, and lack legal recognition. These make them less reachable by public health agencies, and make them more likely to continue with high-risk behaviors, and contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Aims: To understand coping skills and HIV testing patterns of homosexual men versus heterosexual men. Materials and Methods: An internet based study using a secure web platform and an anonymised questionnaire. The brief COPE Inventory was used to assess coping styles. Results: A total of 124 respondents were studied. Homosexual men used negative coping skills such as behavioral disengagement and tested for HIV significantly more often than heterosexual men. Heterosexual respondents used positive coping skills more often. The most commonly used coping skill by heterosexual men was instrumental coping and by homosexual men was acceptance. Discussion: Overall, homosexual men used negative coping mechanisms, like behavioral disengagement more often. The Indian family structure and social support is probably responsible for heterosexual men′s over-reliance on instrumental coping, while resulting in disengagement in homosexuals. Conclusion: The lack of legal and social recognition of homosexuality has negatively impacted lives of gay men in India. This is strongly linked to harmful psychological and public health implications for HIV prevention and mental health for homosexual men.

  19. Using spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy in substance dependence treatment: therapists' and clients' perceptions of the presumed benefits and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Lietz, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been modified to incorporate clients' spiritual beliefs and practices has been used to treat a variety of problems. This study examines the utility of this modality with the treatment of alcohol dependence and other forms of substance abuse. Toward this end, six focus groups (three therapist groups and three client groups) were conducted to identify the presumed benefits and limitations of using spiritually modified CBT in substance dependence treatment. In terms of benefits, spiritually modified CBT was perceived to enhance outcomes through operationalizing horizontal and vertical sources of social support, divine coping resources, and spiritual motivation. Potential challenges include the risk of therapists inadvertently imposing their own beliefs during the modification process and the possibility of offending clients when conflicts in belief systems emerge, particularly in group setting. The article concludes by providing suggestions for incorporating spiritually modified CBT into treatment and develops a number of illustrative examples of spiritually modified CBT self-statements.

  20. Presleep thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs in subjects of insomnia with or without depression: Implications for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presleep thoughts may vary between patients of insomnia with or without depression. They are important for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), but they have never been systemically examined in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Patients with insomnia (>1 month) who were willing to undergo CBT-I were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. They were requested to fill a sleep diary and return after 15 days. At the time of intake, diagnosis of dep...

  1. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  2. Dimensions of children's health beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T E; Leech, S L; Becker, M H; Rosenstock, I M; Horvath, W J; Radius, S M

    1980-01-01

    Health beliefs interviews were conducted with 250 children aged 6-17 years. A factor analysis of the items resulted in six correlated factors which were interpreted as 1) specific health concerns, 2) general health concerns, 3) perceived parental concern, 4) perceived general susceptibility, 5) perceived susceptibility to specific conditions, and 6) perceived seriousness of and susceptibility to disease. Factor scores were computed and two-way analyses of variance (by age and sex of child) were conducted on six sets of factor scores. No significant sex differences or sex by age interaction effects were noted. Younger children scored significantly higher on "specific health concerns" and "perceived general susceptibility," while older children scored significantly higher on "perceived parental concern." Tests of differences among variances showed a tendency for the variability to be greater among younger children. The results are interpreted as providing partial support for a model of children's health beliefs and as a basis for further operationalization of concepts which are central to an understanding of motivated health behavior. Implications for practice are discussed.

  3. Belief functions on lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We extend the notion of belief function to the case where the underlying structure is no more the Boolean lattice of subsets of some universal set, but any lattice, which we will endow with a minimal set of properties according to our needs. We show that all classical constructions and definitions (e.g., mass allocation, commonality function, plausibility functions, necessity measures with nested focal elements, possibility distributions, Dempster rule of combination, decomposition w.r.t. simple support functions, etc.) remain valid in this general setting. Moreover, our proof of decomposition of belief functions into simple support functions is much simpler and general than the original one by Shafer.

  4. Physical educators' beliefs about teaching children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrusnikova, Iva

    2008-04-01

    The primary purpose was to extend Rizzo's research and identify the variables which contribute significantly to physical educators' positive beliefs about teaching children with disabilities. The second purpose was to structure physical educators' beliefs by conditions of disability. Participants were a stratified random sample of 168 physical educators, 79 men and 89 women from eastern USA. Responses to Rizzo's Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III indicated that teachers' beliefs were generally positive but varied by type of disability. Beliefs were more positive about teaching children with specific learning disabilities and less positive about teaching children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Significant predictors of positive beliefs were perceived competence, positive teaching experience with children with disabilities, and course work in adapted physical education. The study has important implications for programs of preparing students to teach.

  5. Agentic personality characteristics and coping: their relation to trait anxiety in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Ingrid K; Robitschek, Christine

    2011-04-01

    Anxiety and its disorders, often present before adulthood, have high personal and societal costs for men and women. This study tested a mediation model in which 3 forms of coping mediate the relation of 3 agentic personality characteristics (i.e., traits associated with the belief that people can effectively exercise control over their lives) to lower levels of anxiety within 1 subgroup of young adults (i.e., college students). The agentic personality characteristics were (a) hardiness, (b) personal growth initiative, and (c) coping self-efficacy. The forms of dispositional coping were (a) problem-focused, (b) emotion-focused, and (c) avoidant. Results suggest that agentic personality characteristics differentially relate to forms of coping and trait anxiety. In addition, coping appears to fully mediate the relations of the personality characteristics to anxiety. The results imply that agentic personality characteristics and coping are important in decreasing and/or protecting against anxiety, in part because of how they relate to forms of coping, and suggest the need for more research.

  6. Financial Adaptation among College Students: Helping Students Cope with Financial Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Xiao, Jing Jian; Tang, Chuanyi; Card, Noel A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the recent financial crisis on co-occurring patterns of change in financial strain and financial coping behaviors of college students (N = 748) using two-timed, longitudinal data collected prior to the 2008 financial crisis and again one year later. Using a stress and coping framework, we found that different…

  7. There Is No Shame in Pain: Coping and Functional Ability in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. Renee

    1999-01-01

    Discusses coping and personal adjustment to chronic pain for adolescents with sickle cell anemia and presents a model of illness behavior for these adolescents. Offers a framework of disease severity and disease impact, and suggests using functional ability as an index of coping and personal adjustment. Contains 59 references. (SLD)

  8. A Model of Maternal Coping with Childbirth: Implications for Research and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joanne

    A conceptual model of the childbirth experience is developed which emphasizes: (1) maternal coping during labor and delivery; (2) postpartum evaluation of the experience; (3) stress and coping; (4) health and illness behavior; (5) interactions between individual physiological and psychological characteristics; and (6) physical and social…

  9. Effects of housing and individual coping characteristics in immune responses of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Parmentier, H.K.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of environmental factors on immune responses may be influenced by coping characteristics of the individuals under study. The behavioral response of pigs in a so-called Backrest early in life seems indicative of their coping style at a later age. The present study investigated the effects

  10. Coping Behaviour of Disabled Persons and Their Families: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from Norway and Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingstad, Benedicte

    1988-01-01

    A model is presented for analyzing the influence of culture on the coping behavior of families with disabled children, using examples from families in Norway and Botswana. The model considers culture's impact on the process of coping through emotional patterning, expectations of life and future, life experiences, and actual opportunities. (JDD)

  11. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  12. Coping with Interpersonal Stress and Psychosocial Health among Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T.

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between active coping and psychosocial health among youth. Results from 40 studies of coping with interpersonal stress were synthesized using a random-effects model. Four areas of psychosocial functioning were examined: externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, social competence, and academic…

  13. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981) and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994), the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not) with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interv...

  14. Investigating racial differences in coping with chronic osteoarthritis pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alvin C; Kwoh, C Kent; Groeneveld, P W; Mor, Maria; Geng, Ming; Ibrahim, Said A

    2008-12-01

    Osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease in older patients of all racial groups, and it is known to cause significant pain and functional disability. Racial differences in how patients cope with the chronic pain of knee or hip osteoarthritis may have implications for utilization of treatment modalities such as joint replacement. Therefore, we examined the relationships between patient race and pain coping strategies (diverting attention, reinterpreting pain, catastrophizing, ignoring sensations, hoping and praying, coping self-statements, and increasing behavior activities) for hip and knee osteoarthritis. This is a cross-sectional survey of 939 veterans 50 to 79 years old with chronic hip or knee osteoarthritis pain recruited from VA primary care clinics in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Patients had to have moderate to severe hip or knee osteoarthritis symptoms as measured by the WOMAC index. Standard, validated instruments were used to obtain information on attitudes and use of prayer, pain coping strategies, and arthritis self-efficacy. Analysis included separate multivariable models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Attitudes on prayer differed, with African Americans being more likely to perceive prayer as helpful (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.35 to 4.86) and to have tried prayer (adjusted OR = 2.28, 95% 1.66 to 3.13) to manage their osteoarthritis pain. Upon evaluating the coping strategies, we found that, compared to whites, African Americans had greater use of the hoping and praying method (beta = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99). Race was not associated with arthritis pain self-efficacy, arthritis function self-efficacy, or any other coping strategies. This increased use of the hoping and praying coping strategy by African Americans may play a role in the decreased utilization of total joint arthroplasty among African Americans compared to whites. Further investigation of the role this coping strategy has on the decision making process for

  15. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  16. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  17. Attitudes and normative beliefs of nursing students as predictors of intended care behaviors with AIDS patients: a test of the Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D; Laschinger, H

    1991-03-01

    Few investigators have studied nurses' or nursing students' responses to caring for AIDS patients. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action in a student nurse population about AIDS patient care. This theory offers an approach to explaining individuals' intentions to engage in certain behaviors as determined by two components: attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. Forty-six second-year baccalaureate nursing students completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (alpha reliability range was .69-.85) prior to and following an instructional unit on caring for AIDS patients. Consistent with the theory, students' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for AIDS patients in their clinical experience (R2 = .29, F[1, 43] = 6.63, p less than .003). In addition, qualitative data resembled those in previous reports of fear of contagion among health professionals. The effects of the instructional unit about caring for AIDS patients resulted in significant changes in both attitudes and subjective norms.

  18. Probabilistic dynamic belief revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the discrete (finite) case of the Popper-Renyi theory of conditional probability, introducing discrete conditional probabilistic models for knowledge and conditional belief, and comparing them with the more standard plausibility models. We also consider a related notion, that of safe

  19. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital and the...

  20. 论新媒体视阈下高校青年教师理想信念教育的困境及应对策略%The dilemma and the coping strategies of ideal and belief education of young teachers in colleges from the perspective of new media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟萍; 肖利才

    2013-01-01

    文章阐述了新媒体及其特点,分析了新媒体视野下青年教师理想信念教育的隐忧,提出了新媒体视阈下高校青年教师理想信念教育的应对策略。重点强调:以新媒体环境下的引导理念为导向,落实“以人为本”的理想信念教育理念;有效驾驭新媒体,引导舆情传播科学的理想信念;提升理想信念教育工作者新媒体素养,是增强理想信念教育实效性的必备条件。%This paper describes the new media and its characteristics, analyzes the problems of young teachers' ideal and faith education from the perspective of new media, put forward the strategy of ideal and belief education of young teachers in colleges and universities from the perspective of new media. Emphasis:with the new media environment under the guidance of philosophy as a guidance, the implementation of"the ideal faith education idea";effectively controlling the new media to guide public opinion of ideal and belief propagation science;enhancing the education of ideal and belief of new media literacy educators, is a necessary condition for the effectiveness of ideal and faith education enhancement.

  1. The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Briana L; Exline, Julie Juola

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature depicts a complex picture of the role that continuing bonds play in coping with bereavement, with contradictory findings emerging across studies. This article presents an overview of continuing bonds research and highlights several areas ripe for exploration. First, definitional issues are identified. Second, three paths for clarification are presented: the bereaved's perception of the bond as positive or negative, the quality of the predeath relationship, and the bereaved's afterlife beliefs. Through refining the definition and exploring these potential avenues of research, we hope to clarify the roles that continuing bonds may play in coping with bereavement.

  2. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  3. Nursing and Coping With Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Laal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress could be defined simply as the rate of wear and tear on the body systems caused by life. Stress at work is a big problem. Working in the profession of nursing is a demanding and often stressful occupation. Thus, nurses’ health could be affected by stress dangerous consequences. Coping strategies are key elements of nurses' stress reactions. Coping strategy as a stabilizing factor may be as important as the stressful event itself. Purpose: To determine how and how much nursing staff cope with the stressful events and to find out the relationships between job coping and health outcomes in the study population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included one hundred nursing staff working in two hospitals (Tohid and Besat of Sanandaj City (Kurdistan, Iran. They completed the questionnaires containing coping strategies based on the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (A-COPE, in the year of 2006. We examined the relationships between age, gender, position, tenure state, marriage state, job experience, work shift and place (environment to application of coping methods. Analysis was done using SPSS 18. Statistical significance was set at P ≤0.05.Results: Out of one hundred nurses of all grades included in this study, fifty-seven were female (57%, 60(% were between 30-39 years old and 50(% were single. There was no significant difference between junior and senior staff in applying positive methods (p=0.666 or negative responses to cope with stress (p=0.195.The majority of nurses 55(% had job experience of 5-10 years, 40(% worked in the evening and night shift and 54(% were in Tohid hospital. Generally in our study, the rate of application positive methods of coping was good 19%, medium 51% and weak 30%. Negative responses to stress were high 49%, medium 29% and low 22%. There were significant associations between: age, tenure state, work place and job experience with positive coping as follow; (p

  4. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping...... and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive...

  5. Beliefs about chelation among thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachtenberg Felicia L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding patients’ views about medication is crucial to maximize adherence. Thalassemia is a congenital blood disorder requiring chronic blood transfusions and daily iron chelation therapy. Methods The Beliefs in Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ was used to assess beliefs in chelation in thalassemia patients from North America and London in the Thalassemia Longitudinal Cohort (TLC of the Thalassemia Clinical Research Network (TCRN. Chelation adherence was based on patient report of doses administered out of those prescribed in the last four weeks. Results Of 371 patients (ages 5-58y, mean 24y, 93% were transfused and 92% receiving chelation (26% deferoxamine (DFO; a slow subcutaneous infusion via portable pump, 63% oral, 11% combination. Patients expressed high “necessity” for transfusion (96%, DFO chelation (92% and oral chelation (89%, with lower “concern” about treatment (48%, 39%, 19% respectively. Concern about oral chelation was significantly lower than that of DFO (p Conclusions Despite their requirement for multimodal therapy, thalassemia patients have positive views about medicine, more so than in other disease populations. Patients may benefit from education about the tolerability of chelation and strategies to effectively cope with side effects, both of which might be beneficial in lowering body iron burden. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00661804

  6. Effective coping with stroke disability in a community setting: the development of a causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton De Sepulveda, L I; Chang, B

    1994-08-01

    A proposed causal model based upon Lazarus' theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a sample of 75 persons disabled by stroke. Coping constraints such as demographic and stroke factors were hypothesized to affect resources (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, social contact), stress appraisal, coping behavior and coping effectiveness. Although the model did not fit the data, several path coefficients within the model were statistically significant. Functional status was positively related to resources and negatively related to the stressor. Resources were negatively related to the stressor and positively related to coping effectiveness. It was noted that the buffering effect of social support was related to the level of disability of the stroke person. Persons with functional disability following stroke also had decreased social contact, perceived less availability of social resources and increased threat to physical well-being, and had reduced coping effectiveness.

  7. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.

  8. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  9. Coping with Pain in the Face of Healthcare Injustice in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Mandernach, Molly W; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-05-23

    To evaluate the pain coping strategies of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who experience healthcare injustice from either physicians or nurses during medical visits for pain management. It is unknown how patients' coping with pain relates to their experiences of healthcare injustice from physicians or nurses. This descriptive comparative study included adult outpatients with SCD who completed the PAINReportIt(®), Healthcare Justice Questionnaire(©), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-SCD. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare justice from physicians were praying-hoping and from nurses were praying-hoping, calming self-statements, diverting attention, and increasing behavioral activity. In contrast, frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare injustice from physicians were catastrophizing and isolation and from nurses were isolation. Patients who experienced healthcare justice used different sets of pain coping strategies than those who experienced healthcare injustice during medical visits for pain management.

  10. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  11. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-01-06

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group.

  12. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  13. Wellness and Coping Activities of African American Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.

    1997-01-01

    Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…

  14. Coping with Career Indecision: Differences between Four Career Choice Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hak

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of Gianakos' [1999. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 244-258] typology of career choice--stable, conventional, multiple-trial and unstable--to emotional coping with career indecision. Three hundred-twenty (Men = 203, Women = 117) Korean undergraduates were classified into Gianakos' four career choice types.…

  15. Teachers' High Maintenance Behaviour as Perceived by University Students in Taiwan, and Their Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Cheng, Kuang-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    Using a questionnaire survey, this study probed into interpersonal cues and characteristics of teachers' high maintenance behaviors perceived by university students and their coping strategies, and then analyzed the relationship between their perceived high maintenance behaviors and the dimensions of their coping strategies. The Scale of…

  16. Malawian secondary students' beliefs about intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D; Rakes, Lee; Landon, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Students who view intelligence as malleable tend to be more academically motivated and perform at higher levels than students who view it as a fixed trait. We examined the beliefs of students from Malawi because the culture and schooling process in this country is very different from some other areas of the world in which students' views of intelligence have already been studied. Our research questions were: (1) How do Malawian students define intelligence? (2) To what extent do Malawian students view intelligence as malleable? (3) Are Malawian students' definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence similar to those of students in more developed countries? We conducted a mixed methods study and surveyed 136 students attending a secondary school in Malawi using a 39-item questionnaire. Students responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and closed-ended items. Our results showed that Malawian students believe that an intelligent student exhibits a variety of behaviors, including studying, working hard, reading, performing well on exams and in class, answering and asking questions, paying attention, and demonstrating good behavior. Most students believe that intelligence is malleable and provided responses that indicated that students can become more intelligent through effort. When compared to the findings of other studies, the present results suggest that the Malawian students who remain in secondary school have definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence that are similar to those of students in more developed countries, such as the US and Germany. In fact, it appears that Malawian secondary students have even higher malleable beliefs than American and German students. Finally, some of the measures that have been found to produce scores that are reliable and valid in other populations do not produce scores that are as reliable when used with Malawian students.

  17. Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DERONGCERINGDENZHCB

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: Traditional Tibetan culture contains a conscious awareness of environmental protection. It advocates balance between human beings and the natural environment, protection of the ecosystem,treasuring resources, and consideration of the benefits that should be left for future generations. In Tibetan history, the goal of environmental protection was achieved by means of traditional customs, moral obligations, religious beliefs and taboos, associated with unwritten routines of environmental protection to regulate people's behavior through self-conscious effort.

  18. Cognitive neuropsychiatry and delusional belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max

    2007-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a new field of cognitive psychology which seeks to learn more about the normal operation of high-level aspects of cognition such as belief formation, reasoning, decision making, theory of mind, and pragmatics by studying people in whom such processes are abnormal. So far, the high-level cognitive process most widely studied in cognitive neuropsychiatry has been belief formation, investigated by examining people with delusional beliefs. This paper describes some of the forms of delusional belief that have been examined from this perspective and offers a general two-deficit cognitive-neuropsychiatric account of delusional belief.

  19. Dialectical behavior therapy with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents diagnosed with substance use disorders: combining an evidence based treatment with cultural, traditional, and spiritual beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, D Joel; Lambert, Michael J; DuBose, Anthony P; Linehan, Marsha

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study examined pre to post-change of patients in a substance use residential treatment center that incorporated Dialectical Behavior Therapy with specific cultural, traditional and spiritual practices for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents. Specifically, the incorporation of cultural, spiritual and traditional practices was done while still maintaining fidelity to the evidence based treatment (DBT). 229 adolescents participated in the study and were given the Youth Outcome Questionnaire-Self-Report version at pre-treatment and post-treatment and the total scores were compared. The results of the research study showed that 96% of adolescents were either "recovered" or "improved" using clinical significant change criteria. Additionally, differences between the group's pre-test scores and post-test scores were statistically significant using a matched standard T-test comparison. Finally, the effect size that was calculated using Cohen's criteria was found to be large. The results are discussed in terms of the implication for integrating western and traditional based methods of care in addressing substance use disorders and other mental health disorders with American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents.

  20. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-07-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This investigation focused on testing this model with mothers in sports, music, math, and reading over a 12-year period. Data were drawn from mother, youth, and teacher questionnaires collected as part of Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723). Mothers' beliefs in sports, music, and math positively predicted their behaviors in these areas 1 year later, which predicted youths' self-concepts of ability and values (i.e., their motivational beliefs) in these domains 1 year later. Adolescents' motivational beliefs predicted time spent in organized sport activities, playing music, and reading after school measured 4 years later as well as the number of math courses taken in high school. Furthermore, except in reading, mothers' behaviors mediated the relations between mothers' and youths' beliefs, and youths' beliefs mediated the relations between mothers' behaviors and youths' behaviors. Although there were mean-level differences in several indicators based on child gender, in most cases the relations among these indicators did not significantly vary by child gender. This study highlights the processes by which mothers' beliefs during their children's childhood can predict children's activities in adolescence.

  1. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981 and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994, the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews from fourteen international ballet dancers were used adopting an idiographic approach through interpretative phenomenological analysis and tenets of grounded theory methodology. The results identified a main theme "Coping strategies: Coping within & without" and eight sub-categories: Denial, alienation, indecision, severance, acceptance, letting go, renegotiation and reconstruction. The individual can experience different responses, which trigger different coping processes and subsequently different types of support are sought. Finally the paper briefly discusses some of the implications for future career development and career guidance. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100210

  2. 3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为之间的关系:动机的调节作用%False-belief and White Lie-telling Behavior in Children Aged 3-6: Moderating Role of Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 刘秀丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为、动机的关系.方法:采用故事情境与真实情境两种实验方法对辽宁省沈阳市3所幼儿园的240名儿童进行了研究.结果:①儿童对错误信念的理解随年龄的增长而逐渐提高,其年龄差异显著,性别差异不显著.②儿童总体白谎行为、亲社会白谎行为随年龄的增长而逐渐增多,不存在显著的年龄差异与性别差异.③儿童错误信念与白谎行为具有显著正相关,亲社会动机在两者关系中起调节作用.结论:3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为的关系在某种程度上受动机的影响.%Objective:To explore the relationship between false-belief and white lie-telling behavior and motivation in children aged 3-6.Methods:240 Kindergarten children from Sheyang,Liaoning Province were measured by two experiments based on story and real-life situations.Results:①While there was no gender differences,children' s false-belief understanding increased with age.②With the growth of age,children' s overall white-lie telling behavior,pro-social whitelie telling behavior were both increased gradually,although there were no significant differences in different age groups.③ Children's false-belief was positively correlated with white-lie telling behavior,moreover,pro-social motivation served as a moderating role between false-belief and white-lie telling behaviors.Conclusion:Relationship between false-belief and white-lie telling behavior is modulated by motivation in children aged 3-6.

  3. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    Faith and hope in divine healing figure in most religious traditions. This chapter looks at faith in healing miracles and explores how following that faith may involve both risks and advantages. On the one hand, it may imply a risk by camouflaging a deferring attitude as when patients decline...... medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up....... Against the backdrop of such considerations, the chapter provides recommendations for health professionals and relatives as how to handle patient belief in miracles in practice....

  4. A Multi-Dimensional Exploration of Teachers' Beliefs about Civic Education in Australia, England, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Kevin; Barber, Carolyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs influence their behaviors in classrooms and their organization of classes, each of which can greatly impact student learning. This study focuses on four categories of teachers' beliefs--beliefs about subject, about learners and learning, about teaching, and about self-efficacy--and their potential to shape civic education. More…

  5. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  6. Coping with Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Wagner, Erica L.

    2015-01-01

    , when interacting in a reinforcing manner, elicit a single class of emotions (uniform affective responses) and, when interacting in an oppositional manner, elicit mixed emotions (ambivalent affective responses). While users respond to uniform emotions with clear adaptation strategies, they deal...... with ambivalent emotions by combining different adaptation behaviors, a vacillating strategy between emphasizing positive and negative aspects of the stimulus. Surprisingly, these ambivalent emotions and vacillating strategies can lead to active and positive user engagement, exhibited in task and tool adaptation...... behaviors and improvisational use patterns that, despite their nonconformity to terms of use, can have positive organizational implications....

  7. Coping and mental health outcomes among Sierra Leonean war-affected youth: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2017-02-01

    This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.

  8. Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: Scale Construction and Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.

    2006-01-01

    The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…

  9. Coping with Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Newell, Sue; Wagner, Erica L.;

    2015-01-01

    with ambivalent emotions by combining different adaptation behaviors, a vacillating strategy between emphasizing positive and negative aspects of the stimulus. Surprisingly, these ambivalent emotions and vacillating strategies can lead to active and positive user engagement, exhibited in task and tool adaptation...

  10. Coping with Continual Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Betha

    2010-01-01

    In the face of seismic shifts in technology and social organization, librarians and library staff face changing roles. A focus on competencies--the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that are involved in a job--can help the library profession keep its footing as well as help librarians stick to values. When well done, they can define a…

  11. Dating violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Taiwanese college students: the roles of cultural beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2014-03-01

    This study has examined the effects that young adults' experience of dating-violence victimization can have on their manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study has also examined the possible roles that cultural beliefs can play in dating-violence experience, coping choices, and PTSD symptoms. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a nationally stratified random sample of 1,018 college students in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that college students who had experienced dating-violence victimization reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than those who had not. The results reveal that psychological-violence victimization and cultural beliefs have direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms via the mediation of young adults' use of emotion-focused coping strategies. Greater frequencies of psychological-violence victimization were associated with a greater use of emotion-focused coping, which was in turn associated with increases in PTSD symptoms. This study illustrates that traditional Chinese beliefs have played significant roles in exacerbating the risk for dating violence and PTSD, and in shaping victims' coping choices with dating violence.

  12. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato ePisanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Questionnaire data from 1479 nurses (65% response were analyzed. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the direct and moderating role of OCSE in conjunction with job demands (i.e., time pressure, and two job resources: job control (i.e., decision latitude and skill discretion and social support (i.e., supervisor support and coworker support in predicting psychological distress and well-being.Results: Our findings indicated that high demands, low job control and low social support additively predicted the distress/well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, psychological distress, and somatic complaints. Beyond the main effects, no significant interactive effects of demands, control, and support were found. Occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE accounted for an additional 1% to 4% of the variance in the outcomes, after controlling for the JDCS variables. In addition, the results indicate that occupational coping self-efficacy buffers the association between low job control and the distress dimensions emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. Low control was detrimental only for nurses with low occupational coping self-efficacy.Conclusion: Our results suggest expanding the JDCS model incorporating individual characteristics such as occupational coping self-efficacy beliefs, for predicting psychological distress and well-being. Limitations of the study and practical implications

  13. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose.

  14. Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...... the knowledge modality, and similarly for the logic of degrees of belief and the logic of safe belief. With respect to these logics, plausibility models may contain too much information. A proper notion of bisimulation is required that characterises them. We define that notion of bisimulation and prove...... the required characterisations: on the class of image-finite and preimage-finite models (with respect to the plausibility relation), two pointed Kripke models are modally equivalent in either of the three logics, if and only if they are bisimilar. As a result, the information content of such a model can...

  15. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  16. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Aazami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  17. Hostile climate, abusive supervision, and employee coping: does conscientiousness matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawritz, Mary B; Dust, Scott B; Resick, Christian J

    2014-07-01

    The current study draws on the transactional theory of stress to propose that employees cope with hostile work environments by engaging in emotion-based coping in the forms of organization-directed deviance and psychological withdrawal. Specifically, we propose that supervisors' hostile organizational climate perceptions act as distal environmental stressors that are partially transmitted through supervisors' abusive actions and that conscientiousness moderates the proposed effects. First, we hypothesize that supervisor conscientiousness has a buffering effect by decreasing the likelihood of abusive supervision. Second, we hypothesize that highly conscientious employees cope differently from less conscientious employees. Among a sample of employees and their immediate supervisors, results indicated that while hostile climate perceptions provide a breeding ground for destructive behaviors, conscientious individuals are less likely to respond to perceived hostility with hostile acts. As supervisor conscientious levels increased, supervisors were less likely to engage in abusive supervision, which buffered employees from the negative effects of hostile climate perceptions. However, when working for less conscientious supervisors, employees experienced the effects of perceived hostile climates indirectly through abusive supervision. In turn, less conscientious employees tended to cope with the stress of hostile environments transmitted through abusive supervision by engaging in acts of organization-directed deviance. At the same time, all employees, regardless of their levels of conscientiousness, tended to cope with their hostile environments by psychologically withdrawing. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Psychotherapeutic Methods of Coping with Stress in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol TURAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an inevitable part of life. Knowing the ways of coping with stress are necessary to preserve our mental and physical health and to maintain good social and/or occupational func-tioning in daily life activities. Different ways of coping with stress have been developed throughout history. Various type of therapies offer quite effective remedies for coping with stress in everyday life. Among psychotherapeutic treatments cognitive behavioral therapy which involves teaching stressful individuals to develop coping strategies have yielded very promising results. It is helpful to determine first whether stress source can be changed, several therapeutic approaches may then be used. Lazarus and Folkman have identified two major approaches for coping with stress so-called “problem-focused” and “emotion-focused”. In “problem-focused” approaches targets are acquiring time management, self-monitoring, prob-lem-solving skills, while in “emotion-focused” approaches, through ways of accepting or re-jecting of stress associated negative emotions, or reconciling with these emotions, the target is learning how to keep emotions under control. “Problem-focused” and “emotion-focused” approaches may independently be used effectively in appropriate cases, their simultaneous practice may increase chances of successful treatment. Apart from these methods, psychody-namic therapy may be indicated in some cases

  19. Stress coping mechanisms in patients with chronic dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korabel, Hanna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results of numerous studies of today confirm that persons suffering from psychosomatic disorders are not able to effectively cope with stress. The experience of stress is also frequently combined with the occurrence or aggravation of various skin diseases. The goal of our study was to identify the predominantways of coping with stress in the group of patients with chronic dermatoses.Methods. The group under study included patients receiving treatment in the Dermatology Clinic of Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University. They were either hospitalized patients or those who came for control examinations at the Outpatient Clinic. Evaluation of the forms of coping with stress was conducted with the help of the Endler and Parker Questionnaire – CISS.Results. They significantly more often apply the style of coping focused on avoiding (p-value= 0.0056. It also turned out that the patients in the dermatological groups manifested a constant tendency to get involved in vicarious activities (p-value=0.0247.Discussion. The results of the presented study indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the patients with dermatological disorders and those in the control group as regards their ways of coping with stress.Conclusion. The results obtained in the discussed study may be a starting point for designing a complex support for the patients with skin diseases. The therapeutic technique that may prove helpful for this group of patients is the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CTB.

  20. Analyzing Sexual Health-Related Beliefs Among Couples in Marriage Based on the Health Belief Model

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    Majid Barati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual health is the integrity between mind, emotions, and body, and any disorder leading to discoordination, can be associated with sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward sexual health based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 400 couples referring to marriage counseling centers of Hamadan recruited with a random sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and health belief model constructs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-16 software, by Pearson’s coefficient correlation, independent T-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: Couples had a moderate knowledge of sexual health. In addition, perceived susceptibility and severity of the consequences of unsafe sexual behavior among couples were not satisfactory however, perceived benefits and barriers were reported in a relatively good level. Internet and friends were the most important sources for sexual health information. Conclusion: Promoting knowledge and beliefs toward sexual health by preparing training packages based on the needs of couples and removing obstacles to have normal sexual behavior are necessary.