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Sample records for beliefs coping behaviors

  1. Coping style, health beliefs, and breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, C R; Houfek, J F; Foxall, M J

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of coping style in women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE). The framework was adapted from the Cognitive Transactional Model of Stress and Coping and the Health Belief Model. The convenience sample consisted of 269 women recruited from an employee list of a medical center and a membership list of a professional nurses' group. Survey booklets were distributed via interdepartmental or U.S. mail and contained measures of trait anxiety and defensiveness and questions related to health beliefs, BSE practice, and demographics. The sample was categorized by coping style (i.e., repressive, true high anxious, defensive high anxious, or true low anxious), and data were analyzed via MANOVAs, ANOVAs, and hierarchical regression. Results indicated that coping style predicted BSE practice (i.e., proficiency, frequency) and health beliefs of barriers, confidence, seriousness, and susceptibility. The findings provide nurses with information for developing interventions to foster BSE. PMID:9233171

  2. [Coping with functional disability among the elderly by means of religious beliefs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Wagner Jorge; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Pereira, Josiane Katherine; Firmo, Josélia de Oliveira Araújo

    2013-08-01

    The way people deal with the stress of life is known as the process of coping or confrontation. We speak of religious coping when a person uses religious belief and behavior to facilitate problem solving, to prevent or alleviate stressful negative emotional consequences, notable among which is functional disability. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of religion as a strategy for coping with disability among the elderly. A qualitative approach, consisting of an observational ethnographic study was employed, the sample for which included 57 elderly individuals from Bambuí, Minas Gerais. The model of signs, significances and actions was used in collecting and analyzing data. The religiosity of the elderly respondents suggested that their religious beliefs and traditions help explain and address the suffering experienced by them in the presence or imminence of functional disability. Religious coping reinforces the fatalism existing in the religious belief that mirrors the inevitability of old age with disability as an accepted and natural social code, but also helps to minimize the social responsibility for the care of the elderly and reveals the disbelief in existing public health services. PMID:23896914

  3. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  4. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmadpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts.In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software.Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002, but not in the control group (P= 0.105. Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003 that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174. On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse.Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  5. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  6. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kin-ya Kubo; Mitsuo Iinuma; Huayue Chen

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as we...

  7. Long distance related stressors and coping behaviors in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, T J; Hathaway, G

    1993-01-01

    This descriptive comparative study addresses long distance related stress and coping behaviors of 53 parents of children with cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in the stress and coping behaviors of parents living 100 miles from the tertiary treatment center compared with those who live less than 100 miles from the center. The theoretical framework used was Lazarus' theory on stress and coping. The study participants were from several Pediatric Oncology Group member institutions. The parents completed Hymovich's Parent Perception Inventory and a demographic data sheet. Parametric (one-tailed t-test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests) were included in the statistical analysis. The results showed significant differences in demographic data, concerns, beliefs/feelings, and coping. Implications for the pediatric oncology treatment team include specific interventions that will improve the quality of care for the children/parents who live a long distance from the tertiary treatment center.

  8. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ya Kubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  9. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  10. Customers' values, beliefs on sustainable corporate performance, and buying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Christy M.; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable corporate performance (SCP) requires balancing a corporation's economic, social, and environmental performance. This research explores values, beliefs about the importance of SCP, and buying behaviors of supermarket customers from within a stakeholder framework. Beliefs about the importa

  11. Role of thought-related beliefs and coping strategies in the escalation of intrusive thoughts: an analog to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcks, Brook A; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assume that obsessions have their origin in normal intrusive thoughts. These models propose that certain beliefs, such as thought-action fusion (TAF) beliefs, combined with the use of ineffective coping strategies, such as thought suppression, lead to the development of OCD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between these variables in a non-clinical sample in addition to exploring the effects of an alternative, acceptance-based coping strategy. This study explored the relationship between TAF beliefs, thought suppression, and OC-consistent symptoms via mediational analyses. Results showed that thought suppression mediated the relationship between TAF beliefs and OC-consistent symptoms. This study also experimentally examined the effects of various coping strategies (suppression, acceptance, or monitor-only) on the frequency of a distressing intrusion and appraisal ratings (e.g., anxiety, guilt, responsibility) after a TAF induction. Spontaneous suppression in the monitor-only group made comparisons of the experimental data difficult. However, analyses provided preliminary evidence suggesting that thought suppression is related to more intrusions, higher levels of anxiety, and negative appraisals, whereas an acceptance-based approach may be a useful alternative. Additional findings, limitations of the current study, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17673167

  12. Children's normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L R; Guerra, N G

    1997-02-01

    Normative beliefs have been defined as self-regulating beliefs about the appropriateness of social behaviors. In 2 studies the authors revised their scale for assessing normative beliefs about aggression, found that it is reliable and valid for use with elementary school children, and investigated the longitudinal relation between normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior in a large sample of elementary school children living in poor urban neighborhoods. Using data obtained in 2 waves of observations 1 year apart, the authors found that children tended to approve more of aggression as they grew older and that this increase appeared to be correlated with increases in aggressive behavior. More important, although individual differences in aggressive behavior predicted subsequent differences in normative beliefs in younger children, individual differences in aggressive behavior were predicted by preceding differences in normative beliefs in older children. PMID:9107008

  13. Are Beliefs Believable? An Investigation of College Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Behavior in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Hung

    2010-01-01

    College students' epistemological belief in their academic performance of mathematics has been documented and is receiving increased attention. However, to what extent and in what ways problem solvers' beliefs about the nature of mathematical knowledge and thinking impact their performances and behavior is not clear and deserves further…

  14. Deep belief networks learn context dependent behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Raudies

    Full Text Available With the goal of understanding behavioral mechanisms of generalization, we analyzed the ability of neural networks to generalize across context. We modeled a behavioral task where the correct responses to a set of specific sensory stimuli varied systematically across different contexts. The correct response depended on the stimulus (A,B,C,D and context quadrant (1,2,3,4. The possible 16 stimulus-context combinations were associated with one of two responses (X,Y, one of which was correct for half of the combinations. The correct responses varied symmetrically across contexts. This allowed responses to previously unseen stimuli (probe stimuli to be generalized from stimuli that had been presented previously. By testing the simulation on two or more stimuli that the network had never seen in a particular context, we could test whether the correct response on the novel stimuli could be generated based on knowledge of the correct responses in other contexts. We tested this generalization capability with a Deep Belief Network (DBN, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP network, and the combination of a DBN with a linear perceptron (LP. Overall, the combination of the DBN and LP had the highest success rate for generalization.

  15. Relationship of pain coping strategies and pain specific beliefs to pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Herlin, Troels; Zachariae, R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether pain-specific beliefs and coping strategies of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) independently predict their reported pain, while controlling for relevant demographic variables, disease activity, and parent-rated disability. To compare use of pain...

  16. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  17. Personality and coping with professional demands: a behavioral genetics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Heike; Spinath, Frank M

    2012-07-01

    Work-related mental health problems lead to individual ill-being but also absenteeism and early retirement from work. As such, it is desirable to diagnose strain and coping deficits before mental or physical symptoms occur in order to provide interventions early. Work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life are three facets of coping with professional demands that are related to psychological health (Kieschke & Schaarschmidt, 2003). Personality, defined as characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors over time and across situations, is also associated with health and well-being. To understand who becomes ill and why and to provide adequate interventions, we investigated the relations between personality and coping with professional demands, as well as the etiological basis of this relation. Personality and coping with professional demands (work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life) were assessed in a sample of 302 monozygotic and dizygotic adult twin pairs. Correlations between personality and coping with professional demands were moderate (r range: -0.61 to 0.37). All scales except occupational attitude toward life showed significant heritabilities. Genetic and environmental influences on coping with professional demands were largely independent of genetic and environmental effects on personality. These findings suggest that interventions should focus on work engagement, resistance to stress, and occupational attitude toward life without specific considering of personality.

  18. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  19. Japanese American reactions to World War II incarceration redress: Just world belief, locus of control, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jackie H J; Nagata, Donna K; Akiyama, Mark

    2015-07-01

    This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans' reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors-Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)-and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions. PMID:25181326

  20. Behavioral Markers of Coping and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Sexually Abused Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Danielle N.; Kaplow, Julie B.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined coping and psychiatric symptoms in a longitudinal sample of sexually abused children. Coping was behaviorally coded from children's forensic interviews in the aftermath of sexual abuse. Using principal components analysis, coping behaviors were found to cluster into 3 categories: avoidant, expressive, and positive affective coping. Avoidant coping had predictive utility for a range of psychiatric symptoms, including depressive, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and dis...

  1. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  2. Social Work Practice Behaviors and Beliefs: Rural-Urban Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A. Croxton

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available There is continuing debate within the social work profession on whether there are significant differences in the practice behaviors and beliefs between rural and urban clinical social workers and whether different standards should be applied in defining ethical practices. This study measures those differences with regard to five practice behaviors: bartering,maintaining confidentiality, competent practice, dual relationships, and social relationships. Differences were found in beliefs regarding the appropriateness of professional behavior though such differences did not translate into practice behaviors.More significantly, the research suggests considerable confusion about the meanings of ethical standards and the utilization of intervention techniques without formal training across both urban and rural social workers.

  3. Associations of self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs and coping style with depression in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Yan; Zu, Si; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Wang, Na; Guo, Zhi-Hua; Kilbourne, Amy M; Brabban, Alison; Kingdon, David; Li, Zhan-Jiang

    2013-10-30

    Psychological models of depression in schizophrenia have proposed that cognitive structures (e.g., self-esteem, dysfunctional beliefs) may have a role in the development and maintenance of depression. However, it has not been clear what the characteristics of these cognitive structures were in people with schizophrenia and whether they have an independent association with depression, especially in those from a Chinese cultural background. The present investigation examined 133 people with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls and indicated that compared to the controls people with schizophrenia showed lower self-esteem, higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs and negative coping styles. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only low frustration tolerance, problem solving and self-blame were found to be the independent correlates of depression in schizophrenia. Results are discussed with the view of clinical implications of cognitive formulation and therapy for schizophrenia in China.

  4. Changes in Pain Coping, Catastrophizing and Coping Efficacy after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Juvenile Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Sil, Soumitri; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Ting, Tracy V.; Peugh, James; Schikler, Kenneth N.; Hashkes, Philip J.; Arnold, Lesley M.; Passo, Murray; Richards, Margaret M.; Powers, Scott W.; Lovell, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    A recent randomized multi-site clinical trial found that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was significantly more effective than fibromyalgia education (FE) in reducing functional disability in adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM). The primary objective of this study was to examine the psychological processes of CBT effectiveness by evaluating changes in pain coping, catastrophizing, and coping efficacy and test these changes as mediators of continued improvements in functional disab...

  5. Behavioral and physiological indicators of stress coping styles in larval zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tudorache, C.; Braake, A.D. ter; Tromp, M.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Schaaf, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Different individuals cope with stressors in different ways. Stress coping styles are defined as a coherent set of individual behavioral and physiological differences in the response to a stressor which remain consistent across time and context. In the present study, we have investigated coping styl

  6. Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, D L

    1992-01-01

    We combined the health belief model with the theory of subjective expected utility to derive hypotheses about the relations among health beliefs and preventive decisions. The central implication of this combination of theories is the importance of conceptualizing, measuring, and communicating about health threats in ways that are clearly conditional on action. It is important to distinguish, for example, between how susceptible to a disease a person thinks he or she would be if that person were and were not to take a preventive action. An experimental study of judgments about a hypothetical preventive action was conducted to test many of the theoretically derived hypotheses. A correlation study of dental flossing behavior was conducted to test the hypotheses as they apply to overt behavior rather than to judgment. Results of both studies supported most of the tested hypotheses, especially those related to the conditional conceptualization of health threats. Implications for theory, research methods, and practical applications are discussed. PMID:1582381

  7. Exploring dietitians' salient beliefs about shared decision-making behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon Marie-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision making (SDM, a process by which health professionals and patients go through the decision-making process together to agree on treatment, is a promising strategy for promoting diet-related decisions that are informed and value based and to which patients adhere well. The objective of the present study was to identify dietitians' salient beliefs regarding their exercise of two behaviors during the clinical encounter, both of which have been deemed essential for SDM to take place: (1 presenting patients with all dietary treatment options for a given health condition and (2 helping patients clarify their values and preferences regarding the options. Methods Twenty-one dietitians were allocated to four focus groups. Facilitators conducted the focus groups using a semistructured interview guide based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed with NVivo8 (QSR International, Cambridge, MA software. Results Most participants stated that better patient adherence to treatment was an advantage of adopting the two SDM behaviors. Dietitians identified patients, physicians, and the multidisciplinary team as normative referents who would approve or disapprove of their adoption of the SDM behaviors. The most often reported barriers and facilitators for the behaviors concerned patients' characteristics, patients' clinical situation, and time. Conclusions The implementation of SDM in nutrition clinical practice can be guided by addressing dietitians' salient beliefs. Identifying these beliefs also provides the theoretical framework needed for developing a quantitative survey questionnaire to further study the determinants of dietitians' adoption of SDM behaviors.

  8. Mediating Effects of Coping, Personal Belief, and Social Support on the Relationship among Stress, Depression, and Smoking Behaviour in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…

  9. How Beliefs about HIV Status Affect Risky Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    De Paula, A.; Shapira, G.; Todd, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how beliefs about own HIV status affect decisions to engage in risky sexual behavior, as measured by having extramarital sex and/or multiple sex partners. The empirical analysis is based on a panel survey of males from the 2006 and 2008 rounds of the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP). The paper develops a behavioral model of the belief-risky behavior relationship and estimates the causal effect of beliefs on risky behavior using the Arellano and Carras...

  10. Religious belief as a coping strategy. An explorative trial in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Xander, C. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Adamietz, I.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marienhospital Herne Univ. Clinic, Herne (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  11. Coping with contraception: cognitive and behavioral methods with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, L D; Schinke, S P

    1983-01-01

    Teenagers' sporadic use or nonuse of contraception is 1 explanation for the high rates of unwanted pregnancies in the US. Past efforts have had limited impact as they focused on simply providing adolescents with information and increased access to birth control. The argument here points to specific cognitive and behavioral skills, which adolescents lack, and which are required for effective contraception. Previous research documents an increase in teenagers' use of contraception following a skills-training program presented in intensive small-group format. The present study evaluates cognitive and behavioral skills training methods implemented with large groups (n=120), in the natural environment. The subjects are male and female students of a middle class suburban public high school. Training in this preventive approach stresses verbal and nonverbal components of effective interpersonal communication--approach, refusal and request responses--as important behavioral skills. Cognitive skills training emphasizes the application of facts about reproduction and contraception to make optimal decisions in situations involving sexual activity. Leaders help the subjects relate abstract facts and observable risks to their own life circumstances and choices. Additional skills practice involves the completion of written assignments outside the group setting. At the end of the 2-week training period, the students are evaluated along 4 measures: a knowledge inventory, a contraceptive attitudes and intentions inventory, and a videotaped performance test. Analyses of findings support the feasibility of large-group procedures for helping adolescents cope with sexuality and contraception. Future investigations are needed to replicate the present research as are longitudinal follow-up data to assess the long-term effects of this treatment approach.

  12. Characteristics of stress-coping behaviors in patients with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Je Min; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Choi, Yoonmi; Ha, Kyooseob

    2014-08-15

    Appropriate stress-coping strategies are needed to improve the outcome in the treatment of bipolar disorders, as stressful life events may aggravate the course of the illness. The aim of this study was to compare stress-coping behaviors between bipolar patients and healthy controls. A total of 206 participants comprising 103 bipolar patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I disorder fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and II disorders and controls matched by age and sex were included in this study. Stress-coping behaviors were assessed using a 53-item survey on a newly-designed behavioral checklist. The characteristics of stress-coping behaviors between the two groups were compared by using t-test and factor analysis. Social stress-coping behaviors such as 'journey', 'socializing with friends', and 'talking something over' were significantly less frequent in bipolar patients than controls. On the other hand, pleasurable-seeking behaviors such as 'smoking', 'masturbation', and 'stealing' were significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than controls. These results suggest that bipolar patients may have more maladaptive stress-coping strategies than normal controls. It is recommended to develop and apply psychosocial programs to reduce maladaptive stress-coping behaviors of bipolar patients. PMID:24803186

  13. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Mahdieh Momayyezi; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2012-01-01

    Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional stud...

  14. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  15. Executive Function, Coping, and Behavior in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia*

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Laura K.; Scaduto, Mary; Van Slyke, Deborah; Niarhos, Frances; Whitlock, James A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of executive function in coping and behavioral outcomes in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) survivors. Methods We examined associations among several domains of executive function (working memory, behavioral inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and self-monitoring), coping, and emotional/behavioral problems in 30 children and adolescents ages 10- to 20-years old who completed treatment for ALL and 30 healthy controls matched on age and sex. Results We fou...

  16. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Swim, Janet K.; Brittany Bloodhart

    2013-01-01

    Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping train...

  17. Predicting Proenvironmental Behavior Cross-Nationally: Values, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Value-Belief-Norm Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreg, Shaul; Katz-Gerro, Tally

    2006-01-01

    This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual…

  18. Anger Coping Method and Skill Training for Chinese Children with Physically Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis L. C.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression hinders development in the child and creates numerous problems in the family, school and community. An indigenous Anger Coping Training program for Chinese children with aggressive behavior and their parents aimed to help reactively aggressive children in increasing anger coping methods and enhancing problem-solving abilities. This…

  19. The Influence of Neurocognitive Functioning on Proactive Coping Behaviors in Adults With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; D Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E

    2016-10-01

    Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation. Perhaps, the capacity to engage in proactive coping may be influenced by damage to the frontal-striatal-thalamo circuitry, a region of the brain responsible for executive functioning and often compromised in adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. This study examined potential neurocognitive influences on proactive coping behaviors in adults with HIV (N = 98). Participants were administered a series of neurocognitive and psychosocial measures to determine if neurocognitive functioning and other factors that have been associated with coping in other populations, such as spirituality/religiosity, influenced proactive coping behaviors. Multiple regression analysis revealed that spirituality/religiosity (p = .002), rather than neurocognitive functioning (Useful Field of View, p = .277; Trails A, p = .701; Trails B, p = .365; Wechsler Memory Scale-III Digit Span, p = .864), was a significant predictor of proactive coping. Interventions to address spirituality/religiosity needs of adults with HIV may possibly facilitate proactive coping behaviors and improve mood, both of which are important for healthy neurocognitive functioning. PMID:27579965

  20. HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akrofi, S.; Price, L.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less sev

  1. Relationship between Beliefs and Basic School Teachers’ Coping with Negative Emotions in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Šimonka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinging excessively to the myths about the ideal teacher leads into teacher’s excessive expectations, which in consequence leads to burnout and the emergence of negative feelings (Bečaj, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between agreeing with the myths about good teacher and negative emotional experiences and the correlation between self-assessed fitness to the myth of the good teacher and negative emotional experiences. The study involved 137 teachers in basic school. The results showed that teachers excessively cling to myths about good teacher and that on average they all to a certain extent experience negative emotions in the classroom. They most frequently look for reasons of the negative emotions in student behaviour. In the discussion we have suggested some possible solutions that could help teachers cope with negative emotions in the classroom.

  2. Realities of Work Life Balance in Nigeria: Perceptions of Role Conflict and Coping Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.

  3. Social Workers and the NASW "Code of Ethics": Belief, Behavior, Disjuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranks, Nikki Nelson

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative descriptive survey of a national sample of social workers (N = 206) examined discrepancies between belief in the NASW "Code of Ethics" and behavior in implementing the code and social workers' disjunctive distress (disjuncture) when belief and behavior are discordant. Relationships between setting and disjuncture and ethics…

  4. Parents' Emotion Related Beliefs and Behaviors and Child Grade: Associations with Children's Perceptions of Peer Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maria S.; Diener, Marissa L.; Isabella, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' beliefs and reported behaviors regarding negative emotional expression and observed family negative emotion expressiveness were investigated as predictors of first-, third-, and fifth-grade children's self-reported peer competence. Parents' beliefs were related to their reported behaviors, and mothers accepted and encouraged…

  5. Men's Avoidance Coping and Female Partner's Drinking Behavior: A High-Risk Context for Partner Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohn, Amy M.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored whether men's avoidance coping in response to the drinking behavior of their female partner with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) would be associated with higher levels of men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women with an AUD (n = 109) and their male partners in a U.S. urban area were assessed on men's perpetration of minor and severe violence using the Conflict Tactics Scale, men's avoidance coping using the Spouse Behavior Questionnaire, and men's ...

  6. Lineage is an Epigenetic Modifier of QTL Influencing Behavioral Coping with Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Churchill, Gary A.; Solberg, Leah C.; Baum, Amber E.; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Redei, Eva E.

    2005-01-01

    A genome-wide scan was carried out on a segregating F2 population of rats derived from reciprocal intercrosses between two inbred strains of rats, Fisher 344 (F344) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) that differ significantly in their behavioral coping responses to stress measured by the defensive burying (DB) test. The DB test measures differences in coping strategies by assaying an animal’s behavioral response to an immediate threat. We have previously identified three X-linked loci contributing to the...

  7. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Freire Jannuzzi; Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Marilia Estevam Cornélio; Thaís Moreira São-João; Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and di...

  8. Alpha suppression following performance errors is correlated with depression, affect, and coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Hofheimer, Julia; Kazinka, Rebecca; Levinson, Amanda; Zheutlin, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that enhanced neural arousal in response to performance errors would predict poor affect and coping behaviors in everyday life. Participants were preselected as either low-depressed (LD) or high-depressed (HD) based on a screening questionnaire, and they then completed a laboratory Stroop task while EEG was recorded, followed by a 2-week period of daily reports of affect and coping behaviors. The EEG measure of arousal response to errors was the degree of error-related alpha suppression (ERAS) in the intertrial interval, that is the reduction in alpha power following errors compared with correct responses. ERAS was relatively heightened at frontal sites for the HD versus the LD group, and frontal ERAS predicted lower positive affect, higher negative affect, and less adaptive coping behaviors in the daily reports. Together, the results imply that heightened arousal following mistakes is associated with suboptimal emotion and coping with stressors. PMID:23731439

  9. Testing a Model of Pain Appraisal and Coping in Children With Chronic Abdominal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Lynn S.; Smith, Craig A; Garber, Judy; Claar, Robyn Lewis

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominal pain (N = 133; ages 8–15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-speci...

  10. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  11. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anne E; Allen, Joseph P; Marston, Emily G; Hafen, Christopher A; Schad, Megan M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  12. Change in Dysfunctional Beliefs About Sleep in Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa; Ivers, Hans; Bélanger, Lynda; Morin, Charles M; Harvey, Allison G

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial, 188 participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. The aims of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether change in dysfunctional beliefs about sleep was related to change in sleep, insomnia symptoms, and impairment following treatment; (b) to determine whether BT, CT, and CBT differ in their effects on dysfunctional beliefs; and (c) to determine whether the treatments differ in their effects on particular kinds of dysfunctional beliefs. Beliefs, sleep, insomnia symptoms, and sleep-related psychosocial impairment were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Greater change in dysfunctional beliefs occurring over the course of BT, CT, or CBT was associated with greater improvement in insomnia symptoms and impairment at posttreatment and both follow-ups. All groups experienced a significant decrease in dysfunctional beliefs during treatment, which were sustained through 6- and 12-month follow-up. Compared with the BT group, a greater proportion of participants in the CT and/or CBT groups endorsed dysfunctional beliefs below a level considered clinically significant at posttreatment and 12-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the importance of targeting dysfunctional beliefs in insomnia treatment, suggest that beliefs may be significantly modified with BT alone, and indicate that cognitive interventions may be particularly powerful in enhancing belief change.

  13. A Nonlinear Dynamical Approach to Belief Revision in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eKronemyer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy. It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a nonlinear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic space, which can be represented as a phase plane comprising all of the brain’s attentional, cognitive, affective and physiological resources. Triggering events, such as anxiety-producing or depressing situations in the real world, or their imaginal equivalents, mobilize these assets so they converge on an equilibrium point. A preference function then evaluates and integrates evidentiary data associated with individual beliefs, selecting some of them and comprising them into a belief set, which is a metastable state. Belief sets evolve in time from one metastable state to another. In the phase space, this evolution creates a heteroclinic channel. AGM regulates this process and characterizes the outcome at each equilibrium point. Its objective is to define the necessary and sufficient conditions for belief revision by simultaneously minimizing the set of new beliefs that have to be adopted, and the set of old beliefs that have to be discarded or reformulated. Using AGM, belief revision can be modeled using three (and only three fundamental syntactical operations performed on belief sets, which are expansion; revision; and contraction. Expansion is like adding a new belief without changing any old ones. Revision is like adding a new belief and changing old, inconsistent ones. Contraction is like changing an old belief without adding any new ones. We provide operationalized examples of this process in action.

  14. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  15. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Behaviors in Predicting Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechting, Emily H.; Brown, Tamara L.; Salsman, John M.; Sauer, Shannon E.; Holeman, Virginia T.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    Religious beliefs have consistently emerged as significantly and inversely related to alcohol use. This article seeks further understanding of this relationship by exploring the role of religious behaviors in this relationship in three ways. First, we aim to determine whether the relationship between religious beliefs and alcohol use differs with…

  16. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  17. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  18. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), Irrational and Rational Beliefs, and the Mental Health of Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research

  19. The caregiver's perception of behavioral disturbance in relatives with schizophrenia: a stress-coping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, H L; Fournier, J P; Perreault, M; Vezina, J

    2000-06-01

    This article suggests some theoretical orientations in studying behavioral disturbance from a stress-coping perspective. First, an overview of Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive theory of stress is presented. Secondly, some linkages are proposed between the rating scales used to measure behavioral disturbance and the concepts of this theory. Future research directions are then suggested to further explore the affective, cognitive and behavioral responses related to the management of disturbing behaviors.

  20. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure to Health Risk Behavior in Adolescence: Motivation to Cope and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined two potential mechanisms linking violence exposure and health risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: sensation seeking and coping with stress through escape behavior. Method: Male (59%) and female adolescents (N = 251), ages 12 to 19 years, from diverse ethnic backgrounds (61% African American, 19%…

  1. BELIEFS OF TEACHERS ABOUT BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gavia P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermeneutic research study conducted with seventeen primary regular and special education teachers to examine their beliefs about intellectual disabilities and behavior problems. Teachers beliefs about the influence that the context has the proliferation of conduct and disability issues is unveiled. It is an approach to the theoretical reference from beliefs, teachers in regular and special education, they have in common that their beliefs about intellectual disabilities are circumscribed or based on his work experience, rather than in references up-to-date intellectual disability. On the other hand found that teachers, based their beliefs on behavioural problems in the characteristics that have been observed through the experience with his students. Finally the strategies and style for setting the order were also based on their beliefs, elementary and special education teachers were using corrective strategies, although the latter also used cognitive strategies.

  2. Children’s Trust Beliefs in Others and Trusting Behavior in Peer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Rotenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between children’s trust beliefs and trusting behavior in peer interaction was examined. One hundred and 5 Italian children (54 boys; mean age = 10 years-7 months completed standardized scales of reliability (i.e., promise keeping trust beliefs in parents and peers. The children participated in mixed-motive interactions with classmates which assessed behavior-dependent reliability trust on peers. The children’s reliability trustworthiness towards peers/classmates was assessed by peer reports. The SEM analyses supported the hypothesized model by showing: (1 a path between trust beliefs in parents and trust beliefs in peers; (2 paths between both types of trust beliefs and behavior-dependent trust on peers; (3 a path between behavior-dependent trust in peers and trustworthiness towards peers. Trust beliefs in peers were found to mediate the relation between trust beliefs in parents and behavior-dependent trust in peers. The findings yielded support for the basis, domain, and target trust framework and attachment theory.

  3. Repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life among behavioral weight management participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Erin A K; Olson, KayLoni L; Emery, Charles F

    2016-08-01

    Repressive coping has been associated with elevated risk of disease and negative health outcomes in past studies. Although a prior study of healthy men found that repression was associated with lower body mass index (BMI), no study has examined repressive coping among obese individuals. This study examined the relationship of repressive coping with BMI and obesity-relevant psychosocial factors among 104 overweight and obese participants in a behavioral weight management program. Participants completed questionnaires assessing repressive coping, stigmatization, psychological distress, and quality of life. BMI was objectively measured. Repressors reported lower stigmatization, anxiety, and depression as well as higher emotional and weight-related quality of life. Repressors and non-repressors had equivalent BMI and reported similar impairment in physical quality of life, but stigmatization moderated the relationship between repressive coping and physical quality of life (b=0.31, p=0.039), reflecting better physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization. Obese individuals who engage in repressive coping may tend to underreport psychological symptoms, social difficulties, and impairments in quality of life. Higher physical quality of life among non-repressors with lower stigmatization may reflect a combined influence of coping and social processes in physical quality of life among obese individuals.

  4. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  5. Coping, daily hassles and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Angela S; Melvin, Glenn A; Reid, Sophie C; Gray, Kylie M

    2014-03-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in adolescents with HFASD. Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed questionnaires assessing their coping and behavior and emotional problems, and completed an Ecological Momentary Assessment run via a mobile phone application on their coping and daily hassles. Parents completed questionnaires of the adolescents' daily hassles, coping, and behavior and emotional problems. The disengagement coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of behavior and emotional problems regardless of respondent or methodology, suggesting it may be a valuable target for intervention. PMID:23933998

  6. Causal beliefs about obesity and associated health behaviors: results from a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.

  7. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Okajima; Shun Nakajima; Moeko Ochi; Yuichi Inoue

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  8. A Nonlinear Dynamical Approach to Belief Revision in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    David eKronemyer; Alexander eBystritsky

    2014-01-01

    Belief revision is the key change mechanism underlying the psychological intervention known as cognitive behavioral therapy. It both motivates and reinforces new behavior. In this review we analyze and apply a novel approach to this process based on AGM theory of belief revision, named after its proponents, Carlos Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors and David Makinson. AGM is a set-theoretical model. We reconceptualize it as describing a nonlinear, dynamical system that occurs within a semantic spac...

  9. The Mediating Role of Dysfunctional Coping in the Relationship between Beliefs about the Disease and the Level of Depression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ziarko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most severe chronic diseases. In many cases it leads to disability and results in a decreased quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. The problem that needs to be addressed is the following: which mental processes lead to increased levels of depression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Methods. 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis hospitalized in rheumatology wards took part in the research. They filled in illness perception questionnaires (IPQ-R and questionnaires for testing strategies of handling stress (Mini-COPE and the level of depression (CES-D. Results. The observed correlation coefficients indicate that several elements of the perception of one’s disease moderately contribute to a high level of depression. Moreover, frequent use of dysfunctional coping strategies contributed to high levels of depression. Dysfunctional coping was moderately linked to depression. Conclusion. The conducted analyses confirmed the links between the beliefs about the disease and levels of depression and showed that the use of dysfunctional coping strategies mediates the relationship between the following elements of the representation of the disease: illness coherence, emotional representation, psychological attribution, risk factors, and the level of depression.

  10. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life. PMID:27372508

  11. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  12. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Trading Volume, and Seemingly Emotional Stock Market Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhanhui; YANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    Various information types and rational learning methods have shown that heterogeneous belief changes in a rational expectation model can explain many empirical findings in stock markets, such as momentum, contrarians, and technical trading. The methods have also shown that momentum and price movements can coexist in an asset market with only rational agents. The purpose of this paper is to provide a rational economic theory to explain these phenomena. Results of a dynamic programming model with heterogeneous beliefs show that the dynamic interactions between information diffusion and belief changes create continuation and reversals. The duration and magnitude of momentum and price movements are associated with trading volume. Therefore, rational investors should incorporate price and volume information in their trading decisions.

  13. Patterns of adolescents' beliefs about fighting and their relation to behavior and risk factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Bettencourt, Amie; Mays, Sally; Kramer, Alison; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2012-07-01

    This study examined adolescents' patterns of beliefs about aggression, and how these patterns relate to aggressive and prosocial behavior, and to risk factors associated with aggression. A sample of 477 sixth graders from two urban schools and a school in a nearby county completed measures of beliefs, behavior, and individual, peer and parental factors associated with aggression. Teacher ratings of participants' behavior and emotion regulation were also obtained. The urban sample was 84% African American; the county school was in a rural fringe area with a student population that was 45% Caucasian and 40% African American. Latent class analysis of items on a beliefs measure supported hypotheses predicting three groups: (a) a Beliefs Against Fighting (BAGF) group that opposed the use of aggression (31% of the sample); (b) a Fighting is Sometimes Necessary (FSNEC) group that endorsed beliefs that fighting is sometimes necessary or inevitable (41%), and (c) a Beliefs Supporting Fighting (BSUPF) group that supported aggression across multiple contexts (28%). Differences across groups were found on race/ethnicity and family structure, but not on gender. Significant differences were also found such that the FSNEC group fell between levels of the BAGF and BSUPF groups on most measures. In contrast, the FSNEC and BAGF groups both differed from the BSUPF group, but not from each other on measures of empathy, perceived effectiveness of nonviolence and aggression, and parental messages supporting nonviolence. These differences suggest the need for tailoring prevention approaches for subgroups of adolescents who differ in their patterns of beliefs.

  14. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence.

  15. Teenagers' Attitudes about Coping Strategies and Help-Seeking Behavior for Suicidality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and…

  16. DISPOSITION DIAGNOSTIC MEANS OF DEFENSIVE AND COPING BEHAVIOR IN THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational environment today is one of the most effective mediums for self-development and acquisition of new competencies. But due to its structural complexity this environment is highly stressful. However, up to now there are no procedures that would diagnose complex formations (eg, disposition of the defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to close this gap.Methods. After analyzing the existing problems of the theoretical aspects of psychological defense mechanisms of defensive and coping behavior, and taking as a basis the theory of protective dispositions and coping behavior different ways were allocated to show these dispositions in the educational environment.Scientific novelty. The personality questionnaire «Dispositions of defensive and coping behavior in the educational environment» is designed. This questionnaire has sufficient level of validity and reliability. A total of 402 people took part herein the study including different stages.Practical significance. The ready-made questionnaire can be applied by teachers who want to improve the quality of educational process. It will also be useful for students seeking to understand and eliminate the possible cause of own difficulties encountered while studying.

  17. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  18. Gender differences in collaborative learning over online social networks: Epistemological beliefs and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Y.-Y. Chan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are popular venues for computer-supported collaborative work and computer-supported collaborative learning. Professionals within the same discipline, such as software developers, often interact over various social network sites for knowledge updates and collective understandings. The current study aims at gathering empirical evidences concerning gender differences in online social network beliefs and behaviors. A total of 53 engineering postgraduate students were engaged in a blogging community for collaborative learning. Participants’ beliefs about collaboration and nature of knowledge and knowing (i.e. epistemological beliefs are investigated. More specifically, social network analysis metrics including in-degree, out-degree, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are obtained from an 8-interval longitudinal SNA. Methodologically speaking, the current work puts forward mixed methods of longitudinal SNA and quantitative beliefs survey to explore online social network participants’ beliefs and behaviors. The study’s findings demonstrate significant gender differences in collaborative learning through online social networks, including (1 female engineering postgraduate students engage significantly more actively in online communications, (2 male engineering postgraduate students are more likely to be the potential controllers of information flows, and (3 gender differences exist in belief gains related to social aspects, but not individual's epistemic aspects. Overall, participants in both genders demonstrated enhanced beliefs in collaboration as well as the nature of knowledge and knowing.

  19. The relationship between beliefs about sleep and adherence to behavioral treatment combined with meditation for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Jamie A; Crawford, Megan R; Manber, Rachel; Ong, Jason C

    2015-01-01

    This study examined beliefs about sleep, as measured by the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) scale, as predictors of adherence to 3 specific insomnia treatment recommendations: restriction of time spent in bed, maintenance of a consistent rise time, and completion of daily meditation practice. Higher DBAS scores predicted poorer adherence to restriction of time spent in bed and to maintenance of a prescribed rise time. DBAS scores were not associated with completion of daily meditation. These preliminary findings suggest that pre-treatment beliefs about sleep may impact patient engagement with behavioral recommendations regarding time in bed and consistent rise time during treatment for insomnia.

  20. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven an...

  1. Peer victimization and subsequent disruptive behavior in school: The protective functions of anger regulation coping

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynak, Övgü; Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy; Jaggi, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Peer victimization is linked to adjustment problems in youth, including aggressive behavior, yet not all victimized youth are aggressive. The present study investigated whether youth’s anger regulation coping might attenuate the positive association between peer victimization and subsequent aggressive behavior. Longitudinal data from 485 7th-grade students (55% female, mean age = 12.84 years) and their teachers were collected in the fall and six months later. Teacher ratings of youth aggressi...

  2. Violence Against Widows in Nepal: Experiences, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers in Seeking Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Sabarwal, Shrutika; Decker, Michele R; Shrestha, Abina; Sharma, Kunda; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Widows are a vulnerable population in Nepal. This study examined Nepalese widows' experiences of violence, their coping strategies, and barriers faced in seeking help. Study participants were recruited from Women for Human Rights, an NGO in Nepal. A stratified purposive sampling approach was used to select 51 widows and 5 staff members for in-depth interviews. Twenty-seven women who experienced violence were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Widows reported a range of violent experiences perpetrated by family and community members that spanned psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Women dealt with abusive experiences using both adaptive (e.g., attempting to move ahead, seeking social support, using verbal confrontation) and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., suicidal thoughts or self-medication). However, they faced barriers to seeking help such as insensitivity of the police, perceived discrimination, and general lack of awareness of widows' problems and needs. Findings highlight the need for interventions across the individual, family, community, and policy levels. Avenues for intervention include creating awareness about widows' issues and addressing cultural beliefs affecting widows' lives. Furthermore, efforts should focus on empowering widows, promoting healthy coping, and addressing their individual needs. PMID:25657102

  3. The Health Belief Model, Sexual Behaviors, and HIV Risk among Taiwanese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Simoni, Jane M.; Zemon, Vance

    2005-01-01

    In this first investigation of Taiwanese sexual behaviors in the United States, 144 Taiwanese students completed an online anonymous survey. Demographics, health belief model (HBM) constructs, and acculturation were examined as predictors of sexual behaviors over the last year. Analyses indicated that participants who reported a higher number of…

  4. From Narcissistic Exploitativeness to Bullying Behavior: The Mediating Role of Approval-of-Aggression Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Ong, Eileen Y. L.; Lim, Joylynn C. Y.; Lim, Eulindra W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of approval-of-aggression beliefs in the relationship between narcissistic exploitativeness and bullying behavior in an Asian sample (N = 809) comprising elementary children and middle school adolescents. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with both bullying behavior and…

  5. Coping with an acute psychosocial challenge: behavioral and physiological responses in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villada

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.

  6. The relation between the epistemological beliefs of teachers and students and their behavior in educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Maravilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relation of the epistemological beliefs of students and teachers and the actions deployed in the classroom. The framework is the study of personal epistemology, which was developed, among other researchers, by Hofer, Pintrich and Schommer. The research method was, within the qualitative paradigm, through case studies, given the interest in describing the phenomenon in a specific scenario. The results show the epistemological beliefs of teachers and students, the events that make them evident and its relationship with the behaviors shown in the classroom. The role of pedagogical beliefs as mediation between personal epistemology of educational actors and their practice are described and, finally, the relation between beliefs and educational practice is illustrated by analyzing specific class events and the justification expressed by teachers and students about their actions in the classroom.

  7. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  8. The roles of past behavior and health beliefs in predicting medication adherence to a statin regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molfenter TD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Todd D Molfenter,1 Abhik Bhattacharya,2 David H Gustafson11Center for Health Enhancement Systems Studies (CHESS, Madison, WI, USA; 2Blue Health Intelligence, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: Current medication-adherence predictive tools are based on patient medication-taking beliefs, but studying past behavior may now be a more explanatory and accessible method. This study will evaluate if past medication-refill behavior for a statin regimen is more predictive of medication adherence than patient medication-taking health beliefs.Patients and methods: This prospective longitudinal study was implemented in a national managed care plan in the United States. A group of 1433 statin patients were identified and followed for 6 months. Medication-taking health beliefs, collected from self-reported mail questionnaires, and past medication-refill behavior, using proportion of days covered (PDC, were collected prior to 6-month follow-up. Outcomes were measured using categorical PDC variable (of adherence, PDC ≥ 85%, versus nonadherence, PDC < 85%, with model fit estimated using receiver operator characteristic analysis.Results: The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for past behavior (Az = 0.78 was significantly greater (P < 0.05 than for patient health beliefs (Az = 0.69, indicating that past prescription-refill behavior is a better predictor of medication adherence than prospective health beliefs. Among health beliefs, the factor most related to medication adherence was behavioral intent (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 15.06. The factor most strongly related to behavioral intent was impact of regimen on daily routine (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 7.74.Conclusion: Electronic medical records and community health-information networks may make past prescription-refill rates more accessible and assist physicians with managing medication-regimen adherence. Health beliefs, however, may still play an

  9. The Relation Between Parenting Beliefs, Behaviors, and Acculturation on the Social Skills of Prekindergarten Hispanic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Winstead, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that social skills are a critical component of children’s development and related to children’s academic success. Conversely, problem behaviors are correlated to negative outcomes later in life for children such as lower academic achievement and juvenile and adult criminality. Certain parenting beliefs and behaviors have been found to relate to fewer problem behaviors in children, and an increase in social skills. However, existing research has focused mostly on the parenting b...

  10. Emergency Workers' Quality of Life: The Protective Role of Sense of Community, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Pietrantoni, Luca; Palestini, Luigi; Prati, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    This study, involving a sample of 764 emergency workers, investigates dimensions of quality of life at work (Compassion fatigue, Burnout and Compassion satisfaction), and their relationships with Coping strategies and some psychosocial variables (Sense of Community, Collective Efficacy and Self-efficacy). Results indicate the usefulness of…

  11. The Big Bang Theory--Coping with Multi-Religious Beliefs in the Super-Diverse Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Roussel

    2013-01-01

    Large urban schools have to cope with a "super-diverse" population with a multireligious background in their classrooms. The job of the science teacher within this environment requires an ultra-sensitive pedagogical approach, and a deeper understanding of students' backgrounds and of scientific epistemology. Teachers must create a…

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior. PMID:26239058

  13. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  14. The association between parent's and healthcare professional's behavior and children's coping and distress during venepuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, L.; Ayers, S.; Seddon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Examine the association between children’s distress and coping during venepuncture with parent’s and healthcare professional’s behavior in a sample from the UK. Methods: Fifty children aged 7–16 years accompanied by a carer were videotaped while having venepuncture. Verbalizations of children, parents, and healthcare professionals were coded using the Child–Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Results: Children’s distress was associated with child’s age, anxi...

  15. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  16. Understanding Relations among Children's Shy and Antisocial/Aggressive Behaviors and Mothers' Parenting: The Role of Maternal Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…

  17. The Moderating Effects of Support for Violence Beliefs on Masculine Norms, Aggression, and Homophobic Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Kimmel, Michael S.; Wilchins, Riki

    2011-01-01

    In 2 studies, beliefs supporting the use of violence moderated the association between normative masculine activities and aggressive behavior (Study 1) and normative masculine attitudes and aggressive and homophobic behavior (Study 2) among adolescent boys. These beliefs also moderated the association between normative masculine activities and…

  18. The Impact of Reality Television on the Alcohol-Related Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Valerie; Cantu, Vanessa C.; Graf, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the effects of reality television and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors of Hispanic college students (N = 285). Reality television is a new form of media that is gaining popularity and provides increased exposure to glamorized alcohol use. There is a lack of research studies focused on the impact that reality…

  19. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors : when public education is not enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Douglas P.; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Miciak, Maxi A.; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the

  20. A Developmental Study of the Relationship Among Irrational Beliefs, Behavior Problems, and Neuroticism in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…

  1. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...

  2. Born Fat: The Relations between Weight Changeability Beliefs and Health Behaviors and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Alquist, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Although some popular press and nonscholarly sources have claimed that weight is largely unchangeable, the relationship between this belief and objective measures of health remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that people who believe weight is unchangeable will have poorer objective and subjective health, and fewer exercise behaviors and…

  3. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  4. The Links between Parent Behaviors and Boys' and Girls' Science Achievement Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Ruchi T.; Jovanovic, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether parental involvement in children's science schoolwork (i.e., discussions about science, homework helping and encouragement of science interest) varies for boys and girls, and how these behaviors relate to children's science achievement beliefs (i.e., ability perceptions and task-value) at the end of a school year. We…

  5. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  6. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  7. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  8. A Stress-Coping Model of Mental Illness Stigma: II. Emotional Stress Responses, Coping Behavior and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Powell, Karina; Rajah, Anita; Olschewski, Manfred; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Stigma can be a major stressor for people with schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, leading to emotional stress reactions and cognitive coping responses. Stigma is appraised as a stressor if perceived stigma-related harm exceeds an individual’s perceived coping resources. It is unclear, however, how people with mental illness react to stigma stress and how that affects outcomes such as self-esteem, hopelessness and social performance. The cognitive appraisal of stigma stress as well as e...

  9. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Robert Nicholls; David eMorley; John ePerry

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one at...

  10. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one ath...

  11. Momentary Pain and Coping in Temporomandibular Disorder Pain: Exploring Mechanisms of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Litt, Mark D.; Shafer, David M.; Ibanez, Carlos R.; Kreutzer, Donald L.; Tawfik-Yonkers, Zeena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) operates by effecting changes in cognitions, affects, and coping behaviors in the context of painful episodes. Patients were 54 men and women with temporomandibular dysfunction-related orofacial pain (TMD) enrolled in a study of brief (6 weeks) standard conservative treatment (STD) or standard treatment plus CBT (STD+CBT). Momentary affects, pain, and coping processes were recorded on a cellphone keypad fo...

  12. Beliefs about Volunteerism, Volunteering Intention, Volunteering Behavior, and Purpose in Life among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M. F. Law

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life were examined in this study. A total of 5,946 participants completed a series of scales, including the Revised Personal Functions of Volunteerism Scale, Volunteering Intention Scale, and Purpose in Life Scale. The results showed that participants whose purpose in life had different levels also had varied prosocial beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, and volunteering behavior. Purpose in life was associated more strongly with prosocial value function than with other types of beliefs (except understanding function. When different beliefs are grouped, the correlation between purpose in life and other-serving beliefs was higher than that between purpose in life and self-serving beliefs. Purpose in life was also associated with volunteering intention and behavior. Path analyses showed that purpose in life predicted volunteering behavior via beliefs and intention. While other-serving beliefs predicted volunteering behavior directly, self-serving beliefs did not have such direct effect.

  13. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  14. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials. PMID:27017721

  15. Contamination Appraisals, Pollution Beliefs, and the Role of Cultural Inheritance in Shaping Disease Avoidance Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Yitzhaq

    2016-08-01

    Despite the upsurge of research on disgust, the implications of this research for the investigation of cultural pollution beliefs has yet to be adequately explored. In particular, the sensitivity of both disgust and pollution to a common set of elicitors (e.g., bodily emissions, disease, and death) suggests a common psychological basis, though several obstacles have prevented an integrative account, including methodological differences between the relevant disciplines. Employing a conciliatory framework that embraces both naturalistic (evolutionary) and humanistic levels of explanation, this article examines the dynamic reciprocal process by which contamination/contagion appraisals in individuals serve to shape-and are in turn shaped by-culture-specific pollution beliefs. This complex interrelationship is illustrated by examining ancient Near Eastern and modern ethnographic documentation of pollution beliefs, highlighting the underappreciated function of these pollution beliefs as folk theories for the spread of infectious disease. By evaluating how pollution beliefs (as also modern germ theory) shape contamination appraisals in individuals, it will be argued that cultural inheritance has played a much larger role in guiding disease avoidance behavior than has been previously recognized.

  16. Childhood Sexual Trauma and Subsequent Parenting Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M

    2016-01-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that, when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655

  17. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Namdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors in cervical cancer in women. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 213 married 20-65 year-old women selected by a two-stage sampling method. The data was collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire and interview. This questionnaire based on health belief model correlation (components Perceived Susceptibility and Severity, Perceived Barriers and Benefits, Self-efficacy with behavior survey. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whhitney test, Kruskal-wallis test, and Regression by SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the study group was 40.6 ± 12.1. The results show that 32.5% of them had at least one time examined for Pap smear test out of which only 7.9% of them had this test on a regular interval. Only 12% of them had an adequate knowledge about the cervical cancer and its preventive measure. 90% of them had inappropriate behavior. The average score of knowledge was 6.73± 2.97 which considered as moderate. Regression analysis showed the knowledge (P=0.009, job (P=0.005, perceived barriers (P<0.001 and perceived severity (P=0.036 determine as predictors in the final behavior. Conclusion: Perceived barriers and knowledge behind the strongest predictor of behavior. Educational programs are recommended based on the health belief model with emphasis on reducing barriers and increasing awareness to improve behavior.

  18. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  19. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  20. Gender differences in collaborative learning over online social networks: Epistemological beliefs and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Y.-Y. Chan; Jie Huang; Diane Hui; Silu Li; Peng Yu

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks are popular venues for computer-supported collaborative work and computer-supported collaborative learning. Professionals within the same discipline, such as software developers, often interact over various social network sites for knowledge updates and collective understandings. The current study aims at gathering empirical evidences concerning gender differences in online social network beliefs and behaviors. A total of 53 engineering postgraduate students were engage...

  1. Cross-cultural Exploration of Consumers’ Beliefs and Behavioral Intentions towards QR Codes in Marketing: An Experimental Study in India and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2014-01-01

    Current study focuses on examining consumers? beliefs and behavioral intentions towards QR Codes in marketing across different cultures such as India & USA. Study also examines select variables that moderate the relationship between beliefs and behavioral intentions. For this a scenario based experimental design was used. Findings suggest positive relationship between beliefs & behavioral intention and between culture & beliefs. Based on the empirical findings, study make important implicatio...

  2. Anorexia nervosa and family relationships: Perceived family functioning, coping strategies, beliefs, and attachment to parents and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio ex post facto ha explorado las diferencias entre la percepción de características familiares de 34 mujeres jóvenes con anorexia nerviosa y 34 mujeres jóvenes sin patología alimentaria. Todas las participantes completaron los siguientes instrumentos de auto-respuesta: FACES II, F-COPES, IPPA y el Cuestionario de Creencias Familiares. Los resultados demostraron que, en comparación con el grupo de mujeres sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes consideran a sus familias menos unidas y menos capaces de redefinir de una forma más aceptable las experiencias y situaciones de estrés. Sin embargo, consideran a sus familias más capaces de buscar y aceptar ayuda, y presentan más creencias familiares relacionadas con la responsabilidad individual/ auto-censura. En comparación con el grupo sin patología alimentaria, las pacientes parecen confiar menos en sus madres y amigos, parecen comunicarse menos con los amigos, y tienden a demostrar una mayor alienación en relación a la madre, al padre y a los amigos. De todas las variables en estudio, la alienación en relación a los amigos y a la madre, así como la mayor capacidad para buscar y aceptar ayuda fueron las variables más importantes para discriminar los grupos.

  3. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  4. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  5. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  6. Relationship of burnout with personality, alexithymia, and coping behaviors among physicians in a semiurban and rural area in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taycan, Okan; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Celik, Cihat

    2014-01-01

    This present study aimed to assess levels of burnout, to investigate the extent to which personal characteristics and coping behaviors are related to burnout, and to establish the predictors of burnout among physicians in a semiurban and rural area. A sample of 139 physicians was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Ways of Coping Inventory. The level of burnout was found to be moderately higher than those reported among urban physicians. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that neuroticism, occupation (specialist vs general practitioner), helpless, self-confident, and social support seeking approaches were predictors of burnout. The results showed that burnout was negatively related with problem-focused copping strategies, and positively with emotion-focused coping strategies. Fostering problem-focused coping strategies in physicians might be useful in the reduction of burnout.

  7. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  8. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrill, Masitah; MUNDIA, LAWRENCE

    2013-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by...

  9. EFFECT OF INVOCATION (DO’A ON PAIN-COPING BEHAVIORS OF PRIMIPAROUS MUSLIM WOMEN DURING THE FIRST THREE HOURS OF THE ACTIVE PHASE OF LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain-coping behavior of primiparous women may have adverse effects on the mother and fetus. In Tangerang, the majority of pregnant women have negative experiences of pain and pain-coping behaviors during labor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the invocation (do’a on pain-coping behaviors of primiparous Muslim women during the first 3 hours of the active phase of labor. Methods: It was an experimental study with pre-posttest design. Ten primiparos women were randomly selected and assigned to the control and intervention group. Each group conssisted of 5 participants. Pain-coping behavior was measured by the Pain Behavior Observation Scale (POBS. Results: Findings revealed that pain-coping behaviors were increased for those who received the invocation (do’a with p-value < .05 than those who received the routine care. The effectiveness of do'a could be seen from the average difference of scores of pain-coping behaviors before and after intervention. The intervention group significantly had higher pain-coping behaviors than the control group during three hours of posttest, while controlling for the pretest measure, F (3.24 = 15.68, p< .001. Conclusions: The invocation (do’a program for primiparos women during labor is feasible to be conducted, and effective to increase pain-coping behaviors. Therefore, it is suggested to provide this program for primiparos women during the first 3 hours of active phase of labor.

  10. Costly myths: An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Costly myths. An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  12. Gender differences on osteoporosis health beliefs and related behaviors in non-academic community Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin-Ping; Xia, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Xin-Shuang; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis represents the major public health concern worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess osteoporosis beliefs and actual performance of osteoporosis preventive behaviors in non-academic community Chinese population and to explore whether the differences exist in community females and males. A cross sectional study including 137 females and 122 males was conducted in four non-academic communities of Xi'an city during November 2012, selected by multi-stage sampling method. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents' mean age was 56.06 ± 5.81 years. 35.5% of the participants had a bone mineral density test. The participants exhibit relatively low osteoporosis health beliefs. The total health belief score was 63.30 ± 8.55 and 64.13 ± 6.47 in females and males respectively. There was significant gender differences in the subscales of Perceived seriousness (p = 0.03), Perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.004) and Perceived motivation (p = 0.01). Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices. Gender differences were revealed in current smoking and alcohol intake, soybean food intake, smoking history (p academic Chinese and the scope for enhancing osteoporosis intervention considering the gender difference.

  13. Academic beliefs and behaviors in on-campus and online General Education biology classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christopher B.

    This study examined the effect of course delivery mode on academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors, academic self-efficacy, and the levels of individual interest in biology of students in an entry-level General Education biology course. This intersection of online education, science courses, and academic success factors merits attention because the growing impact of the expansion of online education on undergraduate success, particularly in science courses, has not been fully studied. The specific questions guiding the study examined: whether course delivery mode impacted individual interest in biology; whether course delivery mode impacted help-seeking beliefs and behaviors; and whether course delivery mode, individual interest, and academic self-efficacy predicted academic performance in the course. Participants (N = 183) were enrolled in either online or on-campus sections of a biology course at a large public university in California. Quantitative data for the study were collected through two online surveys in a pre- and post-test design and analyzed via Chi-square, t-tests, and regression analysis using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate that course delivery mode does not impact individual interest in biology. The data further indicate that academic help-seeking beliefs and behaviors vary by course delivery mode. This study also finds that while neither self-efficacy nor individual interest predict performance in the course, course delivery mode is shown to impact performance, although the reasons for this difference are unclear. The results of the study will be useful to course designers and administrators of online education as they seek to maximize the experiences of online students.

  14. Epistemic Beliefs, Online Search Strategies, and Behavioral Patterns While Exploring Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    Online information searching tasks are usually implemented in a technology-enhanced science curriculum or merged in an inquiry-based science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the role students' different levels of scientific epistemic beliefs (SEBs) play in their online information searching strategies and behaviors. Based on the measurement of an SEB survey, 42 undergraduate and graduate students in Taiwan were recruited from a pool of 240 students and were divided into sophisticated and naïve SEB groups. The students' self-perceived online searching strategies were evaluated by the Online Information Searching Strategies Inventory, and their search behaviors were recorded by screen-capture videos. A sequential analysis was further used to analyze the students' searching behavioral patterns. The results showed that those students with more sophisticated SEBs tended to employ more advanced online searching strategies and to demonstrate a more metacognitive searching pattern.

  15. The interplay of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior among youth students in contemporary China: a large scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fang; Xue, Fuzhong; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressful life events are common among youth students and may induce psychological problems and even suicidal behaviors in those with poor coping skills. This study aims to assess the influence of stressful life events and coping skills on risk for suicidal behavior and to elucidate the underlying mechanism using a large sample of university students in China. Methods 5972 students, randoml...

  16. The Relation Between Parental Coping Styles and Parent-Child Interactions Before and After Treatment for Children With ADHD and Oppositional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Tara Eberhardt; Harvey, Elizabeth; Danforth, Jeffrey S.; Ulaszek, Wendy R.; Friedman, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parental coping styles, discipline, and child behavior before and after participating in a parent training program for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior. For mothers, use of more maladaptive and less adaptive coping styles was related to more…

  17. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  18. Vegan lifestyle behaviors: an exploration of congruence with health-related beliefs and assessed health indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia A; Sabaté, Joan; Haddad, Ella; Rajaram, Sujatha; Shavlik, David

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate health belief as a major motive for diet and lifestyle behaviors of 100 vegans in the United States; and to determine congruence with selected health and nutrition outcomes. Response data from an administered questionnaire was analyzed. Statistical analyses determined the most common factors influencing diet choice; the number of vegans practicing particular lifestyle behaviors; body mass index; and prevalence of self-reported chronic disease diagnoses. Nutrient intakes were analyzed and assessed against Dietary Reference Intakes. Health was the most reported reason for diet choice (47%). In the health belief, animal welfare, and religious/other motive categories, low percentages of chronic disease diagnoses were reported: 27%, 11%, and 15%, respectively. There were no significant differences in health behaviors and indices among vegan motive categories, except for product fat content choices. Within the entire study population, health-related vegan motive coincided with regular exercise; 71% normal BMI (mean=22.6); minimal alcohol and smoking practices; frequently consumed vegetables, nuts, and grains; healthy choices in meal types, cooking methods, and low-fat product consumption; and adequate intakes for most protective nutrients when compared to reference values. But incongruence was found with 0% intake adequacy for vitamin D; and observation of excessive sodium use.

  19. Women Infant and Children program participants' beliefs and consumption of soy milk : Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Ashley; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables predict soy milk intake in a sample of WIC participants in 2 Illinois counties (n = 380). A cross-sectional survey was used, which examined soy foods intake, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, motivation, and intention. Soy product intake was low at both sites, and many participants (40%) did not know that soy milk was WIC approved. Most (> 70%) wanted to comply with their health care providers, but didn't know their opinions about soy milk (50-66%). Intention was significantly correlated with intake (0.507, P ≤ 0.01; 0.308, P ≤ 0.05). Environmental beliefs (0.282 and 0.410, P ≤ 0.01) and expectancy beliefs (0.490 and 0.636, P ≤ 0.01) were correlated with intention. At site 1, 30% of the variance in intention to consume soy milk was explained by expectancy beliefs and subjective norm beliefs (P < 0.0001); at site 2, 40% of the variance in intention was explained by expectancy beliefs. The TPB variables of expectancy beliefs predicted intention to consume soy milk in WIC participants. Therefore, knowing more about the health benefits of soy and how to cook with soy milk would increase WIC participants' intention to consume soy milk. Positive messages about soy milk from health care providers could influence intake. PMID:24611108

  20. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  1. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents : cognition, perceived control, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). P

  2. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents: cognition, perceived control, and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hogendoorn; P.J.M. Prins; F. Boer; L. Vervoort; L.H. Wolters; H. Moorlag; M.H. Nauta; H. Garst; C.A. Hartman; E. de Haan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). P

  3. Cognitive Change and Enhanced Coping: Missing Mediational Links in Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Anxiety-Disordered Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Prins; T.H. Ollendick

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we examine the recent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) outcome literature with anxiety-disordered children and, specifically, explore the status of cognitive change and increased coping ability as (1) specific treatment effects, and (2) possible mediators of the efficacy of CBT. In t

  4. Effect of the Holy Month of Ramadan on Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akuchekian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for stress coping strategies before and after the holy month of Ramadan using CS-R scale. Results: The results revealed that the use of ineffective coping strategies was significantly decreased after the holy month with no alterations in other strategies. In details, uses of superstitiousness, wishful thinking and self-medication coping strategies were statistically lower after Ramadan compared to values before it (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study showed that Ramadan fasting (a religious behavior or belief as a coping strategy has beneficial effect on the way of coping with stress in humans. Keywords: Stress, Coping Strategies, Religion, Ramadan, Medical Student

  5. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk; Greetje van der Werf

    2012-01-01

    In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL), teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs...

  6. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Control Beliefs Predict Exercise Behavior After an Exercise Intervention for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Lachman, Margie E.; Whitbourne, Stacey B.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior during and after a strength training intervention program with older adults. A model with cross-lagged and contemporaneous paths was tested with structural equations. Within testing occasions, higher physical resistance was related to greater beliefs in efficacy and control over exercise. At 3 months into the intervention, those who had higher physical resistance were less likely to show subsequent changes in beliefs. Tho...

  7. Relationship among mental stress, coping style and self-efficacy beliefs of highland recruits%高原集训新兵的心理应激与应对方式和自我效能感的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 谢远俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高原某部集训新兵的心理应激状况及其与应对方式和自我效能感的关系,并据此对高原新兵的心理健康教育提出建议.方法 采用问卷调查法,在驻青海某部新兵训练基地按照建制序列随机选取3个新训连队共256名新兵,施测军人心理应激自评问卷、简易应对方式问卷和一般自我效能感问卷.结果 新兵的心理应激反应主要表现为紧张、睡眠不好和身心疲惫;心理应激与消极应对有显著的正相关(r=0.349,P<0.01),与积极应对和自我效能感有显著的负相关(r=-0.179,P<0.01;r=-0.210,P<0.01),而自我效能感则与积极应对有显著的正相关(r=0.532,P<0.01);消极应对方式与自我效能感对心理应激反应有显著的预测作用.结论 可以通过增强高原新兵的自我效能感,并指导他们采用适当的应对方式来减轻集训期间的心理应激.%Objective To explored the mental stress situations and the relationship between mental stress, coping style and self-efficacy beliefs of the highland training recruits, and suggestions about mental health education of the recruits to be proposed.Methods The solider mental stress self-reported questionnaire, simplied coping style questionnaire, and generalized self-efficacy beliefs scale were administrated to 256 recruits from 3 companies have been randomly selected in a military training base of Qinghai province.Results The mental stress of the recruits included tension, sleepless, physical and mental exhaustion.The mental stress was significant positive correlation with negative coping style( r=0.349, P<0.01 ), and significant negative correlation with active coping style( r= -0.179, P<0.01 ), and with self-efficacy beliefs( r= -0.210, P<0.01 ).Meantime selfefficacy beliefs was significant positive correlation with active coping style( r = 0.532, P < 0.01 ).Negative coping style and self-efficacy beliefs could significantly predict mental stress

  8. Coping behavior in normal and clinical samples: more similarities than differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1993-09-01

    In our studies we tried to integrate a developmental and a clinical perspective on coping and adaptation in adolescence. Starting with a review of the author's own research, involving over 3000 12- to 20-year-olds from various cultures, the problems typical of this developmental phase and the ways of coping with these normative demands are presented. The results show that coping skills of young people in dealing with age-specific problems have so far been considerably underestimated. Their response to problems stemming from different developmental fields such as parents, peers, school or future involved three main modes of coping: Active Coping, Internal Coping and Withdrawal. Withdrawal was employed very rarely and only for certain types of problems. Age, gender and problem-specific effects in coping were found. Whereas normal adolescents most frequently choose to cope with difficulties actively by means of social resources and to think out possible solutions, risk populations appear to have a more ambivalent pattern of coping strategies with high functionality and high dysfunctionality. Even their appraisal of problems is already disturbed; they feel more readily threatened by everyday problem situations and respond more uniformly with withdrawal. Finally, similarities between the female coping style in normal samples and the more pronounced ambivalent pattern in clinical samples were discussed and related to psychopathology. PMID:8282899

  9. Health Promoting Self-Care Behaviors and Its Related Factors in Elderly: Application of Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Azadbakht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health beliefs significantly affect health promoting self-care behaviors. The most important model designed based on health beliefs is the Health Belief Model. This study examined the association between health belief model constructs and demographic factors with behaviors in elderly. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 465 elders referring to Tehran's cultural centers recruited with a multi-stage sampling method. Study instruments were questionnaires regarding demographic information, health beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting self-care behaviors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-22 software by Independent T-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Multiple linear regression. Results: The mean (±SD age of subjects was 68.24±6.12 years and the mean of general self-care score was 1.79±0.36. Gender (P=0.011, economy (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001 and age (P=0.008 were significantly associated with self-care behaviors. Regression analysis showed that perceived barriers, self-efficacy and perceived severity were determinants of behavior (P<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is essential to pay special attention to self-efficacy, perceived severity and perceived barriers to design health education for elderly.

  10. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  11. Coping behavior of women with breast cancer with visible postsurgery deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirota N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to explore coping strategies in cancer patients. In all, 70 women with breast cancer were studied: 35 of them had visible postsurgery deformity, and 35 did not have visible postsurgery deformity. The purpose of the research was to uncover their preferences for using various strategies and resources to cope with their illness. The results showed that both groups of women had a special set of strategies for coping with stress. The women with visible postsurgery deformity made significantly less use of resources for coping with their illness than did the subgroup of women without visible postsurgery deformity.

  12. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  13. Early life stress dampens stress responsiveness in adolescence: Evaluation of neuroendocrine reactivity and coping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Young-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-05-01

    Stressful experiences during early life (ELS) can affect brain development, thereby exerting a profound and long-lasting influence on mental development and psychological health. The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that individuals who have early experienced an attenuated form of stressors may gain immunity to its more virulent forms later in life. Increasing evidence demonstrates that ELS may promote the development of subsequent stress resistance, but the mechanisms underlying such adaptive changes are not fully understood. The present study evaluated the impact of fragmented dam-pup interactions by limiting the bedding and nesting material in the cage during postnatal days 2-9, a naturalistic animal model of chronic ELS, on the physiological and behavioral responses to different stressors in adolescent mice and characterized the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that ELS mice showed less social interaction deficits after chronic social defeat stress and acute restraint-tailshock stress-induced impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 region compared with control mice. The effects of ELS on LTP and LTD were rescued by adrenalectomy. While ELS did not cause alterations in basal emotional behaviors, it significantly enhanced stress coping behaviors in both the tail suspension and the forced swimming tests. ELS mice exhibited a significant decrease in corticosterone response and trafficking of glucocorticoid receptors to the nucleus in response to acute restraint stress. Altogether, our data support the hypothesis that stress inoculation training, via early exposure to manageable stress, may enhance resistance to other unrelated extreme stressors in adolescence. PMID:26881834

  14. The role of pain coping strategies and pain-specific beliefs in pain experience in children and adolescents suffering from chronic pain - Findings from an epidemiological study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the primary symptoms in children with arthritis (JCA) and has been shown to be a significant predictor of impaired psychosocial function. Possible modulators of pain perception in JCA children may be their use of pain coping strategies and health beliefs. Based on finding from...... a longitudinal study it will be discussed whether these factors can assist in understanding the different levels of pain and participation in social and physical activities, and whether it could be possible to identify and to focus interventions on the subgroup of children where the pain experience...

  15. The Effect of Coping on the Relationship Between Child Behavior Problems and Exposure to Community Violence in Low Risk School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bowser, Felicia M.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that the prevalence of community violence exposure is relatively high among suburban and urban middle school-aged children. Exposure through witnessing and victimization has been related to antisocial behavior. Active coping has been related to fewer emotional and behavioral problems, whereas avoidant coping is related to conduct disorder. This study examines effects of community violence exposure on antisocial behavior problems (in terms of school infractions) and copin...

  16. Child pedestrian safety: parental supervision, modeling behaviors, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Barton, Benjamin K

    2009-09-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a significant health risk to children, particularly those 5-9 years of age. Surprisingly, few studies have explored parent-related factors that may moderate this risk. The present study used naturalistic observations of parent-child pairs crossing at uncontrolled intersections and a short interview to examine parental supervision of children during crossings, modeling of safe-crossing behaviors, beliefs about how children come to cross streets safely, and whether child attributes (age, sex) relate to parental practices and beliefs. Results revealed that parents more closely supervised younger than older children, they modeled safer crossing practices for sons more than daughters, particularly younger sons, and although over half the sample believed children need to be explicitly taught how to cross safely, few actually provided any instruction when crossing with their children. Providing parents both with guidelines for how to accurately appraise their child's readiness for crossing independently and with information about best practices for teaching children how to cross safely may facilitate parents' implementing these practices, particularly if this is coupled with public advocacy highlighting the important role they could play to reduce the risk of child pedestrian injury.

  17. Behavioral indicators of stress-coping style in rainbow trout: Do males and females react differently to novelty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Øyvind; Sørensen, Christina; Nilsson, Göran E

    2006-03-30

    It is becoming increasingly clear that individual differences in the behavioral response to stressful situations are associated with distinct physiological profiles, and stress coping characteristics are of fundamental importance to fitness and life history. Teleost fishes display considerable variation in reproductive strategy, but sex differences in stress-coping style have not been described previously in fish. Prior to sexual maturation, the glucocorticoid response to stress is not affected by sex in salmonid fish. Nevertheless, behavior in novel and stressful situations differed between immature male and female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). When tested 1 week following transport to a new rearing facility, females resumed feeding after transfer to social isolation quicker than males. The locomotor response to acute confinement stress also varied between sexes, with females settling down and ceasing to move in a panic-like manner quicker than males. There was a strong correlation between behavior in the two test situations: individuals that readily resumed feeding behavior in a new environment also moved less in the acute stress test. Thus, the time to resume feeding after a stressful experience is a precise indicator of stress-coping style in salmonid fish, which is likely to reflect the dynamics of neuroendocrine stress responses. Furthermore, these observations could reflect a sex difference in the response to novel and stressful situations, which occur even in the absence of differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness. PMID:16455115

  18. Risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge: experiences and beliefs of minority adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak-Griffin, D; Nyamathi, A; Vasquez, R; Russo, A A

    1994-12-01

    Using a qualitative focus-group methodology, this study investigated risk-taking behaviors and AIDS knowledge among minority pregnant and parenting adolescents at risk for heterosexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. Seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 48 young women recruited from alternative schools and residential facilities for pregnant adolescents and young mothers in Southern California. Participants also completed a background questionnaire soliciting sociodemographic information and an AIDS knowledge test. The sample included 33 Latinas and 15 African-Americans, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. There were bipolar findings regarding risk-taking behaviors. At one end of the continuum were young women with a history of one of more of the following behaviors: multiple sex partners, drug and alcohol use, carrying weapons, and participating in gang-related activities. Contrasting with these, were those who had one or two sex partners and no history of alcohol or drug abuse. A majority of the participants were having unprotected sex. A variety of factors affected condom use, including gender inequality, embarrassment, and personal preferences and values. Risk-taking was also influenced by lack of security and safety in daily living, emotion-focused coping and peer pressure.

  19. The Effect of Educational Package on Nutritional Knowledge and Behavior toward the Coping with Complication and Supplement Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi; M Kamalifard; M Ebrahimimamagani; MA Asghari jafarabadi; F Omidi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly div...

  20. Associations between Forced Sexual Initiation, HIV Status, Sexual Risk Behavior, Life Stressors, and Coping Strategies among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV

  1. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  2. The effects of parental mental health and social-emotional coping on adolescent eating disorder attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Laura E; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Blalock, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether social-emotional coping skills moderate the association between parental mental health symptoms and adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a clinical sample of adolescents with internalizing and/or externalizing symptoms. Fifty-nine adolescent-parent dyads (N = 118 total participants) recruited from a metropolitan area in the Northeastern United States completed assessments at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Generally, higher parental depression and anxiety were only found to be associated with greater disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescents who reported poorer (versus stronger) emotional awareness/expression skills and less (versus greater) ability to regulate emotions. Results may suggest that adolescents who lack the ability to effectively recognize, express, and manage negative emotions that arise in the context of a challenging home environment may be at greater risk for engaging in maladaptive coping behaviors, such as disordered eating. Thus, bolstering adolescent social-emotional coping skills may help protect against adolescent disordered eating. PMID:27567519

  3. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL, teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs on promoting SRL, as well as their predictive value on teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. Forty-seven primary school teachers completed questionnaires on knowledge and beliefs towards both components of the promotion of SRL: strategy instruction and a constructivist learning environment. In addition, teachers had to answer open-ended questions on their understanding of SRL, as well as their implementation of SRL in their classroom. The results show that teachers are more positive towards constructivist than towards SRL (teacher beliefs, and most teachers mentioned characteristics of constructivist learning environments, while only few teachers addressed strategy instruction when being asked about their understanding of SRL (teacher knowledge. Moreover, teacher beliefs are the only predictor for teacher behavior. The results indicate how teacher education could support teachers to learn how to promote SRL effectively.

  4. Effects of Home Literacy, Parents' Beliefs, and Children's Task-Focused Behavior on Emergent Literacy and Word Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathy A.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Georgiou, George K.; Kirby, John R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of home literacy (shared book reading, teaching activities, and number of books), children's task-focused behavior, and parents' beliefs and expectations about their child's reading and academic ability on kindergarten children's (N = 61) phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge and on Grade 1 word reading. The results…

  5. Engaging students: The role of teacher beliefs and interpersonal teacher behavior in fostering student engagement in vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, van Jolien M.; Ritzen, Henk; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Student engagement is an important precursor for learning. In this study we used teacher (N = 200) and student (N = 2288) questionnaires to investigate whether perceived interpersonal teacher behavior and teacher beliefs concerning motives for being a teacher, attitudes toward teacher knowledge doma

  6. Mindset, Motivation and Metaphor in School and Sport: Bifurcated Beliefs and Behavior in Two Different Achievement Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    The belief that a trait can be cultivated with effort, known as an "incremental theory or growth mindset," promotes behavior that leads to higher levels of achievement, such as the enthusiastic embrace of challenges and resilience to obstacles. Roughly 40% of the general student population in the United States, however, conceptualizes intelligence…

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand the Beliefs of Chinese Teachers Concerning Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers…

  8. Determine the Effectiveness of Learning of Coping Strategies with Irrational Beliefs Based on the Theory of Rational-Emotional Alice on Attitudes to Communicate Before Married Female High School Students in Yazd- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Forat Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research was done with the objective of "Determine the effectiveness of learning coping strategies with Irrational Beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice on students’ attitude toward premarital relations in Yazd city". Materials and Methods In this semi experimental research 60 female students of Yazd-Iran, selected by using of Cochran’s formula and divided in two groups of control (30 persons and experiment (30 persons randomly. Learning of coping strategies with Irrational beliefs based on the theory of rational-emotional Alice during the 8 sessions of 90 minutes was conducted on experiment group, and the control group did not training; then post-test was conducted in two groups. Also, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA used in order to data analysis in descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results The adjusted mean attitude scores of the relationship with the opposite sex in control group, on the pre-test and post-test was 51.27+12.16, 50.30+14.46 and in experimental group was 69.53+8.91, 43.63+10.96 respectively. The result Alice rational-emotional treatment method is effective on attitude to relationship before marriage of high school girls (P

  9. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  10. Freud, Piaget, or neither? Beliefs in controlling others by wishful thinking and magical behavior in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikan, A; Clausen, S E

    1993-09-01

    Tests showed that 4- to 6-year-old children believe that people can be influenced or "controlled" both by thinking (e.g., both wishful thinking and magical behavior) and by realistic means (e.g., positive reinforcement, example, and group pressure). Belief in control by thinking did not vary by the subjects' sex or age, influence type (wishing or magical behavior), or target response (behavior, emotion, or thought). Quantitative measures, however, suggested that magical behavior was seen by subjects as being more efficient than wishing, and that emotion was considered easier to influence than thinking. Beliefs in control by thinking were not related to a measure of fantasy-reality differentiation (realism).

  11. Beliefs of women with fibromialgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia de Souza Leite; Elys Oliveira Bezerra; Ana Clara Patriota Chaves; Fabiane da Silva Severino Lima

    2012-01-01

    This research aimed at identifying beliefs that permeate the painful experience of women with fibromyalgia, according to the Rokeach’s theory. We interviewed 42 women attended in a Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology in the state of Ceara. We used a questionnaire that inquired about spiritual beliefs, coping with pain and personal values. The features which were identified were the following: central beliefs of unanimous consensus; Belief in God and seek of support in religion, zero consen...

  12. The function of medication beliefs as mediators between personality traits and adherence behavior in people with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelsson M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior

  13. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM. The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier (, and self-efficacy (, were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history.

  14. Chronic pain: the help-seeking behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornally, Nicola; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-12-01

    Psychologic variables such as attitudes and beliefs may account for patients choosing not to seek treatment for pain; however, there is a dearth of empirical research to support this contention. The aim of this study was to explore the help-seeking behavior, individual characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults with chronic pain in an Irish community setting. A descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 72 older adults with chronic pain were recruited through two primary care practices. The research instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, the Level of Expressed Need Questionnaire, which measured help-seeking behavior, the Pain Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire. Results revealed that individual characteristics associated with help-seeking behavior were female gender, increasing age, higher education, living alone, and severe pain. High levels of stoicism were reported, indicating that participants were more likely to believe they had superior pain control and courage in the face of pain and were not willing to disclose their pain to others. These attitudes were significantly associated with lower levels of expressed need for treatment. Participants had moderate age-related beliefs about the origin of pain, but those who believed pain had an organic cause were more likely to seek help. PMID:22117752

  15. Cross-cultural Exploration of Consumers’ Beliefs and Behavioral Intentions towards QR Codes in Marketing: An Experimental Study in India and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Bamoriya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study focuses on examining consumers‟ beliefs and behavioral intentions towards QR Codes in marketing across different cultures such as India & USA. Study also examines select variables that moderate the relationship between beliefs and behavioral intentions. For this a scenario based experimental design was used. Findings suggest positive relationship between beliefs & behavioral intention and between culture & beliefs. Based on the empirical findings, study make important implications for the marketers so as to bring effectiveness in QR Code based marketing campaigns. Use of QR Codes in marketing is prevailing rapidly, however its effective integration in marketing mix remains mysterious as very little is known about consumers‟ beliefs and behavioral intentions towards it. Reason is that such academic research is practically non-existent, thus current study is of particular value.

  16. In Vivo Distraction-Coping in the Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Treated test-anxious college students with cognitive behavior therapy, relaxation training, and thermal biofeedback training. Experimental subjects also received in vivo distraction coping training. Overall program efficacy was demonstrated by reductions in anxiety and increases in rationality of personal belief systems. In vivo training did not…

  17. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  18. Beliefs about appropriate pain behavior: cross-cultural and sex differences between Japanese and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Mieko

    2005-08-01

    The Appropriate Pain Behavior Questionnaire (APBQ) was employed to examine the effects of the participants' sex and culture on their beliefs regarding gender-appropriate pain behavior. The APBQ examines beliefs about the social acceptability to male and female participants of the behavioral and verbal expressions of pain by men and women (referents) in the presence of others [Nayak, S., 2000. Cross Cult Research 34, 135-151]. The participants were 18 male and 14 female Japanese, and 11 male and 21 female Euro-Americans. There was a significant effect of sex: female participants considered pain behaviors more acceptable than male participants. There was a significant effect of culture: compared to both male and female Japanese, Euro-American participants rated pain behaviors in both sexes to be more acceptable. There was also a significant effect of referent gender: for both sexes in both cultures, pain behaviors in women were rated as more acceptable than in men. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found between referent gender and sex of the participant: Male and female participants of both cultures were equally accepting of pain behaviors in women, but male participants were less accepting of pain behaviors in men than in women. There also was a significant interaction between referent gender and culture of the participant: Japanese participants considered pain behavior in both genders to be less acceptable than did Americans. The results are explained in terms of cultural traditions and social roles, and have clear implications for clinical treatment and diagnosis. PMID:15979019

  19. Weight-based victimization among adolescents in the school setting: emotional reactions and coping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from two high schools in central Connecticut completed a comprehensive battery of self-report measures to assess their experiences of weight-based teasing and bullying at school, affective responses to these experiences, and coping strategies used to deal with incidents of weight-based victimization. Only those students who reported experiencing weight-based victimization (N = 394) were included for the purposes of the present study. Of this sub-sample, 56% were females, 84% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 16.4 years. Weight-based victimization resulted in 40-50% of adolescents feeling sad and depressed, worse about themselves, bad about their body, angry, and some feeling afraid. Gender differences emerged with respect to how boys and girls react to experiences of weight-based victimization. However, structural equation model estimates demonstrated that both boys and girls who reported negative affect in response to weight-based victimization were more likely to use coping strategies of avoidance (e.g., avoiding gym class), increased food consumption, and binge eating. Binary logistic regressions showed that the odds of students skipping school or reporting that their grades were harmed because of weight-based teasing increased by 5% per teasing incident, even after controlling for gender, age, race, grades, and weight status. To our knowledge, this study is the first systematic examination of affective reactions and coping strategies among overweight adolescents in response to weight-based victimization. These findings can inform efforts to assist overweight youth to cope adaptively with weight-based victimization

  20. Coping Power Adapted as Universal Prevention Program: Mid Term Effects on Children's Behavioral Difficulties and Academic Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Nocentini, Annalaura; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E

    2016-08-01

    Aggressive behaviors in schools have the potential to cause serious harm to students' emotional and social well-being and to limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. Prevention programs developed to reduce children's aggressive behaviors in school settings can provide interventions at a universal or targeted level. The main aim of our randomized control study was to examine the efficacy of Coping Power, adapted as a universal prevention program, in reducing children's behavioral problems and improving school grades. Nine classes participated (184 students, mean age 91 months) from two elementary state schools in Tuscany, Italy. Study findings showed a significant reduction in behavioral problems and an improvement in school grades for the intervention classes relative to the control classes. This study suggests the Coping Power program can be delivered in school settings at both universal and targeted prevention levels, and that in this multi-tiered prevention model, teachers, educators and school psychologists can learn a set of intervention skills which can be delivered with flexibility, thus reducing some of the complexity and costs of schools using multiple interventions. PMID:27129573

  1. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place. PMID:27023357

  2. The God Allusion : Individual Variation in Agency Detection, Mentalizing and Schizotypy and Their Association with Religious Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Pearce, Eiluned

    2016-06-01

    It has previously been suggested that the historically and geographically widespread persistence of religious beliefs occurs because it is a by-product of normal cognitive processes, ones which first evolved to confer survival advantages in the social domain. If this theory holds, then it is likely that inter-individual variation in the same biases may predict corresponding variation in religious thoughts and behaviors. Using an online questionnaire, 298 participants answered questions regarding their tendency to detect agency, the degree to which they displayed schizotypal traits, their ability to understand the emotions and motivations of others ("mentalizing"), and their religious beliefs and behaviors. Path analysis suggests that mentalizing, agency detection, and schizotypal thinking were each independently related to religiosity. Furthermore, schizotypal thinking and agency detection were highly interrelated with one another, whereas mentalizing was not. Although the degree to which an individual engages with religious or spiritual beliefs will be influenced by their cultural and historical context, this paper helps to elucidate the interplay between various cognitive processes that might predispose some individuals but not others toward holding such beliefs in the first place.

  3. An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Chuck; Hargrove, Pauline; Harris, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the life experiences and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. This study explores the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of classroom management. The goal of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of how individuals…

  4. Understanding the Behavior Changes in Belief and Attitude among Experienced and Inexperienced Learning Object Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Prior empirical studies in the implementation of general information technologies (IT) have revealed that IT adoption and usage were determined by user beliefs and attitudes. However, little is known about how user beliefs and attitudes form and change over time. To address these issues, this paper reports a study of 481 inexperienced and 120…

  5. Behavior and performance of the deep belief networks on image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We apply deep belief networks of restricted Boltzmann machines to bags of words of sift features obtained from databases of 13 Scenes, 15 Scenes and Caltech 256 and study experimentally their behavior and performance. We find that the final performance in the supervised phase is reached much faster if the system is pre-trained. Pre-training the system on a larger dataset keeping the supervised dataset fixed improves the performance (for the 13 Scenes case). After the unsupervised pre-training, neurons arise that form approximate explicit representations for several categories (meaning they are mostly active for this category). The last three facts suggest that unsupervised training really discovers structure in these data. Pre-training can be done on a completely different dataset (we use Corel dataset) and we find that the supervised phase performs just as good (on the 15 Scenes dataset). This leads us to conjecture that one can pre-train the system once (e.g. in a factory) and subsequently apply it to many ...

  6. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  7. Social Physique Anxiety in Adolescence: An Exploration of Influences, Coping Strategies, and Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…

  8. Mediators of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered children and adolescents: cognition, perceived control, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Moorlag, Harma; Nauta, Maaike H; Garst, Harry; Hartman, Catharina A; de Haan, Else

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate whether a change in putative mediators (negative and positive thoughts, coping strategies, and perceived control over anxious situations) precedes a change in anxiety symptoms in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Participants were 145 Dutch children (8-18 years old, M = 12.5 years, 57% girls) with a primary anxiety disorder. Assessments were completed pretreatment, in-treatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Sequential temporal dependencies between putative mediators and parent- and child-reported anxiety symptoms were investigated in AMOS using longitudinal Latent Difference Score Modeling. During treatment an increase of positive thoughts preceded a decrease in child-reported anxiety symptoms. An increase in three coping strategies (direct problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking distraction) preceded a decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms. A reciprocal effect was found for perceived control: A decrease in parent-reported anxiety symptoms both preceded and followed an increase in perceived control. Using a longitudinal design, a temporal relationship between several putative mediators and CBT-outcome for anxious children was explored. The results suggest that a change in positive thoughts, but not negative thoughts, and several coping strategies precedes a change in symptom reduction and, therefore, at least partly support theoretical models of anxiety upon which the anxiety intervention is based. PMID:23795885

  9. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  10. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of pat...

  11. Faith conquers all? Beliefs about the role of religious factors in coping with depression among different cultural-religious groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Kate Miriam; Cinnirella, Marco; Evdoka, Georgina; Murphy, Paula

    2001-09-01

    How effective is religious activity believed to be in coping with depression? This study assessed the perceived effectiveness of different religious activities - previously identified as important in coping - among 282 people in the UK. The mean age was 25 years, and participants were either Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, other religion, or no religion. Relative to other kinds of help for depression, religious activity was not seen as particularly helpful for depression. Religious activity was seen as less helpful by the ever-depressed than by the never-depressed and as less helpful by women than by men. Among religious activities, faith and prayer were seen as the most helpful. Muslims believed more strongly than other groups in the efficacy of religious coping methods for depression, were most likely to say they would use religious coping behaviour, and were least likely to say they would seek social support or professional help for depression. Other differences between groups were also observed, and comparisons with qualitative material obtained in an earlier study were made. The implications of these findings for help-seeking are considered. PMID:11802843

  12. Improve Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Undergraduate Female Nursing Students in Al-Alzhar University toward Breast Self-Examination Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mohsen, Afaf S. Abd; El-Maksoud, Mona M. Abd

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem that is most common form of cancer among females in both developed and developing world, The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used as a theoretical framework to study Breast Self-Examination and other breast cancer detection behaviors. The aim of this study: Was to improve knowledge, beliefs and behavior…

  13. Overgeneralized Beliefs, Accommodation, and Treatment Outcome in Youth Receiving Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, C Beth; Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly W; Webb, Charles; Gallop, Robert; Deblinger, Esther; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Inhibition of fear generalization with new learning is an important process in treatments for anxiety disorders. Generalization of maladaptive cognitions related to traumatic experiences (overgeneralized beliefs) have been demonstrated to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult populations, whereas more balanced, accommodated beliefs are associated with symptom improvement. It is not yet clear whether (a) overgeneralization and accommodation are associated with PTSD treatment outcome in youth, or (b whether accommodated beliefs can interact with or inhibit cognitive overgeneralization, as has been demonstrated in research on behavior-based fear generalization. The current study examined the relationships between overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs, child age, and symptom reduction in a sample of 81 youth (age 7-17 years), who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Overgeneralized and accommodated beliefs expressed during the exposure phase of treatment were coded in audio-recorded therapy sessions. Overgeneralization predicted (a) higher internalizing symptom scores at posttreatment, particularly for younger children, and less improvement over treatment, and (b) higher externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up and steeper symptom increases over this period. In contrast, accommodation was associated with (a) lower posttreatment internalizing symptoms and greater improvement over treatment, and (b) lower externalizing scores at 1-year follow-up, particularly for younger children. High levels of accommodation moderated the relationship between overgeneralization and worse symptom outcomes, except when predicting the slope of internalizing scores over treatment, and age did not moderate these effects. There were no significant predictors of child-reported PTSD-specific symptoms, although PTSD symptoms did decrease significantly over the course of treatment and maintain 1year after treatment.

  14. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126

  15. Coping behavior and intelligence in the prediction of vocational rehabilitation of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Nour, A K; Shanan, J; Garty, I

    As part of an intensive psychiatric and psychological examination before starting hemodialysis, forty-seven patients with terminal renal failure, thirty-one men and sixteen women with an age range from the late teens to the mid fifties, had been administered with WBII and the Shanan Sentence Completion technique. The hypothesis was that coping style would predict adaptation to hemodialysis as assessed by vocational rehabilitation. Intelligence, level of education, and the tendency to perceive sources of conflict in the outer world rather than within oneself, were found predictive of subseuqent adaptations for the whole group. On all these variables, men and women showed different patterns of significant correlations between the different aspects of coping and vocational rehabilitation. Subsequent multiple step-wise regression showed women (percentage of explained variance: 75) to be more predictable than men (40%) with different variables contributing differentially to predictability. These findings, interpreted to support the general working hypothesis, are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment.

  16. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Gomez, M.de Lourdes; Kittilsen, S.; Höglund, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented invertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma Cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) a...... styles can be modified by experience, whereas behavioural plasticity is limited by genetic effects determining social position early in life story. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  17. Behavioral plasticity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent coping styles: When doves become hawks

    OpenAIRE

    de Lourdes Ruiz-Gomez, Maria; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Felicity A Huntingford; Sørensen, Christina; Pottinger, Thomas G; Bakken, Morten; Winberg, Svante; Korzan, Wayne J.; Øverli, Øyvind

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and heritable individual differences in reaction to challenges, often referred to as stress coping styles, have been extensively documented in vertebrates. In fish, selection for divergent post-stress plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has yielded a low (LR) and a high responsive (HR) strain. A suite of behavioural traits is associated with this physiological difference, with LR (proactive) fish feeding more rapidly after transfer to a new environment and...

  18. The relation between the epistemological beliefs of teachers and students and their behavior in educational practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Maravilla; Luis F Gómez

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the relation of the epistemological beliefs of students and teachers and the actions deployed in the classroom. The framework is the study of personal epistemology, which was developed, among other researchers, by Hofer, Pintrich and Schommer. The research method was, within the qualitative paradigm, through case studies, given the interest in describing the phenomenon in a specific scenario. The results show the epistemological beliefs of teachers and students, the ...

  19. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Namdar; Shiva Bigizadeh; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model componen...

  20. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  1. Male circumcision in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya: beliefs about protection, risk behaviors, HIV, and STIs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Westercamp

    Full Text Available Using a population-based survey we examined the behaviors, beliefs, and HIV/HSV-2 serostatus of men and women in the traditionally non-circumcising community of Kisumu, Kenya prior to establishment of voluntary medical male circumcision services. A total of 749 men and 906 women participated. Circumcision status was not associated with HIV/HSV-2 infection nor increased high risk sexual behaviors. In males, preference for being or becoming circumcised was associated with inconsistent condom use and increased lifetime number of sexual partners. Preference for circumcision was increased with understanding that circumcised men are less likely to become infected with HIV.

  2. Dispositional optimism and coping with pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz K; Krzyszkowska A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). Material and methods The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionna...

  3. [Long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on pain coping among inpatient orthopedic rehabilitation of chronic low back pain and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Gemp, Stephan; Mohr, Beate; Schulze, Julian; Tlach, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Beneficial effects on psychological measures in orthopedic inpatient rehabilitation of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and co-exist-ing depressive symptoms have been shown only for multidisciplinary approaches that incorporate psychotherapeutic interventions. Aim of this study was to verify these findings for pain coping outcomes (pain-related psychological disability, pain-related coping). Short-, mid-, and long-term effects of a standard pain management program that was either solely provided or combined with a supplemental cognitive-behavioral depression management were examined in a consecutive sample of n=84. Patients in both groups showed long-term beneficial effects in pain coping measures. Thus, the standard rehabilitation revealed specific and long-term effects on pain coping. However, further evidence suggests that diagnosis-specific psychotherapeutic treatment elements are required to improve psychological symptoms. PMID:24838435

  4. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Changing Beliefs Related to Substance and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taherh Ghorbani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and methadone maintenance therapy on changing beliefs toward substance abuse among addicted people. Method: The research method was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. 30 addicted people who were referred to the addiction treatment centers selected by available sampling, and they randomly assigned to three groups namely: cognitive-behavioral therapy, methadone maintenance therapy and witness groups. Substance abuse beliefs questionnaire was administered among all participants before and after intervention. Results: Results showed that in both experimental groups, beliefs toward drug was reduced significantly in comparison with witness group. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be changed on cognitive mediator variables, like beliefs toward substance therefore, it can reduce the risk of relapse. However, the programs of treatment of substance abuse should be targeted this type of intermediate variables.

  5. Perceived risk of developing diabetes in early adulthood: beliefs about inherited and behavioral risk factors across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B; Smith, Matthew Lee; Sosa, Erica; McKyer, E Lisako; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to determine how college students perceive their risk of developing diabetes over their life course, with specific emphasis on their beliefs about the influence of inherited versus behavioral risk factors. A bivariate ordered probit regression model was used to simultaneously predict perceived risk for 10-year absolute risk of diabetes and lifetime absolute risk of diabetes. Ten-year and lifetime absolute risk were both increased when the respondent self-identified with a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white (β = 0.42, p < .001 and β = 0.33, p = .004, respectively), and when the respondent had an increasing number of family members with diabetes (β = 0.33, p < .001 and β = 0.45, p < .001, respectively). Beliefs linking behavioral risk factors to perceived risk of developing diabetes across the life course were not statistically significant. The absence of significant association between perceptions of behavioral risk as factors for developing diabetes and perceived risk for diabetes over the life course supports the need for educational interventions about behavioral and genetic causes of diabetes among the college-aged population. PMID:21708872

  6. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. PMID:24287801

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  9. General health and religious coping strategies in patients suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Adeli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.

  10. Does Framing the Hot Hand Belief Change Decision-Making Behavior in Volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; MacMahon, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous discussions of the hot hand belief, wherein athletes believe that they have a greater chance of scoring after 2 or 3 hits (successes) compared with 2 or 3 misses, have focused on whether this is the case within game statistics. Researchers have argued that the perception of the hot hand in random sequences is a bias of the…

  11. Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Bystander Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…

  12. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors: Examining Human Papillomavirus-Related Gender Differences among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…

  13. Teachers' Workplace Well-Being: Exploring a Process Model of Goal Orientation, Coping Behavior, Engagement, and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    The current research integrated components of the transactional model of stress and coping with self-worth and goal theories to examine a model where (a) teachers' goal orientation (as indicated by mastery and failure avoidance) was hypothesized to predict their teaching coping strategies (as indicated by problem- and emotion-focused coping) and…

  14. Coping Mechanisms, Stressful Events and Suicidal Behavior among Youth Admitted to Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Francois

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between coping mechanisms and suicide attempts among 84 adolescents in the Quebec youth residential services. A new measure based on in-depth interviews is used to identify coping mechanisms. The suicidal youths used fewer adequate coping mechanisms than nonsuicidal youths when faced with comparable stressful…

  15. Modifying Health Behavior for Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention with the Health Belief Model and Social Support Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health problem in Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), endemic among human populations in northeast and north Thailand where raw fish containing fluke metacercariae are frequently consumed. Recently, Thailand public health authorities have been organized to reduce morbidity and mortality particularly in the northeast through O. viverrini and CCA screening projects. Health modfication is one of activities included in this campaign, but systemic guidelines of modifying and developing health behavior for liver flukes and CCA prevention in communities towards health belief and social support theory are still various and unclear. Here we review the guidelines for modifying and developing health behavior among populations in rural communities to strengthen understanding regarding perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to liver fluke and CCA prevention. This model may be useful for public health of cancers and related organizations to further health behavior change in endemic areas. PMID:27644606

  16. Social Annotation Valence: The Impact on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Orit; Okerlund, Johanna; Westendorf, Lauren; Ball, Madeleine; Nov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media, mobile and wearable technology, and connected devices have significantly expanded the opportunities for conducting biomedical research online. Electronic consent to collecting such data, however, poses new challenges when contrasted to traditional consent processes. It reduces the participant-researcher dialogue but provides an opportunity for the consent deliberation process to move from solitary to social settings. In this research, we propose that social annotations, embedded in the consent form, can help prospective participants deliberate on the research and the organization behind it in ways that traditional consent forms cannot. Furthermore, we examine the role of the comments’ valence on prospective participants’ beliefs and behavior. Objective This study focuses specifically on the influence of annotations’ valence on participants’ perceptions and behaviors surrounding online consent for biomedical research. We hope to shed light on how social annotation can be incorporated into digitally mediated consent forms responsibly and effectively. Methods In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study that contained social annotations embedded in its margins. Individuals were randomly assigned to view the consent form with positive-, negative-, or mixed-valence comments beside the text of the consent form. We compared participants’ perceptions of being informed and having understood the material, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. Results We find that comment valence has a marginally significant main effect on participants’ perception of being informed (F2=2.40, P=.07); specifically, participants in the positive condition (mean 4.17, SD 0.94) felt less informed than those in the mixed condition (mean 4.50, SD 0.69, P=.09). Comment valence also had a marginal main effect on the

  17. Enhancing health knowledge, health beliefs, and health behavior in Poland through a health promoting television program series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Fiona; Palmer, Sushma; Slonska, Zofia; Subbiah, Kalyani

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a health promoting television program series on health knowledge and the key factors of the health belief model (HBM) that have led people to engage in healthy behavior (exercising, losing weight, changing eating habits, and not smoking/quitting smoking). Using data from a posttest comparison field study with 15) viewers and 146 nonviewers in Poland, we found that hierarchical regression analysis showed stronger support for the HBM factors of efficacy, susceptibility, seriousness, and salience in their contribution toward health behavior among television viewers compared with nonviewers. Cues to action variables (including television viewing) and health knowledge boosted efficacy among viewers. Without the advantage of receiving health information from the television series, nonviewers relied on their basic disease fears on one hand, and interest in good health on the other to take steps toward becoming healthier. A health promoting television series can increase health knowledge and enhance health beliefs, which in turn contribute to healthy behaviors. PMID:12166872

  18. Understanding the effects of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on adolescent girls' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. The Message Matters: The Role of Implicit Beliefs about Giftedness and Failure Experiences in Academic Self-Handicapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Malin, Jenessa L.; Dent, Amy L.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Insight into causal mechanisms underlying underachievement among gifted students has remained elusive. Based on the premise of self-worth theory and implicit beliefs about intelligence, it was hypothesized that entity-focused messages about giftedness would lead to maladaptive academic coping behaviors when gifted status was threatened. Therefore,…

  20. On Defining "Imaginary" Beings and Attributes: How Do Lexicographers Cope with Culturally Determined Differences in Beliefs about Cosmology, Ontology and Epistemology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Swanepoel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Members of linguistic communities often have opposing beliefs about the existence of beings denoted by lexical items or about the truth of the attributes ascribed to entities. As very little research has been forthcoming in this regard, this article focuses on how people's beliefs about existence and truth are encoded in explanatory dictionaries, and on the kind of semantics that is needed to account for these beliefs. The way in which dictionaries define issues of existence and truth against a default world view is outlined in Section 2. Section 3 indicates what happens if the default world view of lexicographic descriptions changes and how cultural biases operate in the treatment of the meaning of lexical items that denote "imaginary" beings or "imaginary" attributes. Section 4 summarizes the main findings of the article and delimits topics for further research.

    Keywords: IMAGINARY BEINGS, FABULOUS CREATURES, DEFINING ATTRIBUTES, LEXICOGRAPHIC DEFINITIONS, EXISTENCE, TRUTH, SENSE, REFERENCE, DENOTATION, IDEALIZED COGNITIVE MODELS, COGNITIVE SEMANTICS, CULTURAL BIAS, CULTURAL SENSITIVITY

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Oor die definiëring van "denkbeeldige" wesens en eienskap-pe: Hoe hanteer leksikograwe kultureel bepaalde verskille in beskouings oor die kosmologie, ontologie en epistemologie? Lede van taalgemeenskappe het dikwels opponerende beskouings oor die bestaan van wesens waarna leksikale items verwys of oor die waarheid van die eienskappe wat aan entiteite toegeskryf word. Omdat baie min navorsing in dié verband beskikbaar is, fokus hierdie artikel op hoe mense se beskouings oor die bestaan en waarheid ten opsigte hiervan in verklarende woordeboeke gekodeer word, en op die soort seman-tiek wat benodig word om hierdie opvattings te verantwoord. Die manier waarop woordeboeke kwessies van bestaan en waarheid teen 'n verstekwêreldbeskouing omskryf, word in Afdeling 2 geskets. Afdeling 3 dui aan wat gebeur indien die

  1. Spiritual Coping with Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Intro The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between an individual’s spiritual beliefs and how that affected their pain in those with arthritis. It focused mainly on the coping strategies they chose and how their personality influenced this. Method 113 people with various forms of arthritis completed a questionnaire which included scales measuring spiritual perspective (SPS), pain levels and pain interference (BPI), personality factors (Big 5 Domain), coping st...

  2. Inherited or Behavior? What Causal Beliefs about Obesity Are Associated with Weight Perceptions and Decisions to Lose Weight in a US Sample?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Ettienne, Reynolette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the extent to which (1) beliefs about obesity and obesity-related behaviors distinguish individuals based on weight perception (WP) and (2) beliefs about obesity predict perceived health status and WP and how these in turn predict decisions to try to lose weight. Method. 7456 noninstitutionalized US adults (Mage = 54.13, SDage = 16.93; 61.2% female; 75.9% White) completed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multinomial logistic regressions and structura...

  3. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  4. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Toorn, M. van der; Laarhoven, N.

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between cl

  5. Coping Strategies in Bulimia Nervosa Treatment: Impact on Outcome in Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Roslyn B.; Mussell, Melissa Pederson; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Mitchell, James E.

    2005-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the extent to which participants (N = 143) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (BN) reported implementing therapeutic strategies to abstain from BN behaviors, and to assess whether use of specific strategies predicts outcome at treatment end and 1-and 6-month follow-up. Frequency of…

  6. Effect of health belief model and health promotion model on breast cancer early diagnosis behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersin, Fatma; Bahar, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem on the grounds that it is frequently seen and it is a fatal disease. The objective of this systematic analysis is to indicate the effects of interventions performed by nurses by using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors and on the components of the Health Belief Model and Health Promotion Model. The reveiw was created in line with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guide dated 2009 (CRD) and developed by York University National Institute of Health Researches. Review was conducted by using PUBMED, OVID, EBSCO and COCHRANE databases. Six hundred seventy eight studies (PUBMED: 236, OVID: 162, EBSCO: 175, COCHRANE:105) were found in total at the end of the review. Abstracts and full texts of these six hundred seventy eight studies were evaluated in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria and 9 studies were determined to meet the criteria. Samplings of the studies varied between ninety four and one thousand six hundred fifty five. It was detected in the studies that educations provided by taking the theories as basis became effective on the breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors. When the literature is examined, it is observed that the experimental researches which compare the concepts of Health Belief Model (HBM) and Health Promotion Model (HPM) preoperatively and postoperatively and show the effect of these concepts on education and are conducted by nurses are limited in number. Randomized controlled studies which compare HBM and HPM concepts preoperatively and postoperatively and show the efficiency of the interventions can be useful in evaluating the efficiency of the interventions.

  7. Using the possibilities of “psychology” subject for training of coping-personal behavior of the officers of internal affairs bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Burtseva E.V.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution justifies the necessity of development of coping-personal behavior of the officers of internal affairs bodies as an ability to independently overcome negative influences of the environment, a skill of minimizing the influence of established norms and affecting the situation on one’s own. Taking into account the subject-object approach to education of officers in the system of interior authorities, the development of behavior which overcomes the influence of environment, is hi...

  8. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); E. van Burg (Elco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractReligious beliefs affect the economic behavior of individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence the pursuit

  9. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: The substance dependents scored significantly higher than the control group in nine out of fourteen early maladaptive schemas. In terms of coping strategies, the substance dependents scored significantly lower than the control group in positive reinterpretation and growth, seeking social support for instrumental reasons, active coping, and seeking social support for emotional reasons, and significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and alcohol-drug disengagement subscales. Moreover, alcohol-drug disengagement type of coping style was significantly predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, emotional inhibition, enmeshment/dependence, entitlement/ insufficient self-control, abandonment/instability, punitiveness, defectiveness/shame, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness. Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependence problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies.

  10. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  11. Integration of the interaction model of client health behavior and transactional model of stress and coping as a tool for understanding retention in HIV care across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lucy J

    2015-01-01

    Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. Integration of these models may more comprehensively inform care retention research and practice across the lifespan as it incorporates not only intra- and inter-personal characteristics and relationships but also the stress and coping experiences inevitable when living with a chronic illness such as HIV.

  12. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...... et al. Gender difference in neural response to psychological stress. SCAN 2 2007, 227–233...... reciprocal to Mesolimbic dopamine activity (mood). The study aims to explore interpersonal differences in coping associated with neural properties. Method: Neuroeconomic literature search of how neural centers of Rc2/L shape risk attitude2 or coping. Results: General risk attitude is a right skewed...

  13. The Effect of Educational Package on Nutritional Knowledge and Behavior toward the Coping with Complication and Supplement Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad Alizadeh chrnabi

    2013-07-01

    Background & aim: Proper nutrition is essential in the prevention and improvement of maternal problems and fetal health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nutrition education package on knowledge and nutritional behavior of pregnant women coping with problems and taking supplements during pregnancy. Methods: In the present clinical trial, a number of 88 pregnant women referred to health centers in Karaj, Iran, were selected and randomly divided into two groups (Intervention and control group. Two sessions of approximately 60 minutes including classes on nutrition during pregnancy was held for the intervention group using presentation, booklets, and educational film sex education with similar method was held for the control group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyzes. Results: In the intervention group, in the field of knowledge dealing with problems during pregnancy and after the intervention supplements in two stages were significantly higher than the control group (p˂001. Scores in the intervention group in the field of nutritional problems during pregnancy included constipation, heartburn, swollen hands and feet, anemia and urinary tract infections during both stages of the intervention were better than the control group (p˂005. Iron and multivitamin supplementation in the intervention group during two phases after the intervention phase was better than the control group (p˂005. Conclusion: The content of educational package was evaluated as an appropriate policy in promoting nutritional knowledge and behavior among pregnant women. Key words: Education, knowledge behavior, nutritional supplements, pregnancy

  14. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  15. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: the story of Temple Grandin, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratey, J J; Grandin, T; Miller, A

    1992-11-01

    The causal factors in the behaviorally defined syndrome of autism remain unclear, although the past decade has brought to bear two significant developments that shape our view of the disorder. The first of these developments is a growing body of biomedical research that indicates there are multiple etiologies associated with the disorder. This research has allowed for the formation of subgroups based upon neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurophysiological abnormalities (Damasio 1984; Piggot 1979; Ritvo et al. 1990). The second is neuropsychological research indicating that the socioemotional deficits are primary to the disorder and may underlie much of the behavioral symptomatology (Fein et al. 1986). These areas of concern undoubtedly have enhanced our understanding of the disorder, yet in their achievements they may too easily absorb what we know about autistics who experience a chronic state of physiological hyperarousal, evidence of which has been found in neurophysiological studies (Delius 1967; Hutt et al. 1965), neurochemical studies (Lake et al. 1977), psychopharmacologic studies (Ratey et al. 1987a), and behavioral studies (Kinsbourne 1980; Kootz et al. 1982; Tinbergen and Tinbergen 1972; Zentall and Zentall 1983). These individuals, perhaps constituting a subgroup of their own, experience an inner state of disorganization that markedly impairs their functioning (Sands and Ratey 1986).

  16. Predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients Referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Centre Based on Extended Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is the most common disease related to metabolism disorders with long term complications. It needs lifelong specific self-care, as it causes a promotion in quality of life and decreases disease costs. The Health Belief Model (HBM is a psychological model that attempts to explain and predict health behaviors. This is done by focusing on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. The model has been used for studying diabetes self care behaviors. The aim of this study was determination of predictors of self-care behaviors among diabetes patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre based on extended health belief model. Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out on 120 diabetic patients referred to Yazd diabetes research centre who were entered in the study by convenience sampling. A questionnaire was used for data collection with a private interview which included questions regarding extended health belief model constructs including perceived benefits, barriers, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and locus of control and some demographic variables. Results: There was a positive significant correlation between model variable of perceived benefits, severity, sensitivity, threat, self-efficacy, social support, metabolic control and internal locus of control with self-care behaviors, and also a negative significant correlation between perceived barriers (P=0.001,chance locus of control (P=0.037 and self-care behaviors. The above variables explained 45.3 % of variance in diabetes self-care behaviors, with self-efficacy as the strongest predictor. Conclusion: The results of this study approved the effectiveness of extended health belief model in predicting self-care behaviors among diabetic patients, which can therefore be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational intervention programs for control of diabetes.

  17. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  18. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  19. The Importance of Instrumentality Beliefs in the Prediction of Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Paul E.; Haworth, Chera L.

    2001-01-01

    Using expectancy theory, analysis of data from 113 subjects found that perceptions of procedural justice and the performance appraisal system in organizations interact with organizational citizenship behavior. Those who believe that organizaitonal citizenship behaviors are worthwhile, influenced by direct and indirect rewards, will do more of…

  20. Mindful Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti Balle

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the relation between mindfulness and coping. Building on a definition of mindfulness as a way of being in the present moment, appraisal theory was linked to coping with distress. The reason was to inquire whether mindfulness may be related to a coping process that entails appraising and to suggest how it is associated. “Mindful coping” is presented as a way to link these two traditions. This aim was developed based on year...

  1. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  2. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  3. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  4. Coping and Parenting: Mediators of 12-Month Outcomes of a Family Group Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention with Families of Depressed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Reeslund, Kristen L.; Fear, Jessica; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Keller, Gary; Rakow, Aaron; Garai, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda

    2010-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial with 111 families of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (86% mothers; 86% Caucasian), changes in adolescents’ (mean age 11 years; 42% female) coping and parents’ parenting skills were examined as mediators of the effects of a family group cognitive behavioral preventive intervention on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Changes in hypothesized mediators were assessed at 6-months and changes in adolescents’ symptoms were measu...

  5. Lecturers' Behaviors and Beliefs about the Use of Social Media in Higher Education: A Study at Mahasarakham University in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seechaliao, Thapanee

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes lecturers' behaviors and beliefs regarding social media in higher education at the Faculty of Education, Mahasarakham University. Thirty-one lecturers were surveyed about their attitudes toward the use of social media in their classes. Their responses were analyzed using arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results…

  6. A Study of Principals' Instructional Leadership Behaviors and Beliefs of Good Pedagogical Practice among Effective California High Schools Serving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peariso, Jamon Frederick

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods descriptive and causal-comparative study investigates what instructional leadership behaviors effective California high school principals have and what their beliefs are in regards to pedagogy, related issues, and professional issues, either constructivist or instructivist in nature, in the environment of the current NCLB…

  7. Examining the Effect of External Factors and Context-Dependent Beliefs of Teachers in the Use of ICT in Teaching: Using an Elaborated Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Sallimah; Laxman, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Research into teachers' attitudes, beliefs, competence, and inhibitions in relation to their use of technology may provide answers to a series of questions from administrators that relate to teachers' classroom implementation of Information and Communication Technology. The theory of planned behavior is a useful model for providing a framework for…

  8. Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: the health belief model perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ketema Ayele; Bisrat Tesfa; Lakew Abebe; Tizta Tilahun; Eshetu Girma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong medical treatments and a life style adjustment. To prevent serious morbidity and mortality, it requires dedication to demanding self-care behaviors in multiple domains. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of self care behaviors among patients with diabetes. Methods: From a total of 425 follow up diabetic patients, a quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 of them from three diffe...

  9. Property damage recovery and coping behavior of households affected by an extreme flood event in Marikina City, Metro Manila, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    JAMIL PAOLO S. FRANCISCO

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the factors influencing household choice of coping strategy to an extreme flood event in Marikina City in the National Capital Region of the Philippines, as well as household recovery after the event, measured in terms of the length of time to repair, rebuild, or replace damaged property. A survey of 400 households was conducted to obtain data. A multinomial logistic model was used to analyze coping strategy choice among three possible alternatives: (1) reactive and shor...

  10. Cue-responding behaviors during pharmacy counseling sessions with patients with asthma about inhaled corticosteroids: Potential relations with medication beliefs and self-reported adherence.

    OpenAIRE

    Driesenaar, J.A.; de Smet, P A G M; Van Hulten, R; Noordman, J.; van Dulmen, A M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cue-responding behavior at the pharmacy while counseling about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in relation to medication adherence and medication beliefs. Patients with asthma aged ≥18 years using ICS were recruited from 12 pharmacies. Counseling sessions were video-recorded. Patients' emotional and informational cues and pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' cue-responding behaviors were coded using an expanded version of the Medical Interview Aural Rating...

  11. Genetic susceptibility testing from a stress and coping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Organista, Kurt; Burack, Jeffrey; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2006-04-01

    Four theories of health behavior and of stress and coping are reviewed for their ability to illuminate interest in uptake and outcomes of genetic testing for adult-onset diseases. These theories are the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the Common Sense Model of Self-regulation (CSM), and the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TMSC). Basic concepts of each theory are discussed, followed by evidence from the literature supporting the relevance of these concepts to the understanding of genetic testing for four adult-onset diseases: Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, and hereditary colorectal cancer. Emphasis is placed on the finding that a decision to undergo genetic testing may be considered as a way to cope with both the cognitive and affective concerns that arise from living at increased risk of developing a disease in the future. The potential value of genetic testing for reducing uncertainty about and gaining a sense of control over one's risk of developing a chronic disease is highlighted. We argue that theories which focus on stress and coping provide a useful framework for future studies of genetic testing decisions for adult-onset disease risk.

  12. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Drug Treatment: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Cheney, Ann M.; Borders, Tyrone F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can provide insights into perceived need for cocaine treatment among African American cocaine users. Methods A cross-sectional community sample of 400 (50% rural) not-in-treatment African American cocaine users was identified through respondent-driven sampling in one urban and two rural counties in Arkansas. Measures included self-reports of attitudes and beliefs about cocaine treatment, perceived need and perceived effectiveness of treatment, and positive and negative cocaine expectancies. Normative beliefs were measured by perceived stigma and consequences of stigma regarding drug use and drug treatment. Perceived control was measured by readiness for treatment, prior drug treatment, and perceived ability to cut down on cocaine use without treatment. Findings Multiple regression analysis found that older age (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.15, P < 0.001), rural residence (β = −0.09, P = 0.025), effectiveness of treatment (β = 0.39, P < 0.001), negative cocaine expectancies (β = 0.138, P = 0.003), experiences of rejection (β = 0.18, P < 0.001), need for secrecy (β = 0.12, P = 0.002), and readiness for treatment (β = 0.15, P < 0.001), were independently associated with perceived need for cocaine treatment. Conclusions TPB is a relevant model for understanding perceived need for treatment among African American cocaine users. Research has shown perceived need to be a major correlate of treatment participation. Study results should be applicable for designing interventions to encourage treatment participation. PMID:24930051

  13. [Condom use among heterosexuals: a comparison of the theory of planned behavior, the health belief model and protection motivation theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Buunk, B P; Siero, F W

    1993-10-01

    In the Netherlands, the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the health belief model (Janz and Becker, 1984), and the protection-motivation theory (Rogers, 1983) were compared for predicting condom use intentions because of AIDS. The 641 respondents were given two questionnaires: one for themselves and another one for a friend, partner, or acquaintance. 514 (80%) of them returned completed forms. 60% of these (307) persons were encouraged to answer and return another questionnaire, thus the final sample consisted of 821 responses. 711 individuals (481 women aged 15-91 years and 230 men aged 15-85 years) admitted having had heterosexual intercourse. 75% had had more than one sex partner in the previous 5 years. 45% had had sex at least once with someone other than their regular partner. Multivariance analysis of variance of promiscuity and condom use revealed that men exhibited more risky sex practices than women (p .001), had more sex partners in the previous 5 years than women (p .01), had more single sexual encounters with other persons than the regular sex partner than women (p .001), and they used condoms less often than women (p .01). 119 respondents had experienced sexually transmitted diseases and 165 had taken HIV tests. The difference between men and women also showed up in terms of their ideas, perceptions, and feelings about condom use when the three theoretical models were considered (p .001). The variables used in the theory of planned behavior explained the variance in intended condom use for 36% of women and 43% of men. The health belief model explained intended condom use only for 15% of women and 32% of men, while the cost-benefit analysis explained it for 9% of women and 18% of men. The protection-motivation theory explained intended condom use variance for 32% of women and 41% of men, but not all variables were included in the model. Fear from AIDS was correlated with inquisitive behavior and with seriousness (both p .001). PMID:12291420

  14. Understanding Customers\\' Healthy Eating Behavior in Restaurants using the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Tak

    2013-01-01

    A large portion of the American public is overweight and many are classified as being obese.  Obesity and unhealthy eating behavior are partially related to the increase in our society""s consumption of foods away from home. Accordingly, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has suggested new menu labeling regulations to help educate customers on healthy items among menu selections. Few studies have tried to understand customers"" healthy eating behavior in restaurants. Therefore, the purpos...

  15. Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

  16. College Women's Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Regarding the HPV Vaccine: Translation to Health Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M.; Kispert, Elisabeth; McGrath, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is primarily caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Purpose: College women may be at risk for contracting HPV based on their sexual behavior. An exploratory analysis was conducted, following the release of the HPV vaccine, Gardasil[R], to (1)…

  17. An AIDS Prevention Campaign: Effects on Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the effect of AIDS education on college students. Lists reasons for underestimating personal risk: illusions of invulnerability, the long incubation period of AIDS, drugs and sexual experimentation, underestimating partners' risky sexual behaviors, and acquaintance rape. Concludes that increasing knowledge will not necessarily promote…

  18. Beyond Beliefs: Parent and Child Behaviors and Children's Perceived Academic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry M.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    Third graders with high achievement levels were observed while they worked with their parents on solvable and unsolvable problems. The children's perceptions of their academic competence were related to the father's warmth during the work on the problems and to the child's type of behavior while working on unsolvable problems. (BC)

  19. American Indian University Students' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…

  20. Persuasive Embodied Agents: Using Embodied Agents to Change People's Behavior, Beliefs, and Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (i.e., avatars; ECAs) are appearing in increasingly many everyday contexts, such as e-commerce, occupational training, and airport security. Also common to a typical person's daily life is persuasion. Whether being persuaded or persuading, the ability to change another person's attitude or behavior is a…

  1. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was conducte

  2. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  3. An Investigation of the Life Experiences and Beliefs of High School Teachers Exhibiting Effective Classroom Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the life experiences and beliefs of high school teachers exhibiting highly effective classroom management skills. The research for this phenomenological study utilized the narrative inquiry method of data collection. This study investigates the life experiences and beliefs of nine teachers…

  4. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  5. Health beliefs and behavior: the practicalities of "looking after yourself" in an Australian aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Kate; Chenhall, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Recently, social determinants of health frameworks are receiving some criticism in that they do not engage with questions related to individual subjectivity and agency as they relate to health decision-making behavior. This article examines the different ways in which people living in a remote Arnhem Land community in the Northern Territory of Australia, take responsibility for their own health and the extent to which they are able to prevent illness. A number of related sub-questions are explored relating to how people perceive their health and their role in health care in their community, including their engagement with the health clinic, traditional medicines, and the influence of sorcery on ill health and sickness.

  6. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  7. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  8. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  9. Determinants of adherence to self-care behavior among women with type 2 diabetes: an explanation based on health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh; Zareban, Iraj; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-care is an essential element in treating a person with diabetes; and managing diabetes is of prime importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of adherence to self-care behavior among women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 female patients aged 30 to 60. Data collection tool was an anonymous valid and reliable questionnaire designed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM), which acquired information about the followings: Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behavior. Data were analyzed by t-test, chisquare and regression analysis. Results: The multiple regression models revealed 59.9% of the variance of self-care behavior with self-efficacy, perceived barrier, benefit and susceptibility. Additionally, the highest weight for β (β=0.87) was found for self-efficacy. Self-care behavior was positively correlated with all HBM variables except for perceived barriers showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model may be used as a framework to design intervention programs in an attempt to improve adherence to self-care behaviors of women with diabetes. In addition, the results indicated that self-efficacy might play a more crucial role in developing self-care behaviors than t other HBM components. Therefore, if the focus is placed on self-efficacy when developing educational programs, it may increase the likelihood of adherence to self-care behavior. PMID:27493912

  10. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: A four-wave longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eKrahé; Robert eBusching

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval about both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on bo...

  11. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored high...

  12. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  13. The 5-4-3-2-1 go! Brand to promote nutrition and physical activity: a case of positive behavior change but negative change in beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Wallace, Jasmine; Snider, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, community-based obesity prevention programs have taken an ecological approach and addressed social determinants of obesity. The branded 5-4-3-2-1 Go! obesity prevention program aims to change obesity risk behaviors in low-income neighborhoods in Chicago with a multilevel approach. This study follows a previous evaluation, which showed 5-4-3-2-1 Go! exposure to be associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption. The authors examined whether increased positive beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with exposure to program messages. Exploratory factor analysis identified a fresh fruit/vegetable availability satisfaction factor. The authors compared outcome measures between baseline and follow-up samples and between exposure and control conditions. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to evaluate the effects of program exposure on changes in nutrition beliefs. The study found that participants' (n = 246) beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption were negatively associated with exposure to the program and that demographic factors, social environment, and physical environment were strongly associated with beliefs about fruit and vegetable consumption. These findings merit further research and may indicate the environmental factors that are associated with attitude formation among those reached by obesity prevention interventions, especially when many participants live in neighborhoods lacking convenient fruit and vegetable shopping options.

  14. Value orientations to explain beliefs related to environmental significant behavior : How to measure egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In environmental literature it is argued that three different value orientations may be relevant for understanding environmental beliefs and intentions: egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric. Until now, the distinction between altruistic and biospheric value orientations has hardly been supported emp

  15. Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Weiner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors

  16. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  17. Cue-Responding Behaviors During Pharmacy Counseling Sessions With Patients With Asthma About Inhaled Corticosteroids: Potential Relations With Medication Beliefs and Self-Reported Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesenaar, Jeanine A; De Smet, Peter A G M; van Hulten, Rolf; Noordman, Janneke; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cue-responding behavior at the pharmacy while counseling about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in relation to medication adherence and medication beliefs. Patients with asthma aged ≥18 years using ICS were recruited from 12 pharmacies. Counseling sessions were video-recorded. Patients' emotional and informational cues and pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' cue-responding behaviors were coded using an expanded version of the Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire assessed patients' ICS concern and necessity beliefs. Self-reported ICS adherence was measured by four questions. During the 86 sessions, patients expressed on average 2.3, mostly informational, cues (70.8%). In 26.7% of the sessions, no cues were expressed. Pharmacists' and technicians' responses to emotional cues (59.3%) were mostly inadequate, and to informational cues mostly appropriate (63.6%). Providing inappropriate information (20.3%) was related to higher concerns post session (p < .05), and cue exploration to higher self-reported adherence at 3 months (p < .05). Apparently, providers' responses to patients' cues might have therapeutic value. In addition, patients might need to be encouraged to ask questions and express their concerns. PMID:26940701

  18. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghorbany

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.

  19. Pattern and Type of Aggressive Behavior in Patients with Severe Mental Illness as Perceived by the Caregivers and the Coping Strategies Used by Them in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Abin; Khakha, Deeepika C; Chadda, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Aggressive behavior by patients with severe mental illness is a major problem needing intervention. This descriptive cross sectional study examined the perception and coping strategies of caregivers with a sample of 100 toward aggressive behavior by patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient and inpatient unit of the department of psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital. The data were collected by a semistructured interview using Revised Overt Aggression Scale-modified, Aggressive Behavior and Intervention Checklist, Ways of Coping Checklist-Hindi Adaptation and Impact of Patient Aggression on Carers Scale-Adapted. The caregivers perceived aggression in varying extent from the patients. Majority used problem-focused coping to deal with aggressive behavior. Most of the caregivers perceived insisting to take medicines and talking about patient's illness as the triggers for aggressive behavior which was managed by talking to the patient calmly, lovingly and by leaving the patient alone. The findings strongly suggest aggressive behavior as a frequent problem faced by family members of patient with severe mental illness. Nursing interventions should focus on counseling and psycho education for empowering caregivers to utilize strategies to reduce occurrence of aggressive behavior from patient and ways to effectively cope with the situation. PMID:26804503

  20. 大学生应对效能与学业行为的关系研究∗%Relationship between Coping Efficacy and Learning Behaviors of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红瑞

    2016-01-01

    基于277名在校大学生的调查数据,考察大学生应对效能与学业行为的现状及两者之间的影响关系。研究发现:大学生的应对效能和学业行为在性别、是否学生干部两个因素上存在显著差异,男生的应对效能及学习策略的得分显著高于女生,学生干部的应对效能及学业行为得分显著高于非学生干部;应对效能各维度与学业行为各维度间存在显著正相关;应对效能的三个维度胜任力、自信程度、认知水平均能够显著预测大学生学业行为。%Abstracts:To study the relationship between coping efficacy and learning behaviors of college students,277college students were selected as a sample to complete coping efficacy scale and learning behaviors questionnaire.Results:Coping efficacy and learning behaviors of college students display significant gender difference and difference between the cadre students and the non-cadre students, and in the coping efficacy and the learning strategy scores,male students were higher than female students;in the coping efficacy and the learning behaviors scores,the cadre students were higher than the non-cadre students.Coping efficacy is positively correlated with learning behaviors.Competence perception,self-confidence degree and cognition level were mainly contributed to learning behaviors.

  1. Coping changes the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M. Nechvatal; Lyons, David M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequen...

  2. Coping changes the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M. Nechvatal; Lyons, David M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished su...

  3. Application of a modified health belief model to HIV preventive behavioral intentions among gay and bisexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Siero, F.W.; van den Eynden, R.J.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The utility of a modified health belief model (Janz and Pecker, 1984) for predicting the intention to use condoms was tested in a study among gay and bisexual men. The model explained a reasonable amount of variance. It was found that younger men's decision to have safe sex was guided by factors oth

  4. Relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers%汽车驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为和事故的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章; 贾杰; 尹莲; 唐勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为、事故的关系.方法 采用简单随机抽样方法,抽取347名驾驶员进行应对方式问卷、驾驶行为问卷的调查.结果 (1)除回避性应对与驾驶行为相关不显著外,对抗性应对、情绪性应对与驾驶行为有显著正相关( r=0.18~0.56,P<0.01);积极评估应对与驾驶行为有显著负相关(r=-0.34~-0.41,P<0.01).(2)积极评估应对、对抗性应对和情绪性应对对错误行为和疏忽行为均有显著的预测作用,解释率分别为33.5%和23.5%.对抗性应对和积极评估应对对超速及违规行为有显著预测作用,解释率为40.2%.(3)在轻微事故和一般事故中,事故驾驶员和安全驾驶员均在对抗性应对上差异有统计学意义(t=-2.75;2.80,P<0.01).结论 驾驶员应对方式是影响驾驶行为和事故安全的重要因素.%Objective To explore the relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers.Methods Three hundreds and thirty-seven drivers were randomly surveyed by Driving Coping Questionnaire ( DCQ),Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).Results ( 1 ) Except avoidance coping style,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping were correlated positively with the three driving behaviors ( r =0.18 ~ 0.56,P < 0.01 ),and positive appraisal coping had negatively correlations with them (( r =-0.34 ~-0.41,P<0.01 ).(2)Positive appraisal coping,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping could predict 33.5% of error behaviors and 23.5% of slip behaviors.And confrontive coping and positive appraisal coping could predict 40.2% of speeding and violation behaviors.(3) Compared with safety drivers,accident drivers had significantly differences in confrontive coping in mild and moderate crashes( t=-2.75,2.80,P< 0.01 ).Conclusion Driving coping styles are the important factors influencing drivers' behaviors and road safety.

  5. Unsupportive partner behaviors, social-cognitive processing, and psychological outcomes in couples coping with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Kashy, Deborah A; Siegel, Scott; Myers Virtue, Shannon; Heckman, Carolyn; Ryan, Danielle

    2014-04-01

    This study examined associations between partner unsupportive behaviors, social and cognitive processing, and adaptation in patients and their spouses using a dyadic and interdependent analytic approach. Women with early stage breast cancer (N = 330) and their spouses completed measures of partner unsupportive behavior, maladaptive social (holding back sharing concerns) and cognitive processing (mental disengagement and behavioral disengagement), and global well-being and cancer distress. Results indicated that both individuals' reports of unsupportive partner behavior were associated with their own holding back and their partners' holding back. Similar actor and partner effects were found between unsupportive behavior and behavioral disengagement. However, both patients' and partners' mental disengagement were associated only with their own unsupportive behavior. Together, holding back, mental disengagement, and behavioral disengagement accounted for one third of the association between partner unsupportive behavior and well-being and one half of the association between partner unsupportive behavior and intrusive thoughts. These results suggest that couples' communication and processing of cancer should be viewed from a dyadic perspective because couples' perceptions of one another's unsupportive behaviors may have detrimental effects on both partners' social and cognitive processing as well as their adaptation. PMID:24611691

  6. Coping with Bullying and Victimisation among Preadolescents: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Tsolakidou, Ioanna; Tzeliou, Evdoxia

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and victimisation may result from ineffective coping with interpersonal stressors. However, little is known about the preadolescents who are most susceptible to dysfunctional coping styles. Self-efficacy beliefs may be one source of individual differences in coping among those involved in bullying and victimisation. The purpose of the…

  7. Dyadic coping within couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Larsen, Pia Veldt;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The way couples deal with stressors is likely to influence their adjustment after breast cancer diagnosis. Based on the systemic-transactional model, this study examined whether the supportive, delegated and negative dyadic coping provided by patients and partners and their common dyad...... to disentangling how dyadic coping behaviors influence couples' adjustment. Interventions may focus on reducing negative dyadic coping and strengthening common dyadic coping, and be attentive to the different effects of dyadic coping on patients and partners....

  8. Unsupportive Partner Behaviors, Social-Cognitive Processing, and Psychological Outcomes in Couples Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Manne, Sharon; Kashy, Deborah A.; Siegel, Scott; Myers, Shannon; Heckman, Carolyn; Ryan, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between partner unsupportive behaviors, social and cognitive processing, and adaptation in patients and their spouses using a dyadic and interdependent analytic approach. Women with early stage breast cancer (N=330) and their spouses completed measures of partner unsupportive behavior, maladaptive social (holding back sharing concerns) and cognitive processing (mental disengagement, and behavioral disengagement), and global well-being and cancer distress. Resu...

  9. Religious beliefs and entrepreneurship among Dutch protestants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, C.A.; Burg, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Religious beliefs are known to correlate with a wide range of socio-economic behaviors. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between religious beliefs and entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence that entrepreneurship rates differ among religions suggests that religious beliefs influence

  10. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  11. The Role of Spirituality in Coping with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…

  12. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups.

  13. Predictors of Parent Stress in a Sample of Children with ASD: Pain, Problem Behavior, and Parental Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Caitlin E.; Mulder, Emile; Tudor, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that children with ASD have increased severity and incidence of pain symptoms compared to typically developing children and children with other disorders. Pain has also been shown to act as a setting event for problem behavior. Further, problem behavior is one of the biggest impediments to quality of life for families and highly…

  14. Beliefs about the use of nonprescribed antibiotics among people in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia: a qualitative study based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayati, Aris; Suryawati, Sri; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Hiller, Janet E

    2015-03-01

    Although antibiotics are prescription-only medicine in Indonesia, they can be purchased without prescription. This qualitative study elicited beliefs about nonprescribed antibiotics use informed by the theory of planned behavior to develop a questionnaire for an expanded theory of planned behavior survey. Twenty-five (N = 25) adults with experience of using nonprescribed antibiotics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied. Participants reported that the use of nonprescribed antibiotics was advantageous in term of saving time and money and of reducing the number of medicines that need to be purchased, in contrast to a perception of what occurs with medical prescriptions. Potential adverse effects, poor health outcomes, and antimicrobial resistance were the perceived disadvantages. Facilitators of such use were the availability of over-the-counter antibiotics and successful experience in using antibiotics. Medication for children was the perceived barrier to such use. Family members and friends, especially those with health education background, approved of such use.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Chinese craving beliefs questionnaire for heroin abusers in methadone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi-Lien

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CCBQ, an easy-to-administer assessment instrument of measurement of craving beliefs for heroin abusers. Methods Participants were 445 heroin abusers from four methadone clinics in Northern Taiwan. Fifty-one of the participants were tested twice within a two-week period at a different hospital to examine test-retest reliability. Results Three-factor solution using principal component analysis was identified in the CCBQ: will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping, accounting for 54.6% of the variance. Internal consistency analysis indicated that the three factors have strong reliability, with Cronbach alphas ranging from .81 to .92. The test-retest ICC coefficient is .80. The test-retest coefficients for the subscales will power, compulsive behavior, and negative coping are .76, .51, and .64, respectively. Overall, the data show that the CCBQ has acceptable reliability and validity, demonstrating that it can be a research instrument for assessing heroin craving beliefs. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the CCBQ seem promising for both research and clinical purposes, and the scale thus deserves further refinement and validation with heroin abusers.

  16. 学前儿童攻击应对策略的研究%Preschool Children's Coping Strategies with Aggressive Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董会芹; 张文新

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate preschool children's coping strategies with aggressive behaviors. Methods: Self-Report Coping Scale (SRCS) were used, and 276 children aged 3-6 from Jinan were interviewed to assess children's responses to four different aggressive contexts. Results: Children tended to use more escaping and social-support seeking than other strategies in all contexts. Escaping and externalizing strategies were influenced by aggressive contexts. Age difference was found in children's externalizing and problem-focused strategies, but gender difference was found in children's internalizing strategies. Coping strategies used by victims were different from normal children. Conclusion: Children tend to use social-support seeking and escaping in all aggressive contexts. Girls tend to endorse more internalizing strategies than boys. Victims favor externalizing and internalizing strategies more than normal children.%目的:探讨学前儿童攻击应对策略的一般特点.方法:以Kochenderfer-Ladd修订过的应对策略问卷为研究工具,通过个别访谈法考察276名3-5岁儿童在四种攻击情境下的应对策略.结果:四种攻击情境下,寻求支持和回避策略显著多于其它应对策略;回避和外化策略受攻击情境的影响;外化和问题解决策略存在显著的年龄组差异;内化策略的使用上存在显著的性别差异;受侵害者与一般儿童在同一攻击情境中所使用的应对策略存在明显差异.结论:寻求支持和回避策略是学前儿童使用最多的两种攻击应对策略,女孩较男孩更多使用内化策略,受侵害者与一般儿童相比更多使用内化与外化策略.

  17. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...

  18. Coping with Examinations: Exploring Relationships between Students' Coping Strategies, Implicit Theories of Ability, and Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. Aims: This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was…

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  20. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model: Integrating Anxiety and Phobia Coping Strategies into Fundamentals of Public Speaking College Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumano, Elena

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of the "Fear and Loathing of Speaking Out in Public" program. The program, a personal initiative, adapts primary features of the treatment offered by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for clients suffering from fears and phobias. CBT strategies include progressive desensitization, identifying…

  1. Is It Incivility or Mental Illness? Understanding and Coping with Disruptive Student Behavior in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton-Cassill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Rising rates of incivility in the college classroom can generate stress for both faculty and students. However, incivility can take multiple forms, have different causes and require different management techniques. In some cases disruptive behavior is the result of student faculty interactions, and can be ameliorated by improved communication or…

  2. STRES DITINJAU DARI ACTIVE COPING, AVOIDANCE COPING DAN NEGATIVE COPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantoro Safaria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStres  merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan  kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga  lanjut usia.  Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat  kronis.  Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh  dan  kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor  faktor tersebut adalah strategi  coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara  tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping  dan  negative coping  dengan  stres  pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah  41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil  analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan  yang signifikanantara   active coping, negative coping dan  avoidance coping  secara bersama-sama dengan  stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi  product momentpearson antara  active coping  dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p =  0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping  dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241.  Korelasiantara  negative coping  dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan  r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative  coping  menyumbang  9.3 %  terhadap  stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat  90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.

  3. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  4. Use of Health Belief Model Variables To Examine Self-Reported Food Handling Behaviors in a Sample of U.S. Adults Attending a Tailgate Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jennifer A; Hughes, Susan M; Liu, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Unsafe food handling behaviors are common among consumers, and, given the venue, individuals attending a tailgating event may be at risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to measure the association between Health Belief Model variables and self-reported usual food handling behaviors in a convenience sample of men and women at a tailgate event. Participants (n = 128) completed validated subscales for self-reported food handling behaviors (i.e., cross-contamination, sanitation), perceived threat of foodborne illness (i.e., perceived severity, perceived susceptibility), and safe food handling cues to action (i.e., media cues, educational cues). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was associated with safer behaviors related to sanitation (r = 0.40; P < 0.001) and cross-contamination (r = 0.33; P = 0.001). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was also associated with exposure to safe food handling media cues (r = 0.20; P = 0.027) but not with safe food handling educational cues. A large proportion of participants reported that they never or seldom (i) read newspaper or magazine articles about foodborne illness (65.6%); (ii) read brochures about safe ways to handle food (61.7%); (iii) see store displays that explain ways to handle food (51.6%); or (iv) read the "safe handling instructions" on packages of raw meat and poultry (46.9%). Perceived severity of foodborne illness was positively related to both dimensions of safe food handling as well as with safe food handling media cues. Except for the weak correlation between media cues and perceived severity, the relationships between safe food handling cues and perceived threat, as well as between safe food handling cues and behaviors, were nonsignificant. This finding may be due, in part, to the participants' overall low exposure to safe food handling cues. The overall results of this study reinforce the postulate that perceived severity of foodborne illness may influence food handling behaviors.

  5. Personality and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  6. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10

  7. Leader power and leader self-serving behavior : The role of effective leadership beliefs and performance information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this research we investigated the role played by leader power in determining leader self-serving behavior. Based on an integration of insights from research on the determinants of leader behavior and the power-approach theory, we hypothesized that with higher leader power leader self-serving beha

  8. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes.

  9. The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention Based on the Health Belief Model in the Empowerment of Stockbreeders Against High-Risk Behaviors Associated with Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.

  10. The impacts of a health belief model-based educational program on adopting self-care behaviors in pemphigus vulgaris patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Roya; Tol, Azar; Moradi, Azita; Baikpour, Masoud; Hossaini, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic disease and regarding its autoimmune nature, patients need to adopt self-care behaviors. This study aimed to assess the impacts of an educational program based on health belief model (HBM) on adopting self-care behaviors among patients with PV referred to Razi Hospital. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients with PV were randomized in an educational intervention study in two groups in 2013–2014. The intervention group attended a 6 months self-care educational program in a specialized outpatient clinic, in addition to the regular care presented for both groups. To collect information about demographic characteristics, PV-related variables, and HBM constructs items, a self-designed questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20. A P educational program as a tertiary preventive measure on adopting self-care behaviors in patients that can help them achieve self-efficacy in controlling their disease and enhancing their treatment process.

  11. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Renato ePisanti; Margot evan der Doef; Stan eMaes; Caterina eLombardo; David eLazzari; Cristiano eViolani

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS) model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE) beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Met...

  12. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Lombardo, Caterina; Lazzari, David; Violani, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS) model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE) beliefs. Background: OCSE refers to an individual’s beliefs about their ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources, and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap. Design: Cross-sectional s...

  13. [Influence of evaluations and coping behavior in relationships with supervisors on the psychological stress responses of subordinates: A comparison between full-time workers and students working part-time jobs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoichiro; Kugihara, Naoki

    2008-06-01

    This research examined workers' and supervisors' evaluations of their relationships and coping behaviors as related to the workers' psychological stress responses. The participants were full-time workers and students working part-time jobs. This study focused on both informal and formal relationships. The results showed that full-time workers who evaluated their informal relationships with their supervisors as being more negative and perceived their supervisors' evaluations as being more positive had greater psychological stress responses. The psychological stress responses of students working part-time jobs were not significantly associated with their evaluations or their supervisors' evaluations. The results for full-time workers indicate that supervisors' positive evaluations of their informal relationships increased the subordinates' psychological stress responses. The proportion of variance attributed to the coping behavior of full-time workers was lower than for students working part-time jobs. PMID:18678067

  14. What to do when feeling bored? : Students' strategies for coping with boredom

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia Marie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore different strategies for coping with boredom. A questionnaire was developed targeting two dimensions of coping, namely approach versus avoidance oriented coping and cognitive versus behavioral oriented coping. First, based on the responses of 976 students (51% female) from grades 5 to 10, the structure of the coping with boredom scales was verified by confirmatory factor analysis. In a second step, 3 different boredom-coping groups were identified by late...

  15. Marital Quality in Dual-Career Couples: Impact of Role Overload and Coping Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Schnurman-Crook, Abrina M.

    2001-01-01

    An explanatory model of stress and coping among dual-career partners examined the influence of role overload on individual coping strategies and relational coping resources as mediators, using marital quality as the measured outcome. Individual coping strategies included problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. Relational coping resources included maintenance behaviors, cooperative negotiation, and coercive negotiation. Data from a sample of 226 married, dual-career partners were subjected...

  16. Examination of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury: the contribution of injury beliefs and Leventhal's common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Deborah L; Hay-Smith, E Jean C; Surgenor, Lois J; Siegert, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Associations between components of Leventhal's common sense model of health behaviour (injury beliefs, coping, distress) and outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) were examined. Participants (n = 147) were recruited within three months following MTBI and assessed six months later, completing study questionnaires at both visits (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised, Brief COPE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Outcome measures included the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Rivermead Head Injury Follow-Up Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses examined associations between injury beliefs, coping and distress at baseline, and later outcome. Participants endorsing stronger injury identity beliefs (p model. Consistent with Leventhal's model, participant beliefs about their injury and recovery had significant associations with outcome over time. Coping also appeared to have important associations with outcome but more research is required to examine these. Current reassurance-based interventions may be improved by targeting variables such as injury beliefs, coping and adjustment soon after injury.

  17. Predictors of condom use behaviors based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in Hubei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhu Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection related to commercial sexual contact is a serious public health issue in China. The objectives of the present study are to explore the predictors of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs in China and examine the relationship between Health Belief Model (HBM constructs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two cities (Wuhan and Suizhou in Hubei Province, China, between July 2009 and June 2010. A total of 427 FSWs were recruited through mediators from the 'low-tier' entertainment establishments. Data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation models were constructed to examine the association. We collected 363 valid questionnaires. Within the context of HBM, perceived severity of HIV mediated through perceived benefits of condom use had a weak effect on condom use (r=0.07. Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were proximate determinants of condom use (r=0.23 and r=-0.62, respectively. Self-efficacy had a direct effect on perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, which was indirectly associated with condom use behaviors (r=0.36. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HBM provides a useful framework for investigating predictors of condom use behaviors among FSWs. Future HIV prevention interventions should focus on increasing perceived benefits of condom use, reducing barriers to condoms use, and improving self-efficacy among FSWs.

  18. Preferences and Beliefs in a Sequential Social Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander Karl;

    2014-01-01

    In empirical analyses of games, preferences and beliefs are typically treated as independent. However, if beliefs and preferences interact, this may have implications for the interpretation of observed behavior. Our sequential social dilemma experiment allows us to separate different interaction ...

  19. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  20. Sleep-related safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs mediate the efficacy of online CBT for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lancee; M.C. Eisma; A. van Straten; J.H. Kamphuis

    2015-01-01

    Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia. However, few studies have examined putative mechanisms of change based on the cognitive model of insomnia. Identification of modifiable mechanisms by which the treatment works may guide efforts t

  1. A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Parental Influence on Female Adolescents' Achievement Beliefs and Behaviors in Sport and School Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Jennifer A.; Weiss, Maureen R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about parental socialization processes for youth participants from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine parental influence on self-perceptions, task values, and achievement behaviors among female adolescents from two cultures using Eccles' expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Twelve…

  2. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  3. Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Hurt: Preliminary Evidence for the Relationship between Coping and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelan, Peter; Wojtysiak, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary empirical test suggesting a coping framework that describes the behavioral, cognitive, and emotion-focused activities related to the process that may lead to forgiveness. Among 170 participants, the study explored the coping strategies people use when they respond to an interpersonal hurt and also the general use…

  4. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  5. Coping with Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  6. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get help if you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with emotions Learn more ...

  7. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  8. Coping Style and Sleep Quality in Men with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyt, Michael A.; Thomas, KaMala S.; Epstein, Dana R.; Dirksen, Shannon R.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have characterized the effects of cancer diagnosis and treatment on sleep quality in men with cancer, and even fewer have identified mediators between psychosocial factors and physical symptoms. It has been debated whether active, approach-oriented, coping behaviors or more passive, avoidance-oriented, coping behaviors are more important to the preservation of sleep quality. This study tested the impact of coping style (i.e., approach vs. avoidance) on sleep quality and depress...

  9. Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-05-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with less reactive temperaments will reach certain milestones in theory-of-mind (ToM) development more quickly. We examined relations between temperament and false-belief understanding in 102 preschool-age children from China and the United States. Temperament was measured via parental ratings of behavior as well as with physiological measures of children's reactivity (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity gauged via salivary cortisol). In accord with an emotional reactivity hypothesis, children with certain reactive temperaments--specifically, those who were more aggressive and those who were both socially withdrawn and physiologically reactive--evidenced poorer social-cognition. However, our findings also force amendment to the ontogenetic emotional reactivity hypothesis. For the majority of children in both countries, physiological reactivity predicted more advanced ToM, perhaps by facilitating social engagement and attention to social stimuli. Moreover, children who were withdrawn from social interaction yet nonreactive, especially Chinese children of this temperament, evidenced advanced ToM. Thus, some forms of social disengagement may foster social-cognitive development in certain sociocultural contexts.

  10. The Effect of an Educational Intervention Program on the Adoption of Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors in Nurses: An Application of the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafkhani, Naser; Khorsandi, Mahboobeh; Shamsi, Mohsen; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of a theory-based educational intervention program on the level of knowledge and Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs among nurses in terms of the adoption of preventive behaviors. Methods This pretest/posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 nurses who were recruited through the multistage sampling method. The nurses were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The participants were evaluated before and 3 months after the educational intervention. A multidimensional questionnaire was prepared based on the theoretical structures of the HBM to collect the data. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results There was no significant difference in the mean values of HBM constructs prior to the intervention between the intervention and control groups. However, after the administration of the educational program, the mean scores of knowledge and HBM constructs significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with the control group (p nurses' scores of knowledge and HBM constructs; therefore, theory-based health educational strategies are suggested as an effective alternative to traditional educational interventions. PMID:26835199

  11. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas;

    Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic institut......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We...

  12. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  13. 地方高校医学专业教师职业倦怠与应付行为研究%Investigation of job burnout of teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities and coping behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松泉; 王光丽; 黄阳生; 丁明星; 王志平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of job burnout of professional teachers of medicine in local colleges and universities,coping behavior and their mutual relationship.Methods The thesis investigates and analyzes 347 teachers of medicine of 4 local colleges and universities in Zhejiang Province by adopting revised edition of the MBI-GS and "Coping Behavior Questionnaire" written by XIAO Ji-hua.Results The job burnout of teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities is of moderate level.There exists a significant difference of three dimensions including emotional exhaustion,depersonalization and lower level of the sense of achievement among teachers of different ages,positions,titles and years spent in teaching.Teachers of medicine of colleges and universities of different features of demography are significantly different in coping behaviors and the coping behaviors are related to three dimensions of job burnout.Conclusions The phenomenon of job burnout of professional teachers of medicine of local colleges and universities is widespread and the intensity of job burnout is related to features of demography such as age,position,title,years spent in teaching.Job burnout is related to coping behaviors and examining and dealing in advance with the negative coping behaviors can improve the intervention effects of job burnout.%目的 研究地方高校医学专业教师的职业倦怠现状和应付行为及其相互关系.方法 采用Maslach职业倦怠量表(MBI-GS)修改版和肖计划编制的“应付行为问卷”,对浙江省4所地方高校医学专业347名教师进行调查和分析.结果 地方高校医学专业教师的职业倦怠处于中等程度,不同性别、岗位、职称和教龄的教师在情绪衰竭、去人性化和低成就感三个维度的差异均有统计学意义;不同人口统计学特征的高校医学专业教师在应付行为因子上的差异具有统计学意义,且与职业倦怠

  14. 大学生危险行为与自我和谐应对方式的关系%Relationship between risk behaviors of university students and self congruency, coping mechanims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤琼; 黄进; 张华东; 马爱霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand risk behaviors among university students and its relationship with self congruency and coping mechanisms, and to provide evidence for reducing the risk behaviors. Methods A total of 1 085 students of a university in Chongqing were investigated with Self Congruency Checklist (SCCS) , Simple Coping Strategy Questionnaire (SCSQ) and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). Results The incidence rate of IS risk behaviors among different genders was significantly different) P <0.05 or P<0.01). The incidence rate of 5 risk behaviors among different grades was significantly different( P <0.01). The incidence rate of 4 risk behaviors among different professional disciplines was significantly different) P <0.05 or P <0.01). Correlation analysis showed that the risk behaviors among university students were closely related to self congruency and coping mechanisms. Multiple regression showed that influencing factors of risk behaviors included overall self congruency , negative coping and self stiffness. Conclusion Comprehensive measures should be taken to raise the overall self congruency and reduce the negative coping mechanisms in order to decrease the incidence and severity of risk behaviors among university students.%目的 了解大学生危险行为的现状及其与自我和谐和应对方式的关系,为减少危险行为的发生提供依据.方法 采用自我和谐量表、简易应对方式问卷和青少年危险行为监测问卷,对重庆市某高校大学生1 085名进行问卷调查.结果 不同性别大学生15种危险行为报告率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),不同年级大学生5种危险行为报告率差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01),不同专业学科大学生在4种危险行为报告率的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).相关分析显示,大学生的危险行为与自我和谐和应对方式相关(P <0.05或P<0.01).多元回归分析显示,大学生危险行为的

  15. The Dynamics of Moral Beliefs and Minor Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Ross L.

    1989-01-01

    Contrary to social control theory, adolescent boys' belief in the efficacy of honesty had little impact on minor deviant activities, whereas deviance had a large effect on beliefs. A situational theory of crime is needed to conceptualize the reciprocal causal relationship of beliefs and deviant behavior. Contains 60 references. (SV)

  16. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  17. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  18. Scaling Irrational Beliefs in the General Attitude and Belief Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay R. Owings

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of key constructs is essential to the continued development of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT. The General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS, a contemporary inventory of rational and irrational beliefs based on current REBT theory, is one of the most valid and widely used instruments available, and recent research has continued to improve its psychometric standing. In this study of 544 students, item response theory (IRT methods were used (a to identify the most informative item in each irrational subscale of the GABS, (b to determine the level of irrationality represented by each of those items, and (c to suggest a condensed form of the GABS for further study with clinical populations. Administering only the most psychometrically informative items to clients could result in economies of time and effort. Further research based on the scaling of items could clarify the specific patterns of irrational beliefs associated with particular clinical syndromes.

  19. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  20. Trust Responsiveness and Beliefs.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo A. Guerra; Zizzo, Daniel John

    2002-01-01

    Trust responsiveness is the tendency to fulfill trust because you believe that it has been placed on you. The experiment presented in this paper uses two simple trust games to measure directly or indirectly the robustness of trust responsiveness in three conditions: when beliefs are elicited and a summary of these beliefs is transmitted; when beliefs are elicited but not transmitted, when beliefs are not elicited. Insofar as we can tell, trust responsiveness is robust to our belief manipulati...

  1. Spiritual coping and anxiety in palliative care patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Holly; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2013-01-01

    Patients often rely on spirituality to cope with anxiety, yet it is not known if spiritual coping actually helps patients deal with anxiety. The present study was designed, therefore, to examine this relationship. A series of patients who were referred to the palliative care team at New York University, Langone Medical Center (N = 44) were interviewed about their spiritual coping and anxiety. Anxiety was measured using the first three items of the GAD-7. Fourteen items, which were adapted from existing scales, were used to create the "Beliefs and Activities Spirituality Scale" (BASS), having two subscales: Activities (α = .79) and Beliefs (α = .82). Anxiety had a significant negative correlations with the total BASS (r = -.56), and the Activities (r = -.52) and Beliefs (r = -.42) subscales. The salubrious association of spiritual coping and anxiety remained for the BASS and the Activities subscale, after controlling for demographic variables. PMID:24070434

  2. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Zyga; Evmorfia Koukia; Antonios Travlos; Stavroula Mitrousi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar ...

  3. Coping with chronic illness: A study with end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies coping styles and strategies used by 40 end-stage renal disease patients over 20 years old who receive treatment in a general hospital in Peru. The instruments applied were a personal sociodemographic questionnaire and the Coping Inventory (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub, 1989. Results showed that emotion focused coping were most frequently used followed by problem focused coping. Planning, acceptance and positive reinterpretation-growth coping strategies were more frequently used by these patients, whereas mental disengagement, suppression of competing activities and behavioral disengagement were the less frequently used coping strategies. Other differences between coping styles and strategies and sociodemographic and medical variables were analyzed.

  4. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  5. Urban Parents' Perceptions about the Role of Organized Religion and Spiritual Beliefs in Their Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchlyn, Carol L.; Smith-Myles, Brenda; Cook, Virginia H.

    2007-01-01

    Parents with children with cognitive disabilities may rely on organized religion and/or spiritual beliefs as coping strategies in their lives. Fifteen parents of adolescents with cognitive disabilities were administered the Support From Religious Organizational and Personal Beliefs Scale-Revised to test this hypothesis. The results indicated that…

  6. Relationship between Self-injurious Behaviors,Coping Style and Family Environment of College Students%大学生自伤行为与家庭环境及应付方式的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚成静; 潘艳云; 董树平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of family environment and coping style on Self-injurious behaviors(SIB)of college students. Methods With randomized sampling, 587 students were investigated with questionnaire including soeio demographic factors, Self-injurious behaviors, suicidal attempt and behaviors,Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES—CV)and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire(SCSQ). Results The rate of total SIB was 11. 6% and the average age was 14. 34(SD = 3. 692). The score of negative coping in SIB group was significantly higher than that in control group(t=3. 172,P = 0. 002).Family cohesion and expressiveness had negative correlation with SIB(P<0. 000). The binary logistic regression analysis indicated that relationship between parents and who fostered in childhood,and has suicide ideas while in depression may be the risk factors of SIB. Conclusion Negative life events and negative coping style have association with SIB of college student.%目的 了解大学生自伤行为的现状,初步探讨家庭环境因素及个体应付方式对自伤行为的影响.方法 横断面调查某城市3所高校中不同年级学生共587人,采用自编人口学问卷和自杀自伤行为问卷,同时调查家庭环境和应付方式.结果 该大学生群体中总体自伤发生率为11.6%,第一次出现自伤行为的平均年龄为(14.34±3.692)岁;单因素分析发现自伤行为组的消极应对分值明显高于正常组(t=3.172,P=0.002),家庭亲密度和情感表达与自伤行为显著负相关(P<0.000),多因素分析结果表明童年时父母的关系、从小由谁抚养以及因情绪低落而想到自杀(OR=0.303)可能是自伤行为的危险因素.结论 大学生自伤行为的发生与童年的家庭环境以及消极应对方式有关.

  7. THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral GUVEN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The researchers have mostly emphasized the epistemological beliefs which were considered as significant in learning process along with the desire to reveal the nature of learning. Epistemological belief is defined as the “individuals’ subjective beliefs about what information means and how knowing and learning occur”. It is a fact that the teachers’ epistemological beliefs have important effect on the students’ learning process. Teachers are the models for the students with both their patterns of behavior and learning approaches. The aim of this study was to determine the epistemological beliefs of the students attending to pre-school education and English language teaching departments in distance education, besides it was attempted to investigate these beliefs in terms of certain variables, namely, gender, department and grade that the students attend, and their academic achievement level, lastly the education level of their parents. The study was conducted through a descriptive method and 697 pre-service teachers composed the sampling of the study. To collect data, “Epistemological Belief Scale”, which was developed by Schommer (1990 and adapted to Turkish by Deryakulu and Büyüköztürk (2002, was used. As a result, it was obtained that the epistemological beliefs of the students in distance education developed at low level. Additionally, it was found that the epistemological beliefs of the pre-service teachers differed in terms of gender, department, grade, academic achievement, education level of parents.

  8. 游客体育旅游风险认知及应对行为的调查研究%A Research Survey on Tourists' Perception of Sports Tourism Risk and Coping Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毅清; 张俊香

    2012-01-01

    运用访谈法、问卷调查法和数理统计法,对游客体育旅游风险的认知及应对行为进行调查研究。着重从游客的性别、年龄、职业、学历等基本属性入手,分析他们对风险认知的差异,从五个方面全面了解游客体育风险应对行为现状,分析影响因素,提出对策建议。%By using the methods of interview,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,the paper makes survey research on the tourists' perception of sports tourism risk and coping behaviors.The authors focus on studying the basic attributes of tourists' gender,age,profession,diploma and so on and analyse their risk perception differences.From five aspects,the paper takes a comprehensive study on the present situation of the tourists' coping behaviors of sports tourism risk.It analyses the impacting factors and puts forward countermeasures and suggestions.

  9. Coping with boredom in school : an experience sampling perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored students' use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  10. Coping with Boredom in School : An Experience Sampling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike; Götz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored students’ use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach – versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively – versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report questionnaire administered to 537 grade 11 students (55.3% female, Mage = 17.15 years). Additionally, 79 of these participants completed state-based boredom-r...

  11. Characterizing the neurotranscriptomic states in alternative stress coping styles

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ryan Y.; Lamm, Melissa S.; Godwin, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Animals experience stress in many contexts and often successfully cope. Individuals exhibiting the proactive versus reactive stress coping styles display qualitatively different behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors. The predisposition to exhibiting a particular coping style is due to genetic and environmental factors. In this study we explore the neurotranscriptomic and gene network biases that are associated with differences between zebrafish (Danio rerio) lines se...

  12. Scientific faith: Belief in science increases in the face of stress and existential anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Kahane, Guy; de Toledo, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations. PMID:24187384

  13. Scientific faith: Belief in science increases in the face of stress and existential anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Kahane, Guy; de Toledo, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations.

  14. Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions toward Teaching Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mihye; Block, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) measures the effect that individuals' behavioral belief, normative belief, and control beliefs have on their intentions to perform a specific behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine: (a) whether the TpB could predict physical educators' intentions and (b) whether physical educators' intentions and…

  15. Influence of coping style on smoking behavior among middle school students in Xi'an%西安市中学生应对方式对尝试吸烟行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙果

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand smoking situation of middle school students and to provide the basis for prevention and treatment of smoking behavior, the article explores the relationship between coping style and smoking behavior.Methods The questionnaire was conducted among 1 028 middle school students by random sampling from Grade eight, Grade ten and Grade twelve of 6 districts in Xi'an.Students Coping style was investigated: the relation between problem solving, seeking help, abreaction, fantasy, patience and their smoking behavior.Results The rate of young people trying to smoke was 34.1% in Xi'an.It had statistical significant of students smoking behavior among different grade and sex.The girls adopted more withdraw, abreaction and endurance than boys.The students of Grade ten were more likely to adopted problem solving, and those of grade eight were more likely to adopt problem seeking and withdraw.The students' coping style of problem-solving, avoidance, trying to imagine was related with their smoking behavior.Conclusion Coping style of middle school students is closely related to their smoking behavior.Students should be guided to use scientific methods to deal with stress so as to reduce smoking behavior.%目的 了解西安市中学生吸烟状况及其与应对方式的关系,为预防和矫治中学生吸烟行为提供依据.方法 从西安市6个城区随机抽取8所中学初二、高一和高三年级的1 028名学生,采用问卷调查分析中学生日常应对方式中问题解决、求助、发泄、幻想、忍耐与吸烟行为的关系.结果 西安市中学生尝试吸烟率为34.1%;中学生应对方式的性别、年级差异有统计学意义,女生采取退避、发泄和忍耐的方式多于男生,高三学生更多采取问题解决的方式,初二学生更多采取求助和退避的方式.中学生的问题解决、退避和幻想等应对方式与尝试吸烟行为之间存在相关.结论 中学生吸烟行为与其应对方式有密

  16. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement of

  17. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena Jacobsson; Svenson, Ola

    1997-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement

  18. 某医科大学研究生睡眠质量与应对行为的相关研究%Investigation of Medical Graduates'Coping Behavior and Sleep Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章莹; 胡贵方; 陈清; 周军华; 林锦彦; 张正刚; 江晓玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the coping behavior and sleep quality of graduates in medical university,to reveal the relationship between them. Methods 177 graduates from some Medical University were randomly chosen, then the self-made questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI) were used to investigate the coping behavior and sleep quality. Results 10.7% of the graduates had sleep problem, there was no significant difference between different gender;the sleep quality declined in the higher grade, but the trend was not statistically significant. When encounted with failure, the graduates were more willing to alleviate the pressure through the intemet, and classmate and affection relationship were also affected. Graduates with the behavior of "over-internet" ," diterioration of affection" and "violence" had poor sleep quality. The logit regression analysis showed that "suicidal tendency" was a risk factor of sleep quality. Conclusion Though the investigation of sleep quality, the coping behavior and health of graduates can be improved effectively.%目的 调查当前研究生的应对行为及睡眠质量,并且分析两者之间的相关性.方法 随机抽取177名某医科大学研究生,采用自制调查表及匹兹堡睡眠质量调查表进行调查.结果 10.7%的研究生有睡眠质量问题,不同性别研究生的睡眠质量差异没有统计学意义;随着年级的增高睡眠质量下降,但这种趋势没有统计学意义.当遇到挫折时,研究生多数选择通过上网来缓解压力,同学关系、恋人关系较多受到影响.有"通过过度上网缓解压力"、"恋人关系恶化"、"暴力行为"的研究生睡眠质量较差,且差异具有统计学意义.Logit回归分析结果显示"自杀倾向"是影响睡眠质量的危险因素.结论 通过调查学生的睡眠质量,有针对性地改善研究生的应对行为及身心健康.

  19. One of early maladaptive schemas’ causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. Materials and Methods: The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012–2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. Result: The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. Conclusion: This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns. PMID:26430689

  20. Epistemological Beliefs of Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the epistemological beliefs of learners of general subjects has been the focus of many studies in the past, so far, little is known about the beliefs of apprentices on knowledge and the acquiring of knowledge. The present study analysed the first level of epistemological beliefs of students in industrial and technical professions and their…

  1. Belief and Its Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The role of experience for belief revision is seldom explicitly discussed. This is surprising as it seems obvious that experiences play a major role for most of our belief changes. In this work, the two most plausible views on the role of experience for belief change are investigated: the view that

  2. Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Coping in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Daniel; Prchal, Alice; Vollrath, Margarete; Landolt, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    Findings about the influence of coping on psychological adjustment in children with different medical conditions are inconsistent and often based on cross-sectional data. This prospective study evaluated the effect of various coping strategies on children's post-traumatic stress symptoms and behavioral problems 1 month and 1 year after an…

  3. Coping, Reasons for Living, and Suicide in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Nyutu, Pius N.; Tran, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the roles of reasons for living and coping in protecting against suicidal behaviors among 361 Black college students. Results of a path analysis revealed that reasons for living mediated against suicidal ideation through an inverse effect on depression. Results also indicated that greater use of emotion-oriented coping may…

  4. The Association between Teachers' Child-Centered Beliefs and Children's Academic Achievement: The Indirect Effect of Children's Behavioral Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Jeon, Lieny

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that teachers' psychological attributes can be an indicator of teacher quality (Rimm-Kaufman and Hamre in "Dev Psychol" 45(4):958-972. doi: 10.1037/a0015861 , 2010), and teachers' child-centered beliefs have been associated with children's academic achievement (Burchinal and Cryer in "Early…

  5. Alcohol Abuse as a Rite of Passage: The Effect of Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience on Undergraduates' Drinking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative studies of alcohol's ritual influences indicate that college undergraduates who drink heavily tend to view alcohol use as integral to the student role and feel entitled to drink irresponsibly. Our analyses, based on a standardized measure of these beliefs administered to approximately 300 students, confirmed these findings. Among our…

  6. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author)

  7. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, L.J. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden).Dept. of Man-Technology Organization; Svenson, O. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    1997-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator`s appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author).

  8. 认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式的影响%The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Coping Style of Patients With Bipolar Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心蕊; 王奎

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式的影响。方法选择我院2014年1月~2015年9月收治的66例双相抑郁患者作为观察对象,给予连续10周、每周2次的认知行为治疗,采用应对方式量表对患者的治疗结果进行评价。结果患者应对方式中的幻想、求助、退避与解决因子得分相对于治疗前的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论认知行为治疗对双相抑郁患者应对方式具有积极影响,对于改善病情具有较好的作用。%Objective To study the cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar depression cope with the effects of the way.Methods 66 cases of bipolar depression treated in our hospital from January 2014 to September 2015 were selected as the observation objects, for 10 consecutive weeks, 2 times a week cognitive behavioral therapy, the use of coping style scale to evaluate the results of the treatment of patients.Results Patients with fantasy, help seeking, avoidance and solve factor scores compared with before treatment, the difference has statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). ConclusionThe cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with bipolar depression, has a positive influence to deal with to improve disease has good effect.

  9. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  10. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  11. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability.

  12. 基于认知行为理论的高职学生压力应对教育%Education to Vocational College Students' Stress Coping Based on Theory of Cognitive Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳侠

    2012-01-01

    随着社会的发展,职场人士面临越来越大的压力,学会应对压力是正常生活和工作必须的能力。作为在校大学生,尤其是高职院校的学生,更要学会应对压力,才能在走向社会后从容面对挑战。根据认知行为理论,研究者设计了一套适合高职学生的压力应对教育模式。%With the development of the society, people in workplace are facing increasing pressure. Learning to deal with stress is a necessary skill for them to have successful life and work. Students, especially vocational college students, need to learn how to cope with stress, to calmly face the challenges in the society. According to the cognitive behavior theory, researchers have designed a suitable education mode to vocational college students' stress coping.

  13. The Impact of Anti-dumpling Coping Behavior on China's Guild Development Under Market Economy%市场经济下反倾销应对对我国行业协会发展方向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利

    2009-01-01

    The fact that most of China' s guilds are created within different system results in a variety of problems in function orientation, inner mechanism and membership, as well as the failure in coordination, organization and service. Through a comprehensive analysis of the anti-dumpling coping behavior in China, this paper suggests that the guilds should be transconformed as sson as possible to be international, multi-regionalizaed, and folk so as to improve their capability to cope with ant-dumplings.%由于我国的行业协会多为体制内生成,在职能定位、内部机制和成员组成上存在诸多问题,在反倾销应对中出现了协调、组织和服务职能的缺失现象.针对于我国反倾销的现实必须尽快实现,行业协会的转型,促使其向国际化、泛区域化和民间化的方向发展,提高其应对反倾销的能力.

  14. Magical beliefs and rituals in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Milanak, Melissa E; Medeiros, Bethany; Ross, Jennifer L

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-one children were administered a structured interview that assessed their beliefs about magic, tricks and wishes. Children were also presented with demonstrations of magic tricks/illusions, and asked to offer explanations as to how they worked. Parents completed the Childhood Routines Inventory (CRI), a 19-item parent report measure that assesses children's rituals, habits and sensory-perceptual experiences that we have termed "compulsive-like" behavior. Results indicated that children's rituals and compulsions were positively related to their magical beliefs, and inversely related to their uses of concrete, physical explanations to describe various phenomena. In particular, children's beliefs about the effects of wishing were most consistently correlated with their compulsive-like rituals and routines. The findings extended the work on magical beliefs and obsessive-compulsive phenomena to the normative manifestation of compulsive behaviors found in typical development.

  15. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Introduction Coping with Feelings Reducing Stress Quitting Smoking Eating Well and Losing Weight Getting Physically Active - Introduction - ... of High Blood Pressure? 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 Low Blood Pressure 7 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  16. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  17. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

  18. Coping with College Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  19. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coping with Feelings Updated:Apr 20,2016 ... Stories from Survivors Survivors of heart disease and stroke are not alone. Read their stories of hope . ...

  20. Coping with Rosacea: Tripwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form Search You are here Home Coping With Rosacea Tripwires - Weather Sun exposure, hot weather, humidity, cold ... you select rosacea-friendly meals: Monitor how your rosacea reacts to alcoholic beverages . Alcoholic beverages often induce ...

  1. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...

  2. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Introduction Coping with Feelings Reducing Stress Quitting Smoking Eating Well and ... Stories from Survivors Survivors of heart disease and stroke are not alone. Read their stories ...

  3. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself Introduction Coping with Feelings Reducing Stress Quitting Smoking Eating Well and Losing Weight Getting ...

  4. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...

  5. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  6. Task-Oriented Versus Emotion-Oriented Coping Strategies: The Case of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariv, Dafna; Heiman, Tali

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between stress and coping strategies among 283 college students. Participants completed questionnaires relating to their stress perceptions, actual academic loads and their coping strategies. The main objective was to explore the effect of stress perceptions on coping behavior while accounting for objective…

  7. When the struggle against dejection becomes a part of everyday life: a qualitative study of coping strategies in older abused people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmoe A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Astrid Sandmoe, Solveig HaugeFaculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: Abuse of older people is a serious issue and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and professionals will encounter elderly victims of abuse in all areas of the health care system. An important health determinant is behavioral factors, including coping style, which will impact on how older people manage stress and maintain control in their lives, and thereby protect themselves from abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the coping strategies elderly people abused by their offspring used to manage everyday life.Methods: A qualitative approach was used and 14 elderly victims of abuse were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis.Results: Five main coping strategies were identified. The main strategy was linked to the role of parent. Another prominent strategy was attitude towards being victimized. Further strategies were associated with hope for a better relationship with offspring in the future, while others felt that they had done the best they could, or that their offspring were no longer their responsibility. The results are discussed in light of theoretical perspectives related to coping and resilience.Conclusion: Abuse of older people by their offspring imposes severe stress on victims and challenges the values and beliefs about the caring nature of families. The findings of this study indicate that victims of abuse use a wide range of coping techniques to manage everyday life, and that some strategies help them to maintain their self-respect in their role as parents and find some sort of resilience.Keywords: elder abuse, older parents, coping

  8. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  9. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica María Ospina Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the re­courses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004, in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Pro­cessing, defines Coping as the “behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands”. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986, a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that en­hance this adaptation. Methodology: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Syner­gy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  11. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars....

  12. Ideology as Distorted Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Bevir, Mark

    1996-01-01

    A critical theory of ideology must incorporate an analysis of distorted belief unless it is to rest on a simplistic reductionism. And an analysis of distorted belief must focus on the inner constitution of consciousness unless it is to rest on a problematic claim to a privileged access to truth. This essay endeavours to provide such an analysis. Distorted beliefs arise as a result of deception, the action of the unconscious, or irrationality. In each of these cases the distortion is motiv...

  13. 父母教养方式与大学生志愿者利他行为的关系--前瞻性应对方式的中介作用%The Effect of Parenting Styles on a College Student Volunteer’Altruistic Behaviors---The Mediator Role of the Proactive Coping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊斌; 卢宁

    2015-01-01

    为了了解大学生志愿者父母教养方式、前瞻性应对方式对其利他行为的影响,采用父母教养方式量表、前瞻性应对方式与利他行为自陈问卷对广东省272名大学生志愿者进行调查.结果显示:父母教养方式的关爱维度、前瞻性应对方式和利他行为之间存在显著的正相关;母亲关爱和前瞻性应对方式作为抑制变量会增强父亲控制对利他行为的预测效应;父亲关爱通过前瞻性应对方式完全中介作用于利他行为,中介效应为79.42%,母亲关爱通过前瞻性应对方式部分中介作用于利他行为,中介效应为31.38%.由此可见,父母教养方式会通过前瞻性应对方式间接影响大学生志愿者的利他行为.%Parental bonding instrument (PBI),Proactive coping scale (PCS)and Altruistic behavior questionnaire were adopted to investigate 272 college student volunteers in an attempt to find out about the influence of parenting styles,the proactive coping on their altruistic behaviors in Guangdong.The results showed that:Altruistic behaviors were positively correlated with the care factor and proactive coping factor in the parenting styles;Mother care and proactive coping,as the suppression variables,can enhance the predictive validity of father control upon the altruistic behavior.The mediator effect of the Father care can fully effect upon the altruistic behavior via the proactive coping approach(the mediating effect value reaches as high as 79.42%),while the mediator effect of mother care is partially effected upon the altruistic behavior via the proactive coping with a mediating effect value of about 31.38%),indicating that the parenting style indirectly influences college student volunteer’altruistic behaviors via the mediation of proactive coping.

  14. The Relationship Between Hope and Religious Coping Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Pourghaznein, Tayebe; Parsa, Marzie

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Globally, diabetes is one of the most common non-contagious diseases resulting in severe complications. Fostered hope facilitates coping and improves self-care and one of the Factors affecting hope is religious beliefs. This research investigated the level of hope and its relationship with religious coping among Type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods: This correlation, cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients with Type 2 diabetes, who had been referr...

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander;

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions...... in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test for the empirical...

  16. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with ......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home...

  17. Indisciplina, stress e coping

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Maria Helena dos Santos Marques de

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia da Educação e da Orientação), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2011 O presente estudo foi realizado com o propósito de analisar as relações entre as vivências de indisciplina, o stress e o coping em crianças e jovens no contexto escolar, de forma a compreender em que medida a indisciplina reflecte o uso inadequado de estratégias de coping. Pretendeu-se simultaneamente aceder às representações dos alunos sobre a indisciplina...

  18. Coping Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Negative Cognitions on Posttraumatic Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Cieslak, Roman; Benight, Charles C.; Lehman, Victoria Caden

    2008-01-01

    Although cognitive distortions have predicted posttraumatic distress after various types of traumatic events, the mechanisms through which cognitive distortions influence posttraumatic distress remain unclear. We hypothesized that coping self-efficacy, the belief in one’s own ability to manage posttraumatic recovery demands, would operate as a mediator between negative cognitions (about self, about the world, and self-blame beliefs) and posttraumatic distress. In the cross-sectional Study 1, ...

  19. Beliefs and Norms Associated with Smoking Tobacco Using a Waterpipe among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a wa...

  20. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Condition • Communicating with Professionals • Managing Your Medicines • Taking Care of Yourself Introduction Coping with Feelings Reducing Stress Quitting Smoking Eating Well and Losing Weight Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a ...

  1. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  2. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking...

  3. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  4. Coping with Computing Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  5. Coping with Glaucoma

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I could have coped with that, and yet it's something that almost happened. Announcer: It almost did happen to Ben Ewing because not long ago and without knowing it, Ben was going blind. Ben: I didn't ...

  6. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with Feelings Reducing Stress Quitting Smoking Eating Well and Losing Weight Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a Physical Activity Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & ...

  7. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  8. Instructional Strategies to Promote Incremental Beliefs in Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Stewart A.; Cliff, Dylan P.; Okely, Anthony D.; Weintraub, Dana L.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit beliefs about the nature of human abilities have significant motivational, behavioral, and affective consequences. The purpose of this article was to review the application of implicit beliefs to the youth sport context and to provide theoretically derived and evidence-based instructional strategies to promote adaptive implicit beliefs…

  9. College Student Invulnerability Beliefs and HIV Vaccine Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Zimet, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine behavioral history, beliefs, and vaccine characteristics as predictors of HIV vaccine acceptability. Methods: Two hundred forty-five US under graduates were surveyed regarding their sexual history, risk beliefs, and likelihood of accepting hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results: Multivariate regression analysis indicated that…

  10. Gender Beliefs and Cooperation in a Public Goods game Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E-M. Sent (Esther-Mirjam); J. Vyrastekova

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of gender beliefs for cooperation in a public goods game experiment. Controlling for risk preferences and for subjects’ unconditional willingness to cooperate, we find that gender beliefs affect behavior in homogenous groups where the group composition was announced.

  11. Effect of health belief model on type 2 diabetics mellitus self-care behavior%健康信念理论在2型糖尿病患者自护行为中的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贵霞; 谢虹; 郭贝清; 张珍珍; 徐亚梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the efficacy of health belief model on self-care behavior of the diabetic patients. Methods: A selfcontrol observation based-on health belief theory was carried out in 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. The diabetes knowledge, self-care ability and blood glucose control of the patients were compared before and after intervention. Results:After intervention, the patients'knowledge about diabetes, ability of diet control, regular exercise, medical order compliance, foot care and preventive management of high and low blood glucose were enhanced, and their blood sugar level improved significantly( P < 0.01 ), while their self-monitoring ability presented no significant difference before and after intervention( P > 0.05 ). Conclusions: Health belief model can improve the efficiency of diabetes healthy education as well as the self-care behavior of the diabetic patients.%目的:探讨健康信念模式在糖尿病教育中对糖尿病患者自护行为的有效性.方法:对65例2型糖尿病患者实施以健康信念理论为基础的干预模式,并进行自身对照观察,测评干预前后患者的糖尿病知识、自我护理能力和血糖控制情况.结果:65例患者在干预后糖尿病知识、饮食控制能力、规律锻炼、遵嘱用药、足部护理、预防处理高低血糖能力和血糖水平均较干预前有明显改善(P0.05).结论:健康信念模式可提高教育的效率,对改善糖尿病患者的自护行为有促进作用.

  12. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  13. Effect of the Holy Month of Ramadan on Coping Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    S Akuchekian; Ebrahimi, A.; S Alvandian

    2004-01-01

    Background: Stress is one of the risk factors for the development of so many physical and especially psychological disorders. Now, the impression is focused on coping strategies versus previous emphasis on nature and severity of stress. The present study was performed to evaluate if fasting, not only as a religious behavior but also as a coping strategy can influence the way of coping with stress in humans. Methods: In a pre-test / post-test survey, 100 medical students were evaluated for str...

  14. Southeast Asian Health Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…

  15. Study on effect of health belief on AIDS preventive behavior among floating population%健康信念对流动人口艾滋病预防行为的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩; 金辉; 张珍; 陈勇; 黄忠大; 朱立国; 王蓓

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用健康信念模式对1 447名流动人口的社会心理因素与艾滋病预防行为关系进行分析.方法 以健康信念模式理论为基础设计问卷,对张家港和丹阳两市流动人群进行随机抽样调查,应用多元回归方法进行统计分析.结果 调整后的健康信念模式分析结果表明,4个信念因素中知觉到易感性和知觉到严重性与艾滋病预防行为关系无统计学关联,而知觉到益处(py11=10.51,P=0.000)和知觉到障碍(py12=-2.59,P=0.010)分别与预防行为有统计学关联.性别、婚姻状况、居住情况和社会交往等社会文化因素对行为的直接影响有显著性,艾滋病知识通过4个健康信念对行为有间接影响.结论 健康信念模式中各因素对艾滋病预防行为的作用是不同的,城市流动人口艾滋病的预防控制应有针对性地制定健康教育策略.%OBJECTIVE To analyze association between psycho-social factors and AIDS preventive behaviors among 1 447 migrant population.METHODS Questionnaire designed based on Health Belief Model,applied convenience sampling survey to collect information in Zhangjiagang and Danyang,multiple regression was used in statistical analysis.RESULTS Adjusted Health Belief Model showed that the AIDS preventive behavior among migrant population had significant association with perceived benefits (pyll =10.51,P =0.000) and perceived barriers (pyl2 =-2.59,P =0.010),while had no association with perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of the disease.Social and cultural factors,like gender,marriage status,living condition and social action had direct influences on the preventive behaviors while AIDS knowledge had indirect influences through four health beliefs.CONCLUSION The roles of various factors in Health Belief Model are different; health education strategy should be targeted to characteristics of migrant population.

  16. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  17. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  18. Study on mobility-disadvantage group' risk perception and coping behaviors of abrupt geological hazards in coastal rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Anping

    2016-07-01

    China is a country highly vulnerable to abrupt geological hazards. The present study aims to investigate disaster preparedness and perception of abrupt geological disasters (such as rock avalanches, landslide, mud-rock flows etc) in mobility-disadvantage group living in coastal rural area of China. This research is to take into account all factors regarding disasters and to design the questionnaires accordingly. Two debris flow vulnerable townships are selected as study areas including Hedi Township in Qinyuan County and Xianxi Township in Yueqing City which are located in East China's Zhejiang Province. SPSS was applied to conduct descriptive analysis, which results in an effective empirical model for evacuation behavior of the disable groups. The result of this study shows mobility-disadvantage groups' awareness on disaster prevention and mitigation is poor and their knowledge about basic theory and emergency response is limited. Errors and distortions in public consciousness on disaster prevention and mitigation stimulate the development of areas with frequent disasters, which will expose more life and property to danger and aggravate the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. In conclusion, before drafting emergency planning, the government should consider more the disable group's expectations and actual evacuation behavior than the request of the situation to ensure the planning is good to work. PMID:27174691

  19. Job Stressors and Coping Strategies amongst Nigerian Ophthalmologists: an Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole C Omolase

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The leading job stressor was no time for leisure followed by overwork and financial constraint. Most respondents drew inspiration from religious belief to cope with stress. There is need for creation of recreational facilities in the hospitals and improvement in the welfare package of medical practitioners [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 13-18

  20. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs. PMID:24444458

  1. Individual differences in commitment to value-based beliefs and the amplification of perceived belief dissimilarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-Smith, Matthew A; Seligman, Clive; Conway, Paul; Cheung, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell-Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief-relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value-based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs.

  2. Quantifying Rational Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2009-12-01

    Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean AND and OR operations.

  3. Quantifying Rational Belief

    CERN Document Server

    Caticha, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Some criticisms that have been raised against the Cox approach to probability theory are addressed. Should we use a single real number to measure a degree of rational belief? Can beliefs be compared? Are the Cox axioms obvious? Are there counterexamples to Cox? Rather than justifying Cox's choice of axioms we follow a different path and derive the sum and product rules of probability theory as the unique (up to regraduations) consistent representations of the Boolean and and or operations.

  4. Coping self-efficacy mediates the effects of negative cognitions on posttraumatic distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Roman; Benight, Charles C; Caden Lehman, Victoria

    2008-07-01

    Although cognitive distortions have predicted posttraumatic distress after various types of traumatic events, the mechanisms through which cognitive distortions influence posttraumatic distress remain unclear. We hypothesized that coping self-efficacy, the belief in one's own ability to manage posttraumatic recovery demands, would operate as a mediator between negative cognitions (about self, about the world, and self-blame beliefs) and posttraumatic distress. In the cross-sectional Study 1, data collected among 66 adult female victims of child sexual abuse indicated that coping self-efficacy mediated the effects of negative cognitions about self and about the world on posttraumatic distress. The same pattern of results was found in a longitudinal Study 2, conducted among 70 survivors of motor vehicle accidents. Coping self-efficacy measured at 1 month after the trauma mediated the effects of 7-day negative cognitions about self and about the world on 3-month posttraumatic distress. In both studies self-blame was not related to posttraumatic distress and the effect of self-blame on posttraumatic distress was not mediated by coping self-efficacy. The results provide insight into a mechanism through which negative cognitions may affect posttraumatic distress and highlight the potential importance of interventions aimed at enhancing coping self-efficacy beliefs. PMID:18456241

  5. Identifying Belief-Based Targets for the Promotion of Leisure-Time Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most common type of physical activity (PA) and the likely target of efforts to increase PA. No studies, however, have identified the belief-level correlates for walking using the theory of planned behavior. This study elicits salient beliefs about walking and evaluates beliefs that may be most important for walking-promotion…

  6. A Comparison of Preservice Teachers' Beliefs on Education and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertemiz, Nese; Okut, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The beliefs held by preservice teachers will affect their classroom perceptions and behaviors. Therefore, understanding these beliefs is necessary to better understand preservice teachers, manage educational reforms successfully, and improving their teaching practice. From another perspective, understanding the belief structures of preservice…

  7. Burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, T Y G; Goossens, P J J; van der Bijl, J J

    2007-10-01

    This study was aimed to highlight the factors which influence experienced burden, coping and needs for support of caregivers for patients with a bipolar disorder. Research articles meeting content and methodological quality criteria from January 1995 through October 2005 were reviewed. High objective and subjective burden is experienced by these caregivers. Subjective burden is extremely influenced by illness beliefs. High burden is associated more with severity of symptoms (than diagnosis), difficulties in the relationship with patient, lack of support and stigma. Coping is influenced by appraisal and burden. Different phases in the process of caregiving require different coping mechanisms. Little research is available on effectiveness of coping mechanisms and needs for support. Suggestions are nevertheless found in the literature for professional support. Caregivers of patients with a bipolar disorder experience high burden and try to cope in different ways. Little research is available on coping styles and needs for support. However, recommendations can be made to increase support for these caregivers.

  8. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  9. Where Do the Cultural Differences in Dynamics of Controlling Parenting Lie? Adolescents as Active Agents in the Perception of and Coping with Parental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiwen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate about the universal or culture-specific role of controlling parenting in children’s and adolescents’ development. This study addressed the possibility of cultural variability in how controlling parenting practices are perceived and dealt with. Specifically, we examined Belgian ('N' = 341 and Chinese ('N' = 316 adolescents’ perceptions of and reactions towards a vignette depicting parental guilt-induction, relative to generally controlling and autonomy supportive vignettes. Whereas Belgian adolescents perceived guilt-induction to be as controlling as generally controlling parental behavior, Chinese adolescents’ perception of guilt-induction as controlling was more moderate. Belgian and Chinese adolescents also showed some similarities and differences in their responses to the feelings of need frustration following from the controlling practices, with compulsive compliance for instance being more common in Chinese adolescents. Discussion focuses on cross-cultural similarities and differences in dynamics of controlling parenting.

  10. The Formation of Rational and Irrational Behaviors in Risky Investment Decision Making: Laboratory Experiment of Coping Theory Implication in Investors’ Adaptation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Wendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the stock investor's rational and irrational behavior formation through Investor's Adaptation model. Hypotheses testings were conducted by manipulating four market conditions using between-subject experimental design. The results supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. When given treatment one (opportunity-high control, investors tended to adapt the profit maximizing strategy (rational. Meanwhile, when given treatment two (opportunity-low control, three (threat-high control and four (threat-low control, they tended to adapt the profit satisfying strategy (rational-emotional, bad news handling strategy (emotional-rational, and self-preserving strategy (irrational respectively. The application of rational strategies are intended to obtain personal benefits and profit, while adapting irrational strategy is intended to recover emotional stability and reduce some other tensions. Another finding showed that for the investors, the relatively irrational decision formation was "harder" than that of rational.

  11. Parenting difficulties and coping behaviors of mothers of premature infants discharged from NICU%NICU出院早产儿母亲的育儿困难与应对行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明芳; 藤本荣子

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)出院早产儿母亲育儿生活中的困难及应对行为.[方法]采用质性研究法,在早产儿出院后1周、1个月时分别利用面谈和电话访谈的方式对18名母亲进行深度访谈.[结果]母亲在早产儿出院后经历了困难的母乳喂养、哺乳不确定性的困惑、自我育儿能力低下的无措与自责、对早产儿常见症状的担心与不安、疲劳及育儿负担感、育儿信息所致的混乱等育儿困难及不安,母亲采取积极应对和消极逃避两种方式应对育儿过程中所遇到的困难.[结论]早产儿母亲在育儿过程中存在育儿困难,为提高早产儿母亲的育儿能力,探讨医院—社区—家庭一体化的连续性护理服务模式势在必行.%Objective:To know about the difficulties and coping behaviors of mothers of premature infants discharged from NICU during parenting life.Methods:The qualitative study method and personal interview and telephone interview styles were used for taking a depth interview on 18 mothers whose premature infants discharged from NICU respectively after a week and a month.Results:After preterm infants discharging mothers experienced the parenting difficulties and anxiety including difficulties of breastfeeding,confusion on breastfeeding uncertainty,flawless and remorse on low self-parenting skills,fears and uncertainty to common symptoms of premature infants,fatigue and parenting burden sense,confusion caused by parenting information.Mothers took the positive coping and negative escape to deal with the difficulties during the parenting process Conclusion:Preterm infants' mothers had difficulties during the parenting.In order to promote mothers' parenting skills,it is necessary to probe into the continuity of nursing service model with hospital-community family integration.

  12. Emotion awareness and coping in children with functional abdominal pain: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, H H F; de Haan, Else; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Literature on somatization suggests that patients suffering from medically unexplained symptoms are less aware of their emotions and use maladaptive coping strategies when coping with everyday problems. In addition, coping is hypothesized to mediate between emotion awareness and medically unexplained symptoms. Scientific evidence for the relevance of this hypothesis for children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) is, however, lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis in Dutch children with functional abdominal pain (FAP), aged 7-18 years. Between April 2007 and April 2010, a total of 114 referred children with FAP, 235 schoolchildren without abdominal pain and 407 schoolchildren with some abdominal pain (AP) of diverse etiology filled out questionnaires concerning their pain, emotion awareness and coping. MANOVA was used to investigate group differences in emotional awareness and coping. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the mediational role of coping. The results showed that children with FAP scored significantly lower on most aspects of emotion awareness than children without AP, although these differences were small. Contrary to expectations, children with FAP were more aware of a link between emotions and bodily sensations than children without AP. As for coping, we found that children with FAP used avoidant coping more often than children without AP. Overall, children with FAP mostly did not differ in their emotional awareness and coping compared to children with some AP. Problem focused coping had a small mediating effect for two aspects of emotion awareness. We conclude that children with FAP show only small differences in emotion awareness and coping compared to children without AP, and are practically no different from children with some AP. Contrary to common belief, it can be questioned whether emotion awareness and general coping are useful targets for psychological treatments of FAP to

  13. Predictive Factors for the Uptake of Coping Strategies by Spousal Dementia Caregivers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Lauren; MacCann, Carolyn; Croot, Karen

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of spousal dementia caregivers' coping strategies and their predictive factors is imperative for caregivers' well-being. Although several reviews have explored the relationship between coping strategies and outcomes, no review has investigated factors that predict caregivers' use of one type of coping strategy over another. The current review aimed to identify factors that predict caregivers' coping strategies. Within this, we attempted to identify caregivers who are more likely to adopt dysfunctional coping strategies and be at risk of adverse outcomes. Several electronic databases were systematically searched. Twenty-one studies were eligible for review, describing 18 caregiver and care-recipient factors related to the 3 coping strategies. No factors were classified "predictive," however, 16 factors were "potentially predictive." Younger, more highly educated caregivers with greater emotional supports and knowledge of dementia were associated with solution-focused coping. Younger, less educated caregivers were associated with emotional support/acceptance-based coping strategies. Whereas nonwhite caregivers with less emotional supports caregiving for persons with more behavioral problems were associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy, knowledge of dementia, improving social supports, linking to support groups, managing behavioral problems, as well as coaching adaptive coping strategies while flagging caregivers at risk for dysfunctional coping may improve outcomes for caregivers. PMID:26485497

  14. Coping strategies and psychological readiness of students for professional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichurin V.V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find out the current trends regarding the use of students coping strategies. Objectives of the study were to identify the coping strategies that are used by students in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral areas, as well as the identification of adaptive, non-adaptive and adaptive choices regarding their coping behavior. Material: the study involved 600 students (300 - boys, 300 - girls. Age of study participants was 17 - 19 years. Results: the level of students using a number of cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies has been identified according to the method of E.Heim. The tendencies for the use of students of adaptive, maladaptive and adaptive coping relatively fundamental idea lies behind. Conclusions: the most common coping strategy for students in the cognitive sphere is "self-preservation" in the emotional sphere is "optimism" in the behavioral field is "a distraction." The use of adaptive strategies of students quantify exceedes the use of maladaptive and relatively adaptive (except for behavioral adaptive strategies of boys and girls.

  15. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  16. 冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病患者的应对方式在自尊及其健康行为中的中介效应%The Mediating Effects of Coping Modes between Self-esteem and Health Behaviors among Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田茜; 范秀珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自尊对冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(简称冠心病)患者健康行为的影响以及应对方式的中介效应.方法 便利抽样法选取2010年11月至2011年3月在山东省某三级甲等医院心内科住院的140例冠心病患者,采用健康促进生活方式量表Ⅱ(health-promoting lifestyle profile Ⅱ,HPLP Ⅱ)、自尊量表(self-esteem scale,SES)及医学应对方式问卷(medical coping modes questionnaire,MCMQ)对患者进行问卷调查.结果 患者自尊量表的平均得分为(27.59±5.17)分,应对方式中面对、回避、屈服的平均得分分别为(19.40±5.48)、(17.49±2.28)、(10.78±4.51)分.健康行为量表平均得分为(124.48±31.03)分.冠心病患者自尊、健康行为、应对方式之间存在相关性.面对型应对方式在自尊与健康行为的关系中起到完全中介效应;回避型及屈服型应对方式则在其中起到部分中介效应,中介效应占总效应的比例分别为17.17%、63.72%,对健康行为的方差变异解释力分别为17.61%、41.47%.结论 对冠心病患者的健康行为干预可以提升患者自尊水平及改善患者的应对方式.%Objective To explore the influences of self-esteem on health behaviors of patients with (CHD) and the mediating effects of coping modes. Methods From November 2010 to March 2011,140 CHD inpa-tients from a Grade-Ⅲ Class-A Hospital in Shandong Province were investigated with health-promoting lifestyle profile Ⅱ ( HPLP Ⅱ ), self-esteem scale (SES),and medical coping modes questionnaire (MC MQ). Results The average score of SES was 27. 59±5. 17. The average score of coping modes of confrontation, avoidance and compromising were 9. 40± 5. 48,17. 49±2. 28 and 10. 78±4. 51, respectively. The averagescore of HELP Ⅱ was 124. 48±31. 03. There was a correlation between the coping modes of confrontation, avoidance and compromising. The confrontation coping mode totally mediated the influence of self-esteem on

  17. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  18. Coping with interpersonal stress: role of big five traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Baggley, Dayna; Preece, Melady; Delongis, Anita

    2005-10-01

    Seventy-one couples living in a stepfamily context reported interpersonal family stressors and related coping strategies daily for 1 week in a daily process study. The role of personality and of the stressful context in each of the spouse's coping was examined. Personality was assessed via the Five-Factor Model (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Two types of stressors emerged as primary dimensions of stepfamily stress: marital conflict and child misbehavior. These were treated as contextual factors in multilevel modeling analyses examining the independent and interactive effects of personality and situation on coping. Nine subscales of coping were examined based on three main functions of coping: problem-, emotion- and relationship-focused. Both the situational context and the five dimensions of personality examined were significantly and independently related to coping-strategy use. Moreover, there were significant personality-by-context interactions. The present study highlights the importance of considering personality in context when examining coping behaviors. PMID:16138869

  19. Coping and health outcomes in spouse caregivers of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neundorfer, M M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of different coping patterns on the physical health, depression, and anxiety experienced by 60 spouse caregivers of persons with dementia were examined, using Lazarus and Folkman's cognitive model of stress and coping. In addition to coping, the model included the following predictors: severity of the patient's memory and behavior problems, caregiver's appraisal of the stressfulness of those problems, and caregiver's appraisal of their options for managing caregiving. The predictors did not explain a significant amount of the variance in caregivers' physical health, but they did explain 43% of the variance in both depression and anxiety. The only coping pattern that added to the explanations was Wishing-Emotive coping, which consisted of the coping subscales of escape-avoidance, confrontive coping, and accepting responsibility. Caregivers' appraisal of stress was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety, but neither the severity of the patients' problems nor caregivers' appraisal of options was a significant predictor of any of the health outcomes. PMID:1896322

  20. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    Abstract: Despite the fact that The General Theory of Theory of Interest, Employment and Income (GT) is a highly theoretical work, Keynes tries to make his theory as realistic as possible. In this paper it is analyzed how. This is done by identifying selected quotations in which Keynes either...... explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...

  1. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research....... Taken together, the collection contributes some answers to the challenge of defining and measuring – in a comparative way – the control and co-ordination mechanisms which power dispersion generates. It also explores the tension between political actors' quest for autonomy and the acknowledgement of...

  2. Mental Health Literacy and Eating-Disordered Behavior: Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Concerning the Treatment of and Treatment-Seeking for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J. M.; Marks, P.; Hay, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Kelly, C.; Owen, C.; Paxton, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the "mental health literacy" of adolescents concerning eating-disordered behavior. A vignette describing a fictional 16-year old female meeting diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa was presented to 522 female high school students, followed by a series of questions concerning treatment of and treatment-seeking for the…

  3. The Associations between Parents' References to Their Own Past Substance Use and Youth's Substance-Use Beliefs and Behaviors: A Comparison of Latino and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.

    2013-01-01

    Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…

  4. “You’ll find out here pretty soon I have PTSD” Examining how a Vietnam Veteran Copes With Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Stockett, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is rooted in understanding trauma. Through a series of interviews with Zach Stockett, my grandfather and medical helicopter pilot in the Vietnam War, I identify his unique coping strategies. Zach uses humor, religious beliefs, and his ability to contribute meaningfully to the war effort to cope with the traumas he experienced. I drew from trauma theorists such as Maurice Halbwachs, Dori Laub, Cathy Caruth, Ruth Leys, Dominik LaCapra, and Marianne Hirsch to build a framework for un...

  5. Beliefs about hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H; Robidoux, Serje; Langdon, Robyn; Coltheart, Max

    2016-07-01

    People who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) vary in whether they believe their AVHs are self-generated or caused by external agents. It remains unclear whether these differences are influenced by the "intensity" of the voices, such as their frequency or volume, or other aspects of their phenomenology. We examined 35 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced AVHs. Patients completed a detailed structured interview about their AVHs, including beliefs about their cause. In response, 20 (57.1%) reported that their AVHs were self-generated, 9 (25.7%) were uncertain, and 6 (17.1%) reported that their AVHs were caused by external agents. Several analytical approaches revealed little or no evidence for associations between either AVH intensity or phenomenology and beliefs about the AVH's cause; the evidence instead favoured the absence of these associations. Beliefs about the cause of AVHs are thus unlikely to be explained solely by the phenomenological qualities of the AVHs. PMID:27258929

  6. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress.

  7. Development and validation of the coping with terror scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nathan R; Schorr, Yonit; Litz, Brett T; King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; Solomon, Zahava; Horesh, Danny

    2013-10-01

    Terrorism creates lingering anxiety about future attacks. In prior terror research, the conceptualization and measurement of coping behaviors were constrained by the use of existing coping scales that index reactions to daily hassles and demands. The authors created and validated the Coping with Terror Scale to fill the measurement gap. The authors emphasized content validity, leveraging the knowledge of terror experts and groups of Israelis. A multistep approach involved construct definition and item generation, trimming and refining the measure, exploring the factor structure underlying item responses, and garnering evidence for reliability and validity. The final scale comprised six factors that were generally consistent with the authors' original construct specifications. Scores on items linked to these factors demonstrate good reliability and validity. Future studies using the Coping with Terror Scale with other populations facing terrorist threats are needed to test its ability to predict resilience, functional impairment, and psychological distress. PMID:21676998

  8. Presleep thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs in subjects of insomnia with or without depression: Implications for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presleep thoughts may vary between patients of insomnia with or without depression. They are important for cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), but they have never been systemically examined in Indian population. Materials and Methods: Patients with insomnia (>1 month) who were willing to undergo CBT-I were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. They were requested to fill a sleep diary and return after 15 days. At the time of intake, diagnosis of dep...

  9. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkas C

    2016-08-01

    promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. Keywords: military, training, stress, recruits, coping, leadership

  10. Associative processing and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, L R; Mohr, C; Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-12-01

    In the present study we introduce a novel task for the quantitative assessment of both originality and speed of individual associations. This 'BAG' (Bridge-the-Associative-Gap) task was used to investigate the relationships between creativity and paranormal belief. Twelve strong 'believers' and 12 strong 'skeptics' in paranormal phenomena were selected from a large student population (n > 350). Subjects were asked to produce single-word associations to word pairs. In 40 trials the two stimulus words were semantically indirectly related and in 40 other trials the words were semantically unrelated. Separately for these two stimulus types, response commonalities and association latencies were calculated. The main finding was that for unrelated stimuli, believers produced associations that were more original (had a lower frequency of occurrence in the group as a whole) than those of the skeptics. For the interpretation of the result we propose a model of association behavior that captures both 'positive' psychological aspects (i.e., verbal creativity) and 'negative' aspects (susceptibility to unfounded inferences), and outline its relevance for psychiatry. This model suggests that believers adopt a looser response criterion than skeptics when confronted with 'semantic noise'. Such a signal detection view of the presence/absence of judgments for loose semantic relations may help to elucidate the commonalities between creative thinking, paranormal belief and delusional ideation.

  11. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  12. [Coping with chronic somatic disease according to the concept of psychological stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniszewska, Joanna; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the problem of coping with chronic disease according to the concept of psychological stress. The Lazarus and Folkman theory in which stress is regarded as a relational concept, the importance of cognitive assessment and functions of coping with disease are described. The attention is paid to the illness perception and its impact on the behavioral and emotional processes. The most known tools for stress assessment and coping with stress and current research directions are shown.

  13. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Aazami; Khadijah Shamsuddin; Syaqirah Akmal

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of medi...

  14. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  15. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  16. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PTSD Basics Return from War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment and Coping Treatment Self-Help and Coping PTSD Research Where to Get Help for PTSD Help with VA PTSD Care or ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military ...

  17. A study of professional values,coping strategy and clinical practice behavior among undergraduate student nurses and correlations between these factors%护理本科生职业价值观、应对方式与临床实践行为的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆欣; 郭闯; 王东梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对某医学院校护理本科生实习第一个月的职业价值观、应对方式、临床实践行为的调查,了解其现状,分析人口统计学变量对临床实践行为的影响,明确三者之间的关系.方法:采取整群抽样的方法,对在该校附属第一医院实习的75名2006级护理本科生进行职业价值观、应对方式、临床实践行为的问卷调查.结果:①护理本科生职业价值观得分为(3.46±0.58)分;积极应对方式得分为(2.19±0.50)分,消极应对方式得分为(1.59±0.88)分;临床实践行为得分为(2.93±0.77)分.②职业价值观、积极应对方式、入学第一志愿是否是护理专业、是否热爱护理专业为临床实践行为的影响因素(P<0.05).③临床实践行为与职业价值观、积极应对方式呈正相关(r=0.35,P<0.01),与消极应对方式呈负相关.结论:职业价值观影响应对方式,应对方式与临床实践行为密切相关.%Objective: To understand undergraduate nursing students' professional values, coping ways and clinical practice behavior during their first month of clinical practice, in order to explore the influencing variables associated to their clinical practice behaviors and the relationships betweene factors. Methods: A questionnaire survey was adopted in this study which involved 75 undergraduate nursing students. Results: ① The score of professional values of nursing undergraduate was (3.46±0.58), positive respond to the way was (2.19±0.50), negative coping way was (1.59±0.88), and clinical practice behavior was (2.93±0.77); ②Factors associated to the behavior of undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice are professional values, active coping approach, nursing profession as their first career choice, their passion to nursing profession (P<0.05). ③ professional values, active coping style were positively related to clinical practice behavior, and negative coping style was negatively rrelated to clinical

  18. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...

  19. Using spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy in substance dependence treatment: therapists' and clients' perceptions of the presumed benefits and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Lietz, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) that has been modified to incorporate clients' spiritual beliefs and practices has been used to treat a variety of problems. This study examines the utility of this modality with the treatment of alcohol dependence and other forms of substance abuse. Toward this end, six focus groups (three therapist groups and three client groups) were conducted to identify the presumed benefits and limitations of using spiritually modified CBT in substance dependence treatment. In terms of benefits, spiritually modified CBT was perceived to enhance outcomes through operationalizing horizontal and vertical sources of social support, divine coping resources, and spiritual motivation. Potential challenges include the risk of therapists inadvertently imposing their own beliefs during the modification process and the possibility of offending clients when conflicts in belief systems emerge, particularly in group setting. The article concludes by providing suggestions for incorporating spiritually modified CBT into treatment and develops a number of illustrative examples of spiritually modified CBT self-statements.

  20. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses

  1. Les stratégies de coping des consommateurs seniors : Cadre théorique et analyse critique des outils de mesure existants

    OpenAIRE

    Partouche-Sebban, Judith; Benmoyal-Bouzaglo, Sarah; Guiot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relevance of the coping concept in the understanding of the senior consumer behaviors. Particularly, it tries to define a link between the aging process, generating potential stressors, coping strategies used in order to cope with stress, and consumer behaviors. A short literature review based on coping theories and the developmental psychology enables us to present an integrated theoretical framework, in order to better understand the existing links between the stre...

  2. Unresolved mourning, supernatural beliefs and dissociation: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Unresolved mourning is marked by disorganized behavior and states of mind. In this study, we speculated that pathological dissociation would mediate the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. This hypothesis was determined based on findings that indicate an association between higher levels of dissociation, stronger beliefs in the supernatural and unresolved mourning. We examined two groups of participants, one classified as non-unresolved (non-U) (n = 56) and the other as unresolved (n = 26) (U) with respect to past loss/trauma as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Two self-report instruments were administered to measure supernatural beliefs and dissociation. As hypothesized, the multivariate analysis of variance indicated mean differences between the two groups. The unresolved group had greater belief in the supernatural and more pathological dissociative processes. The mediation analysis demonstrated that pathological dissociation fully mediated the effects of unresolved mourning on supernatural beliefs. PMID:24913392

  3. Impact of attitudes and beliefs regarding African American sexual behavior on STD prevention and control in African American communities: unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jo A

    2008-12-01

    Compared to whites, blacks experience significant health disparities for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly in the rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. To develop more effective interventions to control and prevent STDs, public health practitioners should better understand and respond to factors that facilitate sexual risk-taking behaviors and impede access to STD health care and make use of factors that promote sexual health. Legacies of slavery, racism, and economic or class discrimination leave many blacks suspicious of interventions aimed at improving the welfare of their communities. Sexual behavior, in particular, has been used to justify social oppression of blacks in the United States. Although efforts to engage affected black communities in improving STD health care delivery have been undertaken, bias, prejudice, and stereotyping continue to contribute to negative experiences for many blacks across health care settings, including those involving STD care. Implementing more effective interventions to reduce the disparate burden of bacterial STDs in black communities requires accessible and acceptable STD health care. Understanding and addressing the potential impact of both provider and patient attitudes can improve these service delivery outcomes.

  4. Attitudes and normative beliefs of nursing students as predictors of intended care behaviors with AIDS patients: a test of the Ajzen-Fishbein theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D; Laschinger, H

    1991-03-01

    Few investigators have studied nurses' or nursing students' responses to caring for AIDS patients. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action in a student nurse population about AIDS patient care. This theory offers an approach to explaining individuals' intentions to engage in certain behaviors as determined by two components: attitudes toward the behavior and subjective norms. Forty-six second-year baccalaureate nursing students completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (alpha reliability range was .69-.85) prior to and following an instructional unit on caring for AIDS patients. Consistent with the theory, students' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for AIDS patients in their clinical experience (R2 = .29, F[1, 43] = 6.63, p less than .003). In addition, qualitative data resembled those in previous reports of fear of contagion among health professionals. The effects of the instructional unit about caring for AIDS patients resulted in significant changes in both attitudes and subjective norms.

  5. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  6. Coping With Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  7. Surveying Indian gay men for coping skills and HIV testing patterns using the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Jethwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveying vulnerable and incarcerated populations is often challenging. Newer methods to reach and collect sensitive information in a safe, secure, and valid manner can go a long way in addressing this unmet need. Homosexual men in India live with inadequate social support, marginalization, and lack legal recognition. These make them less reachable by public health agencies, and make them more likely to continue with high-risk behaviors, and contract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Aims: To understand coping skills and HIV testing patterns of homosexual men versus heterosexual men. Materials and Methods: An internet based study using a secure web platform and an anonymised questionnaire. The brief COPE Inventory was used to assess coping styles. Results: A total of 124 respondents were studied. Homosexual men used negative coping skills such as behavioral disengagement and tested for HIV significantly more often than heterosexual men. Heterosexual respondents used positive coping skills more often. The most commonly used coping skill by heterosexual men was instrumental coping and by homosexual men was acceptance. Discussion: Overall, homosexual men used negative coping mechanisms, like behavioral disengagement more often. The Indian family structure and social support is probably responsible for heterosexual men′s over-reliance on instrumental coping, while resulting in disengagement in homosexuals. Conclusion: The lack of legal and social recognition of homosexuality has negatively impacted lives of gay men in India. This is strongly linked to harmful psychological and public health implications for HIV prevention and mental health for homosexual men.

  8. Belief Semantics of Authorization Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Andrew K.; Clarkson, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Authorization logics have been used in the theory of computer security to reason about access control decisions. In this work, a formal belief semantics for authorization logics is given. The belief semantics is proved to subsume a standard Kripke semantics. The belief semantics yields a direct representation of principals' beliefs, without resorting to the technical machinery used in Kripke semantics. A proof system is given for the logic; that system is proved sound with respect to the beli...

  9. Beliefs: A theoretically unnecessary construct?

    OpenAIRE

    Österholm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I analyze different existing definitions of the term beliefs, focusing on relations between beliefs and knowledge. Through this analysis I note several problems with different types of definitions. In particular, when defining beliefs through a distinction between belief and knowledge systems, this creates an idealized view of knowledge, seen as something more pure (less affective, less episodic, and more logical). In addition, attention is generally not given to from what point...

  10. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Nehl, Eric J.; Karen Glanz; Bang Hyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool man...

  11. Varieties of Belief and Probability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, D.J.N. van; Ghosh, S.; Szymanik, J.

    2015-01-01

    For reasoning about uncertain situations, we have probability theory, and we have logics of knowledge and belief. How does elementary probability theory relate to epistemic logic and the logic of belief? The paper focuses on the notion of betting belief, and interprets a language for knowledge and b

  12. Malawian secondary students' beliefs about intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D; Rakes, Lee; Landon, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Students who view intelligence as malleable tend to be more academically motivated and perform at higher levels than students who view it as a fixed trait. We examined the beliefs of students from Malawi because the culture and schooling process in this country is very different from some other areas of the world in which students' views of intelligence have already been studied. Our research questions were: (1) How do Malawian students define intelligence? (2) To what extent do Malawian students view intelligence as malleable? (3) Are Malawian students' definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence similar to those of students in more developed countries? We conducted a mixed methods study and surveyed 136 students attending a secondary school in Malawi using a 39-item questionnaire. Students responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and closed-ended items. Our results showed that Malawian students believe that an intelligent student exhibits a variety of behaviors, including studying, working hard, reading, performing well on exams and in class, answering and asking questions, paying attention, and demonstrating good behavior. Most students believe that intelligence is malleable and provided responses that indicated that students can become more intelligent through effort. When compared to the findings of other studies, the present results suggest that the Malawian students who remain in secondary school have definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence that are similar to those of students in more developed countries, such as the US and Germany. In fact, it appears that Malawian secondary students have even higher malleable beliefs than American and German students. Finally, some of the measures that have been found to produce scores that are reliable and valid in other populations do not produce scores that are as reliable when used with Malawian students.

  13. Traditional Tibetan Beliefs and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DERONGCERINGDENZHCB

    2004-01-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE: Traditional Tibetan culture contains a conscious awareness of environmental protection. It advocates balance between human beings and the natural environment, protection of the ecosystem,treasuring resources, and consideration of the benefits that should be left for future generations. In Tibetan history, the goal of environmental protection was achieved by means of traditional customs, moral obligations, religious beliefs and taboos, associated with unwritten routines of environmental protection to regulate people's behavior through self-conscious effort.

  14. 论新媒体视阈下高校青年教师理想信念教育的困境及应对策略%The dilemma and the coping strategies of ideal and belief education of young teachers in colleges from the perspective of new media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟萍; 肖利才

    2013-01-01

    文章阐述了新媒体及其特点,分析了新媒体视野下青年教师理想信念教育的隐忧,提出了新媒体视阈下高校青年教师理想信念教育的应对策略。重点强调:以新媒体环境下的引导理念为导向,落实“以人为本”的理想信念教育理念;有效驾驭新媒体,引导舆情传播科学的理想信念;提升理想信念教育工作者新媒体素养,是增强理想信念教育实效性的必备条件。%This paper describes the new media and its characteristics, analyzes the problems of young teachers' ideal and faith education from the perspective of new media, put forward the strategy of ideal and belief education of young teachers in colleges and universities from the perspective of new media. Emphasis:with the new media environment under the guidance of philosophy as a guidance, the implementation of"the ideal faith education idea";effectively controlling the new media to guide public opinion of ideal and belief propagation science;enhancing the education of ideal and belief of new media literacy educators, is a necessary condition for the effectiveness of ideal and faith education enhancement.

  15. Financial Adaptation among College Students: Helping Students Cope with Financial Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Xiao, Jing Jian; Tang, Chuanyi; Card, Noel A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the recent financial crisis on co-occurring patterns of change in financial strain and financial coping behaviors of college students (N = 748) using two-timed, longitudinal data collected prior to the 2008 financial crisis and again one year later. Using a stress and coping framework, we found that different…

  16. Coping with Interpersonal Stress and Psychosocial Health among Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T.

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between active coping and psychosocial health among youth. Results from 40 studies of coping with interpersonal stress were synthesized using a random-effects model. Four areas of psychosocial functioning were examined: externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, social competence, and academic…

  17. Stress and Coping among Migrant and Local-Born Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vicky Chiu-Wan; Lam, Rebecca Siu-Yuk

    2005-01-01

    This study compared stress and coping among 243 migrant and 750 local-born Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Findings showed that compared to their local-born counterparts, migrants showed no difference in perceived stress, whereas they were less likely to use withdrawal coping and showed higher self-esteem and less delinquent behavior. Adjustment…

  18. Toddlers' Adjustment to the Stress of Immunization in Function of Mothers' General and Specific Coping Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, N.; Reicherts, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the relative influence of mothers' coping strategies in everyday life and mothers' specific coping acts on toddlers' adjustment behavior to pain and distress during a routine immunization. The population is 41 mothers with toddlers (23 girls, 18 boys; mean age, 22.7 months) undergoing a routine immunization in…

  19. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  20. Coping Mechanisms, Depression and Suicidal Risk Among Patients Suffering From Idiopathic Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Foroughipour, Mohsen; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Azarpajooh, Mahmoud Reza; Taghavi, Mina; Modarres Gharavi, Morteza; Akbarzadeh, Farzad; Ebrahimi, Alireza; Baghban Haghighi, Mehri

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression disorder is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorder associated with epilepsy, and a correlation has been detected between depression and suicide. There is a relationship between suicidal behavior and coping mechanisms; therefore, it is important to undertake psychoanalytic psychotherapy to reduce depressive symptoms. Objectives To evaluate the Coping Mechanisms, Depression and Suicidal Risk among Patients Suffering from Idiopathic Epilepsy. Materials and Methods The...

  1. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981) and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994), the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not) with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interv...

  2. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  3. Diet and acne: an exploratory survey study of patient beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quynh-Giao; Markus, Ramsey; Katta, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the past, medical literature reflected that diet was not a proven cause of acne. However, studies in recent years have substantiated a link between certain dietary factors and acne. It is unclear whether patients are aware of recent research findings. Objectives: Acne patients were surveyed to explore beliefs regarding the link between diet and acne, to determine whether these beliefs translated into behavior change and to identify health information sources. Patients/Methods: ...

  4. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian J. Goerg; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari; Winter, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners’ behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an inve...

  5. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth......In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...

  6. Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

    2008-07-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

  7. The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Briana L; Exline, Julie Juola

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature depicts a complex picture of the role that continuing bonds play in coping with bereavement, with contradictory findings emerging across studies. This article presents an overview of continuing bonds research and highlights several areas ripe for exploration. First, definitional issues are identified. Second, three paths for clarification are presented: the bereaved's perception of the bond as positive or negative, the quality of the predeath relationship, and the bereaved's afterlife beliefs. Through refining the definition and exploring these potential avenues of research, we hope to clarify the roles that continuing bonds may play in coping with bereavement.

  8. Effective coping with stroke disability in a community setting: the development of a causal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton De Sepulveda, L I; Chang, B

    1994-08-01

    A proposed causal model based upon Lazarus' theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a sample of 75 persons disabled by stroke. Coping constraints such as demographic and stroke factors were hypothesized to affect resources (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, social contact), stress appraisal, coping behavior and coping effectiveness. Although the model did not fit the data, several path coefficients within the model were statistically significant. Functional status was positively related to resources and negatively related to the stressor. Resources were negatively related to the stressor and positively related to coping effectiveness. It was noted that the buffering effect of social support was related to the level of disability of the stroke person. Persons with functional disability following stroke also had decreased social contact, perceived less availability of social resources and increased threat to physical well-being, and had reduced coping effectiveness.

  9. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.

  10. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  11. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  12. Coping with Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    sker gennem håndteringen af afstande, som både er fysiske, sociale og kulturelle. Overfor fremherskende diskussioner, hvor samfund og mobilitet gøres til hinandens modsætninger, stilles den opfattelse at samfund skabes gennem mobile praksisser. Afhandlingen ønsker således at forstå, hvordan samfund...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur......, økonomi, sociale forhold, politik og materialitet. Sammen med en baggrund i den moderne samfundsgeografi, hentes i kap. 2 vigtig inspiration fra socialantropologen Fredrik Barth, den økonomiske antropolog Karl Polanyi og idehistorikeren Michel Foucault. Samtidig tages der i kap. 3 afsæt i den historiske...

  13. 3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为之间的关系:动机的调节作用%False-belief and White Lie-telling Behavior in Children Aged 3-6: Moderating Role of Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 刘秀丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为、动机的关系.方法:采用故事情境与真实情境两种实验方法对辽宁省沈阳市3所幼儿园的240名儿童进行了研究.结果:①儿童对错误信念的理解随年龄的增长而逐渐提高,其年龄差异显著,性别差异不显著.②儿童总体白谎行为、亲社会白谎行为随年龄的增长而逐渐增多,不存在显著的年龄差异与性别差异.③儿童错误信念与白谎行为具有显著正相关,亲社会动机在两者关系中起调节作用.结论:3-6岁儿童错误信念与白谎行为的关系在某种程度上受动机的影响.%Objective:To explore the relationship between false-belief and white lie-telling behavior and motivation in children aged 3-6.Methods:240 Kindergarten children from Sheyang,Liaoning Province were measured by two experiments based on story and real-life situations.Results:①While there was no gender differences,children' s false-belief understanding increased with age.②With the growth of age,children' s overall white-lie telling behavior,pro-social whitelie telling behavior were both increased gradually,although there were no significant differences in different age groups.③ Children's false-belief was positively correlated with white-lie telling behavior,moreover,pro-social motivation served as a moderating role between false-belief and white-lie telling behaviors.Conclusion:Relationship between false-belief and white-lie telling behavior is modulated by motivation in children aged 3-6.

  14. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598

  15. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping...... and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive...

  16. Nursing and Coping With Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Laal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress could be defined simply as the rate of wear and tear on the body systems caused by life. Stress at work is a big problem. Working in the profession of nursing is a demanding and often stressful occupation. Thus, nurses’ health could be affected by stress dangerous consequences. Coping strategies are key elements of nurses' stress reactions. Coping strategy as a stabilizing factor may be as important as the stressful event itself. Purpose: To determine how and how much nursing staff cope with the stressful events and to find out the relationships between job coping and health outcomes in the study population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included one hundred nursing staff working in two hospitals (Tohid and Besat of Sanandaj City (Kurdistan, Iran. They completed the questionnaires containing coping strategies based on the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (A-COPE, in the year of 2006. We examined the relationships between age, gender, position, tenure state, marriage state, job experience, work shift and place (environment to application of coping methods. Analysis was done using SPSS 18. Statistical significance was set at P ≤0.05.Results: Out of one hundred nurses of all grades included in this study, fifty-seven were female (57%, 60(% were between 30-39 years old and 50(% were single. There was no significant difference between junior and senior staff in applying positive methods (p=0.666 or negative responses to cope with stress (p=0.195.The majority of nurses 55(% had job experience of 5-10 years, 40(% worked in the evening and night shift and 54(% were in Tohid hospital. Generally in our study, the rate of application positive methods of coping was good 19%, medium 51% and weak 30%. Negative responses to stress were high 49%, medium 29% and low 22%. There were significant associations between: age, tenure state, work place and job experience with positive coping as follow; (p

  17. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  18. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  19. Teachers' High Maintenance Behaviour as Perceived by University Students in Taiwan, and Their Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Cheng, Kuang-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    Using a questionnaire survey, this study probed into interpersonal cues and characteristics of teachers' high maintenance behaviors perceived by university students and their coping strategies, and then analyzed the relationship between their perceived high maintenance behaviors and the dimensions of their coping strategies. The Scale of…

  20. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2007-03-01

    Research into the correlates of physical activity has focused almost exclusively on physical activity as an omnibus construct. Health Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine, however, advocate physical activity in terms of performing regular endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the absolute and relative contributions of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs associated with endurance, strength, and flexibility activities within a theory of planned behavior (TPB) structure. Participants were 185 undergraduates who completed measures of the TPB and a 2-week follow-up of endurance, strength, and flexibility behavior. Results using structural equation modeling and Hotelling's t-tests for dependent correlations identified different motivational antecedents for each type of physical activity (p behavior was influenced exclusively by behavioral beliefs, flexibility behavior was influenced by normative and control beliefs, and strength behavior was influenced by key behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. The different motivational profiles for each physical activity allude to the importance of tailoring interventions by physical activity type. PMID:17365895