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Sample records for belgian blue cattle

  1. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naïma; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nuc...

  2. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naima; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nucleotide substitution in the LAMA3 gene that creates a premature stop codon (p.Arg2609*) in exon 60, truncating 22% of the corresponding protein. The LAMA3 gene encodes the alpha 3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-332, a key constituent of the lamina lucida that is part of the skin basement membrane connecting epidermis and dermis layers. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are known to cause severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa in human, mice, horse, sheep and dog. Overall, our data strongly support the causality of the identified gene and mutation. PMID:26370913

  3. Reverse genetic screen for loss-of-function mutations uncovers a frameshifting deletion in the melanophilin gene accountable for a distinctive coat color in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Sartelet, Arnaud; Tamma, Nico; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2016-02-01

    In the course of a reverse genetic screen in the Belgian Blue cattle breed, we uncovered a 10-bp deletion (c.87_96del) in the first coding exon of the melanophilin gene (MLPH), which introduces a premature stop codon (p.Glu32Aspfs*1) in the same exon, truncating 94% of the protein. Recessive damaging mutations in the MLPH gene are well known to cause skin, hair, coat or plumage color dilution phenotypes in numerous species, including human, mice, dog, cat, mink, rabbit, chicken and quail. Large-scale array genotyping undertaken to identify p.Glu32Aspfs*1 homozygous mutant animals revealed a mutation frequency of 5% in the breed and allowed for the identification of 10 homozygous mutants. As expression of a colored coat requires at least one wild-type allele at the co-dominant Roan locus encoded by the KIT ligand gene (KITLG), homozygous mutants for p.Ala227Asp corresponding with the missense mutation were excluded. The six remaining colored calves displayed a distinctive dilution phenotype as anticipated. This new coat color was named 'cool gray'. It is the first damaging mutation in the MLPH gene described in cattle and extends the already long list of species with diluted color due to recessive mutations in MLPH and broadens the color palette of gray in this breed. PMID:26582259

  4. Reverse genetic screen for loss-of-function mutations uncovers a frameshifting deletion in the melanophilin gene accountable for a distinctive coat color in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Sartelet, Arnaud; Tamma, Nico; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2016-02-01

    In the course of a reverse genetic screen in the Belgian Blue cattle breed, we uncovered a 10-bp deletion (c.87_96del) in the first coding exon of the melanophilin gene (MLPH), which introduces a premature stop codon (p.Glu32Aspfs*1) in the same exon, truncating 94% of the protein. Recessive damaging mutations in the MLPH gene are well known to cause skin, hair, coat or plumage color dilution phenotypes in numerous species, including human, mice, dog, cat, mink, rabbit, chicken and quail. Large-scale array genotyping undertaken to identify p.Glu32Aspfs*1 homozygous mutant animals revealed a mutation frequency of 5% in the breed and allowed for the identification of 10 homozygous mutants. As expression of a colored coat requires at least one wild-type allele at the co-dominant Roan locus encoded by the KIT ligand gene (KITLG), homozygous mutants for p.Ala227Asp corresponding with the missense mutation were excluded. The six remaining colored calves displayed a distinctive dilution phenotype as anticipated. This new coat color was named 'cool gray'. It is the first damaging mutation in the MLPH gene described in cattle and extends the already long list of species with diluted color due to recessive mutations in MLPH and broadens the color palette of gray in this breed.

  5. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  6. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  7. Case report : A suspicion of cortico-cerebral necrosis in a Belgian Blue herd after ingestion of moulded silage

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Aliaoui, Hamani; Brihoum, Mounir; Vandeputte, Sébastien; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cortico-cerebral necrosis (CCN) and mortalities have been observed in a Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that produces byssochlamic acid, malformins and patulin, has been proven. Among these toxins, patulin is known to have cancerogenic, immunosuppressive and tremorgenic effects, but also acts on the respiratory and digestive systems. Twenty-five days after progressive introduction of bee...

  8. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  9. Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: II. Plasma metabolites and hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Hornick, Jean-Luc; Van Eenaeme, Christian; Diez, Marianne; Minet, Vincent; Istasse, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Animals from the control group (CG) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. The animals from G2, G3, and G4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during LGP and the same diet as CG during RGP. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), N...

  10. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day.

  11. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C

    2009-03-01

    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcasses from BB-sired calves had greater yield (P carcasses from A-sired calves. Carcasses from A-sired calves had a greater (P carcasses from BB-sired calves. Tenderness, as measured by shear force of the steaks aged for 7 d, was similar for A- and BB-sired calves. However, steaks aged for 14 d from the A-sired calves had a reduced shear force (P carcasses also had greater marbling scores and quality grades, whereas the heifer carcasses had larger LM area per 100 kg of carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  12. Comparison of external morphological traits of newborns to inner morpholical traits of the dam in the double-muscled Belgian Blue Beef breed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coopman, F.; Gengler, N.; Groen, A.F.; Smet, de S.; Zeveren, van A.

    2004-01-01

    In the double-muscled (DM) Belgian Blue Beef (BBB) breed, caesarean section (CS) is used as a routine management tool to prevent dystocia. This practice is criticized on animal welfare grounds. With unassisted (natural) births, difficulties arise because of disproportion between the sizes of the new

  13. Different periods of feed restriction before compensatory growth in Belgian Blue bulls: II. Plasma metabolites and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, J L; Van Eenaeme, C; Diez, M; Minet, V; Istasse, L

    1998-01-01

    Plasma metabolites and hormones were studied in 16 double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls maintained at low growth (.5 kg/d) for 114 (G2), 243 (G3), or 419 (G4) d (low growth period, LGP) before fattening (rapid growth period, RGP). Animals from the control group (CG) were fed a diet high in energy and protein. The animals from G2, G3, and G4 were fed a restricted amount of a diet low in energy and protein during LGP and the same diet as CG during RGP. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN), NEFA, urea, creatinine, thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (T3), and IGF-I were measured in blood samples taken fortnightly. Plasma GH and insulin (I) profiles were measured in serial blood samples obtained at three times during growth. The RGP was characterized by an initial compensatory growth, by higher plasma glucose, AAN, and urea levels, and by lower plasma NEFA and creatinine levels. Plasma GH concentration decreased after refeeding. Plasma T4 increased linearly during refeeding, as opposed to T3, which showed a different profile in each group. Plasma IGF-I showed a curvilinear increase during RGP and reached a plateau after 3 mo in each compensating group. In G4, changes of plasma metabolites and hormones differed often distinctly from G2 or G3. During refeeding, higher nutrient supply improved the functionality of the somatotropic axis and increased the concentration of anabolic hormones, allowing rapid muscle deposition. However, animals underfed the longest period behaved differently from the other groups, possibly because they reached a more complete sexual maturity.

  14. Genetic parameters for methane indicator traits based on milk fatty acids in Dual Purpose Belgian Blue cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Dairy production is pointed out for its large methane emission. Therefore, specific nutritional strategies are applying to abate methane emission but very less information is available about the animal genetic variability of methane emission. Methane indicators using traits indirectly related to methane and easily recorded like the mid-infrared (MIR) prediction of fatty acid could be used to conduct genetic studies. MIR methane indicators used in this study were derived from published fatty a...

  15. Chilling of carcasses from double muscled cattle: time-temperature evolution and predictive modelling of growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Collignon, Bertrand; Dehard, Sandrine; Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    The time/temperature combination during carcass chilling is of concern in order to avoid bacterial growth. The chilling speed is lower in carcasses with high muscular development such as large cattle from the Belgian Blue breed. Three slaughterhouses were selected for temperature and pH measurements during the chilling process at 6 different days on 4 half carcasses in order to obtain representative data from heavy carcasses with high muscular development. Predictive microbiology was used to ...

  16. The occurrence of dermatosparaxis in a commercial Drakensberger cattle herd in South Africa : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Holm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermatosparaxis is a heritable collagen dysplasia causing skin extensibility and fragility. In Belgian Blue cattle this mutation has been described as a 3 base pair (bp change followed by a 17 bp deletion in the gene coding for procollagen 1 N-Proteinase (pNPI. An outbreak in a commercial Drakensberger herd in South Africa followed the introduction in late 2000 of a 3-year-old bull that developed skin lesions in 2001 and was culled in 2002. Some of his offspring were similarly affected, 1 of which was kept as a breeding bull after his sire's death. Two affected calves were referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital in October 2005. Detailed examination revealed only skin abnormalities limited to the lateral extremities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, viz. either acute lacerations of varying sizes, slow healing defects or thin scars in chronic cases. During a subsequent farm visit, 13 animals with similar wounds were seen in the herd of 146 animals. Electron microscopic examination of skin biopsies revealed haphazard arrangement and loose packing of dermal collagen fibrils within collagen fibres. The fibrils showed size variation and slightly irregular outlines on cross-section, consistent with mild dermatosparaxis. DNA samples of affected calves were analysed using primers designed to amplify the region of the pNPI gene that contained the mutation described in Belgian Blue cattle, but this mutation could not be demonstrated in any of the animals tested. It is concluded that a form of dermatosparaxis with a different gene mutation from that described in Belgian Blue cattle exists in Drakensberger cattle in South Africa. This possibly also explains the milder and more delayed clinical signs and the milder dermal collagen ultrastructural abnormalities.

  17. Polymorphism of molecular-genetic systems in the Polish red cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauzińska, M; Siadkowska, E; Grochowska, R; Zwierzchowski, L; Zurkowski, M

    2001-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate gene polymorphism in the Polish Red (PR) cattle, a local Polish breed included in the FAO conservation programme. Milk protein genes and other genes with possible effect on production traits were analysed. Frequencies of different gene variants were compared with those in the Polish Friesian cattle. The following gene polymorphisms were analysed with PCR/RFLP technique: milk protein genes--kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, growth hormone (GH), PitI (a transcription factor) and leptin. Moreover, SSCP analysis was performed of myostatin (MSTN) gene at the site previously shown to cause muscle overgrowth in Belgian Blue double-muscled cattle. A significant difference was found in this study between kappa-casein A and B allele frequency in PR and Friesian cattle. No such differences were found in the frequency of A and B alleles of beta-lactoglobulin, L and V alleles of GH, A and B alleles of PitI, and A, B and C alleles of leptin gene. In the analysed group of the Polish Red cattle three animals were found with the rare AI genotype of -lactoglobulin. No such genotype was identified in analysed Friesians. Moreover, 8 PR animals were identified carrying a mutation in MSTN gene, possibly identical to that causing the double-muscled phenotype in some breeds of meat cattle.

  18. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  19. Composition and quality differences between the longissimus and infraspinatus muscles for several groups of pasture-finished cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Zou, M

    2008-10-01

    Samples of longissimus (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscles from five contrasting groups of pasture-finished cattle (n=7/group) were assessed for quality and composition characteristics in order to determine whether features of pasture-finished beef reported previously apply across different muscles and different classes of cattle. The cattle were not raised together or slaughtered at the same time. Wagyu-cross steers had the highest intramuscular fat levels, particularly in the LT, followed by Angus steers, Charolais-cross steers and Belgian Blue-cross steers, with the lowest levels for Friesian bulls. Relative to the LT, the IS muscle had longer sarcomeres, higher cooking losses, higher concentrations of vitamin E, and lower myofibrillar fragmentation indexes, while its ultimate pH was slightly higher but less variable. Beef from Wagyu-cross steers had the highest chroma values and the lowest shear values, while Friesian bull beef was darkest and least tender. Intramuscular fatty acid composition and concentrations of bioactive compounds such as coenzyme Q(10) and carnosine, were similar to those reported previously for cattle finished on New Zealand pastures although taurine levels were lower. Generally concentrations of bioactive compounds differed more between muscles and groups than between cattle finished on pasture or grain as reported previously. PMID:22063355

  20. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  1. Integrated modelling of the Belgian coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Delhez, E. J. M.; Carabin, G.

    2001-01-01

    The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems.The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This pl...

  2. Strategic groups in the Belgian fishing fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Stouten, H.; A. HEENE; Gellynck, X.; Polet, H

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the heterogeneity of the Belgian fishing fleet based on “strategic groups”, a concept borrowed from the field of strategic management. Its objectives are: (1) to define strategic groups within the Belgian fishing fleet; (2) to examine the performance differences among these strategic groups; (3) to examine whether firms (i.e., vessels) move between strategic groups over time; and (4) to examine if firm-movement (i.e., vessel-movement) differs across strategic groups. In th...

  3. A case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a Belgian blue cow

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old cow was presented with chronic respiratory disease and lameness. Chronic pleuritis, pneumonia, and bronchial carcinoma were found as well as periosteal proliferation on limb bones. Ancillary tests and necropsy confirmed a combined pathology of pulmonary inflammation and neoplasm, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy.

  4. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  5. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  6. Advertising budgeting practices of Belgian industrial marketers.

    OpenAIRE

    François, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The author reports on the results of a survey of a random sample of 102 belgian industrial companies, which measured which budget setting processes companies use, how they set budgets and the resulting budget composition. The objective of the study was first to compare the results with international practice, and second to try to explain their budgeting practices as a function of company, product and market characteristics measured in the same survey. The major conclusions are mixed : on the ...

  7. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  8. Optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidio, F.; K. Ruddick; Vasilkov, A.; Burenkov, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the research conducted at MUMM in optical remote sensing of Belgian coastal waters during the period 1997-2000. The motivation for this research consists of the need to provide information for marine environmental management of coastal eutrophication and sediment transport related problems. The basic products provided by optical remote sensing are maps of chlorophyll concentration and total suspended matter. A key contribution has been made for the atmospheric correction...

  9. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  10. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  11. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living...... and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  12. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians ...

  13. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with this condition are happy most of the time. But compared to how she usually feels, the ... the "blues" usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe ...

  14. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Postpartum care > The postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  15. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ...

  16. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ...

  17. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  18. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ...

  19. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  20. Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yuzhi; Zhang Chunyuan; Foulon, M.; D. Chambre; Poulain, M.

    2001-01-01

    Poulain Michel, Chambre Dany, Foulon Michel.- Survival Among Belgian Centenarians (1870-1894 Cohorts) Calculating the probability of dying among post-centenarians is problematic and often flawed by a high risk of error. This is partly due to the unreliability of statistical data on centenarians, and partly to the small populations concerned. The Belgian centenarian database of over 4,000 centenarians in the 1870 to 1894 birth cohorts used here endeavours to compensate for these two failings. ...

  1. Evidence for placental compensation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Fiems, L O; Opsomer, G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal development is known to be extremely sensitive to maternal and environmental challenges. In this study, we hypothesize that body growth and lactation during gestation in cattle reduce nutrient availability for the pregnant uterus, with consequences for placental development. Fetal membranes of 16 growing heifers and 27 fully grown cows of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed were compared to determine the effect of body growth on placental development. Furthermore, the fetal membranes of 49 lactating Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and 27 HF heifers were compared to study the impact of dam lactation compared to dam body growth. After parturition, calf birth weight and body measurements of dam and calf were recorded, as well as weight of total fetal membranes, cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. All cotyledons were individually measured to calculate both the surface of each individual cotyledon and the total cotyledonary surface per placenta. Total cotyledonary surface was unaffected by breed or the breed×parity interaction. Besides a 0.3 kg lower cotyledonary weight (P=0.007), heifer placentas had a smaller total cotyledonary surface compared with placentas of cows (0.48±0.017 v. 0.54±0.014 m2, respectively, Pheifers had a 1.5 kg lower total weight and 1.0 kg lower intercotyledonary membrane weight (Pheifers had a higher cotyledon number (126±6.7, Pheifers but significantly higher in multiparous BB compared with multiparous HF dams (106.0±20.45 v. 74.3±12.27 kg/m2, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, a seasonal effect on placental development was found, with winter and spring placentas having smaller cotyledons than summer and fall placentas (P<0.001). Main findings of the present study are that lactation and maternal growth during gestation entail a comparable nutrient diverting constraint, which might alter placental development. However, results suggest that the placenta is able to manage this situation through two potential compensation mechanisms

  2. Fuel cycle transition - A Belgian implementation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 the total installed electric power in Belgium was 16,200 MWe of which 40% (6485 MWe) corresponds to the seven nuclear power plants installed on the two Belgian sites of Doel (4 power plants) and Tihange (3 power plants) and the 25% participation in the two French Units B1 and B2 at Chooz at the Belgian-French border. The nuclear installed power in Belgium is 5800 MWe. In 2003, the government decided to phase out the nuclear energy progressively by closing the Belgian NPPs after 40 years of operation. This means that the first generation units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1) will be closed in 2015 and the four other remaining units in 2022-2025. Nevertheless, this phase out is subject to various conditions: the guarantee of energy independence should not be affected and the engagement to respect the Kyoto agreement (reducing the CO2 production by 7.5% in 2010 as compared to the 1990 production). Thus the phase-out decision can be re-opened if the above mentioned conditions are not met. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Actual fuel cycle; 3. Transition fuel cycle; 4. Calculations; 4.1. PWR modelling; 4.2. ADS modelling; 4.3. Calculation code; 5. Results; 5.1. PWR/EPR; 5.2. ADS; 6. Conclusions. In conclusion it is shown that the evaluated stock pile of waste in Belgium (with no increase of electricity demand) coming from the thermal reactors park is 4380 tons (52 t Pu, 9 t MA, 217 t FP) with phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2025, last PWR) and 7825 tons (84 t Pu, 20 t MA, 381 t FP) without phase out (i.e. between 1975, first PWR and 2075, last EPR). According to this study, Belgium should keep all its first generation Pu for the eventual starting of the self burning FR. Indeed, the Pu needed to start the self burning FR is evaluated between 60 t and 90 t (based on 10 t to 15 t per GWe). With an homogeneous core loading, 54% of the MA could be eliminated after 24 years in three 600 MWth industrial ADS (corresponding

  3. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments. I

  4. The Resilience Scale for Adults: Construct Validity and Measurement in a Belgian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjemdal, Odin; Friborg, Oddgeir; Braun, Stephanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Fossion, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) was developed and has been extensively validated in Norwegian samples. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults in a French-speaking Belgian sample and test measurement invariance between the Belgian and a Norwegian sample. A Belgian student sample (N =…

  5. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  6. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  7. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  8. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . After ... blues" is not really correct since women with this condition are happy most of the time. But ...

  9. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the baby ... compared to how she usually feels, the new mother: Is more irritable Cries more easily Feels sad ...

  10. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... your dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the ...

  11. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  12. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("c

  13. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  14. Continuing Vocational Training in Belgian Companies: An Upward Tendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Dirk; Wouters, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: As part of the European continuing vocational training survey, this paper aims to give an overview of the evolutions in continuing vocational training (CVT) in Belgian companies, by comparing both the results of the survey of 1994 and those of 2000/2001. Design/methodology/approach: In Belgium 1,129 companies took part in the survey of…

  15. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  16. Exploring Pupils' Perceptions of Teacher Racism in Their Context: A Case Study of Turkish and Belgian Vocational Education Pupils in a Belgian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article employs ethnographic data gathered from one Belgian (Flemish) secondary school to explore the meaning Belgian and Turkish-speaking minority pupils enrolled in technical and vocational education attach to teacher racism and racial discrimination, and to explore variations between pupils in making claims of teacher racism. A symbolic…

  17. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  18. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies. Heterozygous animals were heaviest at weaning and had the highest live weight, whereas animals with zero

  19. Association of myostatin on early calf mortality, growth, and carcass composition traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; Cundiff, L V

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a potential association of an inactive myostatin allele with early calf mortality, and evaluate its effect on growth and carcass traits in a crossbred population. Animals were obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British Breed) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford, Angus, Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Belgian Blue was the source of the inactive myostatin allele. Myostatin genotypes were determined for all animals including those that died before weaning. Early calf mortality was examined in the F2 subpopulation (n = 154), derived from the F1 sires mated to F1 cows from Belgian Blue sires, to evaluate animals with zero, one, or two copies of inactive myostatin allele. An overall 1:2:1 ratio (homozygous active myostatin allele:heterozygous:homozygous inactive myostatin allele) was observed in the population; however, a comparison between calves dying before weaning and those alive at slaughter showed an unequal distribution across genotypes (P Carcass composition traits analyzed were hot carcass weight, fat thickness, LM area, marbling score, USDA yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, retail product yield and weight, fat yield and weight, bone yield and weight, and percentage of carcasses classified as Choice. Charolais lack the inactive myostatin allele segregating in Belgian Blue; thus, in the population sired by Charolais (n = 645), only animals with zero or one copy of the inactive myostatin allele were evaluated. Animals carrying one copy were heavier at birth and at weaning, and their carcasses were leaner and more muscled. In the population sired by Belgian Blue x British Breed (n = 725), animals with two copies of inactive myostatin allele were heavier at birth, leaner, and had a higher proportion of muscle mass than animals with zero or one copies

  20. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  1. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  2. Belgian modified classification of Maastricht for donors after circulatory death

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Patrick; Belgian Working Group on DCD National Protocol; Lois, Fernande; Darius, Tom; De Pauw, Luc; Hantson, Philippe; Jacquemin, Dominique; Schamps, Geneviève; Van Deynse, Dominique; Rondelet, Benoît; Verschuren, Franck

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: "Non-heart-beating donors," or, in a more recent and international definition, "donors after circulatory death," are a potential and additional group of deceased persons who are able to add organs to the pool. METHODS: A new classification is proposed on the basis of the result of a consensus of experts issued from all Belgian transplant centers. RESULTS: The first level of definition is simple and based on whether the situation is uncontrolled (categories I and II) or contr...

  3. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  4. The Attitudes of Belgian Adolescents towards Peers with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnair...

  5. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, E.; Godrie, T.; de Laubier, J.; di Tanna, S.; Ringuet, M.; Sindic, M.

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy...

  6. Internal finance and corporate investment: Belgian evidence with panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Barran, Fernando; Peeters, Marga

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the corporate investment decision under financial restrictions is investigated with Belgian firm data from 1984 to 1992. An investment Euler equation is derived from a dynamic optimization model with debt ceilings and an elastic credit supply. The model is estimated by GMM for different firm groups. An important aspect is that the sample is split according to a firm’s association with coordination centers. These centers have become the major external funding source of corpora...

  7. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  8. Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, Bart; CATRY, Boudewijn; Boone, Randy; Theys, Hubert; De Bleecker, Koen; Dewulf, Jeroen; Deprez, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and an overview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. The production of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controlled iron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern about animal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solid feed to assure rumi...

  9. Assessment of marine debris on the Belgian Continental Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberghe, L.; Claessens, M.; Vandegehuchte, M.B.; Mees, J.; Janssen, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of marine litter in three environmental compartments of Belgian coastal waters was performed. Abundance, weight and composition of marine debris, including microplastics, was assessed by performing beach, sea surface and seafloor monitoring campaigns during two consecutive years. Plastic items were the dominant type of macrodebris recorded: over 95% of debris present in the three sampled marine compartments were plastic. In general, concentrations of macrodebris wer...

  10. Sustainable groundwater extraction in coastal areas: a Belgian example

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Van Houtte, E.; Lebbe, L.

    2009-01-01

    Water extractions in coastal areas have to deal with salt water intrusion and lowering of hydraulic heads in valuable ecosystems. Therefore, sustainable management of fresh water resources in these areas is crucial. This is illustrated here with two water extractions in the western Belgian coastal plain which extract groundwater from a phreatic dune aquifer. One water extraction faced problems with salt water intrusion, while lowering of hydraulic heads was an issue for both. To remedy the sa...

  11. Crisis behind the figures? Belgian trade unions between strength, paralysis and revitalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Faniel, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Unlike most of the trade unions in European countries, Belgian unions managed to preserve a high and stable union density, and strong institutional positions. However, their situation is not blissful and the condition of both the workforce and the unions has been worsening for three decades. This article looks at the strengths and weaknesses of Belgian unions and presents four initiatives of union revitalisation recently developed. The argument is that Belgian unions do not fully size the sco...

  12. Planning and implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper, the authors recall Belgian conditions, initially as regards primary energy (high degree of energy consumption and high degree of dependence on other countries), and then as regards electricity (divided up according to energy sources and types of producer). In the second part, the method used in Belgium for planning electrical power production is explained. Particular emphasis is placed on both the economic and technical assumptions made (trends in fuel costs, method of calculating investment costs, etc.). The development required, for the period 1982-92, of the means of production is stated in the light of the assumptions made. Fuel cycle planning (front and back ends) is also described with a review of the principal stages, namely supply of natural uranium, enrichment, reprocessing, treatment of irradiated fuel, and geological storage of wastes. The third and last part of the paper looks back at events in the implementation of the Belgian nuclear programme in chronological order. The beginnings of nuclear development in Belgium are recalled, as is the decision to construct the first three units (Doel 1, Doel 2 and Tihange 1), which were completed and put into service in 1975. The programme now under way is also briefly described, together with the characteristics of Belgian power stations, especially those concerned with safety. In conclusion, the paper outlines the main advantages of the nuclear option for a country as vulnerable where energy is concerned, as Belgium. (author)

  13. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  14. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  15. The Influence of the 1974 Oil Crisis on Sectoral Growth Rates in the Belgian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F.BOSSIER; D. DUWEIN

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly presents and analyses the behaviour of the different sectors of the Belgian economy during the period 1965-1978. Special attention is paid to the influence of the 1974 oil crisis on sectors of the Belgian economy. It is shown that the 1974 shock had different consequences according to the energy components of the sector

  16. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  17. Internal capital market efficiency of Belgian holding companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Malika HAMADI

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To ans...

  18. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  19. Hemophilia A in a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, A; Lubas, G; Trotta, M; Caldin, M

    2014-08-01

    This case report presents a Belgian Shepherd Malinois dog affected by hemophilia A recognized at the age of seven months. The clinical follow-up including all the diagnostic procedures leading to the final diagnosis and the course of this disorder are presented. This is a typical proband case demonstrating the appearance of this genetic disease in a breed never involved by this coagulation disorder so far documented that started an intensive and laborious plan to reduce the incidence of hemophilia A and the further appearance of new cases.

  20. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  1. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities ("concerning who") and channel ("how"). An online survey was created and published on several popular websites for youngsters. Attitudes were assessed by means of the CATCH questionnaire among 167 adolescents between 11 and 20 years old. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. Belgian adolescents had fairly tolerant attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Factors associated with more positive attitudes were being female, and viewing a video introduction of a peer with a disability before assessing attitudes. Factors such as having a parent, sibling or good friend with a disability and frequent contact with persons with disabilities did not remain significant in the overall model. The way in which students with disabilities are presented to their peers is very important. Further research is needed among larger samples, including more diverse variables, concerning the former mentioned categories, and also concerning the source (the "who") and message (the "what"). PMID:21257288

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food. PMID:26373269

  3. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis. PMID:15303392

  4. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  5. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  6. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  7. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  8. Assessment of the acrylamide intake of the Belgian population and the effect of mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Wendie Liliane; Baert, Katleen; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Vercammen, Jan; Daenens, Paul; Meulenaer, Bruno De; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Huyghebaert, André

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The acrylamide (AA) intake of the Belgian consumer was calculated based on AA monitoring data of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) and consumption data of the Belgian food consumption survey coordinated by the Scientific Institute for Public Health (3214 participants of 15 years or older). The average AA exposure, calculated probabilistically, was 0.4 ?g/kg bw/day (P97.5 = 1.6 ?g/kg bw/day) with as main contributors to the average intake c...

  9. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  10. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  11. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  12. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  13. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  14. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners. PMID:22088137

  15. Working Paper 13-09 - Qualitative Employment Multipliers for the Belgian Environmental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Adja Awa Sissoko; Bart Van den Cruyce

    2009-01-01

    The present paper computes cumulative employment generated by the Belgian environmental industry. Relying on Belgian input-output tables for the year 2000 and on detailed employment data (SAM sub ]matrix), we investigate the patterns of the employment in the environmental industry, by considering the worker types differentiated by gender, educational attainment or a combination of these characteristics. The employment multiplier analysis of environmental employment reveals some interesting di...

  16. A nationwide Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in Belgian Hospitals: Analysis and Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree; Schrooten, Ward

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure patient safety culture in Belgian hospitals and to examine the homogeneous grouping of underlying safety culture dimensions. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed organisation-wide in 180 Belgian hospitals participating in the federal program on quality and safety between 2007 and 2009. Participating hospitals were invited to submit their data to a comparative database. Homogeneous groups of underlying safety culture dimensions were sou...

  17. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    OpenAIRE

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-01-01

    Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the...

  18. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  19. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  20. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented.

  1. [Orphan diseases and orphan medicines: a Belgian and European study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze policies concerning orphan medicines, used to treat patients suffering from a rare disease. The decisions about orphan designation and marketing authorization of orphan medicines are taken at European level, but each Member State is responsible for decisions regarding reimbursement. The European measures to encourage the development of orphan medicines, such as market exclusivity for a period of ten years, seem to be successful. However, this market exclusivity should be revised once the profitability of such medicines has clearly been demonstrated. Our study recommends the implementation of patient registries at the European level in order to describe the natural evolution of rare diseases and the efficacy of orphan medicines, the majority of which are relatively expensive. In 2008, Belgian social security services reimbursed orphan medicines for an amount of 66 million euro, accounting for more than 5% of the hospital pharmaceutical budget. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine to an individual patient is subject to multiple conditions. Our study recommends that a unique counter within the NIHDI is created which centralizes all reimbursement requests. The reimbursement of an orphan medicine must be linked to the provision of standardized information needed for a patient register. The NIHDI administration could then, in collaboration with external experts, evaluate reimbursement requests and ensure a coherent application of reimbursement criteria. PMID:20183989

  2. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  3. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  4. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  5. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  6. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  7. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  8. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  9. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  10. Core and fuel feasibility study for improved flexibility on the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been performed for extended power modulations on Belgian NPPs. The goal is to make the existing nuclear power units in Belgium more flexible without implementing hardware modifications and guaranteeing safety at all times. As the critical part of the feasibility study, the impacts on the core behaviour and fuel performance have been studied in detail. It is concluded that all existing fuels loaded in the Belgian plants allow up to 30 power modulations per fuel cycle without changing the currently applied fuel cycle management. This is also supported by the extensive experience feedback of the fuel products for flexible operations in European countries. (author)

  11. Non-destructive method for internal quality determination of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.)

    OpenAIRE

    De Baerdemaeker J.; Quenon V.

    2000-01-01

    A method and process were developed to nondestructively measure the length of the floral stalk in Belgian endive Cichorium intybus L. Current X-ray technology proved to be a feasible method. A detection algorithm was developed based on the minimal transmitted intensities along the length. The method is very accurate with an absolute precision of 4.9 mm and allows the study of the influence of storage conditions and time on the Belgian endive internal quality. The growth of the floral stalk is...

  12. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A;

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...

  13. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  14. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  15. Osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia in a Belgian horse

    OpenAIRE

    Muirhead, Tammy; McClure, J.T.; Bourque, Andrea; Pack, LeeAnn

    2003-01-01

    A lesion in the cervical region of a 14-month-old Belgian gelding with severe ataxia was suspected. Necropsy revealed symmetric focal cartilage defects compatible with osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles and atlanto-occipital dysplasia. To our knowledge this is the first equine report of symmetrical osteochondrosis of the occipital condyles causing neurologic signs.

  16. The role of the sickness funds in the Belgian health care market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Nonneman (Nonneman); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article reviews some of the salient features of the Belgian health care finance and delivery system. Special attention is paid to the role played by the third-party payers, i.e. the Health Insurance Associations (HIAs) in administering the compulsory national health insurance progra

  17. Can metacognition compensate for intelligence in the first year of Belgian higher education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of metacognitive knowledge and skills compensating for intelligence in relation to academic performance in the first year of Belgian higher education. About 600 freshmen of educational sciences, medicine and psychology participated in this project. Tasks and questio

  18. Comparing Compositional Effects in Two Education Systems: The Case of the Belgian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Julien; Martin, Émilie

    2014-01-01

    The Belgian educational field includes separate educational systems reflecting the division of the country into linguistic communities. Even if the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities keep sharing important similarities in terms of funding rules and structures, they present a huge gap between their respective pupils'…

  19. Clonal Expansion of the Belgian Phytophthora ramorum Populations Based on New Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coexistence of both mating types A1 and A2 within the EU1 lineage of Phytophthora ramorum has only been observed in Belgium, begging the question whether sexual reproduction is occurring. A collection of 411 Belgian P. ramorum isolates was established during a seven year survey. Our main objective w...

  20. Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, G.; Bruffaerts, R.; Nock, M.K.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Witteman, C.L.M.; Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Claes, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines: (1) the prevalence of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among Dutch and Belgian adolescents, (2) the associations between Big Five personality traits and NSSI engagement/versatility (i.e., number of NSSI methods), and (3) whether these associations are mediated by perce

  1. Speaking Turkish in Belgian primary schools: teacher beliefs versus effective consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Ağırdağ; K. Jordens; M. Van Houtte

    2014-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we explore teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of the Turkish language by Turkish children in Belgian primary schools, and we compare these findings with the effective consequences of language maintenance. The qualitative analyses revealed that teachers have very negativ

  2. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  3. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  4. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...

  5. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  6. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  7. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  8. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  9. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  10. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  11. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  12. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding.

  13. Belgian recommendations on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, M; Bossuyt, X; Humbel, R; Mewis, A; Servais, G; Tomasi, J P; Van Campenhout, C; Van Hoovels, L; Vercammen, M; Damoiseaux, J; Coucke, W; Van de Walle, P

    2014-04-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), are useful as diagnostic markers for a variety of autoimmune diseases. In March 2010, the Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme sent a questionnaire on ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing designed by the Dutch EASI (European Autoimmunity Standardization Initiative) team, to all clinical laboratories performing ANA testing. Virtually all laboratories completed the questionnaire (97·7%, 127/130). This paper discusses the results of this questionnaire and provides valuable information on the state-of-the-art of ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-ENA antibody testing as practiced in the Belgian laboratories. In addition, this work presents practical recommendations developed by the members of the advisory board of the scheme as a result of the outcome of this study.

  14. Diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of chronic migraine: a proposal of the Belgian Headache Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemeleire, Koen; Louis, Paul; Magis, Delphine; Vandenheede, Michel; Versijpt, Jan; Vandersmissen, Bart; Schoenen, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling neurological condition affecting 0.5-2 % of the population. In the current third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, medication overuse is no longer an exclusion criterion and CM is diagnosed in patients suffering from at least 15 headache days per month of which at least eight are related to migraine. CM is difficult to treat, and preventive treatment options are limited. We provide a pathogenetic model for CM, integrating the latest findings from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. On behalf of the Belgian Headache Society, we present a management algorithm for CM based on the international literature and adapted to the Belgian situation. Pharmacological treatment options are discussed, and recent data on transcranial and invasive neuromodulation studies in CM are reviewed. An integrated multimodal treatment programme may be beneficial to refractory patients, but at present, this approach is only supported by a limited number of observational studies and quite variable between centres.

  15. Sensitivity analyses of thermal bridges: confrontation with the new Belgian EPB-methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delghust, Marc; Huyghe, Willem; Janssens, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    As governments continue to impose more and higher energetic requirements for buildings, they also need better assessment-tools to take into account as many parameters as possible. This results in continuous developments of new calculation methods and softwares, where a balance has to be found between practicality and accuracy. To answer this problem, specifically with regard to the thermal bridges, the three Belgian regions developed a new and common pragmatic approach for assessing therma...

  16. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan J; Janssen J; Van De Vijver E; Vandevoorde J; Devroey D

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Th...

  17. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Vansintejan, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. T...

  18. Joint Estimation of Mark-up and Bargaining Power Parameters for Belgian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbelaere, Sabien

    2002-01-01

    This paper applies several extensions of Hall's (1988) methodology to analyse imperfections in both the product and the labour market for firms in the Belgian manufacturing industry over the period 1988-1995. We investigate (1) the heterogeneity in mark-up and bargaining power parameters among 17 sectors within the manufacturing industry, (2) whether higher bargaining power parameters are associated with higher mark-ups and (3) whether both parameters are influenced by cyclical and competitio...

  19. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  20. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.

    1998-07-01

    The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized.

  1. New Belgian Law on Research on Human Embryos: Trust in Progress Through Medical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, G

    2003-01-01

    The new Belgian law on research on embryos in vitro accepts all types of research directed at therapeutic purposes and at increased medical knowledge. This includes research for germline and somatic gene therapy, therapeutic cloning, and the development of embryonic stem cell lines. As this presupposes the creation of embryos for research, this too is allowed. Other goals like sex selection for nonmedical reasons, eugenic practices and reproductive cloning are prohibited. In general, the law ...

  2. Software support for manufacturing operations in Belgian SMEs: one size fits all?

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarey, Thierry; Degryse, Kris; Cottyn, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing companies face a big challenge to bridge the gap between their business and manufacturing processes. The urge to increase efficiency makes it necessary to align the business and manufacturing processes. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) experience several barriers to adopt software support for manufacturing operations. This paper gives an overview of a research study conducted in Belgian SMEs. The research studied the current adoption of software support for manufacturin...

  3. Adaptation of the European crop growth monitoring system to the Belgian conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Buffet, D.; Dehem, Didier; Wouters, K.; Tychon, Bernard; Oger, Robert; Veroustraete, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the Belgian Crop Growth Monitoring System (B-CGMS) is the elaboration of an integrated information system predicting reliable, timely and objective estimates of crop yields and monitoring calamity sites at regional scales. Seven major crops are concerned by the project : winter wheat, winter barley, fodder maize, winter rape seed, potatoes, sugar beet and permanent meadow. The main tasks in the adaptation of the European model come down to the completion and the improvement of the ...

  4. Information Availability, Information Quality and the Financial Structure of Belgian SME's.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Campenhout, Geert; Van Caneghem, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test whether the amount and/or quality of financial statement information affect the financial structure of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). We explore this issue for Belgian SMEs because there are important differences in disclosure and audit requirements among them. Consistent with the traditional view that asymmetric or incomplete information restricts access to external funds, our results indicate that both the amount and the quality of financial statement information...

  5. Perceived work ability and turnover intentions: a prospective study among Belgian healthcare workers

    OpenAIRE

    Derycke, Hanne; Clays, Els; Vlerick, Peter; D'hoore, William; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Braeckman, Lutgart

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To report a study exploring prospective relations between nurses' perceived work ability and three forms of turnover intentions, respectively, intent to leave the ward, organization and profession. BACKGROUND: Turnover of nursing staff is a major challenge for healthcare settings and for healthcare in general, urging the need to improve retention. DESIGN: Survey. METHODS: Based on the longitudinal data of the Belgian sample from the European Nurses' Early Exit study, a total of 1531 heal...

  6. Using Firm-Level Data to Assess Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Borowczyk Martins, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. We identify and measure gender wage discrimination from firm-level data using a labour index decomposition pioneered by Hellerstein and Neumark (1995), which allows us to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender labour costs differential. We take advantage of the panel structure of the...

  7. Firm-level Evidence on Gender Wage Discrimination in the Belgian Private Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore a matched employer-employee data set to investigate the presence of gender wage discrimination in the Belgian private economy labour market. Contrary to many existing papers, we analyse gender wage discrimination using an independent productivity measure. Using firm-level data, we are able to compare direct estimates of a gender productivity differential with those of a gender wage differential. We take advantage of the panel structure to identify gender-related diffe...

  8. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, Liesbeth; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Vinkx, Christine; Huybrechts, Inge; Goeyens, Leo; Van Oyen, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analyzed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 res...

  9. Use of Information, Product Innovation and Financial Performance on Belgian Glasshouse Holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, Nicole; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Van Lierde, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the changing needs and preferences of consumers it will be important for Belgian glasshouse growers to change from a production-driven to a customer-driven strategy. More than ever, use of information and product innovation become critical factors in the changing competitive environment. The aim of the research is to analyse the relationship between business and managerial characteristics, use of information sources, product innovation and financial performance of the firm. T...

  10. Mafia Practices and Italian Entrepreneurial Activities in the Belgian Food Sector. Research Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    De Biase, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the social and economic processes which encourage the spread of mafia practices among some Italian entrepreneurs in the Belgian food sector. My working hypothesis is that mafia practices are violent and predatory strategies to monopolize the economic market, which rely on the use of heterogeneous and cross-class social networks. In this view, these activities of old and new Italian entrepreneurs in Belgium are not the result of the exportation of mafia methods thro...

  11. Phthalates dietary exposure and food sources for Belgian preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Fierens, Tine; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Servaes, Kelly; Vanermen, Guido; Boon, Polly E; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that for phthalates, the intake of contaminated foods is the most important exposure pathway for the general population. Up to now, data on dietary phthalate intake are scarce and - to the authors' knowledge - not available for the Belgian population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was: (1) to assess the long-term intake of the Belgian population for eight phthalates considering different exposure scenarios (benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP); dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diethyl phthalate (DEP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)); (2) to evaluate the intake of BBP, DnBP, DEP and DEHP against tolerable daily intake (TDI) values; and (3) to assess the contribution of the different food groups to the phthalate intake. The intake assessment was performed using two Belgian food consumption databases, one with consumption data of preschool children (2.5 to 6.5 years old) and another of adults (≥15 years old), combined with a database of phthalate concentrations measured in over 550 food products sold on the Belgian market. Phthalate intake was calculated using the 'Monte Carlo Risk Assessment' programme (MCRA 7.0). The intake of DEHP was the highest, followed by DiBP. The intake of BBP, DnBP and DEP was far below the TDI for both children and adults. However, for DEHP, the 99th percentile of the intake distribution of preschoolers in the worst case exposure scenario was equal to 80% of the TDI, respectively. This is not negligible, since other exposure routes of DEHP exist for children as well (e.g. mouthing of toys). Bread was the most important contributor to the DEHP intake and this may deserve further exploration, since the origin of this phthalate in bread remains unclear.

  12. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: a case study from Belgian coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant...

  13. Estimating an Ex Ante Cost Function for Belgian Arable Crop Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristiana; Baudry, Alexandre; De Blander, Rembert; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Polome, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a farm-level cost function for Belgian crop farms using FADN data over the study period 1996-2006. We rely on an estimation of farmers' expected yields at the time cropping decisions are made rather than actual yields observed in the FADN data. The use of an ex ante cost function improves the cost function estimation. We subsequently suggest how our cost function can be used in simulations to analyze farmer response to changes in output price risk.

  14. Analysis of business demography using markov chains : an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    François Coppens; Fabienne Verduyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  15. Analysis of business demography using markov chains: an application to Belgian data

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, François; Verduyn, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the theory of finite Markov chains to analyse the demographic evolution of Belgian enterprises. While other methodologies concentrate on the entry and exit of firms, the Markov approach also analyses migrations between economic sectors. Besides helping to provide a fuller picture of the evolution of the population, Markov chains also enable forecasts of its future composition to be made, as well as the computation of average lifetimes of companies by branch of activity. The...

  16. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  17. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  18. The productivity and export spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of Belgian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Dumont; Bruno Merlevede; Christophe Piette; Glenn Rayp

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent the decision to start exporting may be subject to spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of other (foreign and domestic) firms. We distinguish between two possible channels: effects on productivity and effects on the perceived level of sunk costs of exporting. For both channels, we consider geographical and activity or industry-based linkages between firms. For a sample Belgian firms we find evidence of significant spillovers on productivity as wel...

  19. An empirical study on human resource planning in Belgian production companies

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bergh, Jorne; Belien, Jeroen; Hoskens, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates human resource planning in Belgian production companies. First, a literature study is developed to serve as a basis for the results of the empirical research. The literature study is mainly based on papers in the field of operations research that provide interesting insights such as the research-application gap, which is the lack of implementation of models provided by literature. The most important part of this paper is the empirical research. The empirical research i...

  20. The Blues of David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to elaborate a typology of the color blue in the color films of David Lynch up to and including Mulholland Drive (2001). The color blue is considered alternately as light, matter or verbal language. The author studies the use, function, value and meaning of blue lighting, divided into static and flashing light, and of the blue objects in Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive. The author shows how Lynch appropriates connotations Western culture, under the influence...

  1. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h−1. The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  2. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  3. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  4. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  5. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  6. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  7. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...

  8. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  9. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  10. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  11. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  12. Validation of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire in an adult Belgian population: a report from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, M T; Kellen, E; Zeegers, M P; van Dongen, M C J M S; Dagnelie, P C; Muls, E; Buntinx, F

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the IMMIDIET food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to collect dietary data for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer. Thirty-seven men and women aged 50 years and older were recruited from the University Hospital in Leuven, Belgium. Participants completed the IMMIDIET FFQ, a 7-day diet diary and a 24-hour diet recall. Median intakes and inter-quartile ranges were calculated for 27 foods and nutrients from each dietary assessment method. All dietary factors were log-transformed and adjusted for energy using the nutrient density method. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the different dietary assessment methods. Bland-Altman plots were also used to assess levels of agreement between the dietary methods. Energy, fruit and vegetable intake estimates were higher from the IMMIDIET FFQ compared with the two reference methods.The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 7-day diary were meat (0.58), bread (0.44), fruit (0.38) and fish (0.38). The highest deattenuated correlations between the FFQ and 24-hour recall were for fruit (0.72), fat (0.48), alcohol (0.44), cholesterol (0.42), monounsaturated fatty acid (0.42) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.41). Generally, correlation was lower for the micro-nutrients except for phosphorus (0.42), vitamin C (0.41) and calcium (0.40). The IMMIDIET FFQ is an appropriate instrument to measure usual dietary intake for the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Further investigation of nutritional assessment methods is necessary. PMID:21485759

  13. Adapting to the System or the Student? Exploring Teacher Adaptations to Disadvantaged Students in an English and a Belgian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on research on teacher adaptations to students by exploring how Belgian and English national contexts influence teachers' definitions of educational success, their explanations of educational failure, and their allocation of scarce educational resources to disadvantaged students. Ethnographic data from one Flemish (Belgian) and…

  14. Dental maturity in Belgian children using Demirjian's method and polynomial functions: new standard curves for forensic and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, N; Willems, G; Demirjian, A

    2004-12-01

    Dental maturity was studied from dental panoramic radiographs of 2523 Belgian children (1255 girls and 1268 boys) aged 2 to 18 years. The aim was to compare the efficiency of two methods of age prediction: Demirjian's method, using differently weighted scores, and polynomial functions. The two methods present some differences: Demirjian is used to determine the maturity score as a function of age and polynomial functions are used to determine age as a function of the maturity score. We present, for each method, gender-specific dental maturity tables and curves for Belgian children. Girls always present advanced dental maturity compared with boys. The polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.21% of incorrect classifications) and the percentile method, using Belgian weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 2.08 years on average, between 2 and 16 years of age).

  15. Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

    2010-10-01

    The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. PMID:19804577

  16. Influence of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays. A nationwide Belgian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerk, Marjan; Bailleul, Els; Chatelain, Bernard; Demulder, Anne; Devreese, Katrien; Douxfils, Jonathan; Jochmans, Kristin; Mullier, François; Wijns, Walter; Soumali, Mohamed Rida; Coucke, Wim; Vernelen, Kris; Van de Walle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian national External Quality Assessment Scheme performed a nationwide survey using lyophilised plasma samples spiked with dabigatran or rivaroxaban to demonstrate to the Belgian clinical laboratories how these drugs affect their routine coagulation assays prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen and antithrombin. Virtually all Belgian laboratories performing routine coagulation testing (189/192) participated in the survey. Both, dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly prolonged the PT and aPTT in a concentration- and reagent-dependent manner. PT reagents were more influenced by rivaroxaban than by dabigatran and aPTT reagents more influenced by dabigatran than by rivaroxaban. Among PT reagents, Neoplastin R® was the most sensitive to rivaroxaban and Innovin® and Thromborel S® the least sensitive. Converting PT results to INR only increased the variability between reagents. Among aPTT reagents, Actin FSL® was the least sensitive to dabigatran while the other aPTT reagents showed slightly higher sensitivities. The presence of dabigatran led to falsely reduced fibrinogen concentrations when measured with a low thrombin concentration reagent. The presence of dabigatran caused an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a thrombin-based activity assay and the presence of rivaroxaban an overestimation of the antithrombin level when measured with a FXa-based assay. Instrument-related differences were found for all tested parameters. In conclusion, this paper provides detailed information on the effect of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on routine coagulation assays as performed with a large number of reagent/instrument combinations. PMID:25231101

  17. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  18. The Blue Emu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  19. Hundred and eighty years of fleet dynamics in the Belgian sea fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Fockedey, N.; Debergh, H.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of fisheries on the commercial fish stocks requires detailed catch statistics and data on the dynamics of fleet and catch effort, at least before industrial fishing started. Most time-series on the fleet dynamics start after the 1980s, at times when major changes in fleet characteristics had already taken place. In the present paper, the results of the integration of data on fleet size (from 1830), tonnage (from 1842) and engine power (kW, from 1912) of the Belgian se...

  20. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  1. Opinion of Belgian egg farmers on hen welfare and its relationship with housing type

    OpenAIRE

    Stadig, Lisanne; Ampe, Bart; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently us...

  2. Age diversity practices through an OD approach. Interventions in Belgian organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Martens,Hilda; Lambrechts, Frank; DE WEERDT, Sven; VANDENBERK, Anneleen

    2005-01-01

    People need to work longer. Belgian legal regulations do not stimulate people to work longer. This will change in the future. Organizations will have to keep their workforce until the age of 60 to 65 instead of to 50 or 55. A (pro-)active change in mindset and behaviour of management, HR, workers, unions thus of all stakeholders of the organization is needed. How can we, by using an OD approach (OD), initiate and install a dynamic to make that the different parties, HR, management, workers an...

  3. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  4. Synthesizing a Blue Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vester, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Master thesis was to determine how electronic musical instrument companies could utilize innovation strategies to add value to their products and create new business markets beyond their core. The theoretical framework was established by outlining competitive strategies suitable for adoption by electronic musical instrument companies. The Blue Ocean Strategy was compared to traditional competitive strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces, and subsequently chosen because of ...

  5. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  6. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  7. Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Loco, Joris; Matsiko, Eric; Lachat, Carl; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Canfyn, Michael; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was found above the level of detection in 58% of analyzed samples with the highest contents found in processed foods such as smoked and canned fish, and foods which contained these as ingredients (up to 76.21 μg kg(-1)). Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. The mean benzene intake for all foods was 0.020 μg kg bw d(-1) according to a probabilistic analysis. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d(-1)).

  8. Different Regional Approaches to Cultural diversity Interpreting the Belgian Cultural Diversity Policy Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Adam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Belgium, the authority over cultural diversity policies resulting from immigration has been devolved from the central state to the regions since 1970. Consequently, Flanders and Francophone Belgium have progressively developed divergent policy tools. By describing the divergent evolution of Francophone and Flemish cultural diversity policies, our paper demonstrates the existence of a “Belgian Cultural Diversity Paradox”, namely the existence of more multicultural minority rights in the region that has most experienced electoral success by an extreme-right anti-immigrant party (Flanders, and a more colour blind and radical secular approach in the region where anti-immigrant politicization is barely a factor (Francophone Belgium. This finding is counter-intuitive because an important strand of immigrant policy research has emphasized the relationship between the politicization of immigration and restrictive immigrant citizenship rights. Our paper demonstrates that the different degrees of politicization of immigration in Flanders and Francophone Belgium cannot fully account for divergent cultural diversity policies. By insisting on the historical path dependency of the linguistic and religious cleavages in Belgium and their overlap, this paper offers an addendum to the politicization approach. The historical linguistic and religious differences of the Belgian regions clearly mediate the impact of the politicization of immigration on both sides of the linguistic border.

  9. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  10. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  11. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hoeck

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (≥65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

  12. On the role of radiologists in the Belgian PROject on CAncer of the REctum, PROCARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; Danse, E

    2006-01-01

    Radiologists are involved at all stages of the treatment of patients with rectum cancer: in the preoperative staging, in the diagnosis of postoperative complications, in the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease during follow-up, in the monitoring of the therapeutic effect of palliative therapy. PROCARE is a Belgian national project to improve outcome in all patients with rectum cancer. Guidelines were made by a multidisciplinary workgroup and are available on the web. Decentralised implementation of guidelines is organised by the scientific and professional organisations. It is planned that a central review committee of radiologists, delegated by the Royal Belgian Society of Radiology, will survey the quality of preoperative staging. Overall quality of care will be assured by registration in a specific national database starting in 2006. Participating teams will receive annual feedback. Radiologists should provide data on cTNM staging and cCRM. Differentiation between cT2 and cT3, cN0 and cN+, and measurement of the cCRM in mm are crucial as they have a relevant impact on treatment strategy. While spiral abdominal CT is adequate for cM staging, high-resolution MRI is highly recommended and, in fact, a necessity for locoregional staging because its adequacy is superior to that of CT-scan and EUS. However, EUS is mandatory when local excision is considered, i.e. for cT1N0 lesions. PMID:16607873

  13. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  14. Key role of Chlamydophila psittaci on Belgian turkey farms in association with other respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loock, M; Geens, T; De Smit, L; Nauwynck, H; Van Empel, P; Naylor, C; Hafez, H M; Goddeeris, B M; Vanrompay, D

    2005-04-25

    Two hundred turkey sera from eight Belgian and two French farms were tested for the presence of antibodies against avian pneumovirus (APV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis and Chlamydophila psittaci. At slaughter, C. psittaci, APV and ORT antibodies were detected in 94, 34 and 6.5% of the turkeys, respectively. No antibodies against M. gallisepticum or M. meleagridis were present. Additionally, turkeys on three Belgian farms were examined from production onset until slaughter using both serology and antigen or gene detection. All farms experienced two C. psittaci infection waves, at 3-6 and 8-12 weeks of age. Each first infection wave was closely followed by an ORT infection starting at the age of 6-8 weeks, which was still detectable when the second C. psittaci infection waves started. Animals on farm A were not vaccinated against APV leading to an APV subtype B outbreak accompanying the first C. psittaci infection wave. Despite subtype A APV vaccination on farms B and C, the second C. psittaci infection waves were accompanied (farm B) or followed (farm C) by a subtype B APV infection. On all farms respiratory signs always appeared together with a proven C. psittaci, APV and/or ORT infection. This study suggests an association between C. psittaci, APV and ORT, and indicates the multi-factorial aetiology of respiratory infections in commercial turkeys. All three pathogens should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease.

  15. Application of the CALUX bioassay for epidemiological study. Analyses of Belgian human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouwe, N. van; Debacker, N.; Sasse, A. [Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels (BE)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The CALUX bioassay is a promising screening method for the detection of dioxin-like compounds. The observed good sensitivity, low number of false negative results as well as the good correlations with the GC-HRMS TEQ-values in case of feed and food analyses allow this method to climb in the first assessment methods' scale. The low amount of sample needed in addition to those latest advantages suggest that the CALUX bioassay could be a good screening method for epidemiological studies. The Belgian epidemiological study concerning the possible effect of the dioxin incident on the body burden of the Belgian population was an opportunity to test this method in comparison to the gold reference one: the GC-HRMS. The first part of this abstract presents epidemiological parameters (sensibility, specificity,) of the CALUX bioassay using CALUX TEQ-values as estimators of the TEQ-values of the 17 PCDD/Fs. The second part examines epidemiological determinants observed for CALUX and GCHRMS TEQ-values.

  16. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  17. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  18. Agglomeration of a comprehensive model for the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strypsteen, Glenn; Rauwoens, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been done in the area of Aeolian transport, it is only during the last years that attention has been drawn to Aeolian transport in coastal areas. In these areas, the physical processes are more complex, due to a large number of transport limiting parameters. In this PhD-project, which is now in its early stage, a model will be developed which relates the wind-driven sand transport at the Belgian coast with physical parameters such as the wind speed, humidity and grain size of the sand, and the slope of beach and dune surface. For the first time, the interaction between beach and dune dynamics is studied at the Belgian coast. The Belgian coastline is only 67km long, but densely populated and therefore subject to coastal protection and safety. The coast mostly consists of sandy beaches and dikes. Although, still 33km of dunes exist, whose dynamics are far less understood. The overall research approach consists of three pathways: (i) field measurements, (ii) physical model tests, and (iii) numerical simulations. Firstly and most importantly, several field campaigns will provide accurate data of meteo-marine conditions, morphology, and sand transport events on a wide beach at the Belgian Coastline. The experimental set-up consists of a monitoring station, which will provide time series of vegetation cover, shoreline position, fetch distances, surficial moisture content, wind speed and direction and transport processes. The horizontal and vertical variability of the event scale Aeolian sand transport is analyzed with 8 MWAC sand traps. Two saltiphones register the intensity and variations of grain impacts over time. Two meteo-masts, each with four anemometers and one wind vane, provide quantitative measurements of the wind flow at different locations on the beach. Surficial moisture is measured with a moisture sensor. The topography measurements are typically done with laser techniques. To start, two sites are selected for measurement

  19. Estruturas fundamentais no blues

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Palmeira da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo a aplicação e adaptação da teoria de Schenker como ferramenta analítica aplicada ao jazz, tendo em vista a possibilidade de encontrar estruturas fundamentais distintas na música popular. Tendo como base as análises feitas por Larson (1998; 2009), Forte (2011) e Stock (1993) a pesquisa abordará, em um primeiro momento, as origens do jazz (blues e ragtime) como parte essencial para sua abordagem analítica, através da ótica etno-schenkeriana propos...

  20. An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210 of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3% were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10% with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141. T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141 and the lowest 19% (27/141 was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred

  1. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  2. Work related neck and upper limb symptoms (RSI) : high risk occupations and risk factors in the Belgian working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Witte, H. de

    1999-01-01

    In this study on prevalence and risk factors for work related neck or upper limb symptoms in the Belgian working population, the researchers have found an overall prevalence of work and upper limb symptoms occurring in the past 12 months of 39%. High risk occupations for neck and shoulder symptoms w

  3. Inter-party agenda-setting in the Belgian parliament: the role of party characteristics and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vliegenthart; S. Walgrave; C. Meppelink

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the inter-party agenda-setting dynamics in the Belgian parliament during the period 1993-2000 and investigate whether and when parties respond to the attention paid to issues by other parties in parliament. We rely on an elaborate coding of parliamentary questions and inte

  4. De communicatiefunctie in Belgische organisaties: Hoe excellent is deze ingevuld? [Communications functions in Belgian organizations: How excellently are they implemented?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents data, which were obtained by a web survey (n = 750), concerning the position of communications in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations with at least 50 employees. Results show that 43 percent of the organizations in the sample have an integrated communications depa

  5. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  6. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  7. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  8. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  9. Does the Bluetongue virus circulates in cattle population of Mat district, Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLODIAN DEDOLLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.

  10. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  11. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  12. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  13. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  14. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  15. Pesticides for apicultural and/or agricultural application found in Belgian honey bee wax combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Reybroeck, Wim; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-05-01

    In a Belgian pilot study honey bee wax combs from ten hives were analyzed on the presence of almost 300 organochlorine and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as (1) pesticides for solely apicultural (veterinary) application, (2) pesticides for solely agricultural (crop protection) application, (3) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural (veterinary) application. The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants bear us high concerns. Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), two insecticides that are banned in Europe. The present comprehensive residue analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET, propargite and bromophos.

  16. Engineering for Operation of a Future Belgian Deep Geological Repository for ILW and HLW - 12379

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.; Nieder-Westermann, G.H. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Van Humbeeck, H. [ONDRAF/NIRAS, Brussels (Belgium); Van Cotthem, Alain [Tractebel Engineering SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    In Belgium, an advanced conceptual design is being elaborated for deep geologic disposal of high level waste (HLW) and for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) not amenable for surface disposal. The concept is based on a shielded steel and concrete container for disposal of HLW, i.e., the Super-container. LILW will be disposed of in separately designed concrete caissons. The reference host rock is the Boom Clay, a poorly indurated clay formation in northeastern Belgium. Investigations into the potential host rock are conducted at the HADES underground research laboratory in Mol, Belgium. In 2009 the Belgian Agency for Management of Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) initiated a four year research project aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository. The goal of the program is to demonstrate at a detailed conceptual level that the proposed geologic disposal system can be safely constructed, operated, and progressively closed. Part of the broader research efforts being conducted includes evaluations optimization of the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, ventilation system, and evaluation of backfilling and sealing concepts for the repository design. The potential for implementation of a waste retrieval strategy encompassing the first 100 years after emplacement is also considered. In the framework of a four year research program aimed at confirming the fundamental feasibility of building and operating a repository in poorly indurated clay design studies have been underway to optimize the waste transportation shaft, subsurface transportation system, and ventilation system. Additionally backfilling and sealing concepts proposed for the potential repository have been reviewed in conjunction with impacts related to the potential future inclusion of a retrievability requirement in governing regulations. The main engineering challenges in the Belgian repository concept are

  17. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF OPERATING THEATRE PLANNING: APPLICATION IN BELGIAN HOSPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sondes CHAABANE; Nadine MESKENS; Alain GUINET; Marius LAURENT

    2008-01-01

    Operating Theatre is the centre of the hospital management's efforts. It constitutes the most expensive sector with more than 10% of the intended operating budget of the hospital. To reduce the costs while maintaining a good quality of care, one of the solutions is to improve the existent planning and scheduling methods by improving the services and surgical specialty coordination or finding the best estimation of surgical case durations. The other solution is to construct an effective surgical case plan and schedule. The operating theatre planning and scheduling is the two important steps, which aim to make a surgical case programming with an objective of obtaining a realizable and efficient surgical case schedule. This paper focuses on the first step, the operating theatre planning problem. Two planning methods are introduced and compared. Real data of a Belgian university hospital "Tivoli" are used for the experiments.

  18. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  19. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts. PMID:19264354

  20. Brief report: Citizenship concepts among adolescents. Evidence from a survey among Belgian 16-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejaeghere, Yves; Hooghe, Marc

    2009-06-01

    In this research note we investigate the occurrence of citizenship concepts among adolescents in Belgium. The analysis is based on the Belgian Youth Survey (2006), which is a representative survey among 6330 16-year olds in the country. Citizenship concepts were shown to be multi-dimensional, with distinct factors for conventional or electoral participation and civic engagement. A third, weaker factor could be distinguished covering obedience to the law. This structure is largely in line with earlier comparative analysis. An exploratory analysis suggests that these factors have different outcomes on actual or intended political participation behavior of adolescents. We discuss the relevance of these findings with regard to the current debates on civic education and civic engagement among younger age cohorts.

  1. Congomania in Academia. Recent Historical Research on the Belgian Colonial Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Kiangu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo has recently been the subject of much academic research. This article discusses the major trends and developments. It primarily focuses on the Congo crisis of 1960, which was commemorated in 2010 and has been inquired into by many historians, including American, British and Russian ones. A comparison of their conclusions reveals that Flanders has largely come to terms with its colonial past, but that the French-speaking community has a more problematic memory. Belgian academia, by contrast, has left the old controversies about Leopold II and Lumumba behind and embarked on the path of new imperial history. It approaches the Congolese past from new angles and with new paradigms, such as reciprocity, science, exhibition, representation, etc. Congolese academia suffers from the economic problems of the country, but has managed to produce a number of studies, focusing mainly on regions, religion, and resistance. Strikingly, Congolese historians have little criticism of the colonial era.

  2. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  3. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  4. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  5. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couplet, D. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium); Francoise, T. [Intercontrole, 94 - Rungis (France)

    2001-07-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  6. Radiological optimization[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-07-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given.

  7. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51

  8. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality.

  9. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  10. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each). PMID:22632631

  11. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  12. Is Dutch a Pluricentric Language with Two Centres of Standardization? An Overview of the Differences between Netherlandic and Belgian Dutch from a Flemish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Robertus de

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dutch, a West-Germanic language, is spoken by approximately 23 million people worldwide. In Europe, it is the language of all of the Netherlands and the northern part of Belgium, called Flanders. It is often said that since the Dutch and the Flemish speak Dutch differently, they in fact speak two different languages - Netherlandic Dutch and Belgian Dutch (Flemish. Linguists, however, argue they are not necessarily two separate languages but rather two varieties - a Netherlandic and a Belgian variety - of the same language, Dutch. Since there are a substantial number of grammatical, lexical, phonetic and even spelling differences between Belgian and Netherlandic Dutch, the question is whether Dutch is a pluricentric language with two centres of standardization or not. By explaining the socio-historical background of the Dutch language and giving a comprehensive overview of the differences between Netherlandic and Belgian Dutch, this article attempts to answer the aforementioned (research question.

  13. Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle. PMID:24057115

  14. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia) in local Iraqi cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal M. Alsaad,; H. I. Al-Sadi,; Osama A.Abdulla

    2011-01-01

    Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%), abnormal skin...

  15. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  16. Working Paper 12-03 - An assessment of the risks to the medium-term outlook of the Belgian international economic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Meyermans; Patrick Van Brusselen

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the Federal Planning Bureau (fpb) prepares a medium-term outlook for the Belgian economy with its macro-econometric hermes model. One of the key inputs of this exercise is a baseline scenario for the Belgian international economic environment, which includes an outlook for the output, imports, prices and financial variables of the major trading partners of Belgium. Traditionally, this international environment is based on the medium-term outlook presented by the European Commission...

  17. Community structure of the macrobenthos of an important Belgian wintering area for the Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Degraer, S.; Vincx, M.; P. Meire; Offringa, H

    1998-01-01

    The shallow western Belgian Coastbanks are important wintering areas for the Common Scoters, reflecting the ecological importance of this environment. The diet of these seaducks consists of macrobenthos, mainly bivalves. The availability of these bivalves along the Belgian west-coast has been poorly documented and it is not clear to what extent the spatial distribution of the Scoters and the bivalves are linked. In October 1994, 40 macrobenthic samples were taken in the area. Multivariate tec...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  19. Blue-sky thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems - such as the greenhouse effect, the depletion of natural resources and the accumulation of wastes - have been recognized as common international issues affecting humanity since the 1990s. Sustainable development on a global scale is now sought, for instance, with the establishment of the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and with the adoption of the Declaration on Sustainable Development at the 2002 Johannesburg Summit. Honda launched the slogan 'Blue Sky for Children' in the 1960s when environmental pollution became a highly visible issue. During that decade we started an aggressive approach aimed at substantial environmental improvement, and unveiled the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) engine - which used unique low-emission technology - in the United States and Japan. Since then, we have developed the Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electric Control System (VTEC) and the i-VTEC series with innovative engine technology, permitting global production of vehicles that combine high performance with state-of-the-art low-emission technologies. And we continued to work to preserve the global environment by releasing a hybrid vehicle, the Insight, which achieved the most efficient fuel consumption in the world at the time of its introduction in 1998

  20. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡

    2008-01-01

    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  1. Blue Angel for green electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher-Tiedemann, C.; Jacobs, B. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Blue Angel was the first eco-label worldwide. It has been in existence for 26 years. For the last 12 years, modern electronic office and communications equipment has been among the products that are eligible for award of the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel eco-label is an important element of integrated product policy and is aimed towards environmentally sound product design. In addition, health aspects are increasingly being taken into account in criteria development. The use of the label gives innovative companies better market opportunities for products so labelled. For consumers and for purchasers in businesses and public administrations, it gives valuable guidance for product purchase. (orig.)

  2. Pass-Through in United States Beef Cattle Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...

  3. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal;

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  4. Confirmed Zika virus infection in a Belgian traveler returning from Guatemala, and the diagnostic challenges of imported cases into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Birgit; Van den Bossche, Dorien; van de Werve, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jacques; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Michiels, Jo; Ariën, Kevin K; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Cnops, Lieselotte

    2016-07-01

    We report the first laboratory-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a Belgian traveler after a three week holiday in Guatemala, December 2015. This case along with other imported cases into Europe emphases once again the need for accurate diagnostic tools for this rapidly emerging virus. The challenge is to diagnose patients in the acute phase, which appears short, as serological testing is complicated by cross-reactivity, vaccination status and scarce availability of specific ZIKV tests.

  5. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports: Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Lagneaux, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  6. Economic Importance of the Belgian Ports : Report 2005. Flemish maritime ports and Liège port complex

    OpenAIRE

    Frédéric Lagneaux

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an annual publication issued by the Microeconomic Analysis service of the National Bank of Belgium. The Flemish maritime ports - Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, Zeebrugge - and the Autonomous Port of Liège play a major role in their respective regional economies and in the Belgian economy, not only in terms of industrial activity but also as intermodal centres facilitating the commodity flow. This update paper provides an extensive overview of the economic importance and development of ...

  7. Hydroclimatic modulation of diatom/Phaeocystis blooms in nutrient-enriched Belgian coastal waters (North Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, E.; Rousseau, V.; Parent, J.-Y.; Ozer, J.; C. Lancelot

    2006-01-01

    Statistical analysis of 14 yr (1988-2001) of intensive phytoplankton monitoring at Station 330 in the central Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, Southern Bight of the North Sea) indicates that the long-term diatom biomass trend and the spring dominance of Phaeocystis colonies over diatoms are determined by the combined effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and freshwater and continental nitrate carried by the Scheldt. The strong correlation between diatoms and the NAO index is largely explai...

  8. «One Difference Is Enough»: Towards a History of Disability in Belgian Congo (1908-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Verhaegen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the educational initiatives provided for Congolese people with disabilities during the Belgian colonization, 1908-1960. We found out disability strongly influenced the foundation of the Belgian colony and that it can be assumed that a significant number of Congolese in the Belgian colony were disabled. Yet no historical research about this subject can be found. The subject seemed to be hardly neglected and overlooked. It is this particular contradiction or silence in historiography that this article wants to elucidate. For this purpose, various and sometimes conflicting sources have been consulted. In addition to basic literature on the Belgian colonization and more specific literature on disability in relation to culture, various archives, such as audiovisual material and oral witnesses of this particular period have been included in this research. Our main finding is that in most of the colonial period little or no educational initiatives were provided for Congolese people with disabilities. This we explain by the very limited differentiation which was made between the Congolese themselves. We argue that the black man as such was considered as a rather alien figure and consequently the additional factor of disability remained hardly unnoticed. In the last years of the colonization an increased amount of educational initiatives emerged, which this article explains by the probable increased differentiation between blacks towards the end of the colonization. How to reference this article Verhaegen, E., Verstraete, P., & Depaepe, M. (2016. «One Difference Is Enough»: Hacia una historia de la discapacidad en el Congo Belga (1908-1960. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 407-420. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.19

  9. Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: the case of North Belgian extreme right discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Cammaerts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discourses. In this article, discourses of hate produced by North-Belgian (post-)fascist movements and activists will be analysed. Theoretically the anal...

  10. Structural and functional biological assessment of aggregate dredging intensity on the Belgian part of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Backer, A De; Hillewaert, H.; Van Hoey, G; Wittoeck, J.; Hostens, K.

    2014-01-01

    Marine aggregate dredging in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) is restricted to four dedicated concession zones. Within these zones, there are areas under different dredging pressure, but with the advantage that these are situated within a similar habitat (cfr. similar sediment characteristics) . As such, this study assessed how different degrees of dredging pressure executed on a similar sandy habitat affect the benthic ecosystem. Possible responses of the macrobenthos on the dredging...

  11. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  12. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  13. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  14. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  15. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  16. A splice site variant in the bovine RNF11 gene compromises growth and regulation of the inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Sartelet

    Full Text Available We report association mapping of a locus on bovine chromosome 3 that underlies a Mendelian form of stunted growth in Belgian Blue Cattle (BBC. By resequencing positional candidates, we identify the causative c124-2A>G splice variant in intron 1 of the RNF11 gene, for which all affected animals are homozygous. We make the remarkable observation that 26% of healthy Belgian Blue animals carry the corresponding variant. We demonstrate in a prospective study design that approximately one third of homozygous mutants die prematurely with major inflammatory lesions, hence explaining the rarity of growth-stunted animals despite the high frequency of carriers. We provide preliminary evidence that heterozygous advantage for an as of yet unidentified phenotype may have caused a selective sweep accounting for the high frequency of the RNF11 c124-2A>G mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle.

  17. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  18. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  19. Larval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Brostaux, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-10-15

    Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm-pasture-woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of

  20. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  1. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  2. Modelling water and 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for 36Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of 36Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous 36Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared with a measured

  3. Modelling water and {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest - Model for {sup 36}Cl cycling in a Belgian pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Gielen, Sienke [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    A simplified, 1-D soil-groundwater-vegetation model to represent the cycling of water and of {sup 36}Cl in a Belgian Scots pine forest is presented and discussed. The model contains a soil column with layers of different (but uniform) field capacity and soil porosity, which are penetrated by tree roots. Flow through porous media is assumed to circulate according to Darcy and Philips laws, using empirical soil hydraulic properties without recourse to Richards' equation. The vegetation is represented by means of a compartment model including simplified representation of sap flow, translocation and litterfall in relation to different parts of the tree. The water table height is variable according to the balance between precipitation, capillary rise, solar radiation, plant uptake and evapotranspiration. The influence of local fluvial sources of water can also be evaluated in a simplified way as a losing/gaining stream input to the soil column. Time dependent data on temperature, solar irradiation, rainfall, crop coefficient and leaf area index (LAI) are used as input to the model in order to calculate evapotranspiration and a simplified approach to foliar interception. The chlorine flux follows the water flux in both soil and the trees, using retardation in soil and experimentally measured translocation factors within the plant. The chlorine flux is optimised and validated with recourse to a previous {sup 36}Cl compartment model. Although considered to be a relatively simple model, initial results suggest a reasonable consistency between previously published water balance and field measurements in a Scots pine stand from the vicinity of Mol, Belgium. The mean soil water content is predicted to be around 25%, the plant water is stored in the order roots > plant above roots > leaf surfaces, water table height below ground fluctuates between 2.1 and 2.6 m compared with a measured water table height of 1.8 - 20 m and pine transpiration is less than 1.2 mm/d compared

  4. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  5. Analytical Comparison of Maurice Maeterlinck\\'s “Blue Bird” Plot with Attar\\'s Manteq atteir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mr Nasr Isfahani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the symbolic drama “Blue Bird” by Maurice Maeterlinck, a Belgian author in 19th century. The paper shows the meaning of the actions in this drama and then compares them, at the plot level, with Manteq at'teir, a dominant theosophical work by Sheikh Farid Addin Attar Neishabouri who is the great Persian poet in 6th century (AH. Based on this comparison, one of the common points in both texts is the overall concept of truth seeking and finding. In both texts, after great amount of search and seek, the personages finally find their ideal in themselves. This paper deals with the analysis of this plot including how this common point is defined and brought up in the two different genres.

  6. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  7. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  8. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained...

  9. The use of Prussian Blue to reduce radiocaesium contamination of milk and meat produced on territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. Report of United Nations Project E 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a collaborative project investigations were conducted between 1990 and 1995 to evaluate the use in cattle of Prussian Blue compounds (in the form of boli, salt licks, or direct addition to the diet) for reducing the radiocaesium content of milk and meat, and the subsequent effect of dung from treated animals on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants. In association with these studies, investigations were conducted to monitor the possible effects of Prussian Blue administration on milk and meat composition and the physiological well-being of cattle. The possible toxicological effects of feeding rats with milk and meat from animals treated with Prussian Blue was also investigated. Figs, tabs

  10. Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts. PMID:19717761

  11. Factors associated with selling price of cattle at livestock marts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Hugh, N; Fahey, A G; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with selling price of animals at livestock marts around Ireland. Data consisted of four distinct maturity categories: calves (2 to 84 days of age, n = 53 838); weanlings (6 to 12 months of age, n = 19 972); post-weanlings (12 to 36 months of age, n = 93 081) and cows (>30 months to 12 years of age, n = 94 839); sold through livestock marts between 2000 and 2008. Factors associated with animal price were determined within each maturity category separately using mixed models; random effects were mart, date of sale nested within mart, and herd of origin nested within year of sale. Mean selling price was €157, €580, €655 and €592 for calves, weanlings, post-weanlings and cows, respectively. The greatest prices were paid for singleton crossbred male calves, weanlings and post-weanlings from older dams. With the exception of the Aberdeen Angus, beef breeds and their crosses consistently received higher prices than their dairy counterparts across all four maturity categories; increased proportion of Belgian Blue and Charolais was associated with greater prices compared with other beef breeds. When live-weight was included in the multiple regression models the association between price and all factors regressed toward zero but most factors remained associated with price. The highest price was recorded in the spring months for calves, post-weanlings and cows, and in the autumn months for weanlings. Results from this study may be used to help farmers make more informed management decisions, as well as provide information for bio-economic models for evaluating alternative production systems or estimating economic values. PMID:22444658

  12. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  13. [The Belgian project for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a model of multifactorial prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornitzer, M

    1989-01-01

    Résults are presented from the "belgian heart disease prevention project, part of the WHO european collaborative trial in the multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD)". 19.409 men aged 40-59 yr took part; they were employed in thirty factories which formed the allocation units for a randomised controlled trial lasting 5-6 yr. The intervention package consisted largely of health education promoting a cholesterol-lowering diet, smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and treatment of arterial hypertension. A programme of information was supplemented by face-to-face counselling at the workplace by two physicians attached to the project. The coronary risk profile was reduced in the intervention group, compared with that in the control group, especially during the first 4 yr, by effects on serum cholesterol, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and arterial blood-pressure. Total mortality was 17.5% lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.038); coronary mortality was reduced by a non-significant 20.8% whereas CHD incidence (non-fatal myocardial infarction plus fatal myocardial infarction plus sudden deaths) was reduced by 24.5%, (P = 0.031). Non-fatal myocardial infarction (not a major end-point) was similarly reduced by 26.1% (p = 0.030). PMID:2679938

  14. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  15. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  16. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  17. The Gay Men Sex Studies: prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian HIV+ gay men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vansintejan J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Johan Vansintejan, Joris Janssen, Erwin Van De Vijver, Jan Vandevoorde, Dirk Devroey Department of Family Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB, Brussels, Belgium Abstract: The aim of this Internet-based survey was to investigate the prevalence and associated predictors of sexual dysfunctions in Belgian self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with other men. Of the 72 participants, 56% had a mild-to-severe erectile dysfunction, and 15% reported a hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and anodyspareunia was 18% for both. Independent predictors for erectile dysfunction were frequency of masturbation, frequency of sex with partner, use of erectile enhancement drugs, having a passive sex role, and not having a steady relationship. Independent predictors for hypoactive sexual desire disorder were frequency of masturbation and having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners. Independent predictors for premature ejaculation were not having a steady relationship, having a lower lifetime number of sexual partners, and a lower level of education. The only independent predictor for anodyspareunia was having an active sex role. Keywords: homosexuality/male, sexual dysfunction, HIV, epidemiology

  18. Balancing selection on CDH2 may be related to the behavioral features of the Belgian Malinois.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Cao

    Full Text Available The Belgian Malinois (BM is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID. Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance. Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.

  19. Radiation dose to premature new-borns in the belgian neonatal intensive care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the neonatal intensive care units (NICU), premature new-borns may be exposed to important doses. Because of their increased radiosensitivity and longer life expectancy, dose optimisation is of importance. The present study aimed at evaluating the dose of the most common radiographs in the Belgian NICU. Entrance surface kerma (ESK) and kerma area product (KAP) were collected in 17 NICU (among 19 in Belgium). Median ESK ranged from 13 to 172 μGy and from 8 to 117 μGy for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively; median KAP ranged from 1.4 to 14.2 mGy cm2 and from 3.8 to 28.1 mGy cm2 for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs, respectively. Those differences were due to large variations in the examination settings. Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) were set for chest and combined chest-abdomen radiographs. Though the radiograph dose was usually low, the cumulative dose per stay could be high. The wide, intercentre differences indicate that there is scope for dose reduction. The use of DRL should contribute to achieve this object. (authors)

  20. Characterization of ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusions in a novel Belgian frontotemporal lobar degeneration family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Rik; Rademakers, Rosa; Dermaut, Bart; Cruts, Marc; Vennekens, Krist'l; Cuijt, Ivy; Lübke, Ursula; Ceuterick, Chantal; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The most common histologic feature in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is intracellular brain inclusions of yet uncharacterized proteins that react with antiubiquitin (Ub) antibodies, but not with tau or synuclein (FTLD-U). We identified a four-generation Belgian FTLD family in which 8 patients had dominantly inherited FTLD. In one patient, we showed frontotemporal atrophy with filamentous Ub-positive intracellular inclusions in absence of tau pathology or any alterations in the levels of soluble tau. We characterized the cellular and subcellular localization and morphology of the inclusions. Ub-positive inclusions predominantly occurred within neurons (>97%), but were also observed within oligodendroglia (approximately 2%) and microglia (INI) were up to approximately four-fold more frequent than the cytoplasmic inclusions, although the latter were more specific to neurons. The INIs frequently appeared spindle-shaped and 3-dimensional confocal reconstructions identified flattened, leaf-like structures. Ultrastructurally, straight 10- to 18-nm-diameter filaments constituted the spindle-shaped inclusions that occurred in close proximity to the nuclear membrane. Staining for HSP40, p62, and valosin/p97 was observed in only a minority of the inclusions. Whereas the precise nature of the protein remains elusive, characterization of such familial FTLD-U patients would be helpful in identifying a common denominator in the pathogenesis of familial and the more prevalent sporadic FTLD-U.

  1. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  2. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Ampe, Bart A; Van Gansbeke, Suzy; Van den Bogaert, Tom; D'Haenens, Evelien; Heerkens, Jasper L T; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC) for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study's aim was to gain insight into farmers' opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3%) responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research. PMID:26703742

  3. Opinion of Belgian Egg Farmers on Hen Welfare and Its Relationship with Housing Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne M. Stadig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As of 2012, the EU has banned the use of conventional cages (CC for laying hens, causing a shift in housing systems. This study’s aim was to gain insight into farmers’ opinions on hen health and welfare in their current housing systems. A survey was sent to 218 Belgian egg farmers, of which 127 (58.3% responded, with 84 still active as egg farmer. Hen welfare tended to be less important in choosing the housing system for farmers with cage than with non-cage systems. Respondents currently using cage systems were more satisfied with hen health than respondents with non-cage systems. Reported mortality increased with farm size and was higher in furnished cages than in floor housing. Feather pecking, cannibalism, smothering and mortality were perceived to be higher in current housing systems than in CC, but only by respondents who shifted to non-cage systems from previously having had CC. Health- and production-related parameters were scored to be more important for hen welfare as compared to behavior-related parameters. Those without CC in the past rated factors relating to natural behavior to be more important for welfare than those with CC. This difference in opinion based on farmer backgrounds should be taken into account in future research.

  4. Floating seaweed in the neustonic environment: A case study from Belgian coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2006-02-01

    Floating seaweeds form the most important natural component of all floating material found on the surface of oceans and seas. Notwithstanding the absence of natural rocky shores, ephemeral floating seaweed clumps are frequently encountered along the Belgian coast. From October 2002 to April 2003, seaweed samples and control samples (i.e. surface water samples from a seaweed-free area) were collected every other week. Multivariate analysis on neustonic macrofaunal abundances showed significant differences between seaweed and control samples in the fraction > 1 mm. Differences were less conspicuous in the 0.5-1 mm fraction. Seaweed samples were characterised by the presence of seaweed fauna e.g. Acari, Idotea baltica, Gammarus sp ., while control samples mainly contained Calanoida, Larvacea, Chaetognatha, and planktonic larvae of crustaceans and polychaetes. Seaweed samples (1 mm fraction) harboured considerably higher diversities (× 3), densities (× 18) and biomasses (× 49) compared to the surrounding water column (control samples). The impact of floating seaweeds on the neustonic environment was quantified by the calculation of the added values of seaweed samples considering biomass and density. These calculations resulted in mean added values of 311 ind m - 2 in density and 305 mg ADW m - 2 in biomass. The association degree per species was expressed as the mean percentage of individuals found in seaweed samples in proportion to the total density and biomass of that species (seaweed samples + control samples). Thirteen species showed an association percentage > 95%, and can therefore be considered members of the floating seaweed fauna.

  5. Evolution of marine storminess in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van den Eynde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe storms have affected European coast lines in the past but knowledge on changes in storminess for the last decades is still sparse. Climate change is assumed to be a main driving factor with the potential to induce changes on the intensity, duration and frequency of powerful marine storms, including a long-term influence on peak wind speeds, surges and waves. It is, therefore, important to investigate whether in the last decades changes in the magnitude of storms, their duration and frequency could be observed. Understanding trends in storminess in the last decades will help to better prepare coastal managers for future events, taking into account potential changes on storm occurrence and magnitude to improve planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The purpose of this study was to focus on the evolution of extreme wind conditions, wave height and storm surge levels in the North Sea Region, especially in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS. Based on the analysis performed it is concluded that no clear trend can be observed for the occurrence of significant increasing extreme wind speeds over the BPNS. Furthermore, one can conclude that not enough scientific evidence is available to support scenarios with increased wave height or storminess.

  6. [The military radiologist Etienne Henrard (1870-1941) ... or the Belgian doctor Hirtz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tiggelen, R

    1995-01-01

    Etienne Henrard was undoubtedly the most important Belgian military radiologist. Besides his clinical radiological activities, he quickly became interested in stereoradiography and the removal of foreign bodies, which earned him international fame. During the First World War he continued his work and improved his techniques in the hospital "L'Océan" at De Panne, in collaboration with Antoine Depage. He was a Founding fellow member of the "Société belge de Radiologie" and of the "Journal belge de Radiologie", of which he was the Secretary (1909-1912), Vice-President (1913-1914), Président (1919-1920), Editor-in-Chief (1924-1940), and finally Treasurer (1932-1940). He was a founding fellow member, and later the President (1924-1938) and Honorary President of the "Union professionnelle des Médecins belges Radiologistes". He was the Honorary President of the Third Congress of Radiology in the French-speaking world. He was due to receive an international tribute, but an unfortunate date had been chosen: May 19, 1940.

  7. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  8. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  9. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mašić Zoran; Adamović Milan; Đilas Sandra M.; Mihaljev Željko A.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also pres...

  10. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  11. The blue-collar brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...

  13. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik

    2005-01-01

    Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...

  14. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    E. SZÜCS; Gulyás, L.; L.T. CZISZTER; I. Demirkan

    2013-01-01

    Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of ...

  15. Most important types of cattle behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of cattle is a simple and easily established indicator of their health condition, production characteristics and welfare, showing whether and how the animal has adapted to the maintenance conditions. Essentially, all forms of cattle behavior are accompanied by certain physiological changes in the organism, and the basic moving forces of behavior are congenital. The moving forces of behavior of cattle are narrowed down to a certain number of biological needs (the need for food, water, sexual and other biological needs and congenital urges and instincts, such as the combative and maternal instincts. Cattle are grazing animals and they cannot exhibit all their congenital natural activities of behavior under intensive maintenance conditions. Different internal and external stimuli influence the types of behavior of cattle, changing the motivational activities of their organism. In the course of domestication, certain forms of behavior of cattle have sustained changes, some have adapted to the new conditions, and new ones have appeared as well. The social, reproductive, maternal, and feeding behavior of cattle in closed maintenance conditions has not changed fundamentally, but the model of its manifesting has changed. Furthermore, certain disorders in the behavior of cattle also appear as a consequence of the maintenance conditions, and they can also be of hereditary character. In order to promote welfare, cattle should be enabled to exhibit their natural behavior, but they should also be provided with an environment that has natural characteristics.

  16. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature weight and height at puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturing amongst breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fit to the nonlinear function: BW = f(t) = A – Bek(age) where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determi...

  17. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau;

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  18. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...

  19. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  20. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  1. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized.

  2. Sunscreen use and skin protection behaviour on the Belgian beach: a comparison 9 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Van der Endt, Johannes D; Broeckx, Walter; Vandaele, Mark; del Marmol, Veronique; Roseeuw, Diane; Maselis, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Public health campaigns encourage people to protect themselves against skin cancer by using sunscreens and taking other protective measures. The objective is to estimate the impact of these campaigns on the rise of awareness among the general public. This study explores the prevalence and predictors of solar protection behaviour in a sample of beachgoers and compares these results to another similar study carried out 9 years earlier (i.e. summer 2001). During the month of August 2010, a total of 408 participants (144 men and 264 women) were randomly selected on their way to the Belgian beach in the city of Ostend, Belgium. The solar protection behaviour of each participant was assessed by direct observation and an interview. The exact same questions were asked as in 2001. The general risk awareness stays the same for skin aging and skin cancer but gets higher for sunburn. When we control these results for sex, the overall higher general awareness is completely because of the higher awareness of the female subgroup. As in 2001, risk awareness is considerably higher in the female subgroup than in the male one. As in 2001, sunscreen cream was the most popular preventive behaviour in 2010 (use of sunscreen with sun protection factor 15 or higher reported by 66.4%), followed by timed sun exposure (46.8%), use of clothing and hats (36.8%) and shade (34.1%). As in summer 2001 the sunscreen use is more popular in the female population. The use of protective clothing and hats is more popular in the male group. As solar protection has become part of the beach behaviour routine, there is room for improvement for their more frequent application, the use of a higher sun protection factor (15+), timed sunbathing, more use of clothing and hats and seeking shade. The results of this study can assist in evaluating the effectiveness of present sun-protection campaigns and health education programmes. PMID:22273847

  3. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms.

  4. Multiyear Serological Surveillance of Notifiable Influenza A Viruses in Belgian Poultry: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Sylvie; Houdart, Philippe; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance of notifiable avian influenza (NAI) virus is mandatory in European member states, and each year a serological survey is performed to detect H5 and H7 circulation in poultry holdings. In Belgium, this serological monitoring is a combination of a stratified and a risk-based approach and is applied to commercial holdings with more than 200 birds. Moreover, a competitive nucleoprotein (NP) ELISA has been used as first screening method since 2010. A retrospective analysis of the serological monitoring performed from 2007 through 2013 showed sporadic circulation of notifiable low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Belgian holdings with a fluctuating apparent flock seroprevalence according to years and species. Overall, the highest apparent flock seroprevalence was detected for the H5 subtype in domestic Anatidae, with 20%-50% for breeding geese and 4%-9% for fattening ducks. Positive serology against non-H5/H7 viruses was also observed in the same species with the use of the IDScreen influenza A antibody competition ELISA kit (ID-vet NP ELISA), and confirmed by isolation of H2, H3, H6, and H9 LPAI viruses. Among Galliformes, the apparent flock seroprevalence was lower, ranging between 0.3% and 1.3%. Circulation of notifiable LPAI viruses was only observed in laying hens with a similar seroprevalence for H5 and H7. Based on ID-vet NP ELISA results, no circulation of LPAI viruses, regardless the subtype, was observed in breeding chickens and fattening turkeys. Retrospectively, the use of an ELISA as first-line test not only reduced the number of hemagglutination inhibition tests to be performed, but also gave a broader evaluation of the prevalence of LPAI viruses in general, and might help to identify the most at-risk farms. PMID:27309088

  5. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering analysis based on these factors: events dominated by runoff availability (runoff-limited), dominated by glyphosate availability (pesticide-limited) and controlled by both runoff and glyphosate availability. To sum up

  6. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  7. Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS, the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. Methods In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. Results In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. Conclusions For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but

  8. Detection and identification of xerophilic fungi in Belgian chocolate confectionery factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nikki; Van Coillie, Els; Van Pamel, Els; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Chocolate confectionery fillings are generally regarded as microbiologically stable. The stability of these fillings is largely due to the general practice of adding either alcohol or preservatives. Consumer demands are now stimulating producers to move away from adding alcohol or other preservatives to their confectionery fillings and instead to search for innovative formulations. Such changes in composition can influence the shelf life of the product and may lead to spoilage by xerophilic fungi. The aim of this study was to test whether the production environment of Belgian chocolate confectionery factories and common ingredients of chocolate confectioneries could be potential sources of contamination with xerophilic fungal species. In the factory environment, the general and strictly xerophilic fungal spore load was determined using an RCS Air Sampler device in combination with DG18 and MY50G medium, respectively. Four basic ingredients of chocolate confectionery fillings were also examined for fungal spore levels using a direct plating technique. Detected fungi were identified to species level by a combination of morphological characterization and sequence analysis. Results indicated a general fungal spore load in the range of 50-250 colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3) air) and a more strict xerophilic spore load below 50 CFU/m(3) air. These results indicate rather low levels of fungal spores present in the factory environment. The most prevalent fungi in the factory environment were identified as Penicillium spp., particularly Penicillium brevicompactum. Examination of the basic ingredients of confectionery fillings revealed nuts to be the most likely potential source of direct contamination. In nuts, the most prevalent fungal species identified were Eurotium, particularly Eurotium repens. PMID:25475302

  9. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  10. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  11. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  12. Survey for the presence of specific free-living amoebae in cooling waters from Belgian power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2007-05-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are distributed ubiquitously in aquatic environments with increasing importance in hygienic, medical and ecological relationships to man. In this study, water samples from Belgian industrial cooling circuits were quantitatively surveyed for the presence of FLA. Isolated, thermotolerant amoebae were identified morphologically as well as using the following molecular methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isoenzyme electrophoresis and PCR. Thermophilic amoebae were present at nearly all collection sites, and the different detection methods gave similar results. Naegleria fowleri was the most frequently encountered thermotolerant species, and concentrations of thermotolerant FLA were correlated with higher temperatures.

  13. An Explorative Mapping of the Belgian Social Media Marketing Value Network and Its Usage of Personal Identifiable Information

    OpenAIRE

    Heyman, Rob; Pierson, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown an increase in both disclosure of personal data and means to gather this data on social media such as Facebook. Little research has been done to analyze what happens with this data and how it circulates between different actors. The aim of this research is to map a subset of the Belgian social media marketing companies as a value network and how these actors use social media users’ data for marketing campaigns. The answer to this research question was obtained through exper...

  14. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    OpenAIRE

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlleger, Ina; Panis, Luc Int; Styns, Karel; TORFS, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health.In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian...

  15. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  16. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  17. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  18. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  19. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannen Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides background information concerning the extent of long range linkage disequilibrium in cattle. Results Linkage disequilibrium was assessed using r2 among all pairs of syntenic markers within eight breeds of cattle from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Bos taurus breeds included Angus, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black and Limousin while Bos indicus breeds included Brahman and Nelore. Approximately 2670 markers spanning the entire bovine autosomal genome were used to estimate pairwise r2 values. We found that the extent of linkage disequilibrium is no more than 0.5 Mb in these eight breeds of cattle. Conclusion Linkage disequilibrium in cattle has previously been reported to extend several tens of centimorgans. Our results, based on a much larger sample of marker loci and across eight breeds of cattle indicate that in cattle linkage disequilibrium persists over much more limited distances. Our findings suggest that 30,000–50,000 loci will be needed to conduct whole genome association studies in cattle.

  20. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  1. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  2. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  3. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  4. Classification of the slaughter cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Houšková; Kateřina Kovářová

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of this project, the application of the SEUROP system for slaughter cattle in 2003 and 2004 years was investigated. The 29 990 heads were examined. The attention was laid on the particular classis, their quantity, average slaughter weight and its relationship to the fleshed and over-fat during monitored period. The average slaughter weight of the whole population was 319.6 kg, what is 23-29 kg higher then republic average value. The caws create main part of the population, what c...

  5. Food habits of blue grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  6. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  7. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  8. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  9. Shell Shock and the Kloppe: war neuroses amongst British and Belgian troops during and after the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Van Everbroeck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War combatants of all armies were prey to nervous disorders or psychological breakdown. These war neuroses were a response to the highly-industrialised nature of the warfare as well as to the fatigue engendered over four years of intense conflict. Yet while fear and mental breakdown were universal, national responses varied. A comparison of British and Belgian shell shock indicates that men suffered in very similar ways but that symptoms met with rather different responses: in Britain treatment and diagnostic regimes stressed the importance of class difference and shell shock was often linked to cowardice. These issues were not of overriding importance in the Belgian army. In the longer term shell shock became, and remained, a topic of political and social concern in Britain whereas in Belgium men suffering from kloppe (extreme fear) tended to be forgotten and the topic has not excited much popular interest or scholarly attention. Yet despite these differences one overarching theme remains clear, namely that despite the extensive experience of war neuroses during and after the First World War, there still remains a fierce stigma about the mental wounds of war.

  10. Recommendations for managing a suboptimal response to biologics for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: A Belgian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Brassinne, Michel; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo L W; Lambert, Julien; Segaert, Siegfried; Willaert, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, biologics have become the gold standard in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis for patients who have failed or who have contraindications to traditional systemic treatments. However, although practical recommendations on how to treat a suboptimal response to biologics exist in other chronic inflammatory diseases, they are only just beginning to emerge for psoriasis. This article aims to formulate recommendations in the case of a suboptimal response of psoriasis to biologics in the Belgian setting. A Belgian taskforce of psoriasis experts was convened to review the results of a literature search and formulate recommendations based on the available evidence and provide expert opinion to address gaps in the evidence. The taskforce has proposed a treatment algorithm for patients with a primary non-response or a secondary loss of response to help address an unmet need. Expert recommendations have been developed to address treatment strategies in case of a primary or secondary suboptimal response to biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Belgium.

  11. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  12. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  13. The attitude of Belgian social insurance physicians towards evidence-based practice and clinical practice guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aertgeerts Bert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine has broadened its scope and is starting to reach insurance medicine. Although still in its initial stages, physicians in the area of insurance medicine should keep up-to-date with the evidence on various diseases in order to correctly assess disability and to give appropriate advice about health care reimbursement. In order to explore future opportunities of evidence-based medicine to improve daily insurance medicine, there is a need for qualitative studies to better understand insurance physicians' perceptions of EBM. The present study was designed to identify the attitude of insurance physicians towards evidence-based medicine and clinical practice guidelines, and to determine their ability to access, retrieve and appraise the health evidence and the barriers for applying evidence to practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among all Dutch-speaking insurance physicians employed at one of the six Belgian social insurance sickness funds and at the National Institute of Disability and Health care Insurance (n = 224. Chi-square tests were used to compare nominal and ordinal variables. Student's t-tests, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare means of continuous variables for different groups. Results The response rate was 48.7%. The majority of respondents were positive towards evidence-based medicine and clinical practice guidelines. Their knowledge of EBM was rather poor. Perceived barriers for applying evidence to practice were mainly time and lack of EBM skills. Conclusion Although the majority of physicians were positive towards EBM and welcomed more guidelines, the use of evidence and clinical practice guidelines in insurance medicine is low at present. It is in the first place important to eradicate the perceived inertia which limits the use of EBM and to further investigate the EBM principles in the context of insurance medicine. Available high

  14. "Belgian black and red marbles" as potential candidates for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Francis; Pereira, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Paleozoic substrate of South Belgium is rich in compact limestones, able to take a good polished finishing and to be used as "marbles". Among them, the black and red varieties were and still are of special importance, intensively exploited and largely exported, almost worldwide. The pure black marbles were extracted mostly from Frasnian (Upper Devonian) and Viséan (Lower Carboniferous) strata, in many localities like Namur, Dinant, Theux and Basècles. Today only the Frasnian variety is still exploited in a spectacular underground quarry in Golzinne, close to the town of Gembloux. These black marbles, already known in Antiquity, were exported since the Middle Age, first in Western Europe, then, from the 19th c., at a larger scale, almost worldwide. Among their most frequent uses figured of course funeral objects, like the epitaph of the Pope Adrian the 1st, offered by Charlemagne and preserved in the St-Pieter basilica in Rom. Another famous reference is the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, with white crystalline marble and alabaster. The red marbles are limestones from reefal origin, forming mudmounds more or less rich in fossils of Late Frasnian (Late Devonian) age. They show a strong variability in colors, from dark red to light pinkish grey, and in texture, with many sedimentary structures and/or tectonic veins. The outcrops are non-stratified, which allows extraction of large blocks, for example for high columns. Known in the Roman time, they were intensively exploited since at least the 16th c. During the 19th and beginning of 20th c., more than hundred quarries were active in South Belgium, from Rance at West to Chaudfontaine at East, around Philippeville and Rochefort. They were largely used both in civil and religious buildings, mostly for inside decoration, for examples as altars or fireplaces. Among the most symbolic places, the Belgian red marbles were massively employed in Versailles, like in the famous "Galerie des Glaces". But many

  15. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  16. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives

  17. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  18. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  19. European Influences in Spanish Popular Education: The Case of the Socialist "Casa Del Pueblo" of Madrid and the Belgian Model (1897-1929)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerena, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    In Spain from the late nineteenth century, the "People's Houses" (Casas del Pueblo) corresponded to a desire to provide and organize a space of sociability for workers and their families. This formed part of the diverse Spanish popular education movement. This article focuses on the project to translate the model of the Belgian Maison du Peuple…

  20. The role of Callionymus lyra (L.) and C. reticulatus in the life cycle of Lernaeocera lusci in Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Damme, P.A.; Maertens, D.; Arrumm, A.; Hamerlynck, O.; Ollevier, F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the dragonet Callionymus lyra and the reticulated dragonet C. reticulatus from Belgian coastal waters (Southern Bight of the North Sea) in June 1991 revealed 34% of dragonets infected with 1–7 Lernaeocera lusci. This same parasite infected 9% of the reticulated dragonets (mean intensity

  1. Evidence for association between the HLA-DQA locus and abdominal aortic aneurysms in the Belgian population: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakalihasan Natzi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity likely contribute to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of AAAs using a genetic association study approach with HLA polymorphisms. Methods HLA-DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and -DRB3-5 alleles were determined in 387 AAA cases (180 Belgian and 207 Canadian and 426 controls (269 Belgian and 157 Canadian by a PCR and single-strand oligonucleotide probe hybridization assay. Results We observed a potential association with the HLA-DQA1 locus among Belgian males (empirical p = 0.027, asymptotic p = 0.071. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the HLA-DQA1*0102 allele frequencies between AAA cases (67/322 alleles, 20.8% and controls (44/356 alleles, 12.4% in Belgian males (empirical p = 0.019, asymptotic p = 0.003. In haplotype analyses, marginally significant association was found between AAA and haplotype HLA-DQA1-DRB1 (p = 0.049 with global score statistics and p = 0.002 with haplotype-specific score statistics. Conclusion This study showed potential evidence that the HLA-DQA1 locus harbors a genetic risk factor for AAAs suggesting that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of AAAs.

  2. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory as a Measure of the Five-Factor Model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian Comparisons with the NEO-PI-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Szirmak, Zsofia; Nagy, Janos

    2004-01-01

    The lexically based Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) was correlated with the factors and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in Belgian (N = 265), American (N = 116), and Hungarian (N = 320) samples. Results were similar across the three cultures. Analysis of orthogonalized FFPI factors showed that three of…

  3. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  4. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  5. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  6. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study.

  7. High resolution mapping of the tropospheric NO2 distribution in three Belgian cities based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Fayt, Caroline; Danckaert, Thomas; Iordache, Daniel; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    An approach is presented to retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) and to map the NO2 two dimensional distribution at high resolution, based on Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with a high spatial (approximately 3 m at 5000 m ASL), spectral (413 to 2421 nm in 533 narrow, contiguous spectral bands) and radiometric (14-bit) resolution. VCDs are derived, following a similar approach as described in the pioneering work of Popp et al. (2012), based on (1) spectral calibration and spatial binning of the observed radiance spectra in order to improve the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, (2) Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis of the pre-processed spectra in the visible wavelength region, with a reference spectrum containing low NO2 absorption, in order to quantify the abundance of NO2 along the light path, based on its molecular absorption structures and (3) radiative transfer modeling for air mass factor calculation in order to convert slant to vertical columns. This study will be done in the framework of the BUMBA (Belgian Urban NO2 Monitoring Based on APEX hyperspectral data) project. Dedicated flights with APEX mounted in a Dornier DO-228 airplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), are planned to be performed in Spring 2015 above the three largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Brussels, Antwerp and Liège. The retrieved VCDs will be validated by comparison with correlative ground-based and car-based DOAS observations. Main objectives are (1) to assess the operational capabilities of APEX to map the NO2 field over an urban area at high spatial and spectral resolution in a relatively short time and cost-effective way, and to characterise all aspects of the retrieval approach; (2) to use the APEX NO2 measurements

  8. Various Shades of Blue's Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    1997-01-01

    We discuss random matrix models in terms of elementary operations on Blue's functions (functional inverse of Green's functions). We show that such operations embody the essence of a number of physical phenomena whether at/or away from the critical points. We illustrate these assertions by borrowing on a number of recent results in effective QCD in vacuum and matter. We provide simple physical arguments in favor of the universality of the continuum QCD spectral oscillations, whether at zero virtuality, in the bulk of the spectrum or at the chiral critical points. We also discuss effective quantum systems of disorder with strong or weak dissipation (Hatano-Nelson localization).

  9. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  10. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  11. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  12. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  13. Blue-sheet instability of Schwarzschild wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Schwarzschild wormhole geometry is found to be unstable against the gravitational effects of accumulated, blue-shifted matter and radiation, or ''blue sheets'', accreting along the past horizons. This is shown by constructing a simple model of a wormhole geometry featuring such blue sheets and manifesting their effects. In this model the blue sheets are treated as null delta-function surface layers, and we derive here general conditions for matching spacetime geometries across such null hypersurfaces of discontinuity. These junction conditions are then applied to the construction of the wormhole model. The wormhole evolution depicted in this model shows that the gravitational focussing produced by the blue-sheet mass-energy eventually encloses the blue sheets and past horizons within future horizons, leaving a black-hole geometry. These effects limit emission processes from the region of a wormhole's past singularity into the external universe, and severely restrict the possible role of wormholes in cosmological contexts. (author)

  14. BeTemper: thermal characterisation of the Belgian subsoil for shallow geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, Estelle; Dusar, Michiel; Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    -ray Diffraction equipment, while the EDS (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and EBSD (Electron BackScattered Diffraction) modules is applied in order to evaluate the chemical and micro-textural content. Special attention is given to lithologies having a variable λ values to assess the influence of porosity and/or minor mineralogical phases on the heat transfer. The sample selection is conducted in order to be representative of the various lithologies composing the Belgian subsoil, taking into account their mineralogical composition, petrological texture along with their degree of alteration. A special emphasis is given to densely populated areas (eg. Sambre & Meuse valleys and large cities of Flanders). with the highest geothermal demands. Petitclerc, E., Dusar, M., Declercq, P-Y., Hoes, H., Laenen, B., Dagrain,F., Vanbrabant, Y., 2013. Overview and perspectives on shallow geothermal energy in Belgium. Proceedings SG6-12, EGC2013, Pisa, June 2013. Popov, Y., Bayuk, I., Parshin, A., Miklashevskiy, D., Novikov, S., Chekhonin, E., 2012. New methods and instruments for determination of reservoir thermal properties. Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 30 - February 1, 2012. SGP-TR-194. Popov, Y., Pribnow, D.F.C., Sass, J.H, Williams, C., Burkhardt, H., 1999. Characterization of rock thermal conductivity by high-resolution optical scanning. Geothermics 28, pp 253-276.

  15. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  16. African Music: Source of the Blues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  17. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...

  18. Polyneuropathy in a young Belgian patient: A novel heterozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filette, Jeroen; Hasaerts, Danielle; Seneca, Sara; Gheldof, Alexander; Stouffs, Katrien; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a rare condition, predominantly affecting the peripheral sensory nervous system, although variable motor and dysautonomic symptoms can be present. At least 7 clinical types of HSAN have been described, and different genetic mutations have been identified for each of these. HSAN IIA (OMIM #201300) is characterized by loss of pain and loss of temperature and touch sensation, with onset usually before the first decade. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.(1) The causative gene, WNK1/HSN2, is located on locus 12p13.33 and is an isoform of the WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) gene, which contains the HSN2 exon.(2,3) We describe 2 new heterozygous mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene in a Belgian patient with early-onset sensory polyneuropathy.

  19. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  20. Polyneuropathy in a young Belgian patient: A novel heterozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filette, Jeroen; Hasaerts, Danielle; Seneca, Sara; Gheldof, Alexander; Stouffs, Katrien; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Velkeniers, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a rare condition, predominantly affecting the peripheral sensory nervous system, although variable motor and dysautonomic symptoms can be present. At least 7 clinical types of HSAN have been described, and different genetic mutations have been identified for each of these. HSAN IIA (OMIM #201300) is characterized by loss of pain and loss of temperature and touch sensation, with onset usually before the first decade. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.(1) The causative gene, WNK1/HSN2, is located on locus 12p13.33 and is an isoform of the WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1) gene, which contains the HSN2 exon.(2,3) We describe 2 new heterozygous mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene in a Belgian patient with early-onset sensory polyneuropathy. PMID:27066579

  1. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  2. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  3. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  4. Inventory and forecasting of maritime emissions in the Belgian sea territory, an activity-based emission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Int Panis, Luc; Styns, Karel; Torfs, Rudi

    Air quality policy has focussed on land-based emissions for decades. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that emissions from sea-going vessels can no longer be ignored. There is a growing need for detailed emission inventories to evaluate the impact of this transport mode on air quality and health. In this paper we present MOPSEA, an activity-based emission model to determine emissions from sea-going vessels. The model considers shipping activities of sea-going vessels on Belgian territory, combined with individual vessel characteristics. We apply this model to study the effects of recent international efforts to reduce emissions from sea-going vessels in Belgian territorial waters for the current fleet and for two scenarios up to 2010. The emission model for Belgium, based on different vessel operating areas, reveals that most maritime emissions from the main engines will increase. CO 2 emissions will increase by 2-9% over the 2004-2010 period due to an increase in shipping activity. NO X emissions are projected to rise between 1% and 8% because the increase in activity offsets the reductions from the international maritime organisation (IMO) and European regulations. In contrast, SO 2 emissions will decrease by at least 50% in 6 years time. The switch of auxiliaries from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil at berth results in a large emission reduction (33%) for PM and small reductions for CO 2, NO X, CO and HC (4-5%). The choice between a bottom-up versus top-down approach can have important implications for the allocation of maritime emissions. The MOPSEA bottom-up model allocates only 0.7 Mton CO 2 to Belgium, compared to 24.2 Mton CO 2 based on bunker fuel inventories.

  5. Prevalence and origin of HIV-1 group M subtypes among patients attending a Belgian hospital in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Joke; Van Dooren, Sonia; Van Laethem, Kristel; Derdelinckx, Inge; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; De Clercq, Erik; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2002-04-23

    HIV-1 group M strains are usually subtyped based on gag and/or env gene sequences. In our lab, part of the pol gene sequence was available in order to determine the genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance profile. To estimate the prevalence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in patients visiting the University Hospitals in Leuven in 1999 and for whom a genotypic drug resistance test was needed, we tried to use the pol sequence for subtyping. Recombination was investigated by similarity plots and bootscanning and subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis. The overall region spanning the entire protease and 747 nucleotides of the reverse transcriptase proved very suitable for subtyping, although there was a low phylogenetic signal at the beginning of the reverse transcriptase (nucleotides 0-250), as we demonstrated by likelihood mapping. Of the 41 samples analyzed, 21 belonged to subtype B. Of the other 20 non-B strains, 9 belonged to subtype C, 2 to subtype D and 1 to subtype A, G, H and J, respectively, 3 were CRF_02 (Circulating Recombinant Form), 1 was recombinant with a novel breakpoint and 1 sample was untypable. Although subtype B is still the most prevalent subtype in Belgium, it seems to be responsible for only half of the infections in this study. We could also document that the prevalence of subtype C is high in the Belgian native patients, especially among the heterosexually infected population. This could possibly be an indication for an epidemic spread of HIV-1 subtype C in Belgium, as for one third of these patients, no link to an endemic region could be found. The other non-B subtypes and the recombinants are mainly introduced by immigrants or by Belgian citizens traveling abroad. PMID:11955642

  6. A semi-probabilistic modelling approach for the estimation of dietary exposure to phthalates in the Belgian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Standaert, A; Cornelis, C; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Willems, H; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a semi-probabilistic modelling approach was applied for the estimation of the long-term human dietary exposure to phthalates--one of world's most used families of plasticisers. Four phthalate compounds were considered: diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Intake estimates were calculated for the Belgian adult population and several subgroups of this population for two considered scenarios using an extended version of the EN-forc model. The highest intake rates were found for DEHP, followed by DnBP, BBP and DEP. In the Belgian adult population, men and young adults generally had the highest dietary phthalate intake estimates. Nevertheless, predicted dietary intake rates for all four investigated phthalates were far below the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) values (i.e. P99 intake values were 6.4% of the TDI at most), which is reassuring because adults are also exposed to phthalates via other contamination pathways (e.g. dust ingestion and inhalation). The food groups contributing most to the dietary exposure were grains and grain-based products for DEP, milk and dairy products for DnBP, meat and meat products or grains and grain-based products (depending on the scenario) for BBP and meat and meat products for DEHP. Comparison of the predicted intake results based on modelled phthalate concentrations in food products with intake estimates from other surveys (mostly based on measured concentrations) showed that the extended version of the EN-forc model is a suitable semi-probabilistic tool for the estimation and evaluation of the long-term dietary intake of phthalates in humans.

  7. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  8. Systeme de fautes et correction phonetique par la methode verbo-tonale des francophones belges qui apprenent l'espagnol (Phonetic Correction and the Verbo-tonal Method for Teaching Spanish to French-speaking Belgians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Padilla, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Describes experiments in the field of phonetic correction. Several techniques used at the University of Mons for teaching Spanish pronunciation to French-speaking Belgians are explained. (Text is in French.) (PMP)

  9. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  10. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  11. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  12. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  13. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  14. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  15. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  16. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  18. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    .003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...

  19. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SZÜCS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

  20. [Inherited thrombopathia in Simmental cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R

    2016-02-01

    During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685

  1. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  2. Analysis of HER2 expression and gene amplification in adenocarcinoma of the stomach and the gastro-oesophageal junction: rationale for the Belgian way of working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouret-Mourin, A; Hoorens, A; De Hertogh, G; Vanderveken, J; Demetter, P; Van Cutsem, E

    2012-03-01

    The Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) has been established as a key player in the development of certain human tumors. ToGA trial has demonstrated that the addition of the monoclonal antibody blocking HER2 receptor, trastuzumab (Herceptin®), to chemotherapy significantly improves overall survival of patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastro-oesophageal junction. Therefore, it is essential that pathologists guarantee an accurate testing of HER2 status in these tumours. Following the international recommendations and the Belgian criteria for reimbursement of trastuzumab, a consortium of expert pathologists (Belgian Working Group Molecular Pathology) proposes an adaptation of the international guidelines in order to develop strategies for optimal performance, interpretation and reporting assays.

  3. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  4. Impact of cattle on the prevalence and severity of trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...

  5. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib

    2015-01-01

    Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...

  6. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  7. Implementation of a program for type 2 diabetes based on the Chronic Care Model in a hospital-centered health care system: 'the Belgian experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen Paul; Vermeire Etienne; Wens Johan; Nobels Frank; Snauwaert Boris; Feyen Luc; Bastiaens Hilde; Sunaert Patricia; De Maeseneer Jan; De Sutter An; Willems Sara

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Most research publications on Chronic Care Model (CCM) implementation originate from organizations or countries with a well-structured primary health care system. Information about efforts made in countries with a less well-organized primary health care system is scarce. In 2003, the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance commissioned a pilot study to explore how care for type 2 diabetes patients could be organized in a more efficient way in the Bel...

  8. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Wouter Vleugels; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Yannick Griep; Hans De Witte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment), attitudes (employment commitment), and behaviour (job search intensity). Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people’s experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypo...

  9. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  10. Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, P. K.; Islam, Md Zohorul; Shil, S. K.;

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July-September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were...... independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle....

  11. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  12. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  13. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  14. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  15. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  16. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison;

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we...

  17. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  18. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...

  19. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  20. Use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the detection and surveillance of marine oil spills in the Belgian part of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) deployed by the Belgian Army in order to detect oil spills as well as for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. The UAV are fitted with a dual sensor gyro-stabilized turret which combines a daylight camera and a thermal infrared camera. Live images of the sensors are transmitted in real time to control stations. All Belgian marine pollution surveillance platforms are coordinated by the Maritime Security Center of the Belgian Coast Guard. Satellite surveillance services provide real time information related to potential oil spills and other anomalies on the sea surface. Stand-by helicopters are also used for the rapid assessment of reported spills. The B-Hunter system is undetectable due to its small size and low noise signature, and can be used for the continuous monitoring of specific areas or for the tracking of suspect vessels. The system will also be used to monitor the progress of oil spill response operations as well as to provide information and guidance to response vessels. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  2. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper;

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  3. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  5. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  6. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  7. The Association between Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Functioning and Physical Activity: What Is the Moderating Role of the Physical Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Gheysen, Freja; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Background Better physical functioning in the elderly may be associated with higher physical activity levels. Since older adults spend a substantial part of the day in their residential neighborhood, the neighborhood physical environment may moderate associations between functioning and older adults’ physical activity. The present study investigated the moderating role of the objective and perceived physical environment on associations between Belgian older adults’ physical functioning and transport walking, recreational walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods Data from 438 older adults were included. Objective physical functioning was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Potential moderators included objective neighborhood walkability and perceptions of land use mix diversity, access to recreational facilities, access to services, street connectivity, physical barriers for walking, aesthetics, crime-related safety, traffic speeding-related safety, and walking infrastructure. Transport and recreational walking were self-reported, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed through accelerometers. Multi-level regression analyses were conducted using MLwiN to examine two-way interactions between functioning and the environment on both walking outcomes. Based on a previous study where environment x neighborhood income associations were found for Belgian older adults’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, three-way functioning x environment x income interactions were examined for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Objectively-measured walkability moderated the association between functioning and transport walking; this positive association was only present in high-walkable neighborhoods. Moreover, a three-way interaction was observed for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Only in high-income, high-walkable neighborhoods, there was a positive association between functioning and moderate

  8. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  9. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  10. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  11. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  12. Blue Ribbon Panel Report - BRP - Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  13. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7, 2016. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  14. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Status of Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yong-jiang; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; XU Ming; ZHANG Liu; CHANG Guo-bin; SONG Wei-tao; WANG Dong-lei

    2006-01-01

    A total of 87 individuals of Luxi cattle from Juanchen and Liangshan counties, Shangdong Province, China, were sampled by simple random sampling in typical colony. Twenty-one blood proteins and enzymes loci were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE). In the meantime, the data of 7 loci of 13 cattle populations in China and other countries were collected and phylogeny relationships were studied. The results indicated that 9 out of 21 loci showed polymorphism (42.86%); the level of genetic variation in Luxi cattle population was relatively high, the mean heterozygosity was 0.1416. The Luxi cattle have a close phylogenetic relationship with the cattle populations of east and south of Asia, and this further confirmed the fact that Luxi cattle were the cross-breed between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China, but it is impossible that yellow cattle contained the blood of of Bali.

  15. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M A Islam; Alam, M.K.; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components...

  16. Blue Ocean Strategy and marketing Icelandic fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrún Guðbjartsdóttir 1976

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to explore if practice of Blue Ocean Strategy, through value innovation, or certain tools and framework of the strategy can be useful for Icelandic fish marketing companies. Blue Ocean Strategy is an innovative strategy that pushes companies to look beyond conventional boundaries of an industry and discover new market space through value innovation and consequently make competition irrelevant. Data was gathered through qualitative research methods, interviews as we...

  17. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  18. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...

  19. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana L Melcón; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M; Lauren K Roche; Wiggins, Sean M.; John A. Hildebrand

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  20. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  1. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff.

  2. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  3. From corporate governance to hospital governance. Authority, transparency and accountability of Belgian non-profit hospitals' board and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Herck, Gustaaf; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Vleugels, Arthur

    2004-04-01

    As a result of multiple developments in health care and health care policy, hospital administrators, policy makers and researchers are increasingly challenged to reflect on the meaning of good hospital governance and how they can implement it in the hospital organisations. The question arises whether and to what extent governance models that have been developed within the corporate world can be valuable for these reflections. Due to the unique societal position of hospitals--which involves a large diversity of stakeholders--the claim for autonomy of various highly professional groups and the lack of clear business objectives, principles of corporate governance cannot be translated into the hospital sector without specific adjustments. However, irrespective of these contextual differences, corporate governance can provide for a comprehensive 'frame of reference', to which the hospital sector will have to give its own interpretation. A multidisciplinary research unit of the university of Leuven has taken the initiative to develop a governance model for Belgian hospitals. As part of the preliminary research work a survey has been performed among 82 hospitals of the Flemish Community on their governance structure, the composition of the governance entities, the partition of competencies and the relationship between management and medical staff. PMID:15033548

  4. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults' Physical Activity and Sedentary Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-06-07

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults' PA and limit SB.

  5. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned.

  6. [The Belgian and French medicine and the "Ordres" facing the "jewish question" during the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2014-01-01

    The attitude of the medical community and the "Ordres" to the "jewish question" differs in Belgium and France. This difference originates before the Second World War. Xenophobia and antisemitism were stronger in France. In addition, the Belgian capitulation of May 1940 and the armistice of June 22 in France do not represent the same situation. In France, a legal government, under the direction of Marshal Pétain, took a series of xenophobic measures of which the Jews were the first victims. In Belgium, in the absence of any government, the General Secretaries in Ministries were the ones who had to apply the antijewish measures dictated by the German occupant. By law, they could not legislate on the political level. The "Ordre", of French physicians was created in late 1940 by the Vichy government. In Belgium, the "Ordre " had existed since 1938 but had been unable to meet in the absence of implement decrees. An "Ordre bis" was created in late 1941, the legality of which was questioned by many lawyers and physicians. The French "Ordre" was to apply the antijewish measures by taking responsibility for the selection of Jewish physicians entitled to practice. In Belgium, the "Ordre" frowned upon by the physicians, played no official role in this regard. It simply applied the antijewish measures dictated by the Germans without protesting. After the conflict, the leaders of the "Ordres" had a different fate in both countries. In France, they escaped sentences. In Belgium, they were heavily condemned. PMID:24908952

  7. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  8. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  9. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  10. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management. PMID:27493068

  11. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  12. On the history of cattle genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen; Beerling, Marie Louise; Buchanan, David S.; Theunissen, Bert; Koolmees, Peter A.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give

  13. RECENT SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS IN THE CATTLE GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (> or =90% sequence identity, > or =5 kb length) within the newest public version of the Bos taurus genome assembly (bta_3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the cattle assembly is approximately equiva...

  14. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  15. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  16. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  17. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  18. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  19. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementat

  20. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  1. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  2. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  3. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  4. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  5. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  6. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  7. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  8. 76 FR 8709 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... to eliminate bovine babesiosis, a severe and often fatal cattle disease, from the U.S. cattle... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick... cattle fever ticks and southern cattle ticks out of tick-free areas beyond the permanent quarantine...

  9. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  10. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  11. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  12. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle V): carcass traits and longissimus palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2001-05-01

    Carcass (n = 854) and longissimus thoracis palatability (n = 802) traits from F1 steers obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III cows to Hereford or Angus (HA), Tuli (Tu), Boran (Bo), Brahman (Br), Piedmontese (Pm), or Belgian Blue (BB) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (444 d), carcass weight (333 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (21%), and marbling (Small00) end points. Results presented in this abstract are for age-constant data. Carcasses from BB- and HA-sired steers were heaviest (P carcasses from Bo- and Tu-sired steers were lightest (P carcasses from HA-sired steers and least (P carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers. Numerical USDA yield grades were lowest (P carcasses from Pm- and BB-sired steers and highest (P carcasses from HA- and Br-sired steers. Marbling scores were highest (P carcasses from HA- and Tu-sired steers and lowest (P carcasses from Br-, BB-, and Pm-sired steers. Longissimus thoracis from carcasses of HA-, Pm-, and Tu-sired steers had the lowest (P Carcasses from HA-sired steers had longissimus thoracis with the highest (P carcasses of Br- and Bo-sired steers had the highest (P carcass traits but had little effect on palatability traits. Carcasses from BB- and Pm-sired steers provided the most desirable combination of yield grade and longissimus palatability, but carcasses from HA-cross steers provided the most desirable combination of quality grade and longissimus palatability. Tuli, a breed shown to be heat-tolerant, had longissimus tenderness similar to that of the non-heat-tolerant breeds and more tender longissimus than the heat-tolerant breeds in this study.

  13. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  14. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  15. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  16. Dyes adsorption blue vegetable and blue watercolor by natural zeolites modified with surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was carried out the dyes removal blue vegetable and blue watercolor of aqueous solutions, to 20 C, at different times and using a zeolite mineral of Parral (Chihuahua, Mexico) modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide or dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The zeolite was characterized before and after of its adaptation with NaCl and later with HDTMABr and DTMABr. For the materials characterization were used the scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum; elementary microanalysis by X-ray spectroscopy of dispersed energy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that the surfactant type absorbed in the zeolite material influences on the adsorption process of the blue dye. Likewise, the chemical structure between the vegetable blue dye and the blue watercolor, determines the efficiency of the color removal of the water, by the zeolites modified with the surfactants. (Author)

  17. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications. PMID:27408982

  18. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates identified in milk from dairy cattle in Belgium, Germany, and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, A; Flaminio, B; De Vliegher, S; Supré, K; Kromker, V; Garbarino, C; Arrigoni, N; Zanardi, G; Bertocchi, L; Gobbo, F; Catania, S; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from milk of dairy cattle herds of Belgium, Germany, and Italy. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the microbroth dilution method for the following antimicrobials: erythromycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, and tiamulin. Macrolides, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin, were chosen because they represent antimicrobials families commonly used in several countries for treatment of M. bovis, and their MIC values in cattle population are reported in several studies, allowing a comparison with previous data. Doxycycline and tiamulin were selected to assess the susceptibility of M. bovis to new antimicrobials, because they are not registered in the European Union for the treatment of dairy cattle. Among the agents of the different antimicrobial classes, the macrolides showed the highest concentration to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90), all above the highest concentration tested: >8μg/mL for erythromycin, >16μg/mL for spiramycin, and >32μg/mL for tilmicosin and tylosin. Also the MIC90 of lincomycin was above the highest concentration tested (>32μg/mL), but the distribution of the MIC values was almost perfectly bimodal: 41 isolates had a MIC ≤0.5μg/mL and 30 isolates >32μg/mL. Oxytetracycline had a 2-fold higher concentration to inhibit 50% of isolates (2 vs. 0.5μg/mL) and 1-fold higher MIC90 (4 vs. 2μg/mL) than doxycycline. Enrofloxacin and florfenicol had both a MIC90 of 2μg/mL, whereas tiamulin had a MIC90 of 0.5μg/mL. Significant differences on the MIC values were found among the 3 countries for several antimicrobials: compared with Germany, Belgium and Italy showed significantly higher MIC for lincomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin, and lower for oxytetracycline and florfenicol. The Belgian isolates showed the lowest MIC

  19. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  20. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  1. Pandemic A/H1N1v influenza 2009 in hospitalized children: a multicenter Belgian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumental Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v pandemic, children were identified as a specific "at risk" group. We conducted a multicentric study to describe pattern of influenza A/H1N1v infection among hospitalized children in Brussels, Belgium. Methods From July 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010, we collected epidemiological and clinical data of all proven (positive H1N1v PCR and probable (positive influenza A antigen or culture pediatric cases of influenza A/H1N1v infections, hospitalized in four tertiary centers. Results During the epidemic period, an excess of 18% of pediatric outpatients and emergency department visits was registered. 215 children were hospitalized with proven/probable influenza A/H1N1v infection. Median age was 31 months. 47% had ≥ 1 comorbid conditions. Febrile respiratory illness was the most common presentation. 36% presented with initial gastrointestinal symptoms and 10% with neurological manifestations. 34% had pneumonia. Only 24% of the patients received oseltamivir but 57% received antibiotics. 10% of children were admitted to PICU, seven of whom with ARDS. Case fatality-rate was 5/215 (2%, concerning only children suffering from chronic neurological disorders. Children over 2 years of age showed a higher propensity to be admitted to PICU (16% vs 1%, p = 0.002 and a higher mortality rate (4% vs 0%, p = 0.06. Infants less than 3 months old showed a milder course of infection, with few respiratory and neurological complications. Conclusion Although influenza A/H1N1v infections were generally self-limited, pediatric burden of disease was significant. Compared to other countries experiencing different health care systems, our Belgian cohort was younger and received less frequently antiviral therapy; disease course and mortality were however similar.

  2. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended. PMID:23084115

  3. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  4. Régulation du télétravail et dialogue social. Le cas de la Belgique Telework regulation and social dialogue. The Belgian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Schampheleire

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte belge, le télétravail se diffuse surtout de manière informelle pour des catégories de salariés disposant d’une certaine autonomie dans l’organisation de leur travail. La question de la régulation collective du télétravail se pose toutefois aux différents niveaux de la concertation sociale. Au niveau local, quelques entreprises pionnières se sont engagées dans la voie d’un encadrement concerté du télétravail. Les arrangements collectifs ou individuels qui s’en dégagent rendent alors compte des spécificités de l’organisation et du personnel. L’impulsion vient à présent du niveau national où une convention collective de travail a été conclue, en application de l’accord-cadre européen sur le télétravail de 2002. Cet article s’intéresse donc aux modalités de la négociation d’entreprise et au nouveau cadre interprofessionnel.Within a Belgian context, telework has been primarily developed in an informal way. Most importantly, it has involved workers who have autonomy in their organization of work. Introducing telework on a larger scale, however, requires consultation and negotiation on the various levels of collective industrial relations. Some Belgian pioneering enterprises have formalized telework. This has led to collective and individual arrangements that take into account the specificity of the organization and its personnel. At present, there is an impulse coming from a new Belgian collective agreement, which applies the 2002 European framework agreement on telework. This article thus focuses on the negotiation of telework with reference to enterprise agreements and the new collective agreement.

  5. Development of the body size in stallions of selected Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan NAVRÁTIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the basic body measurements (stick height at withers - KVH, tape height at withers - KVP, chest perimeter - OHR, shin perimeter - OHOL from data available from the 40th years of the 20th century in the Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds. The evaluation included a total of 1,080 stallions aged 2-3 years, used in mating and breeding. Processing and evaluation of a data set was done using Microsoft Office Excel and the statistical program SAS 9.3. Numerous statistically significant differences were found among the evaluated breeds (P < 0.05 to 0.01. The highest values of KVH, KVP and OHR were achieved by stallions of Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse. The increase of the basic dimensions from 40´s years to 70´s – 90´s years was found during a detailed evaluation focusing on decade of stallions’ birth year. After year 2000, there was a dramatic +drop in the values of the fundamental physical dimensions. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 to 0.01 were evaluated primarily between stallions born in the 70´s years, and most other decades. A declining tendency in all assessed dimensions was observed during evaluation of the race and decade interaction effect mainly for the Czech-Moravian Belgian horse stallions born from 70´s, respectively 80´s. Apparent downward trend between the 90´s and stallions born after year 2000 was detected especially for stallions of Silesian Noriker breed. Decline of body size parameters was not observed for stallions of Noriker breed. The more likely slightly increased tendencies for KVH, KVP, OHR and OHOL were determined in Noriker stallions.

  6. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  7. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  8. Chinese Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Juan; LI; Jiazhi; DENG; Zequn; WANG; Changsui

    2004-01-01

    Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain specimens from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties have been systematically analyzed using a nondestructive test method--?energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRF). The derived data of major and trace element compositions have been treated by correspondence analysis. The variation laws of the composition patterns for Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain in different historical periods owing to the change in raw materials, recipe and technology have been discussed, and a time model related to variation of element composition has been preliminarily established, It would be helpful for scientific dating of Jingdezhen blue and white imperial porcelain, and even for the studies on the whole field of identification of ancient ceramics.

  9. Non-motor symptoms in a Flanders-Belgian population of 215 Parkinson’s disease patients as assessed by the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Crosiers, David; Pickut, Barbara; Theuns, Jessie; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Cras, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are frequent, increase the patients’ disability and have an important negative impact on their quality of life. Methods: We used a Dutch translation of the Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest) to identify NMS in a population of 215 Belgian PD patients. Results: A median number of 8 NMS was reported per patient. Urinary urgency (59.2 %), nocturia (56.9 %), insomnia (45.8 %), attention problems (45.5 %) and orthostatism (41...

  10. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  11. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  12. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn;

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom...... for a revision of the two species. Low prevalences were recorded of another entomophthoralean, Furia americana, and of the hyphomycetes Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii....

  13. The Cattle Challenge: Controling Backyard Pollution in North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quoc Chinh

    2005-01-01

    As anyone who has stood in a field of cows will tell you, cattle manure can be a particularly unpleasant pollution problem. In many countries across Southeast Asia, it has become a significant environmental challenge because cattle are being reared in ever-larger ' numbers close to human habitation. In an effort to improve the situation, this study from Vietnam has looked at several pollution control options available to farmers. It finds that pollution caused by cattle husbandry is having a ...

  14. Prevalence of bovine Cysticercosis of Slaughtered Cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir

    OpenAIRE

    Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; M. S. Khosroshahi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata) in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir sh...

  15. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  16. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  17. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  18. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  19. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  20. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  1. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi......Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait...

  2. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  3. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  4. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  5. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  6. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China. PMID:27448954

  7. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  8. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency Medicine," and "FDA Consumer"…

  9. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  10. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  11. Modeling of spectral characteristics of blue LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders

    2010-01-01

    are expected to vary with current and junction temperature. Commercial high power blue LEDs were measured with respect to spectral distribution and chromaticity and the result was compared with the model predictions. We have found that the models predict significantly different results with respect...

  12. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments. PMID:19421486

  13. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  14. Key Words in China Economic Blue Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Fei

    2009-01-01

    @@ With a fluctuating 2008 comes to an end,nOW new 2009 has approaehed to us.Recently、Analvsis and Forecast of China Economy in 2009(Blue Book of Ckina Economy),by the Economics Department or Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  15. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  16. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, E.

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  17. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  18. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While mol

  19. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... undesirable microorganisms. Antimycotics may be applied to the surface of the whole cheese. One or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and...

  20. Another supernova with a blue progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SN 1984A in NGC 3169 showed strong Hα emission which appeared between 2.2 and 23 years before maximum light. The authors suggest that this was produced by sudden mass loss from a blue supergiant. From the intense circumstellar Hα emission at maximum light they estimate that at least 0.4 solar masses of gas had been suddenly expelled