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Sample records for belgian hospital financing

  1. Two Belgian University Hospitals

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    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  2. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

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    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  3. Internal finance and corporate investment: Belgian evidence with panel data

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    Barran, Fernando; Peeters, Marga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the corporate investment decision under financial restrictions is investigated with Belgian firm data from 1984 to 1992. An investment Euler equation is derived from a dynamic optimization model with debt ceilings and an elastic credit supply. The model is estimated by GMM for different firm groups. An important aspect is that the sample is split according to a firm’s association with coordination centers. These centers have become the major external funding source of corpora...

  4. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

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    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  5. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

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    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff.

  6. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff. PMID:15033548

  7. Factors associated with lease financing in the hospital industry.

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    McCue, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to capital leases, which are reported on the balance sheet as debt, operating leases are a form of off-balance sheet financing only reported in the notes to the financial statement and have limited disclosure requirements. Following the perpetuity method of corporate finance, this study developed a capitalized operating lease value for hospitals. Evaluating the substitutability between lease and debt financing, the findings show a marginal displacement of debt by lease financing. Assessing the relationship of market, mission, operating, and financial factors on lease financing for all short-term, acute-care hospitals across the United States, the results indicate that investor-owned hospital management companies and hospitals located in CON markets are less likely to lease and that smaller hospitals with fewer unoccupied beds, higher proportion of government payers, low liquidity, and lower capital expenditures are more likely to lease. PMID:19175234

  8. Financing the future of independent community hospitals.

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    Richman, Alan P

    2011-11-01

    Effingham Hospital, a critical access hospital, undertook a modernization initiative to expand the limited scope of its inpatient services to improve financial performance and ability to build liquidity reserves. FHA Section 242 mortgage insurance was the only means for Effingham to credit enhance its debt and obtain a low-interest rate loan. Effingham needed to convince residents and county commissioners to pledge 27 years of additional tax support to offset its annual uncompensated care. The hospital won support from the community and the commissioners, in part because of the educational outreach of the CEO, CFO, and board in articulating the imperative for maintaining local hospital care and the present and future economic benefits for Effingham County.

  9. Strengths and Weaknesses of Financing Hospitals in Germany

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    Kemal Yaman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study strengths and weaknesses of financing hospitals in the German health care sector are examined. In the first part of the paper key data of hospitals, subsidies granted by federal states to hospitals, allocation of expenses in the statutory and private health sector are examined. Moreover, in the same part precautions taken in the German health care industry are analyzed. In the second part of the study compensation system, in particular Diagnosis Related Groups, as a financial resource for the activities performed in hospitals are investigated. For comparison the system before 2003 is also considered. In the third part critical view of the dual system in Germany is discussed. Change in financing of hospitals from 2003 shows improvement in financial situation of these institutions in Germany. However, the new implemented dual system reveals deficits in investment expenditures supported by federal states. The monistic model proposed by Rürup for a financing system from a single resource may provide a better financial base for well-equipped hospitals to meet the challenges among the competitive German hospitals.

  10. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

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    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term.

  11. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  12. Hospital breaks new ground with hybrid financing package.

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    McGuinness, L; Kline, T

    1984-02-01

    By applying financial management techniques that are more traditionally associated with corporate businesses, an Illinois hospital was able to generate the funds needed for a new replacement facility at a time when the money market was especially tight. The authors explain the structure of the hybrid financing package they used, and how such a strategy enabled the hospital to generate $61 million in capital at an interest rate almost 5 percent below prime.

  13. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

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    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power.

  14. Finance theory and hospital cash balances.

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    Rivenson, Howard L; Smith, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Competing financial theories have been offered to understand hospitals' cash holding with scant recent evidence. Using data from a national sample of 608 not-for-profit hospitals, we find support for the trade-off theory which posits targeted cash balances. We do not find support for the financial hierarchy theory which posits a preference for use of cash to pay for capital investments. Findings apply to holdings of cash and marketable securities, but not board-designated funds where no model provided meaningful explanatory power. PMID:23614264

  15. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

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    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  16. Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999.

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    Snoeck, Joke; Van Dooren, Sonia; Van Laethem, Kristel; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2002-04-23

    HIV-1 group M strains are usually subtyped based on gag and/or env gene sequences. In our lab, part of the pol gene sequence was available in order to determine the genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance profile. To estimate the prevalence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in patients visiting the University Hospitals in Leuven in 1999 and for whom a genotypic drug resistance test was needed, we tried to use the pol sequence for subtyping. Recombination was investigated by similarity plots and bootscanning and subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis. The overall region spanning the entire protease and 747 nucleotides of the reverse transcriptase proved very suitable for subtyping, although there was a low phylogenetic signal at the beginning of the reverse transcriptase (nucleotides 0-250), as we demonstrated by likelihood mapping. Of the 41 samples analyzed, 21 belonged to subtype B. Of the other 20 non-B strains, 9 belonged to subtype C, 2 to subtype D and 1 to subtype A, G, H and J, respectively, 3 were CRF_02 (Circulating Recombinant Form), 1 was recombinant with a novel breakpoint and 1 sample was untypable. Although subtype B is still the most prevalent subtype in Belgium, it seems to be responsible for only half of the infections in this study. We could also document that the prevalence of subtype C is high in the Belgian native patients, especially among the heterosexually infected population. This could possibly be an indication for an epidemic spread of HIV-1 subtype C in Belgium, as for one third of these patients, no link to an endemic region could be found. The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad. PMID:11955642

  17. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital

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    Somers A; Robays H; De Paepe P; Van Maele G; Perehudoff K; Petrovic M

    2013-01-01

    Annemie Somers,1 Hugo Robays,1 Peter De Paepe,2 Georges Van Maele,3 Katrina Perehudoff,4 Mirko Petrovic41Department of Pharmacy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 4Department of Geriatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumObjective: To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recom...

  18. Financing maneuvers. Two opportunities to boost a hospital's working capital.

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    Ferconio, S; Lane, M R

    1991-10-01

    Two receivables financing approaches, factoring and asset-backed securitization, offer an initial cash flow boost and a predictable source for continual cash flow. In a typical receivables factoring program, a healthcare organization receives advance funding from its receivables and reduces collection and follow-up efforts required of its staff. In exchange, the organization: Sells receivables at a discount between 5 percent and 10 percent off face value; and Pays a factoring fee of up to 20 percent of sold receivables. In a typical asset-backed securitization: Proceeds generated from the sale of A1-rated commercial paper are used to purchase receivables from a hospital; Accounts receivable eligible for sale are advance-funded at a level between 80 and 90 percent, with the unfunded portion remaining an asset of the hospital; The hospital is responsible for collection and follow-up activities; and An asset manager maintains cash collections to retire commercial paper notes and pay administrative costs. A healthcare organization interested in receivables financing should review each option's structure and benefits to assess advance funding provided, costs, a seller's level of control, and program eligibility requirements. PMID:10145512

  19. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

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    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  20. Hospitals, nursing homes turn to 3rd-party financing

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    Slaff, J.

    1982-07-05

    Experience is teaching the administrators of hospitals and nursing homes how to make better arrangements for third-party financing of energy-management systems. Accustomed to health-insurance reimbursement for health-care costs, hospitals have lacked incentives for conservation. Plans now used most by hospitals and health-care facilities involve third-party arrangements where: (1) an equipment vendor installs equipment and takes a share of the energy-cost savings; or (2) energy-services firms both install capital-intensive equipment and implement a variety of low-cost conservation measures, again for a percentage of the savings. Although most users think these arrangements are satisfactory, they advise a preliminary low-cost audit and participation in a basic energy-management seminar before employing an energy-services firm. Accurate baseline energy-consumption data should be developed in order to evaluate results, and assurance is needed that staff members understand the accounting formulas. Also recommended are independent audits after installation and attention to the legal clauses in contracts. (DCK)

  1. Evaluation of clinical pharmacist recommendations in the geriatric ward of a Belgian university hospital

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    Somers A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Somers,1 Hugo Robays,1 Peter De Paepe,2 Georges Van Maele,3 Katrina Perehudoff,4 Mirko Petrovic41Department of Pharmacy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 4Department of Geriatrics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, BelgiumObjective: To evaluate the type, acceptance rate, and clinical relevance of clinical pharmacist recommendations at the geriatric ward of the Ghent university hospital.Methods: The clinical pharmacist evaluated drug use during a weekly 2-hour visit for a period of 4 months and, if needed, made recommendations to the prescribing physician. The recommendations were classified according to type, acceptance by the physician, prescribed medication, and underlying drug-related problem. Appropriateness of prescribing was assessed using the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI before and after the recommendations were made. Two clinical pharmacologists and two clinical pharmacists independently and retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of the recommendations and rated their own acceptance of them.Results: The clinical pharmacist recommended 304 drug therapy changes for 100 patients taking a total of 1137 drugs. The most common underlying drug-related problems concerned incorrect dose, drug–drug interaction, and adverse drug reaction, which appeared most frequently for cardiovascular drugs, drugs for the central nervous system, and drugs for the gastrointestinal tract. The most common type of recommendation concerned adapting the dose, and stopping or changing a drug. In total, 59.7% of the recommendations were accepted by the treating physician. The acceptance rate by the evaluators ranged between 92.4% and 97.0%. The mean clinical relevance of the recommendations was assessed as possibly important (53.4%, possibly low relevance (38.1%, and possibly

  2. Hospital financing reform and case-mix measurement: An international review

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, Miriam M.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reforms in the financing of hospital services in eight European countries and Australia reveals a commitment to a common objective of relating resource use to hospital workload by means of a standardized case-mix framework in the pursuit of greater efficiency. While this objective is also shared with the U.S. prospective payment system (PPS), it is noteworthy that the majority of countries reviewed favor a global budgeting approach to financing hospital services. Ongoing evaluatio...

  3. Terminal care in older patients in hospital: development of a quality indicator set and its first application in a retrospective comparison of patients treated in acute geriatric unit and a palliative care unit of a Belgian university hospital

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    Cools, Annelies; Vaneechoutte, Delphine; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; VERSLUYS, KAREN; De Laat, Martine; Petrovic, Mirko; Piers, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background: Care at the end-of-life of geriatric inpatients is of increasing importance. Nevertheless, limited research has been conducted on this subject so far. Objectives: To compose a set of quality indicators (QIs) which measure the quality of terminal care for geriatric inpatients and to compare the quality of end-of-life care between the Acute Geriatric Unit (AGU) and the Palliative Care Unit (PCU). Design: Retrospective case study. Setting: Belgian university hospital. Par...

  4. The association of debt financing with not-for-profit hospitals' provision of uncompensated care.

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    Magnus, Stephen A; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C

    2004-01-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals undertook unprecedented amounts of debt in the mid to late 1990s. Corporate finance theory and the literature on hospital financing suggest that debt may constrain hospitals' capacity to deliver uncompensated care. Using data from audited financial statements for a sample of hospitals, this article explores whether debt financing is associated with hospitals' provision of uncompensated care, an output central to many hospitals' service missions. Contrary to expectations, our analysis finds that higher debt is associated with higher levels of uncompensated care. However, the results may reflect the unusual economic and stock-market conditions prevailing in the mid 1990s, and they are consistent with the views of hospital financial managers and other practitioners whom we interviewed.

  5. The association of debt financing with not-for-profit hospitals' provision of uncompensated care.

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    Magnus, Stephen A; Smith, Dean G; Wheeler, John R C

    2004-01-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals undertook unprecedented amounts of debt in the mid to late 1990s. Corporate finance theory and the literature on hospital financing suggest that debt may constrain hospitals' capacity to deliver uncompensated care. Using data from audited financial statements for a sample of hospitals, this article explores whether debt financing is associated with hospitals' provision of uncompensated care, an output central to many hospitals' service missions. Contrary to expectations, our analysis finds that higher debt is associated with higher levels of uncompensated care. However, the results may reflect the unusual economic and stock-market conditions prevailing in the mid 1990s, and they are consistent with the views of hospital financial managers and other practitioners whom we interviewed. PMID:15682952

  6. Pooled credit plans offer financing alternatives to independent hospitals.

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    Ziglar, J W

    1983-06-01

    Using the collective financial strength of a group of not-for-profit health care institutions to finance capital needs has become an increasingly popular concept. This article discusses the significant advantages and disadvantages of the concept, provides an overview of the development of multi-institutional financing arrangements, and describes the generic forms of credit poolings. It also outlines three broad areas of inquiry to be explored by potential participants before entering a pooled credit arrangement: the relationships among participants, the availability of assets to support debt, and corporate planning and strategy.

  7. BBA Impacts on Hospital Residents, Finances, and Medicare Subsidies

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    Cromwell, Jerry; Adamache, Walter; Drozd, Edward M.

    2006-01-01

    Concern over rapidly rising Medicare expenditures prompted Congress to pass the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) that included provisions reducing graduate medical education (GME) payments and capped the growth in residents for payment purposes. Using Medicare cost reports through 2001, we find that both actual and capped residents continued to grow post-BBA. While teaching hospital total margins declined, GME payment reductions of approximately 17 percent had minimal impact on revenue growth (-0.5 percent annually). Four years after BBA, residents remained a substantial line of business for nearly one-half of teaching hospitals with Medicare effective marginal subsidies exceeding resident stipends by nearly $50,000 on average. Coupled with an estimated replacement cost of over $100,000 per resident, it is not surprising that hospitals accepted nearly 4,000 residents beyond their allowable payment caps in just 4 years post-BBA. PMID:17290672

  8. Development and validation of nursing resource weights for the Belgian Nursing Minimum Dataset in general hospitals: a Delphi questionnaire survey approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Sermeus, Walter; Gillet, Pierre; GILLAIN, Daniel; GRIETENS, Jan; LAPORT, Nancy; MICHIELS, Dominik; THONON, Olivier; VANDEN BOER, Guy; Van Herck, Pieter; Van den Heede, Koen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, nursing is not well represented in hospital financing systems. In Belgium a nursing weight system exists to adjust budget allocation for differences in nurse staffing requirements, but there is a need for revision. Arguments include the availability of a nursing minimum dataset and the adverse consequences of the current historically based nursing weight system. OBJECTIVES: The development and validation of nursing resource weights for the revised Belgium nursing ...

  9. Financing and planning of public and private not-for-profit hospitals in the European Union.

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    Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin

    2004-03-01

    While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing.

  10. Gender gap in parents' financing strategy for hospitalization of their children: evidence from India.

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    Asfaw, Abay; Lamanna, Francesca; Klasen, Stephan

    2010-03-01

    The 'missing women' dilemma in India has sparked great interest in investigating gender discrimination in the provision of health care in the country. No studies, however, have directly examined discrimination in health-care financing strategies in the case of severe illness of sons versus daughters. In this paper, we hypothesize that households who face tight budget constraints are more likely to spend their meager resources on hospitalization of boys rather than girls. We use the 60th round of the Indian National Sample Survey (2004) and a multinomial logit model to test this hypothesis and to throw some light on this important but overlooked issue. The results reveal that boys are much more likely to be hospitalized than girls. When it comes to financing, the gap in the usage of household income and savings is relatively small, while the gender gap in the probability of hospitalization and usage of more onerous financing strategies is very high. Ceteris paribus, the probability of boys to be hospitalized by financing from borrowing, sale of assets, help from friends, etc. is much higher than that of girls. Moreover, in line with our theoretical framework, the results indicate that the gender gap intensifies as we move from the richest to poorest households. PMID:19267357

  11. Institutional traps in the hospitality industry financing (by the example of Krasnodar region

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    Alla Yu. Baranova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine and classify the institutional traps in financing the hospitality industry in Russia. Methods abstractlogical generalization and observation. Results basing on the analysis of statistics and regional program of tourism development in Krasnodar region the challenges and obstacles were identified to the development and improvement of tourist services quality. The research result is the identification and systematization of institutional traps in the financing of tourism expressed in the increased public support of the sector. In particular a significant proportion of touristrecreational sector funding is still taken from the budget though the specific weight of profitable health resort organizations amounted to 60 over the past three years. In the process of research the author formulated a general concept of the institutional structure of the hospitality industry in Russia and the model of the sector financing through a system of incentives and benefits for vacationers forming the tourist clusters and forming a mechanism of dialogue between the authorities and representatives of tourist business. Scientific novelty the institutional traps are defined and systematized which are formed in the system of tourism financing measures to overcome them are proposed. Practical significance the proposed recommendations can be used by the entities of the hospitality industry to enhance business activities and by authorities to implement tasks outlined in the state programs.

  12. Fatal distraction: finance versus vigilance in U.S. hospitals.

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    Schiff, G D

    2000-01-01

    Three decades ago, a now classic study on the sale of human blood defied conventional economic wisdom by demonstrating that a marketplace system for blood distribution was less efficient, less safe, and more costly. Emerging data, including the article by Thomas and colleagues in this issue, suggest the same may be true for hospitals. For-profit hospitals in Utah and Colorado had higher preventable adverse event rates than matched nonprofits. The author explores possible explanations, including the role of nursing care. While some claimed that a for-profit marketplace would stimulate efforts for improved quality, evidence is accumulating that report cards and profit-driven competition have failed to deliver on their promises. More promising is a series of not-for-profit initiatives to reduce errors that redirects our attention to patients and their need for better quality care. Rather than allowing competition to lower costs and avoid sick patients to distract us, our energies need to focus on better quality alternatives. PMID:11127021

  13. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: "the Belgian experience"

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    Van Royen Paul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Belgian healthcare setting, a setting where the organisational framework for chronic care is mainly hospital-centered. Methods Process evaluation of an action research project (2003–2007 guided by the CCM in a well-defined geographical area with 76,826 inhabitants and an estimated number of 2,300 type 2 diabetes patients. In consultation with the region a program for type 2 diabetes patients was developed. The degree of implementation of the CCM in the region was assessed using the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care survey (ACIC. A multimethod approach was used to evaluate the implementation process. The resulting data were triangulated in order to identify the main facilitators and barriers encountered during the implementation process. Results The overall ACIC score improved from 1.45 (limited support at the start of the study to 5.5 (basic support at the end of the study. The establishment of a local steering group and the appointment of a program manager were crucial steps in strengthening primary care. The willingness of a group of well-trained and motivated care providers to invest in quality improvement was an important facilitator. Important barriers were the complexity of the intervention, the lack of quality data, inadequate information technology support, the lack of commitment procedures and the uncertainty about sustainable funding. Conclusion Guided by the CCM, this study highlights the opportunities and the bottlenecks for adapting chronic care

  14. Current problems in national hospitals of Phnom Penh: finance and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Sophoat; Akashi, Hidechika; Taki, Kazumi; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    The current problems in Cambodia's national hospitals subsist in a geographic imbalance in the location of staff and health facilities, and low staff motivation largely due to inadequate payment. This paper aims to investigate the associations among hospital performance, hospital finances, and other related issues in five national hospitals in Phnom Penh, using annual reports of the five hospitals and annual statistics of the Ministry of Health, from 2000 to 2004. The bed occupancy rates (BOR), average lengths of stay (ALS), hospital mortality rates (HMR), maternal and neonatal mortality rates, numbers of patients, main health problems of inpatients, numbers of health personnel, staff incentives, and annual hospital income were used in this study as indicators of five hospitals in Phnom Penh city. The ALS varied from 3.8 to 9 days. The numbers of health personnel (physician, medical assistant, secondary nurses, primary nurses, secondary midwives, and primary midwives) per 100 beds were from 114 to 282. Supplemental salary per staff also differed greatly among these hospitals; the salaries were the highest at Calmette hospital (US$ 212.8) and the lowest at Preah Kossamak (US$ 12.4). In the five hospitals, the average BOR was 58.8%, and the mean of total annual income was US$ 1,427,852 per year. Although not significant, there was a tendency for higher supplemental salaries to be associated with higher BOR (Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0.70, p = 0.188). This study showed the differences in the hospital indicators among five national hospitals in Phnom Penh city, and the tendency of higher BOR in the hospitals paying higher supplemental salaries to the staff. Higher supplemental salary to the staff seemed to contribute the better hospital performance. PMID:17378183

  15. The optimality of hospital financing system: the role of physician-manager interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainich, David; Leleu, Hervé; Mauleon, Ana

    2008-12-01

    The ability of a prospective payment system to ensure an optimal level of both quality and cost reducing activities in the hospital industry has been stressed by Ma (Ma, J Econ Manage Strategy 8(2):93-112, 1994) whose analysis assumes that decisions about quality and costs are made by a single agent. This paper examines whether this result holds when the main decisions made within the hospital are shared between physicians (quality of treatment) and hospital managers (cost reduction). Ma's conclusions appear to be relevant in the US context (where the hospital managers pay the whole cost of treatment). Nonetheless, when physicians partly reimburse hospitals for the treatment cost as it is the case in many European countries, we show that the ability of a prospective payment system to achieve both objectives is sensitive to the type of interaction (simultaneous, sequential or joint decision-making) between the agents. Our analysis suggests that regulation policies in the hospital sector should not be exclusively focused on the financing system but should also take the interaction between physicians and hospital managers into account. PMID:18568434

  16. [DRGs in psychiatric hospital financing exemplified by Hungary. A model for Germany?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylath, E

    2000-12-01

    One of the most important provisions incorporated in the reform of the German health sector has been the introduction of a per case prospective payment system for hospitals with the exception of admissions to psychiatric care. The reasons for the exclusion of psychiatric care are unclear, but it is as a result all the more interesting to look at the experience of Hungary, where in-patient psychiatric care has been financed on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for the past seven years. The article describes how in the early 1990's the funding of the Hungarian health service was reorganized from being a state-financed system with a set budget to a system financed by contributions. Parallel to this development, service-related financing was introduced. In the hospital sector this involved DRGs. At the beginning of 1993 the Hungarian DRGs comprised only 437 categories, but this has since increased to 758. Furthermore, other characteristics are listed which, apart from the number of groups, differentiate the Hungarian DRGs from the AP-DRGs. Among other things, service-related financing includes non-typical areas such as psychiatry. In this case, it covers in-patient psychiatric care in an unusual combination of DRGs in the acute case category (50% of all beds in psychiatric units in Hungary are for acute cases) with daily nursing charges in the chronic case category. An analysis is given in the article of 16 homogeneous diagnostic categories in psychiatric care, followed by experiences gathered in conjunction with the application of this approach in this particular sphere, with special reference to three problem areas. These are as follows: the trend towards diagnoses with a relatively high weighting; the practice of charging for psychiatric DRGs in somatic wards; and, finally, the perpetuation of poor service structures and practices through DRGs. In general, evidently the introduction of psychiatric DRGs may also be recommended in Germany because of the

  17. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: 'the Belgian experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen Paul; Vermeire Etienne; Wens Johan; Nobels Frank; Snauwaert Boris; Feyen Luc; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; De Maeseneer Jan; De Sutter An; Willems Sara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM) implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Bel...

  18. Influence to the financial situation of hospitals for projects financed from the EU structural funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra ŁĘGA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union gives many opportunities for development to member countries, including raising founds for its funds. This money could be sought in many sectors of the economy. One of them is health care. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the financial situation of hospitals in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian for projects financed by the Structural Funds European Union (EU in programming period 2007-2013. The money from the European Regional Development Fund and European Social Fund provided an opportunity to introduce the latest technology and equipment in medical entities, as well as allowed skilled in the art. Of medicine to acquire knowledge and skills to develop their potential. The paper discusses issues related to the possibilities of support by EU funding to health care. Based on the data contained in the financial statements of an analysis of data from the balance sheet, characterized projects in hospitals as part of financing from the EU and the influence of the material in the therapeutic entities for their implementation through the analyses of correlation. The possibility of providing health services requires appropriate  regulations in law, system and organization. This is necessary in order to achieve the main goal of any entity that is take care of the welfare of the patient. Health and its protection is the highest value for the individual and for society, so Poland and the European Union is committed to the protection of the priority objective through enhanced organizational and legal actions and investments in the health sector.

  19. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  20. Using institutional theory to analyse hospital responses to external demands for finance and quality in five European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Nunes, Francisco; Wiig, Siri; van den Bovenkamp, Hester; Karltun, Anette; Robert, Glenn; Anderson, Janet; Vincent, Charles; Fulop, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the impact of the global economic crisis, delivering better health care with limited finance grows more challenging. Through the lens of institutional theory, this paper explores pressures experienced by hospital leaders to improve quality and constrain spending, focusing on how they respond to these often competing demands. Methods An in-depth, multilevel analysis of health care quality policies and practices in five European countries including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of ten hospitals. Results How hospitals responded to the financial and quality challenges was dependent upon three factors: the coherence of demands from external institutions; managerial competence to align external demands with an overall quality improvement strategy, and managerial stability. Hospital leaders used diverse strategies and practices to manage conflicting external pressures. Conclusions The development of hospital leaders’ skills in translating external requirements into implementation plans with internal support is a complex, but crucial, task, if quality is to remain a priority during times of austerity. Increasing quality improvement skills within a hospital, developing a culture where quality improvement becomes embedded and linking cost reduction measures to improving care are all required. PMID:26683885

  1. An examination of contemporary financing practices and the global financial crisis on nonprofit multi-hospital health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements. PMID:21528830

  2. An examination of contemporary financing practices and the global financial crisis on nonprofit multi-hospital health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements.

  3. Clinical profiles of patients colonized or infected with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates: a 20 month retrospective study at a Belgian University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamart Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Description of the clinical pictures of patients colonized or infected by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and admitted to hospital are rather scarce in Europe. However, a better delineation of the clinical patterns associated with the carriage of ESBL-producing isolates may allow healthcare providers to identify more rapidly at risk patients. This matter is of particular concern because of the growing proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae species isolates worldwide. Methods We undertook a descriptive analysis of 114 consecutive patients in whom ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from clinical specimens over a 20-month period. Clinical data were obtained through retrospective analysis of medical record charts. Microbiological cultures were carried out by standard laboratory methods. Results The proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains after exclusion of duplicate isolates was 4.5% and the incidence rate was 4.3 cases/1000 patients admitted. Healthcare-associated acquisition was important (n = 104 while community-acquisition was less frequently found (n = 10. Among the former group, two-thirds of the patients were aged over 65 years and 24% of these were living in nursing homes. Sixty-eight (65% of the patients with healthcare-associated ESBL, were considered clinically infected. In this group, the number and severity of co-morbidities was high, particularly including diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency. Other known risk factors for ESBL colonization or infection such as prior antibiotic exposure, urinary catheter or previous hospitalisation were also often found. The four main diagnostic categories were: urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, septicaemia and intra-abdominal infections. For hospitalized patients, the median hospital length of stay was 23 days and the average mortality rate during hospitalization was 13% (Confidence

  4. 论公立医院筹资模式的构建%Discussion on Construction of Public Hospital Financing Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑶瑶; 蔡战英

    2014-01-01

    The fund shortage for public hospital has seriously restricted the development of hospitals in the current medical environment. How to disperse the financial pressure, raise sufficient funds and reduce the cost of capital has become the focus of the financial management of the hospital. In this paper, the problems in public hospital financing management were analyzed and potential financing mode was put forward. The hospital should make scientific decision on the financing and select the optimal financing scheme based on the actual situation.%在当前医疗环境下,公立医院资金短缺,严重制约医院的发展。如何分散资金压力,筹集充足资金,降低资金成本已成为医院财务管理的重点。本文分析公立医院筹资管理中存在的问题,介绍并探讨公立医院可行的筹资模式。医院应立足于单位实际情况,进行科学的筹资决策,选择最优的筹资方案。

  5. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance progra

  6. Determinants of the cost of capital for privately financed hospital projects in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Paolo; Hellowell, Mark; Vecchi, Veronica; Gatti, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Many governments make use of private finance contracts to deliver healthcare infrastructure. Previous work has shown that the rate of return to investors in these markets often exceeds the efficient level. Our focus is on the factors that influence that return. We examine the effect of macroeconomic, project- and firm-level variables using a detailed sample of 84 UK private finance initiative (PFI) contracts signed between 1997 and 2010. Of the above variables, macroeconomic conditions and lead sponsor size are related to the investor return. However, our results show a remarkable degree of stability in the return to investors over the 14-year period. We find evidence of a 'prevailing norm' that is robust to project- and firm-level variation. The sustainability of excess returns over a long period is indicative of a concentrated market structure. We argue that policymakers should consider new mechanisms for increasing competition in the equity market, while ensuring that authorities have the specialist resources required to negotiate efficient contract prices. PMID:26432655

  7. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  8. How the choice of issuing authority affects hospital debt financing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Caryl E; Bernet, Patrick M

    2013-05-01

    All other things being equal, bonds issued by statewide authorities have lower yields than bonds issued by local authorities. However, lower yields may be offset by higher issuance costs for statewide authorities, as reflected in the true interest cost. Higher issuance costs may provide benefits for investors and for issuing hospitals.

  9. Review of Diagnosis-Related Group-Based Financing of Hospital Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Mihailovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, diagnosis-related group (DRG-based payment systems were gradually introduced in many countries. The main design characteristics of a DRG-based payment system are an exhaustive patient case classification system (ie, the system of diagnosis-related groupings and the payment formula, which is based on the base rate multiplied by a relative cost weight specific for each DRG. Cases within the same DRG code group are expected to undergo similar clinical evolution. Consecutively, they should incur the costs of diagnostics and treatment within a predefined scale. Such predictability was proven in a number of cost-of-illness studies conducted on major prosperity diseases alongside clinical trials on efficiency. This was the case with risky pregnancies, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression, alcohol addiction, hepatitis, and cancer. This article presents experience of introduced DRG-based payments in countries of western and eastern Europe, Scandinavia, United States, Canada, and Australia. This article presents the results of few selected reviews and systematic reviews of the following evidence: published reports on health system reforms by World Health Organization, World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Canadian Institute for Health Information, Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, and Centre for Health Economics University of York. Diverse payment systems have different strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various objectives. The advantages of the DRG payment system are reflected in the increased efficiency and transparency and reduced average length of stay. The disadvantage of DRG is creating financial incentives toward earlier hospital discharges. Occasionally, such polices are not in full accordance with the clinical benefit priorities.

  10. Debt financing: an executive's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runy, Lee Ann

    2006-06-01

    Debt financing can be a critical source of capital for not-for-profit hospitals. This gatefold outlines six steps toward effective debt financing, describes the various types of nontraditional and traditional debt and shows how two hospitals approached debt financing.

  11. A discussion on public hospital's financing risks and the control strategies%公立医院融资风险及其管理策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒敏; 聂志萍

    2011-01-01

    The paper described the conception and forms of risks for public hospitals financing,proposing the risk avoidance strategy, loss control strategy, and risk transfer strategy against these risks. In addition, it is proposed to take proactive measures to build the financing risk management system for public hospitals, and construct an effective financing risk prewaming mechanism, raise the scientific standard of financial decision-making, and develop a clear-cut economic responsibility system for the hospital leaders during their term, for the purpose of effectively minimizing the risks.%描述了公立医院融资风险的概念及主要表现形式,提出融资风险的风险回避策略、损失控制策略、风险转嫁策略,并建议采取积极措施,构建公立医院融资风险管理系统、建立有效的融资风险预警机制、提高财务决策的科学化水平、建立明晰的领导任期内经济责任制,以有效防范风险的发生。

  12. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  13. Drug use in relation to clinical activities as an instrument for prospective drug budgeting. The Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closon, M C; Crott, R; Even-Adin, D

    1996-03-01

    In an effort to control escalating health expenditures, especially in hospitals, many countries are planning or experimenting with prospective budgeting systems. Belgium is no exception and has recently introduced, with some success, limited fixed charges per hospital admission and/or per hospitalisation day for laboratory tests and radiographic investigations. More recently, the focus has shifted to hospital drug expenditures, which have shown high growth rates over the past few years. Until now, such expenditures have been reimbursed on a fee-for-service system, often with limited out-of-pocket charges for hospitalised patients. In order to curb the growth of drug expenditures, it is appropriate to investigate whether the financing of hospital drugs through a prospective budgeting system could be a feasible solution. Therefore, we constructed a database of over 270 000 admissions from a sample of 23 Belgian general and teaching (university) hospitals for the year 1991. Data were obtained from the official Minimum Basic Data Set or Résumé Clinique Minimum, which contains summarised clinical and administrative information, plus detailed expenditures (including medications) for each hospital stay. This information allowed us to categorize each stay into an appropriate diagnosis-related group (DRG). Our first descriptive analysis identified a number of major variables that influenced patients' drug expenditures: all-patient DRG (APDRG), age, disease severity, length of stay in an intensive care unit, emergency admission, death during hospitalisation, and hospital type (teaching or general). A covariance analysis was then performed on all hospital stays combined, and separately on surgical and medical stays. The results indicated that these variables taken together account for between 56.5 and 76.3% of drug expenditures in medical and surgical stays, respectively, with the major variance explained by differences in APDRG category. However, when the data were

  14. Variable prospective financing in the Danish hospital sector and the development of a Danish case-mix system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Rosling, Pernille; Bilde, Lone

    2006-08-01

    This article aims to describe and assess the Danish case-mix system, the cost accounting applied in setting national tariffs and the introduction of variable, prospective payment in the Danish hospital sector. The tariffs are calculated as a national average from hospital data gathered in a national cost database. However, uncertainty, mainly resulting from the definition of cost centres at the individual hospital, implies that the cost weights may not fully reflect the hospital treatment cost. As variable prospective payment of hospitals currently only applies to 20% of a hospital's budget, the incentives and the effects on productivity, quality and equality are still limited. PMID:17016932

  15. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  16. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  17. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  18. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  19. 新《医院财务制度》下收支管理与内控制度浅析%Discussion on relationship between revenue and expenditure management and internal control system under new hospital finance system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春

    2011-01-01

    New hospital finance system has been issued and hospital finance management will faces new regulations. Hospital at all levels will promote hospital internal control system hy establishing total budget system to effectively manage hospital revenue and expenditure. Key points of hospital revenue and expenditure management in new hospital finance system are discussed. The functions of a complete internal control system on assuring effective hospital revenue and management and budget management are analyzed. Finally, how to establish total budget system is mentioned.%新已经颁布,对医院财务管理提出新的要求.各级医院通过建立全面预算体系,来健全医院内部内控制度,从而让医院实现有效的收入与支出管理.文章论述了新制度下的收支管理的节点;内部控制制度健全对收支管理和预算管理的保证作用以及如何建立科学合理的全面预算体系.

  20. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  1. Exploration of the financing and management model of a children's critical disease security system in China based on the implementation of Shanghai Children Hospital Care Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-ruo; WEN Zhao-jun; CHEN Sai-juan; CHEN Zhu

    2011-01-01

    This study is designed to serve as a reference for the establishment of health security systems for children's critical diseases. Through analysis of the operation of Shanghai Children Hospital Care Aid (SCHCA), this study explored the financing model and management of a children's critical disease healthcare system and analyzed the possibility of expanding this system to other areas. It is found that a premium as Iow as RMB 7 per capita per year under SCHCA can provide high-level security for children's critical diseases. With the good experience in Shanghai and based on the current basic medical insurance system for urban residents and the new rural cooperative medical scheme (NRCMS), it is necessary and feasible to build a health security system for children's critical diseases at the national level.

  2. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers. PMID:26922733

  3. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers.

  4. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  5. The association of debt financing with not-for-profit hospitals' operational and capital-investment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Stephen A; Wheeler, John R C; Smith, Dean G

    2004-01-01

    Increased debt in companies can motivate both operational and capital-investment efficiency. This positive influence of debt is attributed to creditors' oversight of corporate behavior and the need to generate cash flows to service debt. Our study investigates whether debt has a similar relationship with efficiency in not-for-profit hospitals. Using statistical analysis of a database of audited financial statements of not-for-profit hospitals, we test whether debt is associated with six distinct measures of operational and capital-investment efficiency. We find that debt either has no association with efficiency or predicts decreased efficiency. Possible explanations are that creditors' oversight is less tight in the not-for-profit setting and that debt may at times motivate excessive capital investment because of a legal requirement to tie tax-exempt debt with a capital-investment project.

  6. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    OpenAIRE

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of t...

  7. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  8. Private finance. Oz trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P

    1999-08-19

    Privatization of a public sector general hospital in Adelaide, Australia, five years ago has revealed the strengths of the model and the difficulties of contracting with the private sector. Managers believe the new model has reduced overstaffing and increased local management. There have been continual contracting problems and the hospital has made losses, almost from the start. Private finance initiative contracts may always be difficult to negotiate and sustain. PMID:10662311

  9. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  10. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  11. Optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, F.; K. Ruddick; Vasilkov, A.; Burenkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the research conducted at MUMM in optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters during the period 1997-2000. The motivation for this research consists of the need to provide information for marine environmental management of coastal eutrophication and sediment transport related problems. The basic products provided by optical remote sensing are maps of chlorophyll concentration and total suspended matter. A key contribution has been made for the atmospheric correction...

  12. Analysis of the Finance Management of Public Hospital under the Trusteeship Cooperation%公立医院托管合作模式下财务管理的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀珍

    2012-01-01

    基于公立医院托管合作模式下财务管理实践,分析集中型财务管理体制特点、会计人员的配备及职责、资金和账户管理,指出托管财产管理方法并评价集中型管理体制的利弊;此外,提出进一步加强财务管理几点建议,为公立医院托管合作发展提供财务理论与实务借鉴.%Under the trusteeship cooperation model, the public hospital may adopt centralization, decentralization or middle course as its finance management policy. The finance management system features of different polices is analyzed, the precondition of applications is explained, the individual accounting methods are described, the financial function is defined, the capital management is expatiated and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are summarized. Meanwhile, proposals on trusteeship property management policy and how to enhance finance management as well are proposed. Furthermore, theory guideline and praclical references for the finance management development of public hospital are offered under the trusteeship operation .

  13. 对新《医院财务制度》加强财务监督力度的探讨%Discussion on finance supervision in new hospital financial system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙梅

    2011-01-01

    To match the requirement of health system reform and health care development and to fit for the changing environment of hospital operation, financial supervision is presented in aspects of improving hospital finance management system and standardizing hospital finance information quality and to promoting the usage of financial data to regulate hospital financial work, improve internal management, strengthen hospital self restraint mechanism and improve the efficiency of capital usage.%新适应医药卫生体制改革的要求和医疗卫生事业发展、医院运行环境的变化和实际工作需求,从完善医院财务管理体制建设和规范医院财务信息质量标准,提高财务数据的可用性两方面提出加强医院内外财务监督要求,促进医院规范财务行为,完善内部管理,加强自我约束机制,提高资金使用效益.

  14. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  15. Discussion and Practice on Hospital Cost Accounting under the New Finance and Accounting System%新财务会计制度下医院成本核算的探讨与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦健; 王晓飞; 蔡晓锋

    2012-01-01

    卫生部和财政部于2010年对原有的《医院财务制度》和《医院会计制度》进行了全面修订,实现了与企业会计准则部分接轨.与此相对应的是,已经开展全成本核算工作的医院,需要根据新的制度对成本核算的相关内容与细节进行相应的调整与完善.原有的《医院财务制度》和《医院会计制度》对成本核算的相关规定非常笼统,只是初步提出了医院需要进行成本核算,成本对象的划分不够科学,对医院开展成本核算工作缺乏现实指导意义.新的《医院财务制度》对医院开展成本核算工作起到了明确的指导作用,充实了成本分析和控制的内容.通过分析新的《医院财务制度》和《医院会计制度》在成本核算方面所涉及的变化与调整,结合成本核算的实践经验,对相关问题进行了深入的研究与探讨.%Ministry of Public Health and the Ministry of Finance have revised the former version of The Hospital Finance System and Hospital Accounting System in 2010. The practice has achieved the integration of the hospital accounting with the enterprise accounting standards. Accordingly, the hospitals, which have carried on the cost accounting, needs adjusting and perfecting the related content and details of the cost accounting system according to the new systems. Cost accounting in former The Hospital Finance System and The Hospital Accounting System are very general. That hospital needs cost accounty is necessary is initially proposed. The division of cost object isn't . Scientific, and it lacks guidance significance for cost accounting work in the hospital. New Hospital Finance System and Hospital Accounting System have clear guidance effect and enrich the content of cost analysis and control. By analyzing the change and adjustment on cost accounting in the new version of The Hospital Finance System and The Hospital Accounting System and combing with practical experience on cost

  16. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... is to minimize the negative effects of stress inducing environments based on research results. Which stress inducing factors? We can look around at some old hospitals and see they are noisy, confusing, ugly, monotonous, hard, cold, artificial, and dark; qualitative terms which can indicate what we shouldn......’t be doing in hospitals. Design factors which should be carefully considered include: Light, as in daylight, artificial light, its color, its temperature, the level and quality of lighting and the effects of light on circadian rhythms. There is documented evidence in: users’ satisfaction, orientation, 24...

  17. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  18. Compare benefits before entering receivables financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferconio, S; Lane, M R

    1991-02-01

    Financing accounts receivables is becoming a popular strategy in the healthcare industry. Factoring and securitization are two financing methods available to hospitals. Patient accounts managers who understand the programs' structures, incentives, and costs will be able to achieve the maximum benefit for their hospitals when choosing one of these transactions. PMID:10109699

  19. 医院的现金分期预测与短期筹资规划%Cash Prediction By Stages and S hort-term Financing Planning of the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海菁; 段光荣

    2013-01-01

    With the expanse of hospital insurance coverage, the scale of receivables in hospital would increase. Original inconspicuous or non-existent money problems gradually emerged, which put forward new challenges for the operation capital management in the hospital. The negative factors in hospital operation capital management are analyzed , and two aspects of wok are needed: firstly, to predict cash by stages to improve initiative and planning of capital operation;secondly, to implement financing plan under the circumstances of insufficient cash is expected, through utilizing the convenience brought by supply chain financing and commercial credit, to reduce the occupation of owned fund and improve the efficiency of fund arranging operation to achieve the innovation of financing management.%随着医疗保险覆盖面的扩大,医院的应收账款规模也将增加,原本不显眼或不存在的资金问题逐渐浮现,对医院营运资金的管理提出新的挑战。文章分析了医院在营运资金管理中的不利因素,提出医院在资金周转遇阻的情况下,需要着手做好两方面工作:一是进行现金的分期预测,提高资金运作的主动性和计划性;二是在现金预计不足的情况下进行筹资规划,通过利用供应链融资和商业信用带来的便利,减少自有资金的占用,提高资金统筹运作的效率,实现筹资管理的创新。

  20. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of the program — has been interpreted by many as further evidence of a strategic divide concerning American and European efforts to thwart terrorism.  This research will investigate the dramatic changes to the American anti-terrorist finance regime after 9/11, and will demonstrate that the European reluctance to cooperate with this program represents a fundamental disagreement concerning the prioritization of privacy rights rather than an unwillingness to take the steps necessary to combat the financing of terror.

  1. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  2. [Orphan diseases and orphan medicines: a Belgian and European study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze policies concerning orphan medicines, used to treat patients suffering from a rare disease. The decisions about orphan designation and marketing authorization of orphan medicines are taken at European level, but each Member State is responsible for decisions regarding reimbursement. The European measures to encourage the development of orphan medicines, such as market exclusivity for a period of ten years, seem to be successful. However, this market exclusivity should be revised once the profitability of such medicines has clearly been demonstrated. Our study recommends the implementation of patient registries at the European level in order to describe the natural evolution of rare diseases and the efficacy of orphan medicines, the majority of which are relatively expensive. In 2008, Belgian social security services reimbursed orphan medicines for an amount of 66 million euro, accounting for more than 5% of the hospital pharmaceutical budget. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine to an individual patient is subject to multiple conditions. Our study recommends that a unique counter within the NIHDI is created which centralizes all reimbursement requests. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine must be linked to the provision of standardized information needed for a patient register. The NIHDI administration could then, in collaboration with external experts, evaluate reimbursement requests and ensure a coherent application of reimbursement criteria. PMID:20183989

  3. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living...... and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  4. Renovating? Take a look at the new short-term paths to financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, M

    1984-02-01

    A hospital's renovation project can be financed through a diversity of financing techniques. Although the traditional vehicle for hospital capital financing is long-term, fixed-rate debt, there are a growing number of short-term financing alternatives that can provide greater flexibility and generate debt service savings. The author describes some of the new short-term financing techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of short- versus long-term financing.

  5. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  6. Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuzhi; Zhang Chunyuan; Foulon, M.; D. Chambre; Poulain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Poulain Michel, Chambre Dany, Foulon Michel.- Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts) Calculating the probability of dying among post-centenarians is problematic and often flawed by a high risk of error. This is partly due to the unreliability of statistical data on centenarians, and partly to the small populations concerned. The Belgian centenarian database of over 4,000 centenarians in the 1870 to 1894 birth cohorts used here endeavours to compensate for these two failings. ...

  7. The analysis on trust financing in public hospitals under stakeholder theory%基于利益相关者理论的公立医院信托融资分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志光; 梁宁霞; 赵俊; 王虹

    2014-01-01

    运用利益相关者理论分析了在公立医院信托融资中各利益相关者的利益、所拥有的资源,评价了其动用资源的能力以及可能对筹资过程的影响,探究了信托融资过程中各方的动力、阻力以及相互作用机制、利益调整机制,并提出相应建议对策。%This paper analyzes the interests and resources among various stakeholders in public hospitals trust financing by the stakeholder theory. It also evaluates the ability of stakeholders to use resources and the possible impact on the financing process. Finally, this paper explores the motivation of the parties, the resistance, the interaction mechanism, and interest adjustment mechanism in the process of trust financing, and make recommendations accordingly countermeasures.

  8. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  9. Sustainable finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustai

  10. Financing Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, JaeHoon

    2007-01-01

    More than 24 countries operate separate boards and exchanges aimed at small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). Equity markets play a critical role in fostering economic productivity by financing innovation. But only a few SME exchanges function properly, providing coveted fresh capital and liquidity. What steps are key to building an efficient exchange to provide risk capital for SMEs? Cr...

  11. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...

  12. Private Power Financing : From Project Finance to Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Karl G. Jechoutek; Lamech, Ranjit

    1995-01-01

    Project financing of independent power producers (IPPs) may seem the only solution to the intractable problem of getting private credit to the power sector. In the developing world, however, the public-private partnership in project-financed IPP ventures has been slow to produce results. To achieve substantive progress in IPP financing, limited recourse project financing will have to evolv...

  13. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  14. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  15. Sustainable finance

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma-de Jong, Margreet F.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation for Springschool of Strategy, University of Groningen, 10 October 2012. The role of CSR is to stimulate ethical behaviour, and as a result, mutual trust in society. Advantage of CSR for the company and the evolution of CSR. From CSR to Sustainable Finance: how does CSR influence Sustainable Business Administration & Management Accounting, Financial Leadership and what is the importance of CSR in the financial sector

  16. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. I

  17. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  18. On the Finance Budget and Cost Control in Hospital%浅谈医院财务预算与成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊雪

    2014-01-01

    By using appropriate methods to control the cost, minimize the hospital costs, and maximize the profits, which plays an important role in the long-term plan of the hospital.%运用恰当的方法进行成本控制,使医院成本实现最小化,从而达到利润最大化,对医院的长远规划起着重要的作用。

  19. Social security financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited. PMID:7423348

  20. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  1. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  2. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c

  3. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  4. Continuing Vocational Training in Belgian Companies: An Upward Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Dirk; Wouters, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the European continuing vocational training survey, this paper aims to give an overview of the evolutions in continuing vocational training (CVT) in Belgian companies, by comparing both the results of the survey of 1994 and those of 2000/2001. Design/methodology/approach: In Belgium 1,129 companies took part in the survey of…

  5. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  6. How to use finance lease buying equipment in private hospital%民营医院如何利用融资租赁购入医疗设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安文雯; 段玉跃

    2011-01-01

    民营医院要生存下去并寻求发展,必须调整医疗服务结构,引进先进医疗设备,增加新的服务项目,使医院发展自己特色专科服务项目,积极培植新的业务收入增长点,针对迅速崛起的民营医院面临着发展资金相对不足,设备简陋的状况,可采用融资租赁方式购置先进的大型医疗设备,以提高经济效益及自身发展能力.%The necessary conditions for private hospital survival and development includes adjusting medical program, introducing advanced medical equipment, increasing new medical program and developing special discipline to raise new income growth point.Based on the status of poor capital and equipment, finance lease is introduced to buy advanced medical equipment and improve hospital economic benefit and self development capacity.

  7. 医院财务在餐饮管理中的作用探讨%Discussion on the Role of Hospital Finance in Food and Beverage Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦荣

    2012-01-01

    食品安全是当代社会重大问题之一,而作为卫生系统中重要部门的医院系统,在其食堂餐饮管理方面必然要有着更高的要求.而把握住财务管理环节,可以说对医院系统中餐饮环节的安全管理起到防范作用.本文重点探讨这一内容.%Food safety is one of the major issues of contemporary society, as an important sector of the health system, hospital system has higher requirements in food and beverage management of canteen. Grasping the link of financial management can play preventive role of safety management of food and beverage in hospital system.

  8. Exploring Pupils' Perceptions of Teacher Racism in Their Context: A Case Study of Turkish and Belgian Vocational Education Pupils in a Belgian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article employs ethnographic data gathered from one Belgian (Flemish) secondary school to explore the meaning Belgian and Turkish-speaking minority pupils enrolled in technical and vocational education attach to teacher racism and racial discrimination, and to explore variations between pupils in making claims of teacher racism. A symbolic…

  9. Financing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts. PMID:1993102

  10. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  11. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  12. Belgian modified classification of Maastricht for donors after circulatory death

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Patrick; Belgian Working Group on DCD National Protocol; Lois, Fernande; Darius, Tom; De Pauw, Luc; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquemin, Dominique; Schamps, Geneviève; Van Deynse, Dominique; Rondelet, Benoît; Verschuren, Franck

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: "Non-heart-beating donors," or, in a more recent and international definition, "donors after circulatory death," are a potential and additional group of deceased persons who are able to add organs to the pool. METHODS: A new classification is proposed on the basis of the result of a consensus of experts issued from all Belgian transplant centers. RESULTS: The first level of definition is simple and based on whether the situation is uncontrolled (categories I and II) or contr...

  13. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  14. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...

  15. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, E.; Godrie, T.; de Laubier, J.; di Tanna, S.; Ringuet, M.; Sindic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy...

  16. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  17. Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, Bart; CATRY, Boudewijn; Boone, Randy; Theys, Hubert; De Bleecker, Koen; Dewulf, Jeroen; Deprez, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and an overview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. The production of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controlled iron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern about animal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solid feed to assure rumi...

  18. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberghe, L.; Claessens, M.; Vandegehuchte, M.B.; Mees, J.; Janssen, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris wer...

  19. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  20. Crisis behind the figures? Belgian trade unions between strength, paralysis and revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Faniel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of the trade unions in European countries, Belgian unions managed to preserve a high and stable union density, and strong institutional positions. However, their situation is not blissful and the condition of both the workforce and the unions has been worsening for three decades. This article looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Belgian unions and presents four initiatives of union revitalisation recently developed. The argument is that Belgian unions do not fully size the sco...

  1. Planning and implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, the authors recall Belgian conditions, initially as regards primary energy (high degree of energy consumption and high degree of dependence on other countries), and then as regards electricity (divided up according to energy sources and types of producer). In the second part, the method used in Belgium for planning electrical power production is explained. Particular emphasis is placed on both the economic and technical assumptions made (trends in fuel costs, method of calculating investment costs, etc.). The development required, for the period 1982-92, of the means of production is stated in the light of the assumptions made. Fuel cycle planning (front and back ends) is also described with a review of the principal stages, namely supply of natural uranium, enrichment, reprocessing, treatment of irradiated fuel, and geological storage of wastes. The third and last part of the paper looks back at events in the implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme in chronological order. The beginnings of nuclear development in Belgium are recalled, as is the decision to construct the first three units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1), which were completed and put into service in 1975. The programme now under way is also briefly described, together with the characteristics of Belgian power stations, especially those concerned with safety. In conclusion, the paper outlines the main advantages of the nuclear option for a country as vulnerable where energy is concerned, as Belgium. (author)

  2. 对新《医院财务制度》和《医院会计制度》执行过程中相关问题的建议%Suggestions on new hospital finance system and hospital accounting system implementing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琦; 颜维华; 刘杰; 张云; 郑万惠

    2011-01-01

    Comparable analysis between the new and old hospital finance system and accounting system and how to link up new and old systems are discussed. The link up of stay flush fund and fixed fund, medical risk funs and other related subjects, performance pay and retirement pay are also discussed.%对新旧制度相关情况进行了分析,并着重就如何作好新旧制度对接的有关事宜进行了探讨,并就待冲基金与固定基金的衔接、医疗风险金、有关科目的核算、绩效工资的处理、退休人员经费的处理等事项提出了对策建议.

  3. Islamic finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Islamic finance is based on ethical principles in line with Islamic religious law. Despite its low share of the global financial market, Islamic finance has been one of this sector’s fastest growing components over the last decades and has gained further momentum in the wake of the financial crisis. The paper examines the development of and possible prospects for Islamic finance, with a special focus on Europe. It compares Islamic and conventional finance, particularly as concerns risks assoc...

  4. Caring finance practices

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This article presents two cases of such alternatives, which can be understood as caring finance. Caring finance is built around more personal relationships, responsibility, and risk reduction. The example...

  5. The Influence of the 1974 Oil Crisis on Sectoral Growth Rates in the Belgian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F.BOSSIER; D. DUWEIN

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly presents and analyses the behaviour of the different sectors of the Belgian economy during the period 1965-1978. Special attention is paid to the influence of the 1974 oil crisis on sectors of the Belgian economy. It is shown that the 1974 shock had different consequences according to the energy components of the sector

  6. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  7. Mezzanine finance and corporate bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Libena TETREVOVA

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of mezzanine finance in relation to corporate bonds. Firstly, attention is paid to definition of mezzanine finance. The term mezzanine finance is used as a term for hybrid forms of financing that combine elements of debt and equity financing. Mezzanine finance represents an alternative form of financing corporate activities. Secondly, possible forms of mezzanine finance are characterized. We can say that special types of corporate bonds (convertible bonds a...

  8. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  9. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  10. Hemophilia A in a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, A; Lubas, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2014-08-01

    This case report presents a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog affected by hemophilia A recognized at the age of seven months. The clinical follow-up including all the diagnostic procedures leading to the final diagnosis and the course of this disorder are presented. This is a typical proband case demonstrating the appearance of this genetic disease in a breed never involved by this coagulation disorder so far documented that started an intensive and laborious plan to reduce the incidence of hemophilia A and the further appearance of new cases.

  11. Private finance initiative. Well-laid plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, S; Godden, S; Pollock, A

    1999-11-01

    Private finance schemes in primary care will not be subject to the controls required in hospital programmes. Insurance companies are interested in partnerships with primary care in order to influence NHS spending as services are increasingly contracted out. This state of affairs could lead to the introduction of US-style managed care with a loss of equity for patients. PMID:10662167

  12. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  13. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  15. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  16. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  17. [The military radiologist Etienne Henrard (1870-1941) ... or the Belgian doctor Hirtz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiggelen, R

    1995-01-01

    Etienne Henrard was undoubtedly the most important Belgian military radiologist. Besides his clinical radiological activities, he quickly became interested in stereoradiography and the removal of foreign bodies, which earned him international fame. During the First World War he continued his work and improved his techniques in the hospital "L'Océan" at De Panne, in collaboration with Antoine Depage. He was a Founding fellow member of the "Société belge de Radiologie" and of the "Journal belge de Radiologie", of which he was the Secretary (1909-1912), Vice-President (1913-1914), Président (1919-1920), Editor-in-Chief (1924-1940), and finally Treasurer (1932-1940). He was a founding fellow member, and later the President (1924-1938) and Honorary President of the "Union professionnelle des Médecins belges Radiologistes". He was the Honorary President of the Third Congress of Radiology in the French-speaking world. He was due to receive an international tribute, but an unfortunate date had been chosen: May 19, 1940.

  18. Islamic Banking and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    AlFarra, Diaa M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...

  19. Digitally Financed Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Daniel; Faz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of digital finance systems in the developing world has altered this financial context and enabled new business models that rely on small, regular payments. In the off-grid energy sector a group of solar companies, primarily in East Africa and South Asia, are leveraging digital finance to offer pay-as-you-go (PAYG) energy. This brief explains how digital finance is enabling PA...

  20. Nonrecourse financing and securitization

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mami; Osano, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the role of the nonrecourse financing of securitization by a financial institution (FI). Our model suggests that even though the FI has the opportunity to provide liquidity support afterward, it is optimal for the FI to use the nonrecourse financing of securitization initially, because the nonrecourse security makes liquidation of the original asset more attractive for an FI that knows that the original asset is bad. However, our model also predicts that the nonrecourse financing ...

  1. Hawkes processes in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Bacry; Iacopo Mastromatteo; Jean-Fran\\c{c}ois Muzy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequency finance. Becaus...

  2. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  3. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  4. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  5. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  6. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  7. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  8. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  9. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  10. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  11. When Art & Finance Collide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fine art and big finance are proving a profitable combination in China but questions of authenticity need to be addressed CHINA’S art market is on fire.As sales and prices break records,a new force has appeared in the market - organized art finance in the form of art trust funds and artwork exchanges.

  12. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  13. Finance Law Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Douglas S.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the area of elementary and secondary education, cases involve general school finance, state funding programs, employee negotiations, and business management. In the area of higher education, cases involve taxation, student fees,…

  14. Public Library Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  15. Financing for Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2015-01-01

    Remarks delivered by Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group. The Third International Conference on Financing for Development represents an important milestone in efforts to achieve universal and sustainable development as we move beyond 2015 and introduce a new set of Sustainable Development Goals. This event aims to mobilize high-level political support for financing gender equality and women’s...

  16. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  17. Caring finance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe 2008 financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of both utilitarian and deontological ethics in finance. Alternatives do not need to be created from nothing, because the crisis itself has stimulated the emergence of ethically sound finance practices from within the sector. This ar

  18. Healthcare financing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananatu, K

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Malaysian healthcare system and its method of financing. The development of the healthcare delivery system in Malaysia is commendable. However, the strength and weaknesses of the public healthcare system and the financing problems encountered are also discussed. Cost of healthcare and funding of both the public and private sectors were also revealed. One must optimise the advantages of operating a health financing scheme which is affordable and controllable which contribute towards cost-containment and quality assurance. Thus, there is a need for the establishment of a National Healthcare Financing, a mechanism to sustain the healthcare delivery network and operate it as a viable option. A model of the National Health Financing Scheme (NHFS) was proposed.

  19. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  20. Debt Financing: Academia's Funding Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses debt financing as a way to help universities alleviate the problems of obsolete scientific equipment and facilities for research. Reviews several forms of tax-exempt financing and takes note of some of the advantages of debt financing. (CS)

  1. Working Paper 13-09 - Qualitative Employment Multipliers for the Belgian Environmental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adja Awa Sissoko; Bart Van den Cruyce

    2009-01-01

    The present paper computes cumulative employment generated by the Belgian environmental industry. Relying on Belgian input-output tables for the year 2000 and on detailed employment data (SAM sub ]matrix), we investigate the patterns of the employment in the environmental industry, by considering the worker types differentiated by gender, educational attainment or a combination of these characteristics. The employment multiplier analysis of environmental employment reveals some interesting di...

  2. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    OpenAIRE

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-01-01

    Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the...

  3. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  4. The Determinants of Debt Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chenkai

    2013-01-01

    Debt financing is an important part in capital structure. Over the fifty years, most scholars and researchers focus primarily on the balance between debt financing and equity financing. And only few research involve in types of debt financing, as well as the determinant of debt financing. This study is aim to analyse the determinate of debt financing, which examine that the influence by eight different elements. This dissertation examined by quantitative techniques with 591 UK listed comp...

  5. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  6. Financing Bologna Students’ Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel; Sixth Workshop on Public Policy Design: Education

    2010-01-01

    The current system for financing cross-border students, based on the host country, is neither sustainable nor efficient: it produces too little cross-border education. On that background, and motivate as well by a recent decision of the European Court of Justice, we explore two alternative solutions. The first one substitutes to the financing by the host country, a financing by the country of origin, through vouchers that the student may use at home or abroad provided it is in a recognized in...

  7. FINANCING SME FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Viorica CERBUSCA

    2015-01-01

    The paper highlights the problems faced by the SMEs in accessing adequate financing as one of the most significant barriers of the sector. Financial access is critical for SMEs’ growth and development. At the same time, the author emphasize that there is no unique way of financing SMEs. The need depends on the stage of maturity and size of the enterprise. In order to facilitate the SME access to finance it is necessary to adapt the best international practices and to adapt them at the ...

  8. Financing Bologna Students’ Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The current system for financing cross-border students, based on the host country, is neither sustainable nor efficient: it produces too little cross-border education. On that background, and motivate as well by a recent decision of the European Court of Justice, we explore two alternative solutions. The first one substitutes to the financing by the host country, a financing by the country of origin, through vouchers that the student may use at home or abroad provided it is in a recognized in...

  9. Financing Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Funder, Mikkel; Engberg-Pedersen, Lars;

    aid budgets or divert them to meet refugee and migration issues. In this context of massive global ambition and concurrent uncertainty on the future of aid, other actors and sources of development financing seem ever more critical, such as the private sector, private foundations and the BRICS....... But what are in fact the interests and modes of operation of such actors in the context of development financing, and to what extent do they align with the aims of the SDGs? And how do national governments of developing countries themselves perceive and approach these new sources of financing?...

  10. The Finance Curse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, John; Shaxson, Nick; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis placed the utility of financial services in question. The crash, great recession, wealth transfers from public to private, austerity and growing inequality cast doubt on the idea that finance is a boon to the host economy. This article systematizes these doubts......, economic instability, inequality, conflict, rent-seeking and corruption. The Finance Curse produces similar effects, often for similar reasons. Beyond a point, a growing financial sector can do more harm than good. Unlike the Resource Curse, these harms transcend borders. The concept of a Finance Curse...

  11. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  12. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  13. FINANCING SME FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CERBUSCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the problems faced by the SMEs in accessing adequate financing as one of the most significant barriers of the sector. Financial access is critical for SMEs’ growth and development. At the same time, the author emphasize that there is no unique way of financing SMEs. The need depends on the stage of maturity and size of the enterprise. In order to facilitate the SME access to finance it is necessary to adapt the best international practices and to adapt them at the local condition. Article aims to present microfinancing as a tool that could improve the SME access to finance, thus contributing to the economic development of the country by creating new jobs, new products and services

  14. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  15. Financing Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Funder, Mikkel; Engberg-Pedersen, Lars;

    In the fall of 2015, world leaders adopted the most ambitious global development agenda in history. Meeting the aspiring targets of the Sustainable Development Goals will require financing far beyond traditional aid. At the same time, aid itself is under major pressure as European governments cut...... aid budgets or divert them to meet refugee and migration issues. In this context of massive global ambition and concurrent uncertainty on the future of aid, other actors and sources of development financing seem ever more critical, such as the private sector, private foundations and the BRICS....... But what are in fact the interests and modes of operation of such actors in the context of development financing, and to what extent do they align with the aims of the SDGs? And how do national governments of developing countries themselves perceive and approach these new sources of financing?...

  16. Financing Professional Sports Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Robert A.; Victor A. Matheson

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines public financing of professional sports facilities with a focus on both early and recent developments in taxpayer subsidization of spectator sports. The paper explores both the magnitude and the sources of public funding for professional sports facilities.

  17. SME financing in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Xiang Liu

    2007-01-01

    SMEs have a great contribution in China’s economic expansion. However, the financing predicament currently faced by SMEs constitutes a great bottleneck for their development. Banks are reluctant to lend to them, mainly due to the lack of collateral and their poor capability in pricing risk. This is the reason why credit guarantee institutions play a key role in SME financing and the perfection of the credit guarantee system is important for promoting their access to credit. In addition, the l...

  18. Financing Water in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...

  19. International Macro-Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlova, Anna; Rigobon, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    International macro-finance is a new area of open economy macroeconomics that brings portfolio choice and asset pricing considerations into models of international macroeconomics. The importance of these considerations--typically relegated to Finance and largely overlooked in traditional macroeconomics--for the international macroeconomy have been underscored by a series of recent financial crises and by unprecedented global imbalances. In this paper, we survey recent developments in this are...

  20. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  1. Private sector finance for adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atteridge, A.; Pauw, W.P.; Terpstra, P.; Bedini, F.; Bosi, L; Costella, C.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on private finance has emerged in climate finance discussions, particularly in the context of international climate change negotiations. This is partly because the overall volume of finance needed to support adaptation in developing countries is beyond what many expect public finance to

  2. Market turbulence creates financing opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James H

    2012-03-01

    The flight to high-quality assets resulting from Standard & Poor's downgrade of the U.S. government's credit rating has dropped the yield on U.S. Treasury securities as investors have sought refuge amid uncertain market conditions. Consequently, hospitals can now obtain mortgage insurance from the U.S. government to finance expansions and refinance their debt with GNMA securities at taxable interest rates that are often more favorable than tax-exempt bond fixed rates. Because GNMA certificates can be sold in a forward purchase transaction that locks in a fixed interest rate while avoiding payment of interest until construction funds are disbursed, they can help avoid the effects of negative arbitrage.

  3. Does a referral from home to hospital affect satisfaction with childbirth? A cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouwy Anneleen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Belgian and Dutch societies present many similarities but differ with regard to the organisation of maternity care. The Dutch way of giving birth is well known for its high percentage of home births and its low medical intervention rate. In contrast, home births in Belgium are uncommon and the medical model is taken for granted. Dutch and Belgian maternity care systems are compared with regard to the influence of being referred to specialist care during pregnancy or intrapartum while planning for a home birth. We expect that a referral will result in lower satisfaction with childbirth, especially in Belgium. Methods Two questionnaires were filled out by 605 women, one at 30 weeks of pregnancy and one within the first two weeks after childbirth, either at home or in a hospital. Of these, 563 questionnaires were usable for analysis. Women were invited to participate in the study by independent midwives and obstetricians during antenatal visits in 2004–2005. Satisfaction with childbirth was measured by the Mackey Satisfaction with Childbirth Rating Scale, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of the concept. Results Belgian women are more satisfied than Dutch women and home births are more satisfying than hospital births. Women who are referred to the hospital while planning for a home birth are less satisfied than women who planned to give birth in hospital and did. A referral has a greater negative impact on satisfaction for Dutch women. Conclusion There is no reason to believe Dutch women receive hospital care of lesser quality than Belgian women in case of a referral. Belgian and Dutch attach different meaning to being referred, resulting in a different evaluation of childbirth. In the Dutch maternity care system home births lead to higher satisfaction, but once a referral to the hospital is necessary satisfaction drops and ends up lower than satisfaction with hospital births that were planned in advance

  4. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented.

  5. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  6. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  7. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  8. The potential growth of the Belgian economy and its determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, C.

    2005-01-01

    The potential growth path of the economy is at the centre of various fundamental economic questions, particularly in connection with the conduct of monetary policy and the management of public finances. It also determines the progress of living standards, so that the adverse population prospects confronting the European economies have rekindled interest in the subject. The first chapter of the article reports on the developments recorded over the past twenty years, using a method derived from...

  9. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  10. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  11. Whither Multilateral Development Finance?

    OpenAIRE

    Wihtol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral development finance is at a critical juncture. In the past 70 years, it has developed through four distinct stages. The Bretton Woods conference established the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in 1944 to finance post-war reconstruction and stabilize the global economy. The second stage saw the establishment of regional development banks in the 1950s and 1960s. This was followed by the emergence of subregional banks. In the fourth stage, from the mid-1970s to the 20...

  12. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  13. Rethinking SMEs’ Financing Predicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A waveofsharpcriticism has been aimed atthebanks concerning the difficulties for China’ss mallandmedium-sized enterprises(SMEs)in acquiring financing,whilethe Central Government began to strongly urge banks to provide loans for SMEs.Shouldall SMEs be financed while the bankst ake theblame?Is there anyother viable way to pull SMEs outof the financial predicament?Qiu Haiping,a professor with the School of Economics at Renmin University of China,recentlye xamined the issue and offered insights in the Guangming Daily.Edited excerpts follow

  14. Core and fuel feasibility study for improved flexibility on the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been performed for extended power modulations on Belgian NPPs. The goal is to make the existing nuclear power units in Belgium more flexible without implementing hardware modifications and guaranteeing safety at all times. As the critical part of the feasibility study, the impacts on the core behaviour and fuel performance have been studied in detail. It is concluded that all existing fuels loaded in the Belgian plants allow up to 30 power modulations per fuel cycle without changing the currently applied fuel cycle management. This is also supported by the extensive experience feedback of the fuel products for flexible operations in European countries. (author)

  15. Non-destructive method for internal quality determination of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.)

    OpenAIRE

    De Baerdemaeker J.; Quenon V.

    2000-01-01

    A method and process were developed to nondestructively measure the length of the floral stalk in Belgian endive Cichorium intybus L. Current X-ray technology proved to be a feasible method. A detection algorithm was developed based on the minimal transmitted intensities along the length. The method is very accurate with an absolute precision of 4.9 mm and allows the study of the influence of storage conditions and time on the Belgian endive internal quality. The growth of the floral stalk is...

  16. Project financing versus corporate financing under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    In recent years financing through the creation of an independent project company or financing by non-recourse debt has become an important part of corporate decisions. Shah and Thakor (JET, 1987) argue that project financing can be optimal when asymmetric information exists between firm's insiders and market participants. In contrast to that paper, we provide an asymmetric information argument for project financing without relying on corporate taxes, costly information production or an assump...

  17. Malliavin calculus in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Kohatsu, Arturo; Miquel, Montero

    2003-01-01

    This article is an introduction to Malliavin Calculus for practitioners. We treat one specific application to the calculation of greeks in Finance. We consider also the kernel density method to compute greeks and an extension of the Vega index called the local vega index.

  18. Financing Public Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  19. Specialized financing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific financing techniques applicable to wind energy projects in Canada are discussed. A limited partnership is the classic Canadian approach to tax-advantaged financing. For a typical wind project, the limited partners would get an internal rate of return of around 8% over 20 years as well as income tax deductions on Class 34 investments. This rate can be improved if the investors borrow some of the money; they get tax-free cash flow while having deductible loan interest, raising their rate of return after taxes to ca 9-10%. Special situation investors can get to take all of the Class 34 deduction right away, raising their return up to the 12% range. These investors include principal business corporations (such as utilities or oil companies), or companies who have sold their business. A second type of financing structure is related to inflation-indexed debt. The loan is structured like a mortgage, with the annual payments indexed to inflation but nevertheless low enough to provide an early positive cash flow from the project. Other possible financing structures are the immigrant investor fund and the provincial incentive corporations

  20. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  1. Filtering in Finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Lautier, Delphine; Javaheri, Alireza; Galli, Alain

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present an introduction to various Filtering algorithms and some of their applications to the world of Quantitative Finance. We shall first mention the fundamental case of Gaussian noises where we obtain the well-known Kalman Filter. Because of common nonlinearities, we will be discussing the Extended Kalman Filter.

  2. Financing a nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant construction projects have many characteristics in common with other types of large infrastructure investment, both within the power generation sector and elsewhere. However, nuclear power itself has special features that can make nuclear financing particularly challenging. These features include the high capital cost, the relatively long period required to recoup investments, the often controversial nature of nuclear projects. The need for clear solutions and financing schemes for radioactive waste management and decommissioning and the need for nuclear power plants to operate at high capacity factors, preferably under base load conditions. During the previous major expansion of nuclear power in the 1970 and 1980, many nuclear projects suffered very large construction delays and cost overruns. The legacy of such problems increases the risks perceived by potential investors. A recent study undertaken jointly by the Iea and the Nea showed that the competitiveness of nuclear power strongly depends on the cost of financing due to the high share of fixed capital costs in the total lifetime costs of nuclear power. A key issue in this context is the long-term predictability of carbon pricing arrangements, which, for the time being and despite positive evolutions in this respect, most notably in Europe, does not yet exist. This paper will consider how the risks can be mitigated and examine in detail various models for corporate finance and the role of government assistance in providing a suitable financial basis. (Author)

  3. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  4. ISLAMIC FINANCE – UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, SAYYID

    2009-01-01

    Islamic finance literacy has become critical for the future growth of the Islamic financial sector in the twenty-first century. While a multi-pronged approach is called for, the focus in this paper is on the undergraduate programs in Islamic banking and finance. It analyses the state of teaching of Islamic banking and finance at the undergraduate level and proposes solutions for improving the undergraduate education of Islamic banking and finance.

  5. The Challenge of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Andrew; Singh, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    From its humble beginnings in the 1990s, Islamic finance has become a trillion US dollar industry. The market consensus is that Islamic finance has a bright future due to favourable demographics and rising incomes in the Muslim community. Moreover, despite voices sceptical of an accommodation between Islamic and global finance, leading global banks are buying Islamic bonds and forming subsidiaries specially to conduct Islamic finance business. Special laws have been passed in non-Muslim fi...

  6. An Overview of Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumtaz Hussain; Asghar Shahmoradi; Rima Turk

    2015-01-01

    Islamic finance has started to grow in international finance across the globe, with some concentration in few countries. Nearly 20 percent annual growth of Islamic finance in recent years seems to point to its resilience and broad appeal, partly owing to principles that govern Islamic financial activities, including equity, participation, and ownership. In theory, Islamic finance is resilient to shocks because of its emphasis on risk sharing, limits on excessive risk taking, and strong link t...

  7. FINANCING DECISION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREI STANCULESCU; DAN NICOLAE IVANESCU; PETRE BREZEANU

    2011-01-01

    This paper sustains the existence of a biunivocal link between a company’s financing decision and the corporate governance. On the one hand, the financing decision has an impact on corporate performance, which has been confirmed. According to the agency theory, the financing decision will contribute to solving interest conflicts between shareholders and managers. On the other hand, the corporate governance mechanism provides the proper contractual framework for attracting financing resources....

  8. Impact: What Influences Finance Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Arnold

    2003-01-01

    Which journal articles have had the most impact on finance research? Which journals dominated finance research in the 1990s? We answer these and similar questions using a comprehensive sample of journals, an extensive time period, and a new ranking method that avoids problems inherent in the existing literature. Among our findings: six of the 10 articles most highly cited by finance journals were published in econometrics or economics journals; Journal of Finance has the most citations, but i...

  9. Financing bidders in takeover contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Vladimirov

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that endogenizing how acquirers finance their cash bids is just as important for understanding bidding in takeovers as endogenizing acquirers' payment method choice. The paper shows that acquirers finance their cash bids with equity only if they lack access to competitive financing

  10. Financing bidders in takeover contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Vladimirov

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how bidders' choice of financing for cash bids affects takeover prices. Endogenizing this choice shows that takeover premia are lower than when bidders are not cash-constrained for equity-like financing, but higher for debt financing. Intuitively, unlike debt (which leads to overb

  11. Information,Informal finance,and SME financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Justin Yifu; SUN Xifang

    2006-01-01

    Informal finance exists extensively and has been playing an important role in small-and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financing in developing economies,This paper tries to rationalize the extensiveness of informal finance.SME financing suffers more serious information asymmetry to the extent that most SMEs are more opaque and can only provide less collateral.Informal lenders have an advantage over formal financial institutions in collecting "soft information" about SME borrowers.This paper establishes a model including formal and informal lenders and high-and low-risk borrowers with or without sufficient collateral and shows that the credit market in which informal finance is eliminated will allocate funds in some inefficient way,and the efficiency of allocating credit funds can be improved once informal finance is allowed to coexist with formal finance.

  12. Osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia in a Belgian horse

    OpenAIRE

    Muirhead, Tammy; McClure, J.T.; Bourque, Andrea; Pack, LeeAnn

    2003-01-01

    A lesion in the cervical region of a 14-month-old Belgian gelding with severe ataxia was suspected. Necropsy revealed symmetric focal cartilage defects compatible with osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia. To our knowledge this is the first equine report of symmetrical osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles causing neurologic signs.

  13. Can metacognition compensate for intelligence in the first year of Belgian higher education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of metacognitive knowledge and skills compensating for intelligence in relation to academic performance in the first year of Belgian higher education. About 600 freshmen of educational sciences, medicine and psychology participated in this project. Tasks and questio

  14. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  15. Clonal Expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum Populations Based on New Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coexistence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, begging the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a seven year survey. Our main objective w...

  16. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perce

  17. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Ağırdağ; K. Jordens; M. Van Houtte

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very negativ

  18. A research on hospital finance management function expansion and innovation under the new system%新制度下医院财务管理的职能拓展与思路创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小喆; 郑大喜

    2012-01-01

    财务管理目标的定位及财务治理结构的优化直接影响医院医、教、研等工作的发展进程和运行效率.创新财务管理方法,优化财务运行流程,对促进医院管理的精细化、科学化具有重要的现实意义.通过对国内外医院财务管理职能的分析,探讨了新制度下医院财务管理需加强的职能及创新的方向.%Orientation of financial management goals and optimization on financial governance structure directly affects the development process and operation efficiency on medical care, teaching, research and other work in hospital. By innovation of financial management method and optimization of financial operation process, it has important practical significance to promote refined and scientific hospital management. Through analyses the domestic and foreign hospital financial management functions, the article discusses the financial management function which should strengthen and the direction that can make innovation in hospital.

  19. Statistics for Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard

    Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...... that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical...... and mathematical techniques, including linear and nonlinear time series analysis, stochastic calculus models, stochastic differential equations, Itō’s formula, the Black–Scholes model, the generalized method-of-moments, and the Kalman filter. They explain how these tools are used to price financial derivatives...

  20. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  1. From Finance Capitalism to Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    –1931 and of financialization from around 1980 to today. Finance capitalism and financialization were enabled by a dominant narrative that legitimized the power of finance. The shifts in the role of finance happened when crises undermined the meaning of the existing narrative and created for a new narrative able to make sense...... narratives that legitimized and shaped these changes. When finance became a master rent seeking, cultural capture and out-of control financial innovation resulted in financial and social instability. Finance as a master was the characteristic of finance capitalism from around 1900...... of the crisis and point society in a new direction. This sense-making process stabilized when a new narrative was established that could explain the crisis and legitimize and shape a new role for finance. The article is based on my presidential address presented at the Business History Conference’s annual...

  2. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  3. When Art & Finance Collide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lintao

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S art market is on fire.As sales and prices break records,a new force has appeared in the market-organized art finance in the form of art trust funds and artwork exchanges.It was reported that the anonymous winner of the bid for the Song Dynasty calligraphy work Dizhuming by Huang Tingjian (1045-1105).which was sold for a staggering 436.

  4. Financing Public Service Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lund, Anker Brink

    2012-01-01

    Recently several European countries have abolished the traditional public service licence fee system, replacing it with direct public funding. But except for Iceland, the Nordic countries have not followed suit. The article discusses this development within a comparative framework of Public Service...... Broadcasting (PSB) financing regimes in Europe, concluding that Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden may still be considered conventional, licence fee PSB countries, but with some interesting differences in relation to competitive and market oriented alternatives of resource provision...

  5. Islamic finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    WILSON, RODNEY

    2013-01-01

    Islam all too often resonates negatively in Europe, with a great part of non-Muslim public opinion uncomfortable with Islamic culture and values. Secular and Christian opinion is at best suspicious of shariah, Islamic law, and indeed often antagonistic. The notion of wanting to apply shariah principles to banking and finance is treated with scepticism if not outright hostility, especially as there is no concept of Christian or Jewish banking, even if there are some parallels between shariah f...

  6. Positioning hospitals for improved access to capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Kevin T; Sandrick, Karen M

    2002-11-01

    Hospitals need to actively position themselves in the next 18 to 24 months to ensure continued access to financing. Hospitals need to shift their focus from investment income to operations. Hospitals should recognize the importance of balance-sheet liquidity to institutional investors. Not-for-profit hospitals should focus on both sides of the balance sheet. Healthcare executives need to develop effective leadership and investor-relations skills. PMID:12656030

  7. 75 FR 4963 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program-Refinancing Hospital Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... has reduced the availability of private financing, has not only adversely affected the housing... obtain financing for facility, equipment, and technology needs, as well as to meet obligations on existing debt. By expanding FHA's Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program to allow for refinancing of...

  8. Measuring horizontal inequity in health care using Belgian panel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the determinants of utilisation of physician and hospital services in Belgium using four different regression techniques. We apply a one- and two-part panel count data model, and a one- and two part cross-section count data model. We conclude that the two-part panel count dat

  9. Relationship finance, market finance and endogenous business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Deidda, Luca Gabriele; Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping generation model with asymmetric information in the credit market such that the interplay between relationship finance supplied by investors who monitor investment decisions ex-ante and market finance supplied by investors who relay on public information can be the source of endogenous business fluctuations. Monitoring helps reducing the inefficiency caused by moral hazard. However, the incentives of entrepreneurs to demand relationship finance to induce mon...

  10. Is Islamic Finance ethical finance? Principles and Stakeholder Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah, Shariza

    2011-01-01

    With the recent global financial crisis and the many scandals that have happened of late, there is a need for an ethical finance system. Reports have mentioned and concluded that Islamic financial institutions were the least to be affected, with more than US$800 billion worth of deposits and investments lodged, Islamic banks, mutual funds, insurance schemes, and Islamic branches of conventional banks (Hesse et al, 2008). Would it be fair then to say that Islamic finance is ethical finance? T...

  11. Asset Pricing Implications of Firms' Financing Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joao F; Yaron, Amir; Zhang, Lu

    2002-01-01

    We incorporate costly external finance in a production based asset pricing model and investigate whether financing frictions are quantitatively important for pricing a cross-section of expected returns. We show that the common assumptions about the nature of the financing frictions are captured by a simple ‘financing cost’ function, equal to the product of the financing premium and the amount of external finance. This approach provides a tractable framework to examine the role of financing fr...

  12. F# for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Astborg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    To develop your confidence in F#, this tutorial will first introduce you to simpler tasks such as curve fitting. You will then advance to more complex tasks such as implementing algorithms for trading semi-automation in a practical scenario-based format.If you are a data analyst or a practitioner in quantitative finance, economics, or mathematics and wish to learn how to use F# as a functional programming language, this book is for you. You should have a basic conceptual understanding of financial concepts and models. Elementary knowledge of the .NET framework would also be helpful.

  13. Trade Finance Affects Trade Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    ARESPA CASTELLÓ, Marta; Gruber, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Existent literature is by no means conclusive on the effects of trade finance on trade and the economy. We propose a suitable framework to explore the linkages between international trade and finance based on an international real business cycle model where firms require external finance to import and can be financially constrained. We find that credit shocks do affect the dynamic properties of the economy and they have the potential to cause significant deviations in trade and economic perfo...

  14. Financial Inclusion: Islamic Finance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas; Iqbal, Zamir

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing financial inclusion or access to finance can make critical contributions to the economic development. Conventional mechanisms such as micro-finance, small-medium-enterprises (SME), and micro-insurance to enhance financial inclusion have been partially successful in enhancing the access and are not without challenges. Islamic finance, based on the concept of risk-sharing offers set of financial instruments promoting risk-sharing rather than risk-transfer in the financial system. In a...

  15. ISTISNA‘ FINANCING OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ZARQA, MUHAMMAD ANAS

    1997-01-01

    Projects that do not generate explicit income cannot be possibly financed on a profit-sharing basis. A suitable interest-free alternative method of financing is presented here, based on istisna‘ sale contract (commissioned or pre-ordered productio). Various aspects of using istisna‘ as a financing tool for infrastructural projects are discussed, including: (a) the illiquidity of the resulting financial claims and its implications, (b) suitability for financial intermediaries, and (c) the poss...

  16. [Financing problems of capital goods: part 1: leasing as a solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, C C; Bauer, M; Saleh, A; Picker, O

    2008-06-01

    The provision of financial support of hospitals by States for buying capital goods is becoming increasingly more limited. In order to still make investments, alternative forms of financing such as leasing must be considered in hospitals. However, the change from the classical form of dual financing and the decision to opt for a leasing model involves much more than just a question of costs. Leasing results in easily manageable expenditure, flexibility and adaptability for the choice of model but the leasing installments must be directly financed by the turnover from diagnosis-related groups and so lead to a reduction in the annual profit. In this article the authors try to give the reader an overview of the complex and sometimes counter-productive effect of financial instruments for investments in hospitals using leasing financing as an example. In the follow-up article the decision-making procedure using dynamic investment calculations will be demonstrated using a concrete example.

  17. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  18. Synthetic real estate: bringing corporate finance to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varwig, D; Smith, J

    1998-01-01

    The changing landscape of health care has caused hospitals, health care systems, and other health care organizations to look for ways to finance expansions and acquisitions without "tainting" their balance sheets. This search has led health care executives to a financing technique that has been already embraced by Fortune 500 companies for most of this decade and more recently adopted by high-tech companies: synthetic real estate. Select case studies provide examples of the more creative financial structures currently being employed to meet rapidly growing and increasingly complex funding needs. PMID:9612732

  19. Synthetic real estate: bringing corporate finance to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varwig, D; Smith, J

    1998-01-01

    The changing landscape of health care has caused hospitals, health care systems, and other health care organizations to look for ways to finance expansions and acquisitions without "tainting" their balance sheets. This search has led health care executives to a financing technique that has been already embraced by Fortune 500 companies for most of this decade and more recently adopted by high-tech companies: synthetic real estate. Select case studies provide examples of the more creative financial structures currently being employed to meet rapidly growing and increasingly complex funding needs.

  20. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  1. Diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of chronic migraine: a proposal of the Belgian Headache Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemeleire, Koen; Louis, Paul; Magis, Delphine; Vandenheede, Michel; Versijpt, Jan; Vandersmissen, Bart; Schoenen, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling neurological condition affecting 0.5-2 % of the population. In the current third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, medication overuse is no longer an exclusion criterion and CM is diagnosed in patients suffering from at least 15 headache days per month of which at least eight are related to migraine. CM is difficult to treat, and preventive treatment options are limited. We provide a pathogenetic model for CM, integrating the latest findings from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. On behalf of the Belgian Headache Society, we present a management algorithm for CM based on the international literature and adapted to the Belgian situation. Pharmacological treatment options are discussed, and recent data on transcranial and invasive neuromodulation studies in CM are reviewed. An integrated multimodal treatment programme may be beneficial to refractory patients, but at present, this approach is only supported by a limited number of observational studies and quite variable between centres.

  2. Sensitivity analyses of thermal bridges: confrontation with the new Belgian EPB-methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delghust, Marc; Huyghe, Willem; Janssens, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    As governments continue to impose more and higher energetic requirements for buildings, they also need better assessment-tools to take into account as many parameters as possible. This results in continuous developments of new calculation methods and softwares, where a balance has to be found between practicality and accuracy. To answer this problem, specifically with regard to the thermal bridges, the three Belgian regions developed a new and common pragmatic approach for assessing therma...

  3. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan J; Janssen J; Van De Vijver E; Vandevoorde J; Devroey D

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Th...

  4. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. T...

  5. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  6. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  7. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    1998-07-01

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized.

  8. New Belgian Law on Research on Human Embryos: Trust in Progress Through Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, G

    2003-01-01

    The new Belgian law on research on embryos in vitro accepts all types of research directed at therapeutic purposes and at increased medical knowledge. This includes research for germline and somatic gene therapy, therapeutic cloning, and the development of embryonic stem cell lines. As this presupposes the creation of embryos for research, this too is allowed. Other goals like sex selection for nonmedical reasons, eugenic practices and reproductive cloning are prohibited. In general, the law ...

  9. Software support for manufacturing operations in Belgian SMEs: one size fits all?

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarey, Thierry; Degryse, Kris; Cottyn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing companies face a big challenge to bridge the gap between their business and manufacturing processes. The urge to increase efficiency makes it necessary to align the business and manufacturing processes. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) experience several barriers to adopt software support for manufacturing operations. This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in Belgian SMEs. The research studied the current adoption of software support for manufacturin...

  10. Adaptation of the European crop growth monitoring system to the Belgian conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...

  11. Information Availability, Information Quality and the Financial Structure of Belgian SME's.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Campenhout, Geert; Van Caneghem, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the amount and/or quality of financial statement information affect the financial structure of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). We explore this issue for Belgian SMEs because there are important differences in disclosure and audit requirements among them. Consistent with the traditional view that asymmetric or incomplete information restricts access to external funds, our results indicate that both the amount and the quality of financial statement information...

  12. Perceived work ability and turnover intentions: a prospective study among Belgian healthcare workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Clays, Els; Vlerick, Peter; D'hoore, William; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To report a study exploring prospective relations between nurses' perceived work ability and three forms of turnover intentions, respectively, intent to leave the ward, organization and profession. BACKGROUND: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. DESIGN: Survey. METHODS: Based on the longitudinal data of the Belgian sample from the European Nurses' Early Exit study, a total of 1531 heal...

  13. Using Firm-Level Data to Assess Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...

  14. Firm-level Evidence on Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Private Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. Contrary to many existing papers, we analyse gender wage discrimination using an independent productivity measure. Using firm-level data, we are able to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender wage differential. We take advantage of the panel structure to identify gender-related diffe...

  15. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, Liesbeth; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Vinkx, Christine; Huybrechts, Inge; Goeyens, Leo; Van Oyen, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analyzed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 res...

  16. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  17. Mafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    De Biase, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods thro...

  18. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  19. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: a case study from Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant...

  20. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  1. Analysis of business demography using markov chains : an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    François Coppens; Fabienne Verduyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  2. Analysis of business demography using markov chains: an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, François; Verduyn, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  3. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  4. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  5. The productivity and export spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of Belgian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Dumont; Bruno Merlevede; Christophe Piette; Glenn Rayp

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent the decision to start exporting may be subject to spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of other (foreign and domestic) firms. We distinguish between two possible channels: effects on productivity and effects on the perceived level of sunk costs of exporting. For both channels, we consider geographical and activity or industry-based linkages between firms. For a sample Belgian firms we find evidence of significant spillovers on productivity as wel...

  6. An empirical study on human resource planning in Belgian production companies

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Jorne; Belien, Jeroen; Hoskens, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates human resource planning in Belgian production companies. First, a literature study is developed to serve as a basis for the results of the empirical research. The literature study is mainly based on papers in the field of operations research that provide interesting insights such as the research-application gap, which is the lack of implementation of models provided by literature. The most important part of this paper is the empirical research. The empirical research i...

  7. FacilitiesHospitals_HOSPITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of Vermont. The...

  8. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h−1. The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  9. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  10. Family control and financing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive European dataset to investigate the role of family control in corporate financing decisions during the period 1998-2008. We find that family firms have a preference for debt financing, a non-control-diluting security, and are more reluctant than non-family firms to ra

  11. Sanitation Finance in Rural Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andy

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the findings of a study on sanitation finance in Cambodia conducted for the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) with support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The overall objective of the assignment was to consider sustainable sanitation financing options with a focus on promoting access for the poorest. This guidance note contains an introduction on sanitation f...

  12. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Somanathan, Aparnaa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  13. Kosovo : Health Financing Reform Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present information on the different health financing reform options available to Kosovo, which can help the government to make informed policy decisions about financing reforms. The report focuses on the key insurance functions of revenue collection and management, risk pooling, and purchasing of health care, as well as the supportive regulatory and gove...

  14. Economic Development and Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    IQBAL, ZAMIR; Mirakhor, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Islamic finance has been practiced in some form since the inception of Islam, its practice in modern financial markets became recognized only in the 1980s, and began to represent a meaningful share of global financial activity only around the beginning of this century. In recent years, significant interest in Islamic finance has emerged in the world's leading conventional financial centers...

  15. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  16. Fair Finance: gaat dat samen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Op 13 februari jl. organiseerden studievereniging HSE Faktor, het Instituut FEM en Oikocredit (een bedrijf dat microkredieten verstrekt aan arme mensen in ontwikkelingslanden) het Fair Finance Symposium. Margreet Boersma gaf een lezing over haar kijk op een betere (financiële) wereld, mede gericht o

  17. Mastering R for quantitative finance

    CERN Document Server

    Berlinger, Edina; Badics, Milán; Banai, Ádám; Daróczi, Gergely; Dömötör, Barbara; Gabler, Gergely; Havran, Dániel; Juhász, Péter; Margitai, István; Márkus, Balázs; Medvegyev, Péter; Molnár, Julia; Szucs, Balázs Árpád; Tuza, Ágnes; Vadász, Tamás; Váradi, Kata; Vidovics-Dancs, Ágnes

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to use R's capabilities to build models in quantitative finance at a more advanced level. If you wish to perfectly take up the rhythm of the chapters, you need to be at an intermediate level in quantitative finance and you also need to have a reasonable knowledge of R.

  18. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise prohibited by law. (a) Tribes may issue bonds or enter into other debt financing instruments under... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes....

  19. Statistics and finance an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppert, David

    2004-01-01

    This textbook emphasizes the applications of statistics and probability to finance. Students are assumed to have had a prior course in statistics, but no background in finance or economics. The basics of probability and statistics are reviewed and more advanced topics in statistics, such as regression, ARMA and GARCH models, the bootstrap, and nonparametric regression using splines, are introduced as needed. The book covers the classical methods of finance such as portfolio theory, CAPM, and the Black-Scholes formula, and it introduces the somewhat newer area of behavioral finance. Applications and use of MATLAB and SAS software are stressed. The book will serve as a text in courses aimed at advanced undergraduates and masters students in statistics, engineering, and applied mathematics as well as quantitatively oriented MBA students. Those in the finance industry wishing to know more statistics could also use it for self-study. David Ruppert is the Andrew Schultz, Jr. Professor of Engineering, School of Oper...

  20. Win-win finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotou, T.

    1997-07-01

    Sustainable development is grossly underfinanced. It will continue to be so, because the world is relying on conventional means to finance an unconventional idea. Official development assistance fell from 60 billion dollars in 1992 to 55 billion dollars in 1995 (in constant 1994 prices). The public sector in developing countries is underinvesting in environmental sustainability because of severe budget constraints, public sector deficits and more pressing expenditure needs. So is the private sector because, under prevailing institutional arrangements, it cannot recover costs and earn a decent rate of return from providing public goods. Other means of mobilising resources must be found. Such measures may include: phasing out subsidies, demand-scale management, better capture of resource vents, improved definition and security of property rights, and environmentally based taxation. Coal and petroleum based projects are frequently effectively subsidised. For sustainability energy efficiency measures should be subsidised, and energy consumption taxed. Increased use of economic instruments should be encouraged. 2 photos.

  1. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  2. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  3. Sharing of Risks in Islamic Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sekreter, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    For most of the people the prohibition on interest is the well known part of Islamic finance. Indeed, the concept of Islamic finance was not being discussed enough till financial crisis, after crisis it started to be seen as an alternative financial system for conventional finance. Sharing the risks is the main concept of Islamic finance and one of the main differences between conventional and Islamic finance. Depositors/savers do not bear any risk in conventional finance however Islamic fina...

  4. STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BALTEŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural tourism was the SAPARD programme, a programme which "offered the opportunity" to many business people to start their business in this field. The paper shows the evolution of the rural boarding houses between 2003-2007, with analyses on the number, type of financing, development region.

  5. Financing long term liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the '80 even if there were no precise law disposition in this specific matter, Enel has created a fund for the plants decommissioning and a fund for the irradiated fuel management. A setting aside pluri-annual plan has been defined. Cumulated funds transferred to the Sogin at the date of its constitution amount to about 1500 MLD ITL (750 M Euro). This amount was adequate to complete decommissioning activities within the Safe Store strategy. Following the separation of Sogin from Enel, a funding mechanism has been defined to provide resources for additional costs deriving from the different economic conditions (new discount rate and taxes), from the management costs for the new company, and from the change in strategy (from Safe Store to DECON). A Decree of the Ministry of the Industry, issued on 26 January 2000, states that the above mentioned extra costs for Sogin shall be financed on a levy on the price of the sold kWh. Every year Sogin shall present the program of future activities, with associated costs: on this basis, the national Authority for Electric energy and Gas (the national body which defines tariff policy) shall re-evaluate the global amount to be granted to Sogin and the levy on the price of the kWh due to Sogin for next three years. The re-evaluation will take into account economic efficiency criteria. For the period 2002- 2004 the Authority has defined a global amount of about 362 M euros to be granted to Sogin, corresponding to ∼0,04 cents of Euro per kWh. The same procedure is foreseen by the Decree in order to finance Sogin for additional costs related to the dismantling of nuclear installations now property of ENEA. In this context, a Consortium between ENEA and Sogin has been established. The Authority for the period 2002-2004 has defined a global amount of about 106 M euros to be granted to the Consortium, corresponding to ∼0,015 cents of Euro per kWh. (author)

  6. PUBLIC FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Poland is mainly financed by public sector entities, among them the National Health Fund (NFZ, state budget and local government budgets. The task of the National Health Fund, as the main payer in the system, is chiefly currently financing the services. The state budget plays a complementary role in the system, and finances selected groups of services, health insurance premiums and investments in healthcare infrastructure. The basic role of the local governments is to ensure access to the services, mostly by performing ownership functions towards healthcare institutions.

  7. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  8. The Private Finance Initiative and public sector finance

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Ball; Maryanne Heafey; David King

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, when the public sector wanted more capital assets, it borrowed funds for the purpose. Under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI), private consortia borrow funds to build assets and then, in return for a charge, use them to provide services for the public sector. The authors explore the implications for the public finances of using the PFI. A widely held belief, which has been put forward by the Treasury, is that using the PFI allows investment in assets used by the public secto...

  9. Financing Hierarchy, Financial Market Constraints, Leverage and Investment Financing in a Low-Income Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Omotunde E G

    1992-01-01

    A debt-service constraint and co-financing requirement for outside equity financing are incorporated into a financing hierarchy framework in which firms behave as if they prefer inside to outside financing and debt to equity when they use outside financing. The constraints place both a floor and a ceiling on the ratios of debt to outside financing and a ceiling on the ration of outside equity to outside finance. If creditors and outside investor act in concert, under certain conditions, they ...

  10. FacilitiesHospitals_HOSPITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of Vermont. The...

  11. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  12. Computing for Finance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. R...

  13. Downsizing of acute inpatient beds associated with private finance initiative: Scotland's case study

    OpenAIRE

    Dunnigan, M.G.; Pollock, A

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the projected 24% reduction in acute bed numbers in Lothian hospitals, which formed part of the private finance initiative (PFI) plans for the replacement Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, is being compensated for by improvements in efficiency and greater use of community facilities, and to ascertain whether there is an independent PFI effect by comparing clinical activity and performance in acute specialties in Lothian hospitals with other NHS hospitals in Scotlan...

  14. Financing Training: Issues and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Tan, Jee-Peng

    1999-01-01

    Economic changes and retrenchment have led to reconsideration of the role of government and the private sector in financing training. When private sector-sponsored training displays inadequacies, government intervention may be necessary. (SK)

  15. Quantum Game Theory in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Jan Sladkowski

    2004-01-01

    This is a short review of the background and recent development in quantum game theory and its possible application in economics and finance. The intersection of science and society is also discussed. The review is addressed to non--specialists.

  16. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid Reza Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  17. The securitization of housing finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Sellon; Deana VanNahmen

    1988-01-01

    Since 1970, housing finance has undergone a radical transformation due to the securitization of mortgage loans. As the market for mortgage securities continues to grow and develop, this transformation raises a number of important public policy issues.

  18. Educational Finance And Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallan, John P.

    1973-01-01

    Lists some developments in educational finance and stresses the need for community and junior college educators to understand the problems of educational economics and to ensure that their opinions are heard by the state and federal government. (Author/RK)

  19. Adapting to the System or the Student? Exploring Teacher Adaptations to Disadvantaged Students in an English and a Belgian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on research on teacher adaptations to students by exploring how Belgian and English national contexts influence teachers' definitions of educational success, their explanations of educational failure, and their allocation of scarce educational resources to disadvantaged students. Ethnographic data from one Flemish (Belgian) and…

  20. Wind power: valuation and finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past 20 years of wind energy experience in Denmark has primarily been based upon three financing schemes, tailored to individually owned, guild owned and utility owned wind turbines. The merits of and problems with these schemes are discussed, as well as their relations to specific legislation regarding e.g. taxation. It is finally explored, whether new forms of organisation, valuation and financing may be needed. (author)

  1. Debt Financing in Asset Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguo He; Wei Xiong

    2012-01-01

    We study rollover risk and collateral value in a dynamic asset pricing model with endogenous debt financing by extending the framework of Geanakoplos (2009) with a generic binomial tree and time-varying heterogeneous beliefs. Optimistic borrowers face rollover risk if the belief dispersion between the borrowers and the pessimistic lenders widens after interim bad news. We demonstrate the optimality of the maximum riskless short-term debt financing for optimistic borrowers even in the presence...

  2. Financing as a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hun Seog; Hyun, Yong J

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the issues concerning a film producer that finances production costs not only by the conventional funding from an institutional investor, but also by “Internet funding,” financing through the Internet from so-called netizen investors. In Internet funding, netizen investors engage in word-of-mouth activities. Assuming that information asymmetry exists between the producer and investors, we investigate how the Internet funding size varies with the word-of-mouth effect, t...

  3. Project finance for alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It will set out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximise their prospects of raising bank finance. (author)

  4. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  5. Proposition of a framework to reengineer and evaluate the hospital supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martinelly, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Thèse en co-tutelle FUCaM de Mons (Belgique) et INSA de Lyon (France) The objective of our research is the development of a modeling framework that permits decision makers to reengineer and evaluate their hospital supply chain. This research was first motivated by a strong collaboration with a Belgian hospital of 900 beds that is currently reengineering its logistical activities. The managers of this hospital intend to build a new logistical platform to group the clinical pharmacy, the ste...

  6. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  7. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  8. Dental maturity in Belgian children using Demirjian's method and polynomial functions: new standard curves for forensic and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, N; Willems, G; Demirjian, A

    2004-12-01

    Dental maturity was studied from dental panoramic radiographs of 2523 Belgian children (1255 girls and 1268 boys) aged 2 to 18 years. The aim was to compare the efficiency of two methods of age prediction: Demirjian's method, using differently weighted scores, and polynomial functions. The two methods present some differences: Demirjian is used to determine the maturity score as a function of age and polynomial functions are used to determine age as a function of the maturity score. We present, for each method, gender-specific dental maturity tables and curves for Belgian children. Girls always present advanced dental maturity compared with boys. The polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.21% of incorrect classifications) and the percentile method, using Belgian weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 2.08 years on average, between 2 and 16 years of age).

  9. Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

    2010-10-01

    The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. PMID:19804577

  10. Influence of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays. A nationwide Belgian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, Marjan; Bailleul, Els; Chatelain, Bernard; Demulder, Anne; Devreese, Katrien; Douxfils, Jonathan; Jochmans, Kristin; Mullier, François; Wijns, Walter; Soumali, Mohamed Rida; Coucke, Wim; Vernelen, Kris; Van de Walle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme performed a nationwide survey using lyophilised plasma samples spiked with dabigatran or rivaroxaban to demonstrate to the Belgian clinical laboratories how these drugs affect their routine coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and antithrombin. Virtually all Belgian laboratories performing routine coagulation testing (189/192) participated in the survey. Both, dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT in a concentration- and reagent-dependent manner. PT reagents were more influenced by rivaroxaban than by dabigatran and aPTT reagents more influenced by dabigatran than by rivaroxaban. Among PT reagents, Neoplastin R® was the most sensitive to rivaroxaban and Innovin® and Thromborel S® the least sensitive. Converting PT results to INR only increased the variability between reagents. Among aPTT reagents, Actin FSL® was the least sensitive to dabigatran while the other aPTT reagents showed slightly higher sensitivities. The presence of dabigatran led to falsely reduced fibrinogen concentrations when measured with a low thrombin concentration reagent. The presence of dabigatran caused an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a thrombin-based activity assay and the presence of rivaroxaban an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a FXa-based assay. Instrument-related differences were found for all tested parameters. In conclusion, this paper provides detailed information on the effect of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays as performed with a large number of reagent/instrument combinations. PMID:25231101

  11. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  12. Issues in energy finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  13. Hundred and eighty years of fleet dynamics in the Belgian sea fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Fockedey, N.; Debergh, H.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of fisheries on the commercial fish stocks requires detailed catch statistics and data on the dynamics of fleet and catch effort, at least before industrial fishing started. Most time-series on the fleet dynamics start after the 1980s, at times when major changes in fleet characteristics had already taken place. In the present paper, the results of the integration of data on fleet size (from 1830), tonnage (from 1842) and engine power (kW, from 1912) of the Belgian se...

  14. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  15. Opinion of Belgian egg farmers on hen welfare and its relationship with housing type

    OpenAIRE

    Stadig, Lisanne; Ampe, Bart; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently us...

  16. Age diversity practices through an OD approach. Interventions in Belgian organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Martens,Hilda; Lambrechts, Frank; DE WEERDT, Sven; VANDENBERK, Anneleen

    2005-01-01

    People need to work longer. Belgian legal regulations do not stimulate people to work longer. This will change in the future. Organizations will have to keep their workforce until the age of 60 to 65 instead of to 50 or 55. A (pro-)active change in mindset and behaviour of management, HR, workers, unions thus of all stakeholders of the organization is needed. How can we, by using an OD approach (OD), initiate and install a dynamic to make that the different parties, HR, management, workers an...

  17. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  18. Financing asset sales and business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk; Puhan, Tatjana-Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...

  19. HCAHPS - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  20. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  1. Does Islamic Finance Outperform Conventional Finance ? Further Evidence from the recent financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Fredj Jawadi; Nabila Jawadi; Waël Louhichi

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the performance of Islamic finance regarding that of conventional finance over the last decade. This question is particularly interesting as within the current financial crisis, conventional finance is being rather ineffectual an

  2. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  3. Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Loco, Joris; Matsiko, Eric; Lachat, Carl; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Canfyn, Michael; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was found above the level of detection in 58% of analyzed samples with the highest contents found in processed foods such as smoked and canned fish, and foods which contained these as ingredients (up to 76.21 μg kg(-1)). Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. The mean benzene intake for all foods was 0.020 μg kg bw d(-1) according to a probabilistic analysis. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d(-1)).

  4. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  5. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  6. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  7. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  8. On the role of radiologists in the Belgian PROject on CAncer of the REctum, PROCARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; Danse, E

    2006-01-01

    Radiologists are involved at all stages of the treatment of patients with rectum cancer: in the preoperative staging, in the diagnosis of postoperative complications, in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease during follow-up, in the monitoring of the therapeutic effect of palliative therapy. PROCARE is a Belgian national project to improve outcome in all patients with rectum cancer. Guidelines were made by a multidisciplinary workgroup and are available on the web. Decentralised implementation of guidelines is organised by the scientific and professional organisations. It is planned that a central review committee of radiologists, delegated by the Royal Belgian Society of Radiology, will survey the quality of preoperative staging. Overall quality of care will be assured by registration in a specific national database starting in 2006. Participating teams will receive annual feedback. Radiologists should provide data on cTNM staging and cCRM. Differentiation between cT2 and cT3, cN0 and cN+, and measurement of the cCRM in mm are crucial as they have a relevant impact on treatment strategy. While spiral abdominal CT is adequate for cM staging, high-resolution MRI is highly recommended and, in fact, a necessity for locoregional staging because its adequacy is superior to that of CT-scan and EUS. However, EUS is mandatory when local excision is considered, i.e. for cT1N0 lesions. PMID:16607873

  9. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  10. Key role of Chlamydophila psittaci on Belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loock, M; Geens, T; De Smit, L; Nauwynck, H; Van Empel, P; Naylor, C; Hafez, H M; Goddeeris, B M; Vanrompay, D

    2005-04-25

    Two hundred turkey sera from eight Belgian and two French farms were tested for the presence of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (APV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Chlamydophila psittaci. At slaughter, C. psittaci, APV and ORT antibodies were detected in 94, 34 and 6.5% of the turkeys, respectively. No antibodies against M. gallisepticum or M. meleagridis were present. Additionally, turkeys on three Belgian farms were examined from production onset until slaughter using both serology and antigen or gene detection. All farms experienced two C. psittaci infection waves, at 3-6 and 8-12 weeks of age. Each first infection wave was closely followed by an ORT infection starting at the age of 6-8 weeks, which was still detectable when the second C. psittaci infection waves started. Animals on farm A were not vaccinated against APV leading to an APV subtype B outbreak accompanying the first C. psittaci infection wave. Despite subtype A APV vaccination on farms B and C, the second C. psittaci infection waves were accompanied (farm B) or followed (farm C) by a subtype B APV infection. On all farms respiratory signs always appeared together with a proven C. psittaci, APV and/or ORT infection. This study suggests an association between C. psittaci, APV and ORT, and indicates the multi-factorial aetiology of respiratory infections in commercial turkeys. All three pathogens should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease.

  11. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  12. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  13. Agglomeration of a comprehensive model for the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strypsteen, Glenn; Rauwoens, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been done in the area of Aeolian transport, it is only during the last years that attention has been drawn to Aeolian transport in coastal areas. In these areas, the physical processes are more complex, due to a large number of transport limiting parameters. In this PhD-project, which is now in its early stage, a model will be developed which relates the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian coast with physical parameters such as the wind speed, humidity and grain size of the sand, and the slope of beach and dune surface. For the first time, the interaction between beach and dune dynamics is studied at the Belgian coast. The Belgian coastline is only 67km long, but densely populated and therefore subject to coastal protection and safety. The coast mostly consists of sandy beaches and dikes. Although, still 33km of dunes exist, whose dynamics are far less understood. The overall research approach consists of three pathways: (i) field measurements, (ii) physical model tests, and (iii) numerical simulations. Firstly and most importantly, several field campaigns will provide accurate data of meteo-marine conditions, morphology, and sand transport events on a wide beach at the Belgian Coastline. The experimental set-up consists of a monitoring station, which will provide time series of vegetation cover, shoreline position, fetch distances, surficial moisture content, wind speed and direction and transport processes. The horizontal and vertical variability of the event scale Aeolian sand transport is analyzed with 8 MWAC sand traps. Two saltiphones register the intensity and variations of grain impacts over time. Two meteo-masts, each with four anemometers and one wind vane, provide quantitative measurements of the wind flow at different locations on the beach. Surficial moisture is measured with a moisture sensor. The topography measurements are typically done with laser techniques. To start, two sites are selected for measurement

  14. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money......UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  15. Financing patterns of European SMEs – an empirical taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Alexandra; Block, Joern; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This EIF Working Paper takes a holistic approach to investigate SME financing patterns in Europe by performing a cluster analysis including 12,726 SMEs in 28 European countries. The results reveal that SME financing in Europe is not homogenous but that different financing patterns exist. The cluster analysis identifies six distinct SME financing types: mixed-financed SMEs, state-subsidised SMEs, debt-financed SMEs, flexible-debt-financed SMEs, trade-financed SMEs and internally-financed SMEs....

  16. The Islamic Finance and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Shektbayev, Nurbulat

    2015-01-01

    My thesis consists of two parts. The first part is the theoretical one, where I am going to introduce basic models of Islamic finance and banking. Assess the pros and cons of these models and the whole Islamic finance and banking industry. I will make a review of its history and find out reasons that have led to its creation. The second part is the practical one where I am going to find connections between the theoretical issues and data from the qualitative research method (in form of interv...

  17. The euro and corporate financing

    OpenAIRE

    Bris, Arturo; Koskinen, Yrjö; Nilsson, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study how the introduction of the euro has affected corporate financing in Europe. We use firm-level data from eleven euro area countries as well as from a control group of five other European countries spanning the years 1991–2006. We show that firms from euro area countries that previously had weak currencies have increased both their equity and their debt financing compared to the control group. We also show that results are stronger for firms that hail from less financial...

  18. Project finance for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to provide general advice to sponsors of renewable energy projects who expect to raise project-based financing from commercial banks to fund the development of their projects. It sets out, for the benefit of such sponsors, how bankers typically approach the analysis of these undertakings and in particular the risk areas on which they concentrate. By doing so it should assist sponsors to maximize their prospects of raising bank finance. The watchword for sponsors approaching banks must be ''Be Prepared'' . (author)

  19. Work related neck and upper limb symptoms (RSI) : high risk occupations and risk factors in the Belgian working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Witte, H. de

    1999-01-01

    In this study on prevalence and risk factors for work related neck or upper limb symptoms in the Belgian working population, the researchers have found an overall prevalence of work and upper limb symptoms occurring in the past 12 months of 39%. High risk occupations for neck and shoulder symptoms w

  20. Inter-party agenda-setting in the Belgian parliament: the role of party characteristics and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart; S. Walgrave; C. Meppelink

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the inter-party agenda-setting dynamics in the Belgian parliament during the period 1993-2000 and investigate whether and when parties respond to the attention paid to issues by other parties in parliament. We rely on an elaborate coding of parliamentary questions and inte

  1. De communicatiefunctie in Belgische organisaties: Hoe excellent is deze ingevuld? [Communications functions in Belgian organizations: How excellently are they implemented?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents data, which were obtained by a web survey (n = 750), concerning the position of communications in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations with at least 50 employees. Results show that 43 percent of the organizations in the sample have an integrated communications depa

  2. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  3. Hospital Ownership and Public Medical Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    The hospital market is served by firms that are private for-profit, private not-for-profit, and government-owned and operated. I use a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financing that was intended to improve medical care for the poor to test three theories of organizational behavior. My results reveal that the critical difference between the three types of hospitals owes to the soft budget constraint of government-owned institutions. The decision-makers in private not-for-profit hospital...

  4. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  5. Optimal Financing with CDS Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Matta

    2013-01-01

    One could argue that CDSs improve risk sharing, hence credit supply and financing terms for firms. Accordingly, one would expect risky borrowers to benefit the most from CDS insurance. This is in contrast, however, with recent empirical evidence (Ashcraft and Santos (2009) and Hirtle (2009)). This p

  6. Three essays in pension finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the three major participants in pension finance, namely, pension funds, individuals, and sponsoring companies. In the light of the fragile financial market performance, prudential regulatory rules, including Value-at-Risk (VaR) constraints, are imposed widely all over the worl

  7. Microleasing : Overcoming Equipment Financing Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg , Mike

    2008-01-01

    As their businesses grow, many microbusiness owners would like to purchase new machinery from a microfinance institution (MFI), since such equipment can hold the key to increasing production. However, MFIs are often not able or willing to lend for longer periods of time, with grace periods that long term lending for machinery requires. Long term financing from other sources is usually not ...

  8. Financing bidders in takeover contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Vladimirov

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies a takeover contests, in which cash-constrained bidders decide on the optimal way to finance their cash bid. For both bidders and the seller this decision is at least as important as deciding on whether the payment should be in cash or in securities. The main result is that the opti

  9. New Approaches to Debt Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Larry; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The use of tax-exempt and taxable bonds by colleges and universities to raise capital is discussed. Currently, the most common tax-exempt instrument issued by higher education institutions is the revenue bond. Until the early 1980s the most common form of tax-exempt financing was long-term fixed-rate debt. Variable or floating rate debt became…

  10. Revolution in Business and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Henderson

    2003-01-01

    Hazel Henderson argues that the world must address how to finance development through innovative funding sources, as well as how to fund global public goods as a matter of priority in the new global order. Development (2003) 46, 55–60. doi:10.1177/1011637003046001584

  11. Guideposts for Low Carbon Finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes four guideposts for efficient low carbon finance: remove subsidies for high-carbon technologies, improve the cost-effectiveness of low-carbon subsidies, encourage private sector innovation and maintain transparent public policy tools that support cost-benefit accounting

  12. Grassroots financing; Graswurzel-Finanzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Petra

    2013-05-01

    The idea of a common financing of a photovoltaic project is not new. It is new that interested parties no longer have to meet in community centers or clubhouses, but that a virtual meeting place is sufficient. Crowd funding projects on the world-wide web bring together solar projects and investors.

  13. THE PROBLEM OF FINANCING INNOVATION OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ildyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main issues related to financing innovation in enterprises. The author proves the problem of financing innovation as a key deterrent to the innovative development of Russian enterprises.

  14. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  15. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  16. Health Care Financing: Consumers’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Moe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the client perspectives of “individualfinancing” at private hospital and government hospital undercommunity cost-sharing scheme.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was done in agovernment hospital, namely Yangon General Hospital andBosi private hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. All the new patientsundergoing surgical operations/ procedures were approachedfor their potential participation in the study. A consent wastaken from those willing to participate in this study. A total of83 surgical cases, (35 from private and 48 from governmenthospital were interviewed using a structured Data collectionform. Quantitative analyses were done for the structuredquestions and qualitative analysis was made for the openended questions. Chi square test was applied to see thestatistical differences in socio demographic characteristics ofYangon General Hospital and Bosi Hospital. P value of 0.05 wasset at 95% confident level.Results: findings of the current study demonstrated that thepatients with High family income (P=>0.001 were more likelyto use the private hospital compare to low family incomegroup. The main reasons behind choosing the private hospitalwere better accommodation, shorter waiting time, andminimum restriction of visiting hours and perceived lackof free services at government hospital. However, thoseattending the public hospital have justified it by statingthat they are familiar with the government hospital andthe services in private hospitals are expensive. For thepatient from the low income group the hospitalexpenditure were managed with family’s monthlyincome, support from non-family members and somesecured the payment with borrowed money or by sellingthe personal assets.Conclusion: It is seen that the socioeconomic status ofthe patients was the main factors responsible for theselection of the hospitals. Those with low income statusprefer public hospitals because of low cost on the medicalservices.

  17. Towards a theory of trade finance

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Shipping goods internationally is risky and takes time. Therefore, trading partners not only have to agree on the specification and the price of a good, but also on the timing of payments. To allocate risk and to finance the time gap between production and sale, a range of different payment contracts is utilized, broadly classified into exporter finance (Open Account), importer finance (Cash in Advance) and bank finance (Letter of Credit). I study the optimal choice between these three types ...

  18. Internationalisation and financing options of Ghanaian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Abor

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study of internationalisation and the financing options of Ghanaian small and medium scale nontraditional exporters. The article also examines how the age and size of an organisation affect the choice of financing. The results show a positive association between debt financing and the age of an organisation. Over time, organisations become more acceptable investments to lenders, and consequently older organisations are more likely to obtain debt financing than their yo...

  19. Education Financing of Rural Households in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-shu; Moll, Henk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine children’s education financing alternatives among households in rural China. Data on education financing was from a household survey conducted in three poverty villages in Guizhou, China. The difference in financing education by households was verified through non-parametric testing. Findings show that private savings is dominant in financing education of children in school. Formal loans are almost absent even in the highest wealth group examined. The ...

  20. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally c...... of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  1. Does municipal co-financing reduce hospitalisation rates in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten; Lærke Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To provide a preliminary answer to the question of whether the economic incentives introduced by the municipal co-financing of hospital services work as intended in the reform. Methods: This study is based on 30 statistical cross-section linear regressions, OLS, using data from Statistics...... Denmark (Statistikbanken) and the Municipal Financial Accounts. Supplemented by data from a survey study from municipal health managers in all municipalities of the country. Results: Despite the favourable conditions presented by the design of our analysis, it is not possible to demonstrate a clear link...... between local efforts and number of admissions from the municipalities. Conclusions: The study does not support one of the fundamental theoretical assumptions behind the municipal co-financing introduced in the 2007 structural reform in Denmark. While the study failed to establish systematic links between...

  2. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  3. The financing behavior of Dutch firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Linda H.; Jiang, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the financing behaviour of Dutch firms by testing whether a firm’s financing decisions are determined by certain factors identified in various theories. Since a firm’s financing decision is reflected in the changes of its leverage, our research focuses on the relationship bet

  4. Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been eng...

  5. Discussion On The Theory Of Behavioral Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Lulu

    2014-01-01

    behavioral finance theory as a new research field is introduced into China from the last century 80's, the study not only explains many anomalies in the market, also poses a challenge to traditional finance theory, some could not be explained by traditional financial theory, behavioral finance theory provides a new vision for us.

  6. 7 CFR 1717.852 - Financing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... included as part of the cost of financing assets or refinancing existing debt, provided, however, that the... the borrower as a condition for obtaining financing; and (4) Debt incurred by a distribution or power... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing purposes. 1717.852 Section...

  7. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  8. Enhancing the Capability of Central Finance Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Richard; Grigoli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    A well-organized and effective finance ministry and its associated central finance agencies (CFAs) are essential to good fiscal outcomes. Recent studies of CFAs in selected low-income countries demonstrate that their organizational structure varies widely and that decision making on public finance is strongly influenced by political economy factors. This note presents some common themes ar...

  9. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Finance Corporation (``Applicant''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, a policy finance...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant...

  10. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  11. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  12. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Van Humbeeck, H. [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussels (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Engineering SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  13. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  14. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts. PMID:19264354

  15. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts.

  16. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  17. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  18. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  19. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  20. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couplet, D. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium); Francoise, T. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2001-07-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  1. Radiological optimization[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-07-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  2. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51

  3. Study on Risk Management in Financing and Operational of Grameen Bank Financing Concept in MBK Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Yulandika Putra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Poverty is one of the most fundamental issues that still surround the life of 29.89 million people of Indonesia (National Statistical Bureau data from January 2, 2012. During this time, the pattern of poverty alleviation programs undertaken by the government is a pattern of generosity. This pattern can directly exacerbate the poor morals and behavior. Ideally, poverty alleviation efforts are made by concrete steps, which empower poor `communities themselves.In line with the theme of this research, one of the financial institutions (non-Banks who cares and has the spirit to empower people to overcome poverty is Mitra Bisnis Keluarga (MBK. This study aimed to assess the financial risks and operational risks of implementation of Grameen Bank financing concept in MBK.Methods - The method used in this research is literature review and qualitative descriptive study using actual MBK data.Results - Results from this research showed that products with the concept of Grameen Bank financing is relatively safe in the terms of the financing risk, but requires more attention on operational risk and which can be implemented for large-scale poverty alleviation program.Conclusion - The data showed that the risk of financing given to the poor (without collateral is minimal and MBK actual data shows that the Operational self-sufficiency is relatively high at> 90% Keywords : MBK, Grameen Bank, Poverty

  4. MANPOWER FOR CALIFORNIA HOSPITALS, 1964-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Commission on Manpower, Automation, and Technology, Sacramento.

    AN EXAMINATION OF THE HOSPITAL AND NURSING AND CONVALESCENT HOME INDUSTRY IN 1964 AND EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ARE PRESENTED AS AN INITIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ONGOING MANPOWER INFORMATION PROGRAM IN THE STATE. DATA WERE COMPILED FROM POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, WAGE SURVEY STUDIES BY THE…

  5. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  6. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  7. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  8. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  9. Is Dutch a Pluricentric Language with Two Centres of Standardization? An Overview of the Differences between Netherlandic and Belgian Dutch from a Flemish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Robertus de

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dutch, a West-Germanic language, is spoken by approximately 23 million people worldwide. In Europe, it is the language of all of the Netherlands and the northern part of Belgium, called Flanders. It is often said that since the Dutch and the Flemish speak Dutch differently, they in fact speak two different languages - Netherlandic Dutch and Belgian Dutch (Flemish. Linguists, however, argue they are not necessarily two separate languages but rather two varieties - a Netherlandic and a Belgian variety - of the same language, Dutch. Since there are a substantial number of grammatical, lexical, phonetic and even spelling differences between Belgian and Netherlandic Dutch, the question is whether Dutch is a pluricentric language with two centres of standardization or not. By explaining the socio-historical background of the Dutch language and giving a comprehensive overview of the differences between Netherlandic and Belgian Dutch, this article attempts to answer the aforementioned (research question.

  10. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  11. 12 CFR 985.4 - Finance Board oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board oversight. 985.4 Section 985.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE THE OFFICE OF FINANCE § 985.4 Finance Board oversight. (a) Oversight and enforcement actions. The Finance Board shall have the same...

  12. Risk Analysis of Telecom Enterprise Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua; SHU Hua-ying

    2005-01-01

    The main research objects in this paper are the causes searching and risk estimating method for telecom enterprises' financial risks. The multi-mode financing for telecom enterprises makes it flexible to induce the capital and obtain the profit by corresponding projects. But there are also potential risks going with these financing modes. After making analysis of categories and causes of telecom enterprises' financing risk, a method by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is put forward to estimating the financing risk. And the author makes her suggestion and opinion by example analysis, in order to provide some ideas and basis for telecom enterprise's financing decision-making.

  13. Working Paper 12-03 - An assessment of the risks to the medium-term outlook of the Belgian international economic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Meyermans; Patrick Van Brusselen

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the Federal Planning Bureau (fpb) prepares a medium-term outlook for the Belgian economy with its macro-econometric hermes model. One of the key inputs of this exercise is a baseline scenario for the Belgian international economic environment, which includes an outlook for the output, imports, prices and financial variables of the major trading partners of Belgium. Traditionally, this international environment is based on the medium-term outlook presented by the European Commission...

  14. Community structure of the macrobenthos of an important Belgian wintering area for the Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.; P. Meire; Offringa, H

    1998-01-01

    The shallow western Belgian Coastbanks are important wintering areas for the Common Scoters, reflecting the ecological importance of this environment. The diet of these seaducks consists of macrobenthos, mainly bivalves. The availability of these bivalves along the Belgian west-coast has been poorly documented and it is not clear to what extent the spatial distribution of the Scoters and the bivalves are linked. In October 1994, 40 macrobenthic samples were taken in the area. Multivariate tec...

  15. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  16. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  17. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  18. Internationalisation and financing options of Ghanaian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Abor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of internationalisation and the financing options of Ghanaian small and medium scale nontraditional exporters. The article also examines how the age and size of an organisation affect the choice of financing. The results show a positive association between debt financing and the age of an organisation. Over time, organisations become more acceptable investments to lenders, and consequently older organisations are more likely to obtain debt financing than their younger counterparts. With respect to size, the results again indicate that larger organisations are more likely to receive debt financing. The results also show a positive relationship between degree of internationalisation and debt financing. The results suggest that as organisations engage more in international activities, they employ more debt but use less of equity financing. This is explained by the fact that organisations involved in international business tend to be more diversified and, as such, are capable of accommodating more debt capital

  19. Value Capture for Transportation Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhirong (Jerry) Zhao; Michael Iacono; David Levinson

    2009-01-01

    As vehicles become more fuel-efficient and overall levels of travel stagnate in response to increases in fuel prices, conventional sources of revenue for transportation finance such as taxes on motor fuels have been put under increasing pressure. One potential replacement as a source of revenue is a set of policies collectively referred to as value capture policies. In contrast to fuel taxes and other instruments that impose charges on users of transportation networks, value capture policies ...

  20. Innovation Performance and Government Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    External financing is important when inventors and small technology-based firms wish to commercialize their inventions. However, it is likely that problems related to adverse selection and moral hazard are present, and market failures occur, since inventors know more about the inventions than do potential external financiers. To overcome these problems, the Swedish Government has intervened in the market by offering loans with different terms to firms and inventors. Using a unique database on...

  1. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  2. Guidebook to financing CDM projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, S.

    2007-07-01

    One of the challenges facing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects today is their limited ability to secure financing for the underlying greenhouse gas emission reduction activities, particularly in the least developed countries. Among the key reasons for this is the fact that most financial intermediaries in the CDM host countries have limited or no knowledge of the CDM Modalities and Procedures. Moreover, approaches, tools and skills for CDM project appraisal are lacking or are asymmetrical to the skills in comparable institutions in developed countries. Consequently, developing country financial institutions are unable to properly evaluate the risks and rewards associated with investing or lending to developers undertaking CDM projects, and therefore have, by-and-large, refrained from financing these projects. In addition, some potential project proponents lack experience in structuring arrangements for financing a project. This Guidebook - commissioned by the UNEP Risoe Centre as part of the activities of the Capacity Development for CDM (CD4CDM) project (http://www.cd4cdm.org) - addresses these barriers by providing information aimed at both developing country financial institutions and at CDM project proponents. It should be noted that while the Guidebook was developed particularly with the CDM in mind, most sections will also be relevant for Joint Implementation (JI) project activities. For more detailed information on JI modalities and procedures please consult: http://ji.unfccc.int The purpose of this Guidebook is two-fold: 1) To guide project developers on obtaining financing for the implementation of activities eligible under the CDM; and 2) To demonstrate to developing country financial institutions typical approaches and methods for appraising the viability of CDM projects and for optimally integrating carbon revenue into overall project financing. The target audiences for the Guidebook are therefore, primarily: 1) CDM project proponents in

  3. The Market for Hospital Medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for h...... and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run....... for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised....... 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume...

  4. Case report : A suspicion of cortico-cerebral necrosis in a Belgian Blue herd after ingestion of moulded silage

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Aliaoui, Hamani; Brihoum, Mounir; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cortico-cerebral necrosis (CCN) and mortalities have been observed in a Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that produces byssochlamic acid, malformins and patulin, has been proven. Among these toxins, patulin is known to have cancerogenic, immunosuppressive and tremorgenic effects, but also acts on the respiratory and digestive systems. Twenty-five days after progressive introduction of bee...

  5. Confirmed Zika virus infection in a Belgian traveler returning from Guatemala, and the diagnostic challenges of imported cases into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Birgit; Van den Bossche, Dorien; van de Werve, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jacques; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Michiels, Jo; Ariën, Kevin K; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Cnops, Lieselotte

    2016-07-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a Belgian traveler after a three week holiday in Guatemala, December 2015. This case along with other imported cases into Europe emphases once again the need for accurate diagnostic tools for this rapidly emerging virus. The challenge is to diagnose patients in the acute phase, which appears short, as serological testing is complicated by cross-reactivity, vaccination status and scarce availability of specific ZIKV tests.

  6. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports: Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lagneaux, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  7. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports : Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Lagneaux

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  8. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naïma; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nuc...

  9. Hydroclimatic modulation of diatom/Phaeocystis blooms in nutrient-enriched Belgian coastal waters (North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, E.; Rousseau, V.; Parent, J.-Y.; Ozer, J.; C. Lancelot

    2006-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 14 yr (1988-2001) of intensive phytoplankton monitoring at Station 330 in the central Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, Southern Bight of the North Sea) indicates that the long-term diatom biomass trend and the spring dominance of Phaeocystis colonies over diatoms are determined by the combined effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and freshwater and continental nitrate carried by the Scheldt. The strong correlation between diatoms and the NAO index is largely explai...

  10. «One Difference Is Enough»: Towards a History of Disability in Belgian Congo (1908-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Verhaegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the educational initiatives provided for Congolese people with disabilities during the Belgian colonization, 1908-1960. We found out disability strongly influenced the foundation of the Belgian colony and that it can be assumed that a significant number of Congolese in the Belgian colony were disabled. Yet no historical research about this subject can be found. The subject seemed to be hardly neglected and overlooked. It is this particular contradiction or silence in historiography that this article wants to elucidate. For this purpose, various and sometimes conflicting sources have been consulted. In addition to basic literature on the Belgian colonization and more specific literature on disability in relation to culture, various archives, such as audiovisual material and oral witnesses of this particular period have been included in this research. Our main finding is that in most of the colonial period little or no educational initiatives were provided for Congolese people with disabilities. This we explain by the very limited differentiation which was made between the Congolese themselves. We argue that the black man as such was considered as a rather alien figure and consequently the additional factor of disability remained hardly unnoticed. In the last years of the colonization an increased amount of educational initiatives emerged, which this article explains by the probable increased differentiation between blacks towards the end of the colonization. How to reference this article Verhaegen, E., Verstraete, P., & Depaepe, M. (2016. «One Difference Is Enough»: Hacia una historia de la discapacidad en el Congo Belga (1908-1960. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 407-420. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.19

  11. Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: the case of North Belgian extreme right discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discourses. In this article, discourses of hate produced by North-Belgian (post-)fascist movements and activists will be analysed. Theoretically the anal...

  12. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, A De; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  13. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  14. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  15. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Menil Victoria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state, Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100% is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs.

  16. New directions in electric power financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper argues that it is necessary to raise the eyes from the current focus on independent power projects, buttressed by guarantees, to the longer horizon of electric power financing in open markets. Transitional strategies will need to move beyond the commonly seen IPP activity that occurs without fundamental sector reform, and demand-side incentives that introduce further market distortions. These efforts will have to focus on macroeconomic stabilization, removal of price distortions, as well as sector and corporate reform. Mobilization of domestic capital will be essential for sustainable sector financing. Although guarantees to encourage power sector investment can be designed to selectively cover risks, their elimination through fundamental sector reform should be the ultimate goal. Over the longer-term traditional corporate finance should become a more common financing strategy than project finance. Innovations in performance risk management and consumer credit will be crucial to the financing of energy efficiency. (author)

  17. The Cost of Bank Credit Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cosmina Petre (Niţă,

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the credit is a conventional financing method used by any company, this tool is by far a very significant issue. The range ofcredits, that a bank provides, and the current policy customize this tool in order to meet the typical financing needs of the enterprises that demands it.Considering the risks, the bank takes the charge of by placing credits, the “eligibility” terms of enterprises that can get such financing being verystrict. Restrictions concerning the accepted degree of liability, the accomplished level of performance or available warranties may represent real“barriers” for many companies. Of all “barriers”, the high cost of some financing tools is a good case in point. In order to have a clearer picture ofwhat this financing source is for an enterprise, I have carried out a cost analysis of these financing tools, the medium and long term credit cost andthe short term credit cost.

  18. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  19. Modelling water and 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of 36Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous 36Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared with a measured

  20. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  1. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  2. Three essays in mathematical finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruming

    This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.

  3. Offsets - An opportunity of Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly

  4. Forced Bank Mergers and SME Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Access to finance is one of the most significant challenges for the creation, survival and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially, innovative ones. However, forced bank mergers by Central bank of Indonesia may hurdle SME financing and growth. Using the financial data of seven Indonesian bank mergers within 2004-2009, periods three years before and after the merger, this study examines whether bank mergers may hurdle SME financing and growth. The study concludes that bank me...

  5. Finance strategies of Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study is to describe and explain how internationally focused, Finnish entrepreneurial fashion companies are financed. Fashion industry has been recognized as a viable industry in Finland, but it seems that these businesses suffer from lack of financing. Thus, many of the firms fail to expand to international markets, which is crucial for their future survival. The objective of this study is to understand how these fashion companies are financed from start-up until today,...

  6. Essays on banking and finance in China

    OpenAIRE

    L. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The Chinese economy has grown at a spectacular speed during the past three decades while the financial system is not well developed in China. On the one hand, the informal financing channels, i.e. borrowing from family members, friends, moneylenders, trade credit, etc., may provide proper financing for the firms in China. On the other hand, the increasing intensity of banking competition may also enhance the access to finance in China. Chapter 1 introduces the Chinese economy; Chapt...

  7. Corporate International Activity and Debt Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar A Mansi; David M Reeb

    2002-01-01

    The literature provides conflicting evidence on the relation between corporate international activity and the cost and level of debt financing. Based on this evidence, we explore the impact of firm internationalization on debt financing. Using a market based sample of U.S. firms, we find significant evidence of a non monotonic relation between firm international activity and both the cost and level of debt financing. Specifically, we find that, contrary to prior research, firm international a...

  8. Public/private transitions and firm financing

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Kim P.; Paligorova, Teodora; Petrunia, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A large body of empirical literature investigates differences in financing structures across firms. Private firms' financing receives little attention due to the lack of data. Using administrative confidential data on the universe of Canadian corporate firms, we compare financing relationships for private and public firms. Leverage ratios are lower for public firms and the difference is almost entirely driven by private firms' stronger reliance on short-term debt. We also find that private an...

  9. Can Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Bell

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the commonly held belief that government spending is normally financed through a combination of taxes and bond sales. The argument is a technical one and requires a detailed analysis of reserve accounting at the central bank. After carefully considering the complexities of reserve accounting, it is argued that the proceeds from taxation and bond sales are technically incapable of financing government spending and that modern governments actually finance all of their sp...

  10. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  11. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200...... years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit...

  12. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  13. Corporate finance in an interest free economy: An alternate approach to practiced Islamic Corporate Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests an alternate approach to corporate finance in an interest free economy by looking beyond practiced Islamic finance and suggesting alternatives for corporate finance in sourcing funds i.e. i) Ijara with embedded options, ii) limited liability partnership, iii) equity modes like Musharakah and Mudarabah iv) income bonds and v) convertible income bonds. It also suggests alternatives for corporate finance in using funds i.e. i) Islamic income funds, ii) Islamic REITs, iii) Tre...

  14. The Theory of Finance: A novel finance model being formed on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Magomet Yandiev

    2015-01-01

    The present paper argues that the present Internet conditions favour an entirely new finance model. Understood to soon supplement the existing ones (classical finance, corporate finance, and Islamic finance), it is argued that the new model will be defined by the destructive effect it is to have on the contemporary financial infrastructure of most countries, and the advent of the ‘future money value exceeds its present one’ principle.

  15. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'.

  16. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  17. Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

  18. Investment financing in cooperative firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cuomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By general agreement, one of the main obstacles to the growth of producer cooperatives is difficult investment financing, due to inadequate Capitalisation levels and the resulting inability to lodge sufficient collateral with lenders. Moreover, worker-owned firms are considered not very reliable because they suffer from problems of moral hazard and insufficient commitment. Unfortunately, the literature on this issue is not extensive and has weaknesses that are highlighted in the paper. By means of its critical analysis, it is possible to provide evidence that the funding difficulties caused by the particular structure of cooperative firms can be effectively tackled by creating an institutional framework within which cooperatives would be offered a wider range of organizational options comparable to those open to traditional enterprises. Finally, it is proved that the willingness of the members to fund the operations of their cooperative with loan capital may not be enough to mobilize external credit. For member financings to persuade potential providers of funds to place trust in a firm, third-party claims must necessarily qualify as senior debt and be repaid before the claims of the partners are settled.

  19. [The Belgian project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a model of multifactorial prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornitzer, M

    1989-01-01

    Résults are presented from the "belgian heart disease prevention project, part of the WHO european collaborative trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD)". 19.409 men aged 40-59 yr took part; they were employed in thirty factories which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 yr. The intervention package consisted largely of health education promoting a cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and treatment of arterial hypertension. A programme of information was supplemented by face-to-face counselling at the workplace by two physicians attached to the project. The coronary risk profile was reduced in the intervention group, compared with that in the control group, especially during the first 4 yr, by effects on serum cholesterol, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and arterial blood-pressure. Total mortality was 17.5% lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.038); coronary mortality was reduced by a non-significant 20.8% whereas CHD incidence (non-fatal myocardial infarction plus fatal myocardial infarction plus sudden deaths) was reduced by 24.5%, (P = 0.031). Non-fatal myocardial infarction (not a major end-point) was similarly reduced by 26.1% (p = 0.030). PMID:2679938

  20. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  1. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  2. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  3. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vansintejan J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and anodyspareunia was 18% for both. Independent predictors for erectile dysfunction were frequency of masturbation, frequency of sex with partner, use of erectile enhancement drugs, having a passive sex role, and not having a steady relationship. Independent predictors for hypoactive sexual desire disorder were frequency of masturbation and having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners. Independent predictors for premature ejaculation were not having a steady relationship, having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners, and a lower level of education. The only independent predictor for anodyspareunia was having an active sex role. Keywords: homosexuality/male, sexual dysfunction, HIV, epidemiology

  4. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  5. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  6. Characterization of ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusions in a novel Belgian frontotemporal lobar degeneration family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Rik; Rademakers, Rosa; Dermaut, Bart; Cruts, Marc; Vennekens, Krist'l; Cuijt, Ivy; Lübke, Ursula; Ceuterick, Chantal; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The most common histologic feature in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is intracellular brain inclusions of yet uncharacterized proteins that react with antiubiquitin (Ub) antibodies, but not with tau or synuclein (FTLD-U). We identified a four-generation Belgian FTLD family in which 8 patients had dominantly inherited FTLD. In one patient, we showed frontotemporal atrophy with filamentous Ub-positive intracellular inclusions in absence of tau pathology or any alterations in the levels of soluble tau. We characterized the cellular and subcellular localization and morphology of the inclusions. Ub-positive inclusions predominantly occurred within neurons (>97%), but were also observed within oligodendroglia (approximately 2%) and microglia (INI) were up to approximately four-fold more frequent than the cytoplasmic inclusions, although the latter were more specific to neurons. The INIs frequently appeared spindle-shaped and 3-dimensional confocal reconstructions identified flattened, leaf-like structures. Ultrastructurally, straight 10- to 18-nm-diameter filaments constituted the spindle-shaped inclusions that occurred in close proximity to the nuclear membrane. Staining for HSP40, p62, and valosin/p97 was observed in only a minority of the inclusions. Whereas the precise nature of the protein remains elusive, characterization of such familial FTLD-U patients would be helpful in identifying a common denominator in the pathogenesis of familial and the more prevalent sporadic FTLD-U.

  7. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  8. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  9. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  10. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne M. Stadig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3% responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research.

  11. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: A case study from Belgian coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant differences between seaweed and control samples in the fraction > 1 mm. Differences were less conspicuous in the 0.5-1 mm fraction. Seaweed samples were characterised by the presence of seaweed fauna e.g. Acari, Idotea baltica, Gammarus sp ., while control samples mainly contained Calanoida, Larvacea, Chaetognatha, and planktonic larvae of crustaceans and polychaetes. Seaweed samples (1 mm fraction) harboured considerably higher diversities (× 3), densities (× 18) and biomasses (× 49) compared to the surrounding water column (control samples). The impact of floating seaweeds on the neustonic environment was quantified by the calculation of the added values of seaweed samples considering biomass and density. These calculations resulted in mean added values of 311 ind m - 2 in density and 305 mg ADW m - 2 in biomass. The association degree per species was expressed as the mean percentage of individuals found in seaweed samples in proportion to the total density and biomass of that species (seaweed samples + control samples). Thirteen species showed an association percentage > 95%, and can therefore be considered members of the floating seaweed fauna.

  12. Evolution of marine storminess in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van den Eynde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms have affected European coast lines in the past but knowledge on changes in storminess for the last decades is still sparse. Climate change is assumed to be a main driving factor with the potential to induce changes on the intensity, duration and frequency of powerful marine storms, including a long-term influence on peak wind speeds, surges and waves. It is, therefore, important to investigate whether in the last decades changes in the magnitude of storms, their duration and frequency could be observed. Understanding trends in storminess in the last decades will help to better prepare coastal managers for future events, taking into account potential changes on storm occurrence and magnitude to improve planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The purpose of this study was to focus on the evolution of extreme wind conditions, wave height and storm surge levels in the North Sea Region, especially in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS. Based on the analysis performed it is concluded that no clear trend can be observed for the occurrence of significant increasing extreme wind speeds over the BPNS. Furthermore, one can conclude that not enough scientific evidence is available to support scenarios with increased wave height or storminess.

  13. South East Europe Municipal Finance Review : Local Government Finance in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the limited access to local governments of data and knowledge of municipal finance issues in South East Europe (SEE). The objective of the analytical work under the SEE Municipal Finance Review (MFR) aims to (i) contribute to improved understanding of local government management and finance in the SEE Region; and (ii) contribute to improving the quality and consistency ...

  14. Financial ratios: clues to the big picture of a hospital's fiscal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R B

    1990-03-01

    With trustees, investors, regulatory agencies, and others paying close attention to hospital finances, healthcare financial managers must detect problems before they grow out of control. Liquidity, capital structure, activity, and profitability ratios can provide pieces to the puzzle.

  15. 7 CFR 4290.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any Debt Security must be no longer than 20... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 4290.840 Section...

  16. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  17. Investments and financing in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two brief articles aspects of investment and financing in the energy market are highlighted. In the first article the complexity of financing energy projects is discussed, while in the second article the opinion of a representative of the public utility E.On Benelux on newcomers in the energy market is reflected

  18. Essays in Banking and Corporate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wang (Teng)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation bundles three empirical studies in the area of corporate finance and banking. These studies investigate corporates’ financing activity with a special focus on the interaction between the banking industry and corporate borrowers. By showing how changes

  19. Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Public Finance

    OpenAIRE

    David Trytko

    2000-01-01

    The Public Finance Department of the University of Economics in Prague (VŠE Praha) recently held an international conference on Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Public Finance. The main topics discussed were the public and the taxation sectors' respective decentralization, efficiency, and financial instruments. Economists from England, Czech Republic, Scotland, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, Slovakia, and several international organizations were present.

  20. Essays on banking and finance in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese economy has grown at a spectacular speed during the past three decades while the financial system is not well developed in China. On the one hand, the informal financing channels, i.e. borrowing from family members, friends, moneylenders, trade credit, etc., may provide proper financing

  1. Innovative financing mechanisms for sustainable ecosystem management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, G.W.; Diemont, W.H.; Groot, de R.S.; Schrijver, R.A.M.; Verhagen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing human influence on ecosystems and the ensuing unsustainable exploitation and degradation has led in many places to depletion and loss of function of these ecosystems. These problems cannot be solved by (innovative) financing mechanisms, as the causes do not lie in a lack of financing

  2. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  3. New Regulations Affect School Debt Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Duane

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of changes in Treasury Regulations as they affect school debt financing, including bond and note construction and acquisition issues, other types of equipment and property financing, as well as tax and revenue anticipation notes for working capital needs. (MLF)

  4. Notes on the2015 Finance Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Çam, Alper Veli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Traditional 19. Finance Symposium was held by Hitit University in Turkey.  In this study, the evaluation of the19th Finance Symposium held between 21-24October2015 in Turkey will be mentioned.Keywords. Financial management, Financial markets, Financial institutions, Banking.JEL. G12, G15, G17, G23, G31.

  5. Innovative financing techniques for nuclear power exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author makes general comments regarding the possible conflict between project risks, sponsors' ability to assume these risks, and the requirements and objectives of all project benficiaries: sponsors, lenders, consumers and government. To reconcile these conflicts there is an increasing use of project finance techniques to finance large capital projects

  6. Developing Islamic Finance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mylenko, Nataliya; Iqbal, Zamir

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the World Bank engagement in the Philippines to support Islamic Finance and Financial Inclusion. It provides an overview on the context for the development of Islamic finance in the Philippines and is accompanied by two focused reports providing further detail and suggestions on enhancing financial inclusion in the Philippines through Islamic microfinanc...

  7. Financing Higher Education in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Geir

    1996-01-01

    The higher education systems and financing mechanisms in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland are described. In each, enrollment and productivity, in terms of student flow, are important financing factors. A new budget model developed for Norway is outlined, and efforts to create a cooperative community for higher education in the Nordic countries…

  8. Do SMEs follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cèsario; Olson, Dennis

    This paper tests for "pecking order" financing of small and medium size firms. The main sources and "pecking order" of financing for SMEs are equity (internally generated cash), trade credit paid on time, credit provided by institutions such as banks and leasing companies, other sources of debt...

  9. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  10. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  11. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  12. Financing of nuclear trade. The brazilian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of financing instruments as means for the promotion of international nuclear trade is analysed. Besides the specific characteristics of nuclear trade is examined. Furthermore the role of governmental authorities and international agencies, mainly the IAEA is discussed. Finally the presence of Brazil in the international financial market and the financing of nuclear trade in Brazil are described

  13. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  14. Who's Reading What in Education Finance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Richard H.

    1981-01-01

    Responses from 18 of 68 college professors who are members of the editorial boards of the "Economics of Education Review" and the "Journal of Education Finance" list the books and journals they consider essential reading for students of educational finance and give the two research issues they consider most important. (MLF)

  15. Hospital fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID

  16. Financing U.S. exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the challenges of financing U.S. exploration from the perspective of an independent oil and gas producer. When Burlington Resources was split into a separate company from the Burlington Northern Railroad three years ago, the company owned extensive resources but had little production capability, and had to resolve the problem of raising development capital. According to the author of this paper, three key elements in the company's perception of the business environment drove its strategy: that the role of independent producers would be crucial in new onshore oil and gas development as the majors moved offshore; that energy prices would remain weak; and that financial market sentiment would not favor a move to leverage the company more highly than its starting-point of 19 percent debt-to-total capital ratio

  17. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  18. Financing the health care Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J C

    2000-01-01

    Internet-related health care firms have accelerated through the life cycle of capital finance and organizational destiny, including venture capital funding, public stock offerings, and consolidation, in the wake of heightened competition and earnings disappointments. Venture capital flooded into the e-health sector, rising from $3 million in the first quarter of 1998 to $335 million two years later. Twenty-six e-health firms went public in eighteen months, raising $1.53 billion at initial public offering (IPO) and with post-IPO share price appreciation greater than 100 percent for eighteen firms. The technology-sector crash hit the e-health sector especially hard, driving share prices down by more than 80 percent for twenty-one firms. The industry now faces an extended period of consolidation between e-health and conventional firms.

  19. Financing waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

  20. Hospital Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...

  1. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. USE OF THE FINANCING INSTRUMENTS LEASING SERVICES MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Yandavletova, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article contains information about leasing companies depending on the financing bank. Reflect the characteristics of each type of leasing companies. Identified need and perspective of financing instruments

  3. 48 CFR 32.113 - Customary contract financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.113... contracts for supplies or services awarded under the competitive negotiation method of procurement...

  4. Equity in Health Care Financing in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Evidence from Studies Using Benefit and Financing Incidence Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Asante

    Full Text Available Health financing reforms in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs over the past decades have focused on achieving equity in financing of health care delivery through universal health coverage. Benefit and financing incidence analyses are two analytical methods for comprehensively evaluating how well health systems perform on these objectives. This systematic review assesses progress towards equity in health care financing in LMICs through the use of BIA and FIA.Key electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Global Health, CinAHL, EconLit and Business Source Premier were searched. We also searched the grey literature, specifically websites of leading organizations supporting health care in LMICs. Only studies using benefit incidence analysis (BIA and/or financing incidence analysis (FIA as explicit methodology were included. A total of 512 records were obtained from the various sources. The full texts of 87 references were assessed against the selection criteria and 24 were judged appropriate for inclusion. Twelve of the 24 studies originated from sub-Saharan Africa, nine from the Asia-Pacific region, two from Latin America and one from the Middle East. The evidence points to a pro-rich distribution of total health care benefits and progressive financing in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the majority of cases, the distribution of benefits at the primary health care level favoured the poor while hospital level services benefit the better-off. A few Asian countries, namely Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, maintained a pro-poor distribution of health care benefits and progressive financing.Studies evaluated in this systematic review indicate that health care financing in LMICs benefits the rich more than the poor but the burden of financing also falls more on the rich. There is some evidence that primary health care is pro-poor suggesting a greater investment in such services and removal of barriers to care can enhance

  5. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  6. Sunscreen use and skin protection behaviour on the Belgian beach: a comparison 9 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Van der Endt, Johannes D; Broeckx, Walter; Vandaele, Mark; del Marmol, Veronique; Roseeuw, Diane; Maselis, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Public health campaigns encourage people to protect themselves against skin cancer by using sunscreens and taking other protective measures. The objective is to estimate the impact of these campaigns on the rise of awareness among the general public. This study explores the prevalence and predictors of solar protection behaviour in a sample of beachgoers and compares these results to another similar study carried out 9 years earlier (i.e. summer 2001). During the month of August 2010, a total of 408 participants (144 men and 264 women) were randomly selected on their way to the Belgian beach in the city of Ostend, Belgium. The solar protection behaviour of each participant was assessed by direct observation and an interview. The exact same questions were asked as in 2001. The general risk awareness stays the same for skin aging and skin cancer but gets higher for sunburn. When we control these results for sex, the overall higher general awareness is completely because of the higher awareness of the female subgroup. As in 2001, risk awareness is considerably higher in the female subgroup than in the male one. As in 2001, sunscreen cream was the most popular preventive behaviour in 2010 (use of sunscreen with sun protection factor 15 or higher reported by 66.4%), followed by timed sun exposure (46.8%), use of clothing and hats (36.8%) and shade (34.1%). As in summer 2001 the sunscreen use is more popular in the female population. The use of protective clothing and hats is more popular in the male group. As solar protection has become part of the beach behaviour routine, there is room for improvement for their more frequent application, the use of a higher sun protection factor (15+), timed sunbathing, more use of clothing and hats and seeking shade. The results of this study can assist in evaluating the effectiveness of present sun-protection campaigns and health education programmes. PMID:22273847

  7. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms.

  8. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  9. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering analysis based on these factors: events dominated by runoff availability (runoff-limited), dominated by glyphosate availability (pesticide-limited) and controlled by both runoff and glyphosate availability. To sum up

  10. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  11. Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS, the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. Methods In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. Results In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. Conclusions For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but

  12. Detection and identification of xerophilic fungi in Belgian chocolate confectionery factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nikki; Van Coillie, Els; Van Pamel, Els; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Chocolate confectionery fillings are generally regarded as microbiologically stable. The stability of these fillings is largely due to the general practice of adding either alcohol or preservatives. Consumer demands are now stimulating producers to move away from adding alcohol or other preservatives to their confectionery fillings and instead to search for innovative formulations. Such changes in composition can influence the shelf life of the product and may lead to spoilage by xerophilic fungi. The aim of this study was to test whether the production environment of Belgian chocolate confectionery factories and common ingredients of chocolate confectioneries could be potential sources of contamination with xerophilic fungal species. In the factory environment, the general and strictly xerophilic fungal spore load was determined using an RCS Air Sampler device in combination with DG18 and MY50G medium, respectively. Four basic ingredients of chocolate confectionery fillings were also examined for fungal spore levels using a direct plating technique. Detected fungi were identified to species level by a combination of morphological characterization and sequence analysis. Results indicated a general fungal spore load in the range of 50-250 colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3) air) and a more strict xerophilic spore load below 50 CFU/m(3) air. These results indicate rather low levels of fungal spores present in the factory environment. The most prevalent fungi in the factory environment were identified as Penicillium spp., particularly Penicillium brevicompactum. Examination of the basic ingredients of confectionery fillings revealed nuts to be the most likely potential source of direct contamination. In nuts, the most prevalent fungal species identified were Eurotium, particularly Eurotium repens. PMID:25475302

  13. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  14. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  15. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  16. Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: II. Plasma metabolites and hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hornick, Jean-Luc; Van Eenaeme, Christian; Diez, Marianne; Minet, Vincent; Istasse, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Animals from the control group (CG) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. The animals from G2, G3, and G4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during LGP and the same diet as CG during RGP. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), N...

  17. Survey for the presence of specific free-living amoebae in cooling waters from Belgian power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2007-05-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are distributed ubiquitously in aquatic environments with increasing importance in hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man. In this study, water samples from Belgian industrial cooling circuits were quantitatively surveyed for the presence of FLA. Isolated, thermotolerant amoebae were identified morphologically as well as using the following molecular methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isoenzyme electrophoresis and PCR. Thermophilic amoebae were present at nearly all collection sites, and the different detection methods gave similar results. Naegleria fowleri was the most frequently encountered thermotolerant species, and concentrations of thermotolerant FLA were correlated with higher temperatures.

  18. An Explorative Mapping of the Belgian Social Media Marketing Value Network and Its Usage of Personal Identifiable Information

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Rob; Pierson, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown an increase in both disclosure of personal data and means to gather this data on social media such as Facebook. Little research has been done to analyze what happens with this data and how it circulates between different actors. The aim of this research is to map a subset of the Belgian social media marketing companies as a value network and how these actors use social media users’ data for marketing campaigns. The answer to this research question was obtained through exper...

  19. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    OpenAIRE

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlleger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Styns, Karel; TORFS, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health.In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian...

  20. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria