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Sample records for belarus russian federation

  1. MODERN SITUATION AND FORECASTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data the paper compares modern situation and forecasts of electrical power engineering development in the Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation. The paper carries out an analysis of integrated structure of fuel balances of both countries till 2015. The paper notes the fact that thermal power stations (TPS will remain a main generating source till 2020 and gas will continue to be the main type of fuel in the structure of fuel balances. The paper investigates development of technological structures in the electrical power engineering. It has been revealed that one of the main factors that hinders development of the Belarussian power system is the absence of the required financial  mechanisms for obtaining additional investment possibilities. In connection with this fact a special attention should be given to the problems that are directed on improvement of tariff policy and mechanisms of tariff formation.

  2. ECONOMIC COOPERATION BETWEEN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN THE FIELD OF MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strel'chenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the general trends of migration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, briefly describes the main features of the socio-economic development and migration policy of the two countries, including in the context of their cooperation within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union. The article defines the key directions of economic cooperation between Russia and Belarus on migration policies and the promotion of desirable forms of migration. The relevance of the topic chosen due to both diversity and unsystematic legal framework that regulates the various aspects of migration policy and the lack of established legal concepts of migration, the migration process and the migration policy. In addition, in recent years can be seen working mobility growth in the context of globalization, which creates conditions for employment are not only highly qualified professionals in the fields of finance, insurance, banking, communications, and migrant workers employed in agriculture, construction, landscaping, catering, hotel service.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of raw data served as the information contained in scientific, reference, periodical literature on the subject in question, including the sources in the "Internet" information and telecommunications network. The basis of methodological developments laid the comparative methods of analysis and synthesis of the available data.Conclusions / relevance. Supporters of immigration openness believes that the strengthening of migration one of the solutions to the demographic problems of Russia and the problem of replenishment of the labor market. Their opponents believe that immigration creates an excess supply in the labor market, allowing employers to permanently reduce the level of payment of labor and social security, working conditions deteriorate.Practical application of the results of this work will improve the forecasting and

  3. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  4. Belarus,A Rising Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Republic of Belarus is situated in the heart of Europe,in the East the Republic borders the Russian Federation,in the South the Ukraine,in the Wst Poland,and in the North Lithuania and Latvia.Belarus is the gateway between Asia and Europe,bearing strategic importance.In recent years,Belarus has experienced rapid economic growth.

  5. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  6. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

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    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  7. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  8. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  9. FINANCIAL MEGAREGULATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    Ochakovsky V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2013 became year of changes for a financial system of the Russian Federation. On the basis of the Central bank of the Russian Federation there the financial mega-regulator began to work

  10. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  11. 31 CFR 540.304 - Government of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of the Russian Federation...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.304 Government of the Russian Federation. (a) The term Government of the Russian Federation means the Government of the Russian Federation,...

  12. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  13. Ethnodemographic processes in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaz'mina, O E; Puchkov, P I

    1995-01-01

    This is an English translation of the introduction to a textbook on the ethnic demography of the Russian Federation. It explores the intricacies of multiple language groups, ethnic group interspersions, and the existence of small yet self-identifying populations without political territorial status. The political implications of demographic developments affecting ethnic groups, including migration, are also considered.

  14. Russian federal program on transportation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inozemtsev, Vladimir G.

    2002-04-01

    The transportation infrastructure of the Russia is a vast network of automotive ways, railroads, waterways, pipelines and supporting transportation infrastructures. All kinds of modern transportation use high-level technology. It is necessary to apply last scientific achievements for transportation safety and service feature improvements. Scientific and engineering developments of the Russian transportation have been decreased during the last ten years due to economical problems in our country. Russian government, Federal Ministries, and scientific organizations understand inadmissibility of the transportation lag. Therefore, the Federal Program named 'Updating of the Russian transportation system' has been accepted. To provide a modern stage of the transportation system development based on last science achievement it will spend many scientific and industrial resources. Therefore, it is difficult to overestimate development and using of photonic systems for all kinds of the transportation. The First Conference on Photonics for Transportation (1999) was devoted to the state of the art of photonic system application for on ground and aerospace vehicles, navigation, inspection, observation and monitoring equipments for transportation, and novel photonic elements. After that novel approaches on photonics and its applications for transportation have been in Russia.

  15. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  16. Supervising development in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Sizov, Aleksey Valentinovich; Tretyakov, Konstantin Nikolaevich; Boyarko, Grigory Yurievich; Shenderova, Inna Vladimirovna; Shakirov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Supervising has strongly consolidated in the domestic petroleum services market of the Russian Federation. But despite the rapid growth of the supervising services market, there is a definite need for its further development. In the article, the developments of supervising in petroleum industry of the Russian Federation, as well as possible ways of its improvement are considered.

  17. Types of Identification and Intergroup Differentiation in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minescu, Anca; Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The fall of the Soviet Union affected the established identity patterns and intergroup relations in the Russian Federation. A survey investigates the effect of Russians’ and titulars’ identifications with their ethnic group, their republic, and the Russian Federation on intergroup stereotypes.We hyp

  18. RUSSIAN FEDERATION STATE PRIZE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Russian Federation State Prize in the field of Science and Technology for 2009 for "A Set of Scientific Works on the Development of Laser and Information Technologies in Medicine" (Presidential Decree N° 678, dated June 6th, 2010) was awarded jointly to Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, V. Ya. Panchenko; to Doctor of Medical Sciences, Ac...

  19. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  20. SECURITY IMPLICATIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION ENERGY POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA

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    Aneta NOWAKOWSKA-KRYSTMAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Central Asia region in energy market creates certain approach of Russian Federation. It infl uences not only situation in the region but also short and long term prospects of economic development of adjacent regions, i.e. North, East and South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Russian economic policy determines and defi nes certain forms of international cooperation, which, in turn, results in its importance for international political relations. The article points out the essence of Russian Federation policy towards Central Asia and adjacent regions which consists in conducting geo-economic activities determining geo-political activities.

  1. [African swine fever in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I; Grebennikova, T A; Verkhovskiĭ, O A; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Mur, Lina; Nepoklonov, E A; L'vov, D K

    2012-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious viral disease that causes high economic losses due to the necessity of depopulation of pigs in affected areas, sanitary measures, trade restrictions, etc. The virus (ASFV) is relatively stable in the unprocessed meat products and environment. Thus, large areas are at risk due to free movement of people and products. The ASFV does not affect people and animals, except the wild and domestic pigs. Some ticks can become infected and carry the virus for years. Adaptation of the virus by changing into the less virulent form would mean the threat of an endemic situation to the area. The disease is endemic in domestic and wild pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Sardinia, Italy. There is no treatment for ASF, and no vaccine has been developed. In case of infection with less virulent ASFV strains, the recovered pigs could spread the virus as long as their live. In terms of clinical symptoms, ASF is very similar to Classical Swine Fever. The methods of laboratory diagnostics are well developed and efficient for identification of ASFV and virus-specific antibodies. Experience of eradication of ASF in Spain suggests the importance of serological monitoring of pigs. In the spring of 2007, the ASF was detected in the Caucasus region. Same virus was detected in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia. The ASFV circulating in the Caucasus and the Russian Federation is a highly virulent virus. No reduction of the virulence was observed since the first outbreak in Georgia. In the last years, the ASF remained in the Caucasus, southern parts of Russia and appeared occasionally as far as St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg region, and in the area of Nizhny Novgorod. Domestic pigs play an important role in the ASFV spread; they transfer the virus to the wild boars. The virus circulates in the population of wild boars depending on their density in the area. Occasionally, the disease is spread from wild to domestic pigs. There is no evidence of

  2. Strategies of Yota (Scartel - 4G Operator in Russian Federation

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    Netra Pal Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation is one of the high growth markets for telecom services which are expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2013.  With the granting of 4G LTE licenses, it is expected that 4G market in Russian Federation will be dominated by four cellular operators, i.e., MTS, Beeline, and MegaFon, Rostelecom along with two new startups, i.e., Osnova Telecom and Red Telecom (Iladi (2010. In addition, other companies such as Yota, Synterra, COMSTAR, Freshtel etc. are also operating in Russian WiMax & LTE telecom market to provide similar services. This paper is an attempt to analyze some of the parameters of LTE turn Yota WiMax Telecom Operator in Russian Federation. The paper covers current achievements of Yota, its reach in Russian Federation, its network size & technology, its services, expansion plans for future, strategies for survival (in question in a highly competitive market of big companies, and its ultimate fate.

  3. Prospects for the Russian Federation: Center-Regional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Systemic Economic Failure ........................................ 10 b. Creating a Viable Public Finance System ................................... 13 c... public finance , and the creation of a viable system for international trade and investment. a. Avoiding Systemic Economic Failure The first pressing...organized crime). b. Creating a Viable Public Finance System The Russian Federation must create a viable system of public finance , while at the same time

  4. Competitiveness of the Russian Federation in the Global Tourism Market

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    Slavomir Bucher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the tourist industry is one of the fastest growing economic branches of the global economy. For many countries, it brings a significant portion of revenues to their national economies. In the article, the identification and assessment of the secondary data of the World Economic Forum published in The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report are carried out. In the Report, the strengths and weaknesses of some countries in the international tourist market are specified in detail. The plan of the analysis is in a more precise specification of competitiveness indices, which consist of compound indices: I — legal framework; II — business environment and infrastructure; III — human, cultural and natural resources for the Russian Federation and some states of Post-Soviet geopolitical space. The goals of the paper are the evaluation of the 14 factors that affect destination competitiveness and the comparison of the competitiveness levels in the Russian Federation. The paper also aimed to provide an understanding of the Russian position in the international tourism market and provide suggestions in order to improve weaknesses of the country. The competitiveness ranking 2015 for the tourism infrastructure, prioritization of travel and tourism, and national tourism perceptions suggest that Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia rank the top, relative to other former Soviet Union countries in the sample. Since these countries outperform in a tourism infrastructure, it is likely that they continuously try to improve their physical and financial infrastructure for tourists in the country. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Russia to constantly monitoring new trends and occurrences in the international tourism market, which are more diverse needs and demands of the tourist clientele. The findings of this study also shed light on the competitiveness of the Russian Federation operating in the international tourism market. As understood from

  5. 76 FR 61342 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of... magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Preliminary... received a timely allegation of ministerial errors pursuant to 19 CFR 351.224(c) from US Magnesium LLC,...

  6. 76 FR 13128 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty... order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. On February 10, 2011, the ITC determined ] that... Department is revoking the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation....

  7. 76 FR 39847 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation; Final... investigation on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (``ammonium nitrate'') from the Russian Federation...: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation, 64 FR 45236 (August 19, 1999)....

  8. Russian Image on the Federal Republic of Germany Screen

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    Alexander Fedorov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the image of Russia in the screen mirror of the Federal Republic of Germany for: determine the place and role of the image of the USSR and the Russian and Soviet / Russian characters in the movies from the beginning of the postwar German ideological confrontation to 1991 (the collapse of the Soviet Union as compared with the trends of the modern era (1992 – present; identify political, ideological, social and cultural contexts, the main stages of development, concepts, goals, objectives, authors of fiction films themes outlined above; classify and compare trends and stereotypes German films related to the Soviet / Russian theme: ideology, content model, genre modifications (including: socio-political analysis, stereotypes, ideological analysis, identification analysis, the iconographic analysis, narrative analysis, the characters etc..

  9. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  10. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

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    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  11. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, GLOBALIZATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aleshkovski, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In the article, the author analyzes the impact of globalization on the transformation of international migration flows in the Russian Federation. The author considers the features of global trends in international migration in Russia: increasing involvement of Russia and its regions in the international migration, the qualitative changes in the structure of migration flows, the increasing role of international migration as a factor of the country's demographic development.

  12. THE BANKING SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: STATUS AND PROSPECTS

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    L. N. Sotnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The features and current trends in the development of the banking system of the Russian Federation are highlighted in the article. The authors propose an original method of evaluation of activities of credit organizations with the use of statistical data and rating agencies. The concept of the banking system is summarized in this article. Also its structure is analyzed by the number of credit institutions and the quality of their operations. The authors identifie differences between the concepts of banking service, banking operation and banking product and propose classification according to different characteristics of banking institutions and operations that they carry out. Then the authors go to estimating the volume of banking services in Russia and their patterns in total. Separately the main passive (deposits and loans and active operations (lending to legal entities and individuals are characterized. The authors identifie the major developments in the banking system of the Russian Federation in 2014 due to political and economic sanctions by the U.S. and Eurozone countries. The article provides a vision of the authors on the further development of the banking activity in Russia and proposes specific measures to adapt the banking system of the Russian Federation in a constantly changing political and economic conditions (financial sanctions, a change of key Central Bank rates, devaluation, etc.. According to the authors' opinion the expected prospects of development of the banking system of the Russian Federation to 2015 are: the growth in savings accounts in banks; sanctions will be of a personal nature and will not affect the largest credit institutions; the active growth of the corporate loan portfolio will continue; the growth of retail lending portfolio will continue to slow; mortgage lending will increase in the total loan portfolio of the banking sector of Russia.

  13. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation--a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Migliorini, Luigi

    2013-01-23

    The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia's economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia's approval of a "National Tobacco Control Concept" and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia's tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts.

  14. Judicial system of the Russian Federation: reforming errors

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    Gaydidey Yu.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of considering problems of modern Russian judicial system and judicial policy is emphasized. The author proves the necessity to study the judicial system of our country in detail. The content of judicial system is analyzed and its structural elements are described. Factors determining the structure of national judicial system are characterized. The main feature of the Russian judicial system is noted, notably: centralization (there is no independent judicial authority in regions except constitutional justice. Considering the judicial system as hierarchically structured set of courts is too simplified and is not conformable to modern justice tasks. The ways of optimizing the system of courts as well as the judicial system of the Russian Federation are proposed. Interim results of the reform in the form of abolishment of the RF Supreme Arbitration Court are negatively evaluated. Intraorganizational transformations have substituted the evolutionary development of the judicial system and the necessity to improve the justice itself. The author confirms that development of relevant draft bill was not accompanied by conducting public researches, studying statistical data, and making general conclusions, proving the efficiency of establishing an integrated supreme court. Threats and challenges to law order are ignored. Supreme courts integration has virtually established a new judicial system, though the proper legal base for it has not been developed. The viewpoints of researchers, warning against negative effects of such reform, are provided. It is concluded that the law under study does not meet present demands of the Russian judicial system.

  15. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ACCORDING TO RUSSIAN ARTHRITIS REGISTRY DATA (COMMUNICATION I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the materials of the Russian Arthritis Registry (OREL that includes 3276 patients from 11 Russian Federation's largest research-and-practical centers situated in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Tula, Yaroslavl, Tyumen. It discusses the main goals of setting up registries, compares the results of an analysis of the data available in the Russian Registry OREL and registries of European countries and the USA. The findings suggest that there is non-uniform information on clinical, laboratory, and instrumental parameters in the national registers of a number of European countries and the USA. According to its basic characteristics, the Russian Registry OREL compares favorably with a number of other registries in the completeness of data collection, which allows a general idea of rheumatoidarthritis (RA patients in Russia. For further development of the OREL Registry, it is necessary to concentrate our attention on the following main areas: to improve the quality of filling out documents; to follow-up patients receiving different RA therapy regimens according to the guidelines of the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia for the treatment of RA; to conduct in-depth studies of comorbidity, primarily depressive disorders; to analyze adverse reactions that make RA therapy difficult; to actively use modules for patients' self-rating of their condition; to develop nursing care, etc.

  16. 77 FR 65532 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice of Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice... the antidumping duty order on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) from the... Administrative Review: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate) from the Russian...

  17. Systematic Approach to Modernization of the Russian Federal Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the regional and municipal opportunities of spa- tial development modernization in the Russian Federation. In the post-crisis period, it is necessary to facilitate the innovative processes and society oriented state develop- ment to give way to the steady transition from the regional policy to the federal state structure, which requires scientifically based decision making in all the directions of social development. The author considers the ideology of such transition and recom- mends using the systematic approach to choosing priorities and development institu- tions. Several perspective factors such as education and science are analyzed in the context of systematic regional and territorial development along with the necessity for program-project modernization of the federal state structure. The following new insti- tutions for regional development are proposed: regional and municipal self-deve- lopment, business territories, program-project planning of spatial development. 

  18. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation. 

  19. Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation": Conditions of Adoption and Development Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Korobeynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the Federal Law "On Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" in 1992 took place in a tough fight in the time of privatization and restructuring. At this time, revealed numerous violations. Prosecution authorities stood on the position of the rule of law and the interests of the state, has become a serious obstacle to the forces that destroy the state and its economy. In the 90 years of the twentieth century, the prosecutor's office declined status in the society, which is reflected in the text of the new Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993, containing only one, 129 article devoted to the prosecuting authorities, while there were five (Article in the Constitution of the USSR of such articles . 164, 165, 166, 167, 168. Also, the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" does not include an article on the problems of supervision in this direction, as well as Art. 30 "to arrest". These changes to the law the prosecutor's office indicate the desire of the legislator to downplay the independence of the prosecution and its role in countering the massive violation of the law of the initial period of "perestroika". The role of politics in the legal regulation of the activities of the prosecutor's office is determined by the law "On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation" and the insertion in the amended. The activities of the prosecution authorities, the powers of prosecutors are regulated by criminal procedure, civil procedure, arbitration procedure and other legislation, which varies due to the effects of many political reasons.

  20. 78 FR 77423 - Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Russian Federation and Venezuela: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 49471 (August 14, 2013) (``Initiation Notice''). \\2\\ See id., 78 FR at 49474. As explained in the memorandum from the... International Trade Administration Ferrosilicon From the Russian Federation and Venezuela: Postponement...

  1. The Russian Federation and the Arctic Sunrise Case: Hot Pursuit and Other Issues under the LOSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, A.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090439309

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Sunrise case was brought unilaterally by the Netherlands against the Russian Federation under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on October 4, 2013 after the Russian Federation had boarded the vessel and arrested it and its crew. The article discusses the subsequent

  2. 77 FR 73979 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Reinstated Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Reinstated Final... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation covering the period April 1, 2006... Corp. v. United States, 688 F.3d 751 (Fed. Cir. 2012) (AVISMA IV); see also Magnesium Metal from...

  3. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was produced and exported by MCC EuroChem (EuroChem). The...

  4. 78 FR 46571 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). The period of...: Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is solid urea. The product is...

  5. 78 FR 67335 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation (Russia). For the final results, we continue to... solid urea from Russia.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on the Preliminary Results....

  6. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was produced and exported by MCC EuroChem (EuroChem). The...

  7. Influence of the Participatory Budgeting on the Infrastructural Development of the Territories in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…

  8. Hepatitis C in the Russian Federation: challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukomolov, Sergey; Trifonova, Galina; Levakova, Irina; Bolsun, Daria; Krivanogova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Official registration of HCV infections in the Russian Federation started in 1994. Two clinical forms of infection - acute and chronic hepatitis C - are registered separately. Moreover, the HCV national surveillance system also includes reports from laboratories on results from testing ∼20 population risk groups for antibodies to HCV; approximately 15-16 million tests are performed annually. Modern epidemiological features of HCV infection in the Russian Federation are characterized by low incidence of the acute form of infection (acute HCV; one to two per 100,000) and a dramatic increase in chronic HCV (CHCV) cases. In 2013, the average nationwide rate of newly detected CHCV cases was 39.3/100,000. In the same year, the prevalence of CHCV demonstrating an accumulation of chronically infected patients in the country was much higher - 335.8/100,000. Four risk groups were identified as greatly affected by HCV, which were demonstrated by a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV: newborns from chronically infected women, persons from correctional facilities, patients with chronic liver diseases, and clients from clinics for sexually transmitted disease patients and drug users. It was found that several HCV genotypes circulated in different regions of the country; HCV1b had a prevalence of 55%-80% in almost every part of the country. However, in St Petersburg during the final decade of the last century and from 2001-2005, HCV3a subtype expanded circulation among young people due to increased intravenous drug addiction. Intravenous drug users were the major cause of a higher registration of double infection, with two different virus subtypes, and the appearance in Russia of new recombinant virus RF_2k/1b. It can be concluded that CHCV infection should be a focus of the health care system in Russia because serious epidemics of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma will be

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF EXPORT PORTFOLIO CURRENCY STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Коrоbiyna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of currency portfolio structure of export industrial enterprises in the Republic of Belarus, by which we shall understand a currency structure of export contracts of an international enterprise, is considered as one of the most important problems in the financial management of an enterprise. Statement and analysis of industrial enterprise alternative costs and simultaneous investigation of tendencies pertaining to changes in the exchange rates give the possibility (under other equal status to reduce non-systematic risks in foreign trade. Diversification of industrial enterprise currency portfolios with the purpose to decrease financial risks and with due account of exchange rate correlation can lead to an increase of payments in Russian currency and Eurocurrency under enterprise export contracts. The given changes decrease currency risks in the foreign trade however they entail possible increase of the export share of products to the Russian Federation in total export volume of the Republic of Belarus that increases dependence of the Republic of Belarus on the Russian Federation as the main foreign trade partner.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY FROM EXTERNAL CAUSES IN ST. PETERSBURG, NORTHWEST FEDERAL DISTRICT AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Vorontsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mortality rate of St. Petersburg population from external causes in 2010–2015 in comparison with similar indicators for the Northwest Federal District and the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. The authors used the following data for analysis: annual long-term monitoring of St. Petersburg trauma services status conducted by coordination and methodological center of trauma and orthopedics; government reporting on mortality; data of Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat; data of St.Petersburg Statistics Service (Petrostat; data of St. Petersburg Medical Information Analysis Center (MIAС; studies on mortality issues as well as methods of descriptive statistics. Results. From 2003 to 2014 St. Petersburg population mortality rate demonstrated a steady decline as well as generally in Russia. 2015 featured a slight increase in absolute number of deaths per year (+1.2% in St.Petersburg, while the similar indicator across the Russian Federation was still declining (-5.9%. In 2015 mortality from external causes in St. Petersburg constituted 68 deaths per 100 thousand inhabitants, which is 1.6 times less than in the Northwest federal district (109.6 per 100 thousand inhabitants, and 1.7 times less than in the Russian Federation – 112 per 100 thousand population. In the overall mortality structure of St. Petersburg population the external causes have been consistently occupying third place within recent years. In 2015 the proportion of deaths from external causes in general mortality amounted to 5.7%. Conclusions. According to official statistics since 2000 in St. Petersburg the mortality rate from all the major external causes reduced gradually, as well as in the Northwest federal district and on the whole in Russia. Various national and regional programs that have been rolled out in Russia allowed to reduce by half the mortality of working age population from homicide and from suicide by

  11. The phylodynamics of the rabies virus in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N.; Poleshchuk, Elena M.; Dedkov, Vladimir G.; Tkachev, Sergey E.; Sidorov, Gennadiy N.; Karganova, Galina G.; Galkina, Irina V.; Shchelkanov, Mikhail Yu.; Shipulin, German A.

    2017-01-01

    Near complete rabies virus N gene sequences (1,110 nt) were determined for 82 isolates obtained from different regions of Russia between 2008 and 2016. These sequences were analyzed together with 108 representative GenBank sequences from 1977–2016 using the Bayesian coalescent approach. The timing of the major evolutionary events was estimated. Most of the isolates represented the steppe rabies virus group C, which was found over a vast geographic region from Central Russia to Mongolia and split into three groups (C0-C2) with discrete geographic prevalence. A single strain of the steppe rabies virus lineage was isolated in the far eastern part of Russia (Primorsky Krai), likely as a result of a recent anthropogenic introduction. For the first time the polar rabies virus group A2, previously reported in Alaska, was described in the northern part of European Russia and at the Franz Josef Land. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all currently circulating rabies virus groups in the Russian Federation were introduced within the few last centuries, with most of the groups spreading in the 20th century. The dating of evolutionary events was highly concordant with the historical epidemiological data. PMID:28225771

  12. [The HIV infection situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate current trends in the development of an epidemic process of HIV infection in Russia. Case report forms entering the Federal Research Methodology Center for AIDS Prevention and Control of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, were analyzed. In Russia, the HIV epidemic is on the rise; both the absolute number of people with HIV infection and its rate in the population are increasing. Compared with 2000, there is a shift of the epidemic to older age groups (30-40 years); there are increases in the proportion of women among new HIV-infected cases and in the number of babies born to HIV-positive mothers. Injection drug use remains a major risk factor for HIV transmission; the number of people infected through heterosexual intercourse continues to rise every year. The main reason for a more widespread HIV epidemic is the very low coverage of both vulnerable groups and the general population with prevention programs.

  13. Financial Support of Tour Operator Activities: Issues of Implementation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Valeryevna Zavyalova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studying the issues of implementation of financial support of tour operator activities in the Russian Federation, which have so far impeded the guaranteeing of protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian tourists at a proper level, allows to formulate practical recommendations and suggestions for improvement of Russian legislation in order to enhance the efficiency of legal regulation of tourism field and protection of rights and legitimate interests of Russian citizens. The article presents a comparative study of the Russian financial guarantee institution and its foreign analogues, defines the causes of emergence of the institution of financial support of tour operator activities in Russian legislation and imposition of a prohibition on tour operator activities. We have come to the conclusion that acknowledgment of financial support of tour operator activities as financial guarantees of tour operator’s liability. Analysis of current Russian legislation allowed to detect its contradictions and develop practical recommendations for improvement of Russian tourism legislation. In particular, it allowed to draw a conclusion of the need to eliminate the non-conformance of standards of article 17.6 of the Federal law NO 132-FZ “On foundations of tourist activity in the Russian Federation” (“Tourist activity law” further on issued on 24.11.1996 to the standards of item 1 of article 48; item 1 of article 53; item 1, item 3 of article 56; article 402 of the Civil code of the Russian Federation (part one; federal law № 51-FZ issued on 30.11.1994 (the Civil code of the Russian Federation.

  14. Inference of the Russian drug community from one of the largest social networks in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, L.J.; Yakushev, A.V.; Duijn, P.A.C.; Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The criminal nature of narcotics complicates the direct assessment of a drug community, while having a good understanding of the type of people drawn or currently using drugs is vital for finding effective intervening strategies. Especially for the Russian Federation this is of immediate concern giv

  15. International Field School on Permafrost: Yenisei, Russian Federation - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, K. E.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2013-12-01

    The International Field School on Permafrost was established in Russia as part of International Polar Year activities. The first course was offered in 2007 in Northwestern Siberia and attracted students from Russia, Germany, and the United States. Over the past seven years undergraduate and graduate students representing eight different countries in North America, Europe, and Asia have participated in the field school. This annual summer field course visits different regions of the Russian Arctic each year, but the three course foci remain consistent, which are to make in depth examinations of, 1) natural permafrost characteristics and conditions, 2) field techniques and applications, and 3) engineering practices and construction on permafrost. During these field courses students participate in excursions to local museums and exhibitions, meet with representatives from local administrations, mining and construction industries, and learn field techniques for complex permafrost investigations, including landscape and soil descriptions, temperature monitoring, active-layer measurements, cryostratigraphy, and more. During these courses students attend an evening lecture series by their professors and also give presentations on various regionally oriented topics of interest, such as the local geology, climate, or historical development of the region. This presentation will relate this summer's (July 2013) field course which took place in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia. The course took place along a bioclimatic transect from south to north along the Yenisei River and featured extended stays in the cities of Igarka and Noril'sk. This year's students (undergraduate, masters, and one PhD student) represented universities in the United States, Canada, and the Russian Federation. The organization of this course was accomplished through the cooperation of The George Washington University's Department of Geography and the Lomonosov Moscow State University

  16. 76 FR 56396 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian...) published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on...

  17. [THE PRESENT STATE OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL MONITORING OF THE NATURAL FOCI OF INFECTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trankvilevsky, D V; Tsarenko, V A; Zhukov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The facilities of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare play a leading role in epizootological monitoring. The specialists (zoologists and entomologists) of Hygiene and Epidemiology Centers do basic work in the subjects of the Russian Federation. The data obtained in the participation of different ministries and departments are used to analyze the results of monitoring. The latter is one of the important steps in the management of the epidemic, process in natural focal infections. In recent years, there has been an unjustified reduction in the volume of studies in the natural foci. This negatively affects the reliability of estimates and predictions of the epidemic activity of the natural foci of infections. Ensuring the national, security of the Russian Federation, epidemiological surveillance, and control of its natural foci requires staffing and appropriate professional training in the zoological and entomological subdivisions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare.

  18. BACTERIOCINS AND BACTERIOPHAGE LYTIC PROTEINS AS ALTERNATIVES TO ANTIBIOTICS FROM RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND USA COLLABORATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel anti-microbial peptides (bacteriocins) were isolated and characterized in collaborative research between PMSRU, ARS-USDA scientists and representatives of the State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (SRCAMB) in Obolensk, Russian Federation. The bacteriocins are effect...

  19. Does nativity matter?: Correlates of immigrant health by generation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Buckley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation has experienced simultaneous declines in health and rises in international migration. Guided by the "healthy migrant effect" found elsewhere, we examine two questions. First, do the foreign-born in the Russian Federation exhibit better overall health than the native-born? Second, to the extent positive health selectivity exists, is it transferred to the second generation? Using the first wave of the Russian Generations and Gender Survey, our findings support the idea of positive health selection among international migrants from non-Slavic regions. The effect of migrant status, regardless of origin, diminishes when age, sex, and native language are taken into account.

  20. 76 FR 52731 - Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Bilateral Assistance Relating to the Government of the Russian Federation Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the laws of the United States, including Section 7074(b) of the Department...

  1. [The Federal Law "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation" and the issues of management of medical care quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbraten, A P

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of main statutory provisions of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No 323-FZ of 21.11.2011 "On the fundamentals of health protection of citizen in the Russian Federation", concerning the issue of medical care quality.

  2. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  3. The definition of human rights risks destabilizing the constitutional order in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhornik Anna Maksimova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of functioning of the Russian state is directly connected with the security of the constitutional order challenges of the modern time, adversely affecting the constitutional order demand new scientific approaches to their solution not only in theory but mostly in practice. In this regard the subject of the article acted as the totality of constitutional norms pertaining to human rights risks destabilizing the constitutional order in the Russian Federation. The article presents an overview of the Russian legislation allowing correlation of the previously proposed in legal science concept “destabilization”, and the term “human rights risks” in relation to the constitutional order. The authors not only implemented the definition of the claimed concept but also identified and listed the specific types of human rights risks destabilizing the constitutional order in the Russian Federation and proposals for their minimization.

  4. 76 FR 17380 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010....

  5. 77 FR 17410 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation for the period...

  6. Contemporary mass media and the communication of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Poberezhskaya, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the media coverage of anthropogenic climate change in the Russian Federation. It achieves this aim by testing Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky's Propaganda Model (1988) which argues that media coverage predominately stays within the boundaries defined by the 'elite's' interests. Through media analysis as well as elite interviews, this project has found that in the Russian case, regardless of the newspapers' ownership structure or dependence on advertising, there is li...

  7. The Effectiveness of Direct Trade between China and Near-Border Subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vyasheslavovich Zharikov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the mutual international settlements between Russia (i.e. its border regions and China in yuans. An advantage of such settlements is determined by the amount of money which can be spared by the Russian importers of Chinese products in case of direct trade.  The topic of the article encompasses the analysis of export-import operations and national currencies’ use, in particular, the yuan, in the cross-border settlements between Russia and China. The objective of this article is to reveal the role of China in the international activities of the Russian near-border regions on the basis of the analysis of export and import statistics database. The hypothesis of this article is that the dynamics of Chinese imports to the Russian nearborder regions correlates with the amount of the yuans traded on the Moscow Stock Exchange. The article produces forecasts of Chinese imports to the Russian near-border regions and the amount of money, which can be spared by the Russian importers in the case of a transition in bilateral settlements to the yuan. The outcomes of the article include the calculated indicators of the efficiency of the direct trade between China and Russia and of the coverage of Chinese imports in the Russian near-border regions by the yuan. The findings of this article are recommended to Russian inporters as a reference point to increase the profitability of export-import operations with China, and to federal and local governments to create the Russian external economic strategy. The authors comes to the conclusion that if the Chinese imports to the Russian border region were in the yuan, then the yuans volume of trade on the Russian foreign exchange market would allow the direct settlements with China.

  8. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A. YE. [Department of project management TENEX, 26, Staromonetnyi Per., 109180 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on {sup U}tilization of atomic energy{sup ;} Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on {sup E}nvironmental protection{sup ;} The new Federal Law {sup O}n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation{sup .} (author)

  9. [Molecular taxonomic identification of Trichinella spp. from the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Bukina, L A; Khiliuta, N V; Spiridonov, S É

    2013-01-01

    Epizootological surveys on the Arctic coasts of the Russian Federation revealed 8 terrestrial andmarine mammal species that were Trichinella carriers. The infection rate varied with the animal species from 1.6 to 92.8%. Analysis of the taxonomic affiliation of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of the terrestrial and marine mammals indicated that the Trichinella species T. nativa was widespread in the arctic areas of the Russian Federation. Analysis of sequences in the Cob gene of mtDNA revealed nucleotide differences between several isolates of this species.

  10. Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (white raincoat) visiting the CMS crystal laboratory with (from l. to r.) Ph. Bloch, N. Koulberg, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; F. Grichaev and A.N. Skrinsky. Photo 02: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (centre) visiting the CMS crystal laboratory with (from l. to r.) N. Koulberg, M. Koutchina, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; F. Grichaev, Ph. Bloch, A.N. Skrinsky, A. Petrov, V. Stanislavov.

  11. CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Budanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the approaches to evaluation of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation on the basis of the accumulation of capital. Features of reproduction process in the 2000th years are marked out. The main mechanisms providing investment growth and possibility of their improvement in the long term are considered. Options for assessing the prospects of economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation by criteria of increase in profi tability of investments and volume of savings are offered.

  12. INFLUENCE OF LABOUR MIGRATION PROCESSES ON THE QUALITY OF HUMAN CAPITAL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Volodin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to identify the impact of labour migration processes on the quality of human capital. Methods For researching the methods and forms of migration capital’s impact on the formation of a new quality of human capital, a systematic approach is applied. In order to identify the imbalance in the distribution of labour resources among the regions of the Russian Federation and to assess migration processes, analytical and synthetic as well as statistical and comparative methods were applied. In order to help to visualise the identified economic and statistical dependencies, graphic images are provided. Results The essence of migration processes in the era of economic turbulence is revealed. The main share of labour migrants in the overall structure of migratory flows to the Russian Federation are labour migrants from the CIS countries; the main reasons for this situation are established. The factors of Russia’s high migration attractiveness are identified and the basic migratory process management tasks are defined. Among the main tasks of migration process management are: ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation; preservation, maintenance and improvement of comfort, well-being and quality of life of the Russian Federation population; solving the problems of stability and growth of the permanent population of the Russian Federation; creating conditions for the full satisfaction of the high-quality labour resource needs of the Russian economy, attracting labour migrants from highly developed countries; formation of conditions for the transition to sustainable development based on the introduction of scientific and technological progress and the creation of competitive industries. Conclusion The paper suggests three scenarios for the development of migration processes in Russia: inertial, realistic and optimistic. Improvements in the quality of migration capital can be achieved through the

  13. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  14. 76 FR 47143 - Opportunity for U.S. Businessmen and Women To Train in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Russian Federation AGENCY: International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC.... Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke and Russian Minister of Economic Development Elvira Nabiullina signed a... through the Federal Resource Center, an agency of the Ministry of Economic Development of the...

  15. 78 FR 73827 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the Russian Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003... of the Antidumping Duty Suspension Agreement, 78 FR 61333 (October 3, 2013) and accompanying Decision... Russian Federation; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Enforcement...

  16. 76 FR 12938 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation. See Magnesium Metal From the...

  17. 76 FR 13355 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Notice of Court Decision Not in... amending the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium metal... antidumping duty order on magnesium metal from the Russian Federation for the period of review (POR) April...

  18. 76 FR 19747 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Final Results of the...) initiated the third sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the Russian Federation... the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on solid urea...

  19. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited... silicon metal from the Russian Federation.\\1\\ The Department finds that revocation of this antidumping...-0197. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on silicon metal from...

  20. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  1. Changing Symbolic and Geographical Boundaries between Penal Zones and Rural Communities in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallot, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The article examines the processes involved in the integration of the USSR's secret places into mainstream rural society in the Russian Federation. Taking the example of one rural district in the Volga-Ural region that has been the site of a large prison complex over a period of ninety years, the article examines how economic changes and local…

  2. Family Formation Trajectories in Romania, the Russian Federation and France : Towards the Second Demographic Transition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Lesnard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This study examines family formation trajectories as a manifestation of the second demographic transition (SDT) in three countries, comparing and contrasting two post-socialist countries (Romania and the Russian Federation) with France as benchmark country advanced in the SDT. By examining combined

  3. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  5. To the Question of the Russian Federation Law "About the International Commercial Arbitration" Сhanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Sitkareva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL has prepared a Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration (1985, which became the main legislation on arbitration for nearly 70 countries, including Russian Federation, and, thereby, set world legislation standards for arbitration. A number of other international instruments were adopted. In the present article authors consider questions of international law and national regulatory activities of international commercial arbitration tribunals in general, as well as present detail of the provisions of law introduced to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on amendments to the Law of the Russian Federation "On International Commercial Arbitration", which is aimed to align provisions of Russian legislation on international commercial arbitration with internationally recognized legislative approaches on key aspects of international commercial arbitration management practice. Author illustrates process of bill consideration and provide detailed characterization of the proposed changes. In addition to considering proposed innovations, authors critically analyze possible implications of the bill as amended and present opinions of specialists, experts, jurists, as well as represent their own justification.

  6. Molecular-genetic analysis of field isolates of Avian Leucosis Viruses in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial poultry farms in 14 regions of Russian Federation were monitored for avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection using virus isolation tests and serology. Results indicated the presence of two subgroups of ALV in farms located in 11 of 14 regions. Analysis of the genomes of 12 field isolates of...

  7. 76 FR 78885 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Urea From the Russian Federation and Ukraine: Continuation of... International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from the... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine,\\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930,...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Azizova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main purpose of the present work is the analysis of the situation in the field of education for sustainable development on the territory of the Russian Federation. We believe it appropriate to begin its consideration with the scientific and organizational principles of education for sustainable development.Location. Russian FederationMethods. Analytical review of current scientific, technical, normative and methodological literature that raises the issue of education for sustainable development in the Russian Federation Results. The transition to the new doctrine of education for sustainable development is particularly important on the path to "Sustainable development". However, it should be noted that the existing in our country, the progress in education for sustainable development does not yet meet modern requirements.Main conclusions. Developed strategic planning documents on education for sustainable development with the support of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation still has not gained official status. All this contrasts with the situation in most foreign countries and does not correspond to the declared national policy objectives in the field of education.

  9. The Role of Technical and Vocational Education in the Education System of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I.; And Others

    The deep economic and social problems associated with the Russian Federation's move to a market economy have extended to Vocational Education (VE). Nearly 50% of 1994's VE graduates could not get a job, and Russia's new constitution has thrown vocational schools into the market without any state support, thereby forcing many schools to become…

  10. Territorial Distribution of the Population in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Vladimirovich Andreev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1931, Robert Gibrat found that the number of the employees of a firm and urban population follow the lognormal distribution. Numerous studies results show that the Gibrat’s law provides a basis for the analysis of the dynamics of the number of the employees of mature and large firms, which have already carved out a niche. Furthermore, the Gibrat’s law allows analyzing the dynamics and laws of the spatial distribution of the population of different countries in a case if their socioeconomic development is sustainable and equilibrium. The purpose of the study is testing the Gibrat’s law for Russian cities and towns of different sizes. If the Gibrat’s law is valid, we can conclude that the spatial distribution of the population in the country is equilibrium and the labour distribution is close to optimal. The opposite result demonstrates the imbalance between the allocation of manufacture and labour force. The author took 2010 national census results as source data. I have tested the hypothesis of the lognormal law of population distribution in Russia over different cities and towns using the Pearson fitting criterion with the value a = 0,05. The results of the study have shown that the distribution of the population over Russia does not follow the Gibrat’s law. As a result, the distribution of the population is uneven, which translates into the significant labour migration from settlements with the small population to large cities. The knowledge of the laws of the territorial distribution of the population and driving factors of population mobility is of importance for the development and implementation of effective socio-economic policy in the country. The definition of the population distribution imbalance over various population centers and the development of recommendations for the creation and optimal location of new production in the country may be the promising area for future research. The study of spatial clustering of

  11. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF ARCHIVE’S INFORMATISATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (1991 ‒ EARLY 2000s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Yumasheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the second phase of informatization of archives in the Russian Federation, the beginning of which coincided with the period of «microcomputer revolution» turn of 1980‒ 1990, and the end ‒ with the adoption of the Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society 2000. On the basis of extensive complex of the historical sources (more than 1500 sources, including: the Government of the Russian Federation official documents, reports of research work performed by VNIIDAD’s employees in the development of the Concept and the first (pilot Program of the Russian Archives Informatization, dissertation research, articles published by archivists and historians at that time, the author traces the main trends of research, which allowed to form a single systematic approach to the archive sector and identify key areas of archive’s informatization. These areas are: the organization of the automated acquisition and recording of Archival fund of the Russian Federation documents; the tasks and use in electronic document publishing environment; the use of automated means to conduct research and methodical works in the archives; automation of management of archival institutions. The implementation of these directions has been concretized in the framework of 1996, the Informatization Program and included such practical steps as the computerization of the archives, the development and implementation of industry-wide software systems to automate archive’s processes; the creation of thematic information resources (databases on the basis of the first time introduced into scientific circulation complexes of archival documents and the establishment of industry-wide internet portal «Russian Archives». The solution of these tasks will allow to recognize the pilot Program of the russian archive’s informatisation done and proceed to the next stage of implementation of information technology in the practice of archives.

  12. TRENDS IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors, which influence the formation of the market of poultry production. Agricultrual producers have developed diversified business channels, which depend on the nature of the economic interests of the owners of farms, local market conjuncture, the level of development of its own product processing and logistics structures. The growing share of imports has created a tangible threat to food security and the increasing dependence of megalopolises and big cities on import, in addition long-term relationaships have been destroyed within the existing socialist system, increased prices disparity. Only at the beginning of the 21st century Russian poultry industry started to get rid of the consequences of liberal market reforms. In many ways, the development of industry were contributed by the realization of the priority national project «Development of agriculture» and by the State program of development of agriculture and regulation of markets for agricultural products, raw materials and food for 2008-2012. However, the modernization of poultry subcomplex was mainly catching and accompanied by increasing dependence on imports cross, equipment, premixes and feed. Poultry organizations have high debt on loans, subsidies for reimbursement of the cost of interest com unevenly, putting poultry farms in a disastrous situation. In 2014, Russia has 21 region – poultry donor (where the volume of domestic production exceeds consumption and 61 recipient regions (where the volume of domestic production is less than consumption

  13. Development of the work on fuel cells in the Ministry for Atomic Energy of Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubovin, B.Y.; Novitski, E.Z.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes research on fuel cells in the Russian Federation. The beginning of the practical work on fuel cells in Russia dates back to the 50`s and 60`s when the Ural Electrochemical Plant and the Ural Electromechanical Plant of the Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR, all Russian Research Institute of the power sources and many other institutes of the Ministry of Electrotechnical Industry of the USSR got to the development of the alkaline fuel cells for the spaceships according to the tasks of the SPC `Energy` and for the submarines on the tasks of the Ministry of Defense.

  14. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with (from left to right) F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation and R. Cashmore. Photo 02: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation.

  15. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, P.A. [State Environment Protection Committee of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation`s forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  16. [Analysis of regulatory basis for organization of clinical nutrition in medical institutions of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'ian, V A; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Pogozheva, A V; Plotnikova, O A

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes regulatory basis for organization of clinical nutrition in medical institutions of Russia. It is shown that the strategy of therapeutic measures in acute and chronic diseases a central place to take dietary therapy with adequate provision of energy and plastic body's needs, correction of metabolic disorders and risk factors for comorbidity. Prior to the confirmation of the order of Ministry of Health of Russia from 05.08.2003, No 330 "On measures to improve nutritional care in health care institutions in the Russian Federation" clinical nutrition in medical institutions was based on the nosological principle, in the form of daily diet--a diet designed for each concrete Diseases which are identified by a number from 1 to 15. According to the order of Ministry of Health of Russia from 05.08.2003, No 330 in the health care practice has introduced a new range of diets (system standard diets), which is based on the principle of adapting the chemical composition and energy value of the diet to the individual clinical and pathogenic features of the disease and combines previously used diet numbering system. It is shown that the organization of clinical nutrition should be based on common requirements imposed on the federal level and at the level of the subject of the Russian Federation. In order to optimize clinical nutrition is necessary to determine the methodological approaches to personalization through the introduction of diet in health care practice of modern innovative technologies health food, performing preventive and treatment of the problem (implementation of Article 39 of the Federal Law of 21.11.2011 No 323--FZ "On the basis of health protection in the Russian Federation", the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 25.10.2010 No 1873-r "On the basis of the state policy in the field of nutrition to 2020 year").

  17. On the modernization of public production in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gezevich Aganbegyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a number of key areas of economic modernization - modernization of property, modernization of financial system, modernization of regional governance and modernization of social sphere. The problems that arise in these areas and their solutions are noted. Disclosure of modernization of the real sector of the economy is made. Mechanisms of technological renovation and restructuring, the sources of the rapid modernization of public production are defined. Modernization of property includes: mass privatization of state property, aimed at its commercial use and creation of favorable economic environment for small business development. Modernization of the financial system must follow the path of reducing the tax burden on business and increasing the role of banks (assets of the banks should not be less than 150% of GDP. Technological upgrade in the real sector will allow raising productivity by 2-3 times in the next 7-10 years, to halve energy intensity of GDP, to create material conditions for manufacturing of innovative products. The restructuring will help diversify the economic structure and exports, create competitive advantages for taking leading position in the field of aerospace engineering, production and export of electricity and electric machine manufacturing products, production of finished goods made from synthetic materials of forest products over time to become the world's leader. A prerequisite condition of rapid modernization are doubling investment rate on the basis of large-scale privatization, redemption of government bonds, formation of the Russian market funds of "long" money (funded pensions, insurance, mutual funds and development of banking system.

  18. Speculation about Options for Teen Tobacco Use Cessation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Andrey

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes prevalence and consequences, recent policies, prevention and cessation efforts, recent developmental work (focus groups, and speculation about the current status of cigarette smoking in the Russian Federation. Unique aspects of modern Russian society are suggested as leading to relatively high prevalence internationally of smoking among Russian males. Similar factors may lead to deflated smoking cessation attempt and quit rates. We believe that the future of tobacco control in Russia is close, but that it will involve raising the prices of tobacco products, enforcing no tobacco use policies among minors, ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and implementation of evidenced-based tobacco use prevention and cessation programs.

  19. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  20. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2013 6th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the state and prospects of the development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2013. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the register in 2013 in the Russian Federation functioned 35 centers of kidney transplantation, 15 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation included more than 4000 potential recipients that makes 15–16% of total number of the patients receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity made 2,9 per million population (pmp. Effi ciency of donor programs continues to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2013 increased to 72,4%, the share of multiorgan explantation increased to 52,9%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2,6. The rate of kidney transplantation made 6,5 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 1,9 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1,1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The signifi cant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half of all kidney transplantations and 70% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. In 2013 Ministry of Health of Russia continued development of the new federal law «On donation of human organs and their transplantation». Under the auspices of the Russian Transplant Society 11 clinical guidelines about organ donation and transplantation were developed and approved. Together with earlier approved

  1. Governmental structure of the Russian Federation with respect to environmental and energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, R.V.; Reistroffer, E.L. [Environmental Planning Group, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL (United States); Edgar, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

    1992-09-01

    An investigation was conducted by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., to provide an overview of the structure of government environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. The investigation was undertaken to provide a baseline of information to the US Department of Energy (DOE), so that technologies applicable to DOE environmental restoration and monitoring programs can be identified, tested, and transferred. Data for the report were collected through a network of Russian and American sources knowledgeable about environmental and energy programs in the Russian Federation. Sources of information included both US and Russian government personnel, nongovernmental organizations, private consultants, and experts from the academic and scientific communities. The peculiarities of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) remain prevalent in the structure of the Newly Independent States, especially in Russia. The legacy of communism is visible in all aspects of society, most particularly in the extreme environmental degradation that has resulted from careless central planning and policies of forced industrialization. Reforms initiated under Mikhail Gorbachev during the period of Perestroika were aimed at shifting power from the party to the respective government organs. In 1992 the Commonwealth of Independent States was created, joining 11 of the 15 republics into a loose federation. The investigation undertaken by the Environmental Planning Group, Inc., focused on the executive organs of the present Russian government in an effort to define key ministries with environmental and energy responsibilities. The structure of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (Minpriroda) and the Ministry of Atomic Power (Minatom) are presented. The Academy of Sciences and other ministries that have relevance to the transfer of technologies are discussed, as well as research institutions in which technologies appropriate to DOE programs are likely to reside.

  2. Implementation and Sustainability of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LataPhD, Vasiliy [Aspect Conversion; Coates, Cameron W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD is at the stage of implementation. Sustaining the program is of major significance for long term success. This paper will discuss the elements of the RF PRP and the equipment needs for implementation. Program requirements, documentation needs, training, and assurances of appropriate equipment use will be addressed.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  4. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002 of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  5. What does a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sales statistics give the Russian Federation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data obtained by Pharmexpert on the sales of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the Russian Federation. Ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, and nimesulide are sales leaders. Possible reasons for the popularity of a number of medications and whether it is expedient to use intramuscular formulations are considered. The WHO data on indi-cations for and contraindications to the use of injectable dosage form are given.

  6. Gazprom as a Predictable Partner. Another Reading of the Russian-Ukrainian and Russian-Belarusian Energy Crises; Gazprom, partenaire previsible: relire les crises energetiques Russie-Ukraine et Russie-Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.

    2007-07-01

    The recent crises over oil and gas deliveries from Russia to Ukraine and Belarus have triggered alarm and virulent criticism in the West. This article describes how these conflicts are in fact not very different from those that took place in the early 1990's and reflect behind-the-scene conflicts between powerful factions inside the Kremlin and in Ukraine rather than the exercise of an 'energy weapon'. In the context of a European energy policy driven by Britain's panic at becoming a gas importer and by the ideological zeal to liberalize, the West should worry less about the exercise of a purported aggressive geopolitical strategy and more about Putin's lack thereof, and his inability to control his warring lieutenants. Above all, the West should stop considering that Russia owes Europe any gas beyond its contractual obligations, which it fulfills with alacrity. (author)

  7. Theoretical-Methodological Preconditions for the Formation of Mixed Economy in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s point of view on the formation of the mixed (convergent, doubletrack model of socio-economic and community development in the Russian Federation – as inherent in the federal state with multinational population, open space, and diversified economic orders determined by historical and national-cultural traditions. The author’s stance is based on the wildly discussed and debated thesis about the necessity of organic combination of primary state regulation of macroeconomic processes with predominant market self-regulation of microeconomic processes. The framework of the mixed model of socio-economic and community development presupposes more active and effective use of the “point” state regulation in the creation of favorable and equal conditions for the systematic development of all forms (private, with public participation of business and the expansion of the “corridor of opportunities” for the spatial development of all regions and the improvement of quality and standard of living of the Russian population (regardless of place of residence and position. The article substantiates theoretical and methodological possibility of successful implementation of the mixed model in the Russian Federation

  8. Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (4th from right) in the ATLAS assembly hall. A. Dudarev explains the integration details for the ATLAS barrel and the end-cap toroid magnets. The Minister is accompanied by (from l. to r.) V. Stanislavov, A. Petrov, P. Jenni, F. Grichaev, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM; A.N. Skrinsky and N. Koulberg. Photo 02: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (4th from left) visiting the fully assembled ATLAS Lar hadronic end-cap calorimeter wheel (HEC) with (from l. to r.) P. Jenni, V. Stanislavov, A. Petrov, A.N. Skrinsky, F. Grichaev, L. Riabev, First Deputy-Minister, MINATOM and N. Koulberg. Photo 03: Academician Mihail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister for Science and Technology, Russian Federation (2nd from right - behind) inside one of the two ATLAS end-cap vessels with the thermal superinsulation installed. The Minister is accompanied by (from l. to r.) P. ...

  9. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014 7th REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of

  10. Comparative geopolitical analysis of “hotspots” in the Russian federation and in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation and the Republic of Serbia have experienced internal challenges to their own unity and coherence for a long time. This work represents the analysis of these challenges, which can be defined, geopolitically speaking, as “hotspots”. Relying on the observations of Russian political scientists, the author of this work analyzed the so-called “crisis potential” in four “hotspots” in the Russian Federation. In the Republic of Serbia, five areas are marked that emit instability and jeopardise (or can jeopardise its unity, peace and prosperity. Certain similarities are found between the compared “hotspots”, and differences as well. The region of North Caucasus is marked as the most dangerous “hotspot” in the Russian Federation, which has not been completely solved yet by the Russian federal authorities, due to the constant terrorist attacks. The purpose of the attacks is to extort from Russia the withdrawal from the area and create conditions for the political independence. The author found a geopolitical analogy to the North Caucasus “hotspot” (Chechnya in the Republic of Serbia on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. In the conclusion, it is stated that, at present, disparate geopolitical processes are taking place in the two countries - the Federal Centre is strengthening in the Russian Federation and the Federal Subjects are losing their attributes of statehood, whereas in the Republic of Serbia, the centrifugal tendencies are gaining prominence that can completely fragment it.

  11. Genocide as a crime against the peace and security of mankind according to the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Valerjevna Serebrennikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the issues related to the implementation of the international criminal law provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG dated 9 December 1948 in the national legislation of the Russian Federation and Germany. From this point of view Article 357 of the Russian Federation Criminal Code (RF CC and the German Code of Crimes against International Law (CCAIL are analyzed.

  12. Radiocarbon chronologies and extinction dynamics of the Late Quaternary mammalian megafauna of the Taimyr Peninsula, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacPhee, RDE; Tikhonov, AN; Mol, D; Maliave, CD; Van der Plicht, H; Greenwood, AD; Flemming, C; Agenbroad, L; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Marliave, Christian de; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents 75 new radiocarbon dates based on late Quaternary mammal remains recovered from eastern Taimyr Peninsula and adjacent parts of the northern Siberian lowlands, Russian Federation, including specimens of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), steppe bison (Bison priscus), muskox (

  13. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS OF REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bakanach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of market economy the competition is the main driving force of economic growth. The idea about existence of the interregional competition isn't conventional and demands the proof. The phenomena allowing to state existence of the interregional competitive relations which are realized through system of prerequisites of political, economic, legal and technological character were for this purpose studied. Competitiveness – one of the most important characteristics of the territory which level directly influences formation of positive tendencies in development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Productive indicators of level of competitiveness of the region are: a gross regional product on one occupied in economy, production of a gross regional product for one ruble of fixed assets, a gross regional product for one ruble of investments, a share of balanced financial result in a gross regional product. On the basis of private indicators the Pattern method received an integrated indicator of level of competitiveness of region. The quantitative assessment of the factors determining distinctions of regions of the Russian Federation by competitiveness level allowed to define that the competitiveness variation in the territory of regions in the greatest measure depends on a variation of number of graduates of educational institutions with higher education on 1000 people and the specific weight of investments into the enterprises occupied with mining. Regional values of competitiveness are most elastic relatively the specific weight of own investments, that is increase of this indicator for 1 % causes increase of competitiveness for 0.9 %. The practical importance of this work is caused by possibility of application of results of research by federal and regional executive authorities as information representation when developing programs of increase of level of competitiveness of regions of the Russian Federation. Besides, it is

  14. To the Question of the Minority Shareholders Rights Protection in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Ch. Saparov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines organizational and legal issues of legitimate rights and interests of the minority shareholders of the joint stock companies in Russian Federation protecting. In modern Russian joint stock companies it is important to allocate a special category of shareholders, whose rights and interests are very limited and often violated. This category of persons is minority shareholders. In many countries, including Russian Federation, legislation aimed at protecting rights and interests of this category of persons. Author gives particular attention to the questions of protection of the rights and interests of minority shareholders. Author notes that it is important to take into account the balance between the interests of minority shareholders and controlling shareholders. Author proves that non-observance of such balance can lead to the variety of negative consequences for the company, and also notes that protection of minority rights is aimed at creating favorable conditions for development, both joint-stock companies, and improving economic relations between shareholders and joint-stock companies. Author notes that with usual practice there are quite a number of ways to protect minority shareholders' rights enshrined in the various existing legal acts.

  15. Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Sebastian; Van der Marel, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globalization is creating many new trade and growth opportunities, with services trade increasingly becoming an issue for export-oriented economies. Services are important to country trade strategies, because they represent activities in which countries may have a comparative advantage, and they are drivers of competitiveness for the whole economy. This paper uses data from the World Devel...

  16. Development and Attestation of Gamma-Ray Measurement Methodologies for use by Rostekhnadzor Inspectors in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Sanders

    2006-09-01

    Development and attestation of gamma-ray non-destructive assay measurement methodologies for use by inspectors of the Russian Federal Service for Environmental, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostekhnadzor, formerly Gosatomnadzor or GAN), as well as for use by Russian nuclear facilities, has been completed. Specifically, a methodology utilizing the gamma-ray multi group analysis (MGA) method for determining plutonium isotopic composition has been developed, while existing methodologies to determining uranium enrichment and isotopic composition have been revised to make them more appropriate to the material types and conditions present in nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation. This paper will discuss the development and revision of these methodologies, the metrological characteristics of the final methodologies, as well as the limitations and concerns specific to the utilization of these analysis methods in the Russian Federation.

  17. Building the effective innovation policy in the regions of the Russian Federation as a prerequisite for socio-economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Markovna Golova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems and contradictions of regional innovation policy formation in Russia are revealed. The need to move the Russian economy on an innovative way of development is seen as a condition of economic security. With the usage of global experience, priorities in innovational activity of Russian companies and measures to address systemic gaps between science and industry are grounded. Particular attention is paid to the legal aspects of the state innovational policy. Methodological approaches to the formation of regional innovational policy in the Russian Federation, taking into account the spatial distribution of the scientific, technical and production capacities of the country, their state and structure are revealed. The necessity of a major upgrade of the existing system of intergovernmental relations as a prerequisite for building a functioning innovation system is substantiated. The proposals on division of competence between the Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation in the regulation of relations in science, technology and innovations are given.

  18. Legal issues of the environmental safety regulation in the sphere of nanotechnology in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokrylova, Ekaterina A.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays one of the principal innovative spheres in Russia is considered to be a rapid development of nanotechnology and nanomaterials and implementation its products into almost all fields of social and industrial life. Nevertheless, despite the pointed advantages an appearance of nano products has set not only a positive example of the scientific progress development and dynamics, but also a potential threat of possible risks for the environment and people's health in the case of its massive use when there is a lack of research about its impacts. In Russian Federation the problem of nanosafety regulation is extremely actual. A number of international documents have noted a lack of legal regulation in the sphere of nanotechnologies in Russian Federation. Thus, according to the strategic EU program, it's mentioned that in 2009 on an annual meeting of OECD Tour de Table Meeting in Paris (November, 2007) Russia took responsibility to develop a long term program of nanoindustry development by 2015 (Nanotechnology Action Plan for Russia-2015). The key role should be dedicated to the nanosafety aspects and potential risk assessment of nanomaterials for environment and humans' health. Unfortunately, until now Russia did not provide this document for discussion at the international level by the partners of nanoconsortcium. Indeed, from 2007 until nowadays in Russian Federation there are no a single federal act of legislation (federal'nyi zakon), establishing the state foundations of regulation of nanosafety. The only one Federeal Legal Act in the described sphere is the Federalniy Zakon from 19 July 2007 "About the Russian corporation of nanotechnologies", which has established the principles of organization, activites, functions and termination of Rosnanotech. However, there are no articles dedicated to the environmental safety provision in regards of nano products applications. Also there is no complex federal act consolidating legal status of action in the field of

  19. The problems of determining the competence of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the field of family protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Narutto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342This article is dedicated to one of the problematic issues of Russian federalism – the definition of the competence of subjects of the Russian Federation in the social sphere related to the protection of the family.Results. It examines in detail the legislative powers of the regions on the subjects of joint conducting with the Russian Federation providing the state guarantee protection and family support. The author addresses to the analysis of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, charters and constitutions of subjects of Federation, the current Federal and regional laws, decisions of the constitutional (Charter courts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, devoted to family relations. Attention is drawn to the variety of regional sources, including the codified legislative acts.Special attention is paid to the analysis of additional safeguards for the support of family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, established by the Federation.Among the measures of social support of families with children are allocated 1 a single, monthly and annual cash payments; 2 provide in-kind assistance; 3 provision of benefits; 4 organization of social services. Analyzed regional laws establishing benefits for newborn children measures of social support of large families and young families, specific support to traveller families, as well as laws about the rights of children, safeguards the rights of children-orphans and children left without parental care, about public tutors of minors, commissioners for the rights of the child.Conclusion. Geographic, geopolitical, economic, political, ethnic and other peculiarities of the Russian regions attract particular creation and activities of their government, including lawmaking. The necessity of preserving the rights of subjects of the Russian Federation on advancing the legal regulation in subjects of joint conducting.Criticized Federal legislation, annually changing

  20. Regional Logistics of Procurement of the Ferrous Scrap by the Iron-and-Steel Companies of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevant problem of iron-and-steel companies saving on purchasing the scrap metal. The analysis of the current state of the ferrous scrap market in the Russian Federation, trends of its development, led the authors to an opportunity to reduce the cost for purchasing scrap trough the optimal distribution of the regions between Russian iron-and-steel companies where they purchase ferrous scrap. The optimization of the regional structure of the scrap procurement taking into account the regional volumes of its generation and consumption results from using the linear programming methods applying three variants of the problem statement: minimizing the total cost of the scrap delivery to the factory, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the “export parity” price with delivery, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the actual prices with delivery. The authors have developed software for performing the calculations. The source are the database of the JSC Russian Railways, which provides information about the transportation of the ferrous scrap between stations of the Russian Federation by railroad; railway rates guide between railway stations of the Russian Federation; statistical data on the prices for scrap metal of the type 3A in “export windows”; actual purchasing prices for the scrap of the 3A type for the range of separate companies of the Russian Federation for several years. As a result, the authors have obtained the optimal regional structure of scrap purchasing for customers in the Russian Federation. We have formulated the recommendations for individual companies regarding the optimal routes of the procurement with scrap. The study has confirmed the possibility to decrease expanses for purchasing the scrap metal for all iron-and-steel factories of the Russian Federation through the optimization of the regional structure of procurement. It is also has allowed to estimate the possibility to cut expenses

  1. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2015. 8th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of the organ donation and transplantation in theRussian Federationaccording to 2015.Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics by years, between certain regions of theRussian Federation, the transplantation centers is done.Results. According to the register in2015 inthe Russian Federation 36 centers of renal transplantation, 17 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation were functioning. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2015 included 4167 potential recipients that make 13% of the total number of the patients (31 500 receiving a dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2015 made 3.0 pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2015 continues to increase: the share of multiorgan retrievals made 57.8%, average number of organs, received from one effective donor, made 2.7. In 2015 the rate of kidney transplantation made 6.5 pmp; the rate of liver transplantation made 2.2 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1.2 pmp. The number of transplantations of liver and heart in theRussian Federationcontinues to increase. The number of transplantations of kidney remains approximately at one level in the range of 950–1050.Moscowcapital region continues to be the center of stability and development of the organ donation and transplantation in the country, in which 10 centers of transplantation are functioning and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out.Conclusion. The potential for further development of the transplantation care in theRussian Federationcontinues to persist. In particular, at the expense of increasing efficiency of regional donation programs, expanding practices of multiorgan recuperation and transplantations of extrarenal organs, through

  2. ANALYSIS OF EQUIPMENT PROVISIONS FOR X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Vishnyakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of equipment provisions for X-ray diagnostics in the Russian Federation for the period from 2000 to 2006 is being presented. The article records the lag of Russia behind the countries with high level of public health service development both for total amount of X-ray diagnostic equipment and for the rate of their amount growth. The lag of national X-ray diagnostic equipment is especially high for the equipment for special X-ray examinations. Half of all X-ray equipment in Russia has a life time of 10 and more years. Equipment for the standard X-ray examinations prevails in its structure in contrast to the countries with high level of public health service. More than one third of equipment for fluoroscopy is not equipped with amplifiers of X-ray image. The share of digital X-ray diagnostic equipment for standard X-ray examinations is 5%, while in the economically developed countries mainly digital technologies are applied. Significant differences in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of current state of X-ray diagnostic equipment in the various Federal districts and administrative territories of the Russian Federation are observed.

  3. Barriers to sustainable tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, R. A.; Samyshkin, Y. A.; Drobniewski, F.; Skuratova, N. M.; Gusarova, G.; Kuznetsov, S. I.; Fedorin, I. M.; Coker, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Russian Federation has the eleventh highest tuberculosis burden in the world in terms of the total estimated number of new cases that occur each year. In 2003, 26% of the population was covered by the internationally recommended control strategy known as directly observed treatment (DOT) compared to an overall average of 61% among the 22 countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. The Director-General of WHO has identified two necessary starting points for the scaling-up of interventions to control emerging infectious diseases. These are a comprehensive engagement with the health system and a strengthening of the health system. The success of programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases is often determined by constraints posed by the health system. We analyse and evaluate the impact of the arrangements for delivering tuberculosis services in the Russian Federation, drawing on detailed analyses of barriers and incentives created by the organizational structures, and financing and provider-payment systems. We demonstrate that the systems offer few incentives to improve the efficiency of services or the effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Instead, the system encourages prolonged supervision through specialized outpatient departments in hospitals (known as dispensaries), multiple admissions to hospital and lengthy hospitalization. The implementation, and expansion and sustainability of WHO-approved methods of tuberculosis control in the Russian Federation are unlikely to be realized under the prevailing system of service delivery. This is because implementation does not take into account the wider context of the health system. In order for the control programme to be sustainable, the health system will need to be changed to enable services to be reconfigured so that incentives are created to reward improvements in efficiency and outcomes. PMID:15798846

  4. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by leading universities of Russian Federation

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    Science Festival in Russian Federation is a programme of events which take place at the leading scientific centres and museums in Russia. At the Science Festival scientists, engineers and students show to visitors the advances of modern science and technology in all scopes of life. Today the leading universities of Russia will feature a multipoint video conference with the LHC control room at CERN. This will give visitors of the Science Festival the opportunity to ask questions to the physicists involved about the Large Hadron Collider experiments, Higgs particles and antimatter. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Russia-2012.html

  5. Targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklyarov, Oleg; Shumilov, Konstantin; Klimanov, Arkadii; Denisov, Aleksander

    2010-10-01

    The article presents a brief history of the brucellosis prevention in animals in the world and in the Russian Federation. Data are taken from studies on the immunogenic activity and epizootic efficacy of vaccines against brucellosis in animals, which made it possible, in the final analysis, to regard these preparations as highly important for brucellosis prevention. The relationship between the epizootic brucellosis situation in Russia and the employment of specific agents in targeted prevention of brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats, and the sequence of their use, are presented briefly, substantiating the feasibility of their use and improvement.

  6. PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir B. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnership (PPP is a complex mechanism, which includes a variety of industry legislation, which together form a system of legislative regulation of relations at the interaction of private and public parties in the realization of long-term capital-intensive investment projects for the development of public infrastructure. The article describes the current state of PPP in the Russian Federation, the analysis of the main problems and needs integrated action (regulatory, institutional and investment to improve and develop this project.

  7. A synopsis of original research projects published in scientific database in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Pavlichenko, Alexey; Karpenko, Olga; Schmeleva, Liubov; Morozov, Petr

    2015-06-01

    The article describes the current state of scientific publications in the field of psychiatry in the Russian Federation. Issues of academic dissertations, lack of access to recent Russian language research in foreign databases, and recent reforms in the Ministry of Education and Science for overcoming these limitations are discussed in detail. Four exemplary dissertation studies published in Russian language are summarized. The first research examines the contribution of patient's verbal behavior to the reliable diagnosis of mild depression, identifying objective signs for distinguishing it from normal sadness; the mood component influenced the whole mental status and was represented in both structure and semantics of patients' speech. The second paper describes the course of panic disorder with agoraphobia, with the notable results that debut of panic disorder with full-blown panic attacks, often declines to a second accompanied with agoraphobia, which after several years gives way to limited symptom attacks and decreased agoraphobic avoidance. The third study describes the high prevalence of affective and anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, and the role of personality traits in adherence to treatment in patients with poor glucose control. The fourth project uses functional MRI for probing the features of neuronal resting-state networks in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; the association with affective symptoms provides a model for investigating the pathophysiology of mood disorder.

  8. Russian Dreams and Prussian Ghosts: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Debates over Historical Memory and Identity in Kaliningrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and the Kaliningrad State Technical University have come to exert considerable influence over debates surrounding historical memory and identity in the Kaliningrad region. Under the direct control of the Russian Federation, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad is surrounded by…

  9. 75 FR 78968 - Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal From the Russian Federation: Extension of Time Limit for... a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on magnesium...

  10. Monitoring study of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren in the Russian Federation regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vyacheslavovich Chegodaev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into the quality of work with talented schoolchildren in the Russian Federation subjects. It shows that it is the regional and municipal levels that should be most actively involved in the identification and development of such children. The author suggests his methodology of calculating the integral index of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren in the regional educational systems. The article shows that Russia’s territories differ considerably according to this indicator. The highest value of the index is registered in the Volga Federal District (average rating is 0.499 and the Central (0.480 Federal District. The constituent entities of the North Caucasian (0.303 and Far Eastern (0.358 federal districts have the lowest average rating. The regions were divided into five groups by the index of quality of work with gifted schoolchildren. The Vologda Oblast joined the group in which the level of quality of work with gifted schoolchildren was above average; the Oblast ranked 22nd in the country and 5th in the Northwestern Federal District. The Oblast has the greatest progress by the set of indicators “Olympiad movement” (6th place among Russian regions. According to some indicators, the Oblast’s results were below the threshold indicators. The dynamics of the integral index of the quality of work with gifted students for 2012–2013 was analysed by the cross grouping of the regions according to the level and rate of growth (decline of the integral index. The Vologda Oblast was included in the group of regions with low growth rates of the integral index (94%, which creates the risk of decrease in the quality of work with gifted students. The article states the main reasons for the integral index decline; it also suggests certain measures for the improvement of the quality of work with gifted schoolchildren

  11. UTC(SU) and EOP(SU) - the only legal reference frames of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevsky, Nikolay B.; Blinov, Igor Yu; Pasynok, Sergey L.

    2015-08-01

    There are two legal time reference frames in Russian Federation. UTC(SU) deals with atomic time and play a role of reference for legal timing through the whole country. The other one, EOP(SU), deals with Earth's orientation parameters and provides the official EOP data for scientific, technical and metrological applications in Russia.The atomic time is based on two essential hardware components: primary Cs fountain standards and ensemble of continuously operating H-masers as a time unit/time scale keeper. Basing on H-maser intercomparison system data, regular H-maser frequency calibration against Cs standards and time algorithm autonomous TA(SU) time scale is maintained by the Main Metrological Center. Since 2013 time unit in TA(SU) is the second (SU) reproduced independently by VNIIFTRI Cs primary standards in accordance to it’s definition in the SI. UTC(SU) is relied on TA(SU) and steering to UTC basing on TWSTFT/GNSS time link data. As a result TA(SU) stability level relative to TT considerably exceeds 1×10-15 for sample time one month and more, RMS[UTC-UTC(SU)] ≤ 3 ns for the period of 2013-2015. UTC(SU) is broadcasted by different national means such as specialized radio and TV stations, NTP servers and GLONASS. Signals of Russian radio stations contains DUT1 and dUT1 values at 0.1s and 0.02s resolution respectively.The definitive EOP(SU) are calculated by the Main Metrological Center basing on composition of the eight independent individual EOP data streams delivered by four Russian analysis centers: VNIIFTRI, Institute of Applied Astronomy, Information-Analytical Center of Russian Space Agency and Analysis Center of Russian Space Agency. The accuracy of ultra-rapid EOP values for 2014 is estimated ≤ 0.0006" for polar motion, ≤ 70 microseconds for UT1-UTC and ≤ 0.0003" for celestial pole offsets respectively.The other VNIIFTRI EOP activities can be grouped in three basic directions:- arrangement and carrying out GNSS and SLR observations at five

  12. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  13. Spatio-temporal modeling of the African swine fever epidemic in the Russian Federation, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korennoy, F I; Gulenkin, V M; Malone, J B; Mores, C N; Dudnikov, S A; Stevenson, M A

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 African swine fever (ASF) entered Georgia and in the same year the disease entered the Russian Federation. From 2007 to 2012 ASF spread throughout the southern region of the Russian Federation. At the same time several cases of ASF were detected in the central and northern regions of the Russian Federation, forming a northern cluster of outbreaks in 2011. This northern cluster is of concern because of its proximity to mainland Europe. The aim of this study was to use details of recorded ASF outbreaks and human and swine population details to estimate the spatial distribution of ASF risk in the southern region of the European part of the Russian Federation. Our model of ASF risk was comprised of two components. The first was an estimate of ASF suitability scores calculated using maximum entropy methods. The second was an estimate of ASF risk as a function of Euclidean distance from index cases. An exponential distribution fitted to a frequency histogram of the Euclidean distance between consecutive ASF cases had a mean value of 156 km, a distance greater than the surveillance zone radius of 100-150 km stated in the ASF control regulations for the Russian Federation. We show that the spatial and temporal risk of ASF expansion is related to the suitability of the area of potential expansion, which is in turn a function of socio-economic and geographic variables. We propose that the methodology presented in this paper provides a useful tool to optimize surveillance for ASF in affected areas.

  14. H.E. Mr Leonid A.Skotnikov Ambassador,PermanentRepresentative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani. Photo 02: Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva. Photo 03: Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (right) with CERN Director-General, L. Maiani.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY INNOVATIVE OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BASED ON INFORMATION MODELING OF INDUSTRIAL AND CIVIL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Владимирович Трофимов

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implementation of the Russian construction industry innovative development strategies based on information modeling of industrial and civil objects with the use of information technology. The use of such technologies as the BIM: Building Information modeling - BIM, 4D modeling, Multi-D modeling, Product LiveCycle Management - PLM, allows to activate innovative processes and supports the basic condition for the realization of innovative strategy of development of the construction industry of the Russian Federation.

  16. More from Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On January 20th,2008,the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus celebrated the 16th anniversary of the establishment of their foreign diplomatic relationship.China was one of the first countries who recognized Belarus' independence,after which the development of Sino-Belarusian relations has enjoyed precedence in both countries' diplomatic strategic policies.From January 1995 to now,frequent top level visits have promoted cooperation,and more than 50 cooperative agreements have been reached covering all aspects of life.

  17. FEATURES OF THE MIGRATION POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN A GLOBALIZED COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene D. Katulsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance Relevance of the chosen subject is caused as variety and unsystematic character of standard and legal base federal and first of all the regional level which regulates various parties of migration policy, and absence of legally established concepts of migration, migratory process and migration policy. Besides, recently it is possible to observe growth of mobility of labor force in the conditions of globalization which creates prerequisites for employment not only highly skilled professionals in the field of finance, insurance, banking, communications, but also the migrant workers occupied in the sphere of agriculture, construction, improvement of the territory, public catering, hotel service. Now the state is interested in attraction of foreign labor for ensuring the sustainable and balanced social and economic development of national regions, but is afraid of negative influence of migration on social and economic processes in theRussian Federation

  18. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  19. To the Question of Personnel Policy in Divisions of Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Chechko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the actual questions of human rights management at the Prosecutor's Office of Russian Federation. Main content of this research is analysis of the human resource management characteristics at the present stage. Author pays special attention to research issues of relevant training courses for prosecutors. Author substantiates the view that skilled personnel are the basis of the successful functioning of prosecutorial unit. Requirement for candidates for job in the prosecutor’s office is to have high moral standards, namely, honesty, objectivity, self-critical and demanding of themselves and others, integrity and responsible attitude toward human rights and freedoms, legal culture as the highest social values, poise, tact, humility and moral purity, realities of profession require careful attention to the person’s ability to resist any form of pressure on them. Author examines key requirements for individuals to serve in the prosecution. Author's opinion, based on the experience of working in the as prosecutor’s office may be of interest to human resources specialists and applicants for the position of the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.

  20. [Working conditions and occupational morbidity in workers of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2009-01-01

    To create healthy and safe working conditions are constantly in the focus of attention at all governmental levels. To reduce deaths and traumatism from occupational accidents and diseases, by providing safe working conditions is one of the priorities of the demographic policy pursued by the Government of the Russian Federation. In the able-bodied population, the current mortality from natural causes (accidents, poisonings, and traumas, including occupation-related ones) exceeds that by 2.5 and 1.5 times in developed and developing countries, respectively. The worse conditions remain to be those in coal-mining and shipbuilding industries, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, agriculture, tractor-building and agricultural engineering, building materials industry, road-building machinery, logging industry, power machine building, and civil engineering. On-going checks reveal low sanitary culture and industrial discipline, no package of sanitary-and-prophylactic measures, as well as poor knowledge about sanitary legislation requirements in the heads of small-scale business and private undertakings. In 2006, the Russian Federation notified 357 cases of occupational diseases among medical workers, of which there were 196 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and 39 cases of viral hepatitis. Despite the fact that the cases of occupational diseases are annually on the decrease, these are being underdetected.

  1. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.

  2. Spatial behavior of prices in the Russian Federation in 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Stupnikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of economic development and specifics of the spatial position of regions implies that the regional markets in the country are characterized by varying degrees and trends of price dynamics. The multidirectional and disproportionate changes in the prices in the regional markets, in turn, show that integration in the national market is poor. The work presents the results of research into the spatial behavior of prices in the Russian Federation in 2003–2012, carried out mainly using the descriptive analysis of consumer prices based on the identification of the measures of dispersion of price indicators – standard deviation and the range of variation. The analysis of consumer price indices dynamics shows that the year 2008 is a period of greatest price growth, and also proves that the prices for services and foodstuffs are subject to the highest fluctuations. The analysis of the prices for the fixed set of goods and services shows that consumer prices in the Russian Federation subjects during the analyzed period changed unevenly; however, beginning from 2009 there is a positive trend of reducing fluctuations in their growth rates. The assessment of the spatial dynamics of consumer prices in Russia in 2003–2012 reveals the regions that deviate from the general trend of price behavior to the greatest extent. Judging by the results of the assessment, the greatest differences in prices were observed in the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD. Another important fact is as follows: the high volatility of food prices was observed not only in the remote regions, but also in the neighboring subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District; it allows us to assume that the integration of the food market of the border regions of the district at the national level is poor

  3. WIN Belarus report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana [Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, Sosny (Belarus)

    2008-07-01

    No reactors in operation (1962 first research reactor started and in 1998 decommissioned). Research reactors or institutes: 2 critical zero power assemblies in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Researcher - Sosny /National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (JIPNR). Other applications of nuclear technology: Production of isotopes, Facility for gamma-irradiation of different products, Neutron generator for different purposes, Electron accelerators for investigations and technology. Planned reactors: NPP construction is planned in 2018 (two reactors). Current energy policy in few sentences: Belarus has only 12-15% own energy resources. The most power is generated on the thermal power plant using natural gas from Russia. Research and development on using wood, wind, sun, hydrogen. The NPP construction is planned in 2018. Some trend in opinion of general public: Studying of public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. Our people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO{sub 2} discharge and oxygen preservation in the atmosphere, what is probably one of the reasons of negative attitude to NPP (1/3 responses). Positive attitude to NPP is 1/3 responses too. One of the reason of public distrust to nuclear power is the absence of knowledge about the conditions for radioactive waste storage and therefore the population is inclined to exaggerate the radiation danger of waste for the environment. The political opposition opposes the NPP construction. They suggest the sun and wind energy. Members in

  4. TYPES OF MUNICIPALITIES IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION: THE ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Shugrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.53The question of the concept and characteristics of a municipal formation has a very practical embodiment: in disputes about territorial foundations of local self-government, the courts often have to infer the presence or absence of the municipality, to investigate the presence or absence of signs of a municipal formation have a specific territory. The objective is to study the concepts and characteristics of the municipality in the materials of law enforce-ment, a comparative analysis of different types of municipalities. The study used the dialec-tical, system-structural, functional, comparative-legal and other methods of cognition. The article compares the types of municipalities found in the Federal legislation and the legisla-tion of subjects of the Russian Federation, explores the question of the powers of the con-stituent entities of the Russian Federation on the establishment of new types of municipal formations. For example, the practice of the constitutional Court, materials of the State Duma emphasized that in providing different types of municipalities, the Federal legislator has quite clearly articulated its desire to establish their differences. Special attention is paid to the analysis of differences in the legal status of municipalities belonging to the same species. Analysis of legal material, law enforcement practice allows the following attributes of municipal formation: territory, permanently or primarily resident population, municipal property and local budgets, bodies of local self-government, the Charter and the system of municipal legal acts, official symbols. When considering the question of the legal status of municipalities stated that the question of equality of different types of municipal for-mations is not so straightforward. Most of the differences in the legal status of different types of municipalities is established by Federal laws and is driven by the desire to make local government more efficient

  5. [The provision of population of the Russian Federation with basic personnel resource of public health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of complex scientific analysis of number and structure of physicians and paramedical personnel of public and municipal health care system of the Russian Federation. The provision of country population, its federal okrugs and federation subjects with physicians and paramedical personnel of various specialties are analyzed too, including ratio of physicians and paramedical personnel and territorial differentiation of provision of population with basic medical personnel. The study results demonstrate that in 2012 provision of population (per 10 000 of population) with physicians increased from 43.9 to 44.7. At the same time provision with paramedical personnel decreased from 92.3 to 90.8. in the Russian Federation are preserved significant territorial disproportions of provision of population with medical personnel resource. The provision of population with physicians and paramedical personnel is 4.3 times and 1.9 times higher in cities than in rural area. The differences between extreme indicators of provision of population of the Russian Federation with physicians and paramedical personnel are 2.9 and 2.4 times correspondingly. The differences between indicators of provision with physicians of clinical specialties are 2.6 times. The average ratio between physician and paramedical personnel is 1:2.03. The structure of medical manpower corresponds to the need of population in medical care in incomplete measure. The materials substantiate necessity to continue modernization, optimization and development of manpower support of public health care system in the Russian Federation.

  6. Teleteaching in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'Yanenko, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the first efforts at teleteaching in Belarus at the Belorussian Polytechnic Academy that will be used for secondary and higher education. Topics discussed include convincing the government of the importance of distance education programs offered to national development, economic constraints, and Internet electronic mail goals. (LRW)

  7. The forest resources of the Russian Federation and their regional characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuev, Y.A. [Department of Forest Utilization and Inventory, The Federal Forest Service of Russia (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of Russia amount to ca. 25% of the world`s forests. They cover a territory of ca. 1.2 billion hectares, i.e. 69% of the land area of the Russian Federation, stretching from the western to the eastern borders, from the subtundra in the north to the steppes of the south. These forests are differing in terms of their economic value, species composition, and age. All forest stands have a major impact on the climate, they protect the soil against erosion by water and wind, and they regulate the water regimes. Our knowledge of the forests is based on the data provided by inventories carried out by federal forest inventory enterprises following universally applied principles. These data form the main basis for the forest resource statistical accounting conducted every five years to demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative changes that have taken place in the Federation`s forest resources. Major annual changes in the forest resources of Russia are caused by economic activity, natural calamities and the administrative reorganization of district forestry units (reshow). These changes determine the period when the inventory materials (projects of forestry organization, inventory data, etc.) are elaborated. This period is 10 years in regions where intensive forestry is practised and 15 years in regions of low intensity of commercial forestry. (orig.)

  8. Zoning of the Russian Federation territory based on forest management and forest use intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Маrtynyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Over extended periods issues of forest management intensification are important in all aspects of Russian forest sector development. Sufficient research has been done in silviculture, forest planning and forest economics to address forest management intensification targets. Systems of our national territory forest management and forest economics zoning due to specifics of timber processing and forest area infrastructure have been developed. Despite sufficient available experience in sustainable forest management so far intensification issues were addressed due to development of new woodlands without proper consideration of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management operations. It resulted in forest resource depletion and unfavorable substitution of coniferous forests with less valuable softwood ones in considerable territories (especially accessible for transport. The situation is complicated since degree of forest ecosystem changes is higher in territories with high potential productivity. Ongoing changes combined with the present effective forest management system resulted in a situation where development of new woodlands is impossible without heavy investments in road construction; meanwhile road construction is unfeasible due to distances to timber processing facilities. In the meantime, changes in forest legislation, availability of forest lease holding, and promising post-logging forest regeneration technologies generate new opportunities to increase timber volumes due to application of other procedures practically excluding development of virgin woodlands. With regard to above, the Russian territory was zoned on a basis of key factors that define forest management and forest use intensification based on forest ecosystem potential productivity and area transport accessibility. Based on available data with GIS analysis approach (taking into consideration value of various factors the Russian Federation forest resources have been

  9. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorin, A.O. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  10. CMS Honours Three Russian and Bielorussian companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out the three latest Gold Awards under its scheme for honouring its best suppliers suppliers (c.f. Bulletin n°10/2003). Three Russian and Bielorussian firms were honoured, on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. CERN played host to Anatoly Sherbak, Head of the Fundamental Research Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Industry and Science, Ambassador Sergei Aleinik, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Belarus to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva, Andrei Pirogov, Assistant Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Office of the United Nations, and Alexei Sissakian, Vice Director of the JINR (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) at Dubna in Russia. The directors of the three Russian and Bielorussian firms have received their awards and are seen with the visiting Russian and Bielorussian dignitaries and the CMS leaders in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter, on the spot where the detector is being assembled.These promi...

  11. The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This author uses regionalism as a theoretical framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia. Regionalism is interpreted as a situation, when a political leader’s beliefs change depending on what region of the world is considered. Leaders of great powers often assume that, for example, small European countries are subject to a treatment different from that of small Middle Eastern countries. The method of operational coding is employed to identify the impact of the regional approach on the beliefs of political leaders. The author comes to the conclusion that Russia’s policy towards Estonia largely depends on Russia’s policy towards the regions which the Russian elite relate Estonia to — the Baltic States, Northern Europe, and Europe as a whole. The results of the study can further the understanding of Russia’s policy towards Estonia both in Russia and abroad. Lack of understanding sometimes results in sharing the views of radical Estonian politicians who claim that Russia’s policy towards Estonia is unpredictable and thus poses a threat to security and stability in Europe.

  12. A THEORETICAL APPROACH ON THE STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Alexandru GENTIMIR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the theoretical approaches of the „strategic partnership” concept, and then applying them to the relationship and cooperation between the European Union and the Russian Federation, thus emphasizing its evolution. The base of this article lays on a literature review that gathers recent articles and several studies of some researchers in the field, providing some professional information on the subject. Findings reveal that there has not yet got to a general definition of the concepts, researchers and not only would agree upon, and, when applying it to the EU-Russia relation, that there are some mutual benefits as a result of the cooperation. This article shows that, despite of the fact that the startup of the cooperation between the two major global powers was a good one, it now has reached some kind of dead moment, when policy contradictions block the evolution of the partnership.

  13. Ecological and Toxicological Characteristics of Metalworking Fluids Used in Finishing Processing in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Melnikov, P. A.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Levitskih, O. O.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, metalworking fluids (MWF) in the design of technological processes in most cases are considered as mandatory persistant components despite the constant improvement of the technology of machining, tools and equipment. Three main functions of MWF: cooling, lubrication, waste chips removal - seems to be the essential condition for stable process. In most cases, cooling reduces wear of tool and improves the quality of the processed surface. The cooling characteristics of the MWF affect not only the heat capacity and thermal conductivity, but metal surfaces wettability and vaporization. If processing speed and temperature of the fluid are high then it may not be in direct contact with the surface of the tool due to low wettability or vapor blankets. Improvement of machining process with applying the MWF is accompanied with negative factors. Due to the high temperatures in the treatment area it is exposed to MWF vaporization. This article presents estimation of the applicable in Russian Federation MWF: fire risk, toxicological and environmental hazards.

  14. [Biological properties of Trichinella spp. isolated from the Central Region of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of a common fox inhabiting in the Central Region of the Russian Federation have been studied. The paper presents the results of passaging this isolate of Trichinella on laboratory rats and mice, shows morphometric variability in relation to the change of Trichinella habitat. Evidence is provided that the shape and size of Trichinella capsules depend on the strain of the parasite and the species of an animal host the muscles of which contain these tissue helminths. The morphological data, biological properties, and high negative temperature resistance of the Trichinella that are present in the muscles of a fox shot in the Ryazan Region allow the above isolate to be classified as Trichinella nativa.

  15. [Perspectives of improvement of the medical service of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappo, V V

    2008-08-01

    The article presents the data concerned the creation of perspective image of the medical service of the Armed Forces of Russian Federation for the term up to 2016 year. Particularly, it's planed to optimize structure and staff of the medical service on the base of territorial principle of medical provision, exchange some military posts for civil ones, improve the financial system and system of material stimulation of work, engrain a double level of administration. It is in store to modernize the system of military-medical education, review the organization and establishment of military hospitals, break up medical stores, and on theirs account create centers of providing by medcial techniques and properties, to form mobile-technical centers, improve the administration of sanatorium-resort maintenance. The military unit of military medicine was defined as the foreground direction of reforming of medical service.

  16. Socio-economic monitoring of hiv/aids threat in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thesubject of theinvestigation issocial and economic aspects of thethreat of HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation.Theinvestigation was aimed at improving socio-economic monitoring of the HIV / AIDS threat. The methodology of systemic analysis and statistical methods were used. Three main sections of socio-economic monitoring of HIV / AIDS were defined with their problems, challenges and areas for improvement. Results of the study are applicable in justifying and shaping public policy to counter the threat of HIV / AIDS. Planned costs of measures to counter thethreat of HIV / AIDS must be based on requirements, allocation and results achieved. Systemic approach to planning requires an analysis of interrelation between costs, requirements and results. The absence of a systemic approach to coordination of costs and requirements leads to inefficient use of resources

  17. FORMATION OF THE STATE POLICY IN PUBLIC HEALTHCARE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal grounds for the state policy development in public healthcare in the Russian federation. The urgency of this program is well substantiated. The authors introduce the working definition of the governmental policy in public healthcare, which is viewed as a component of the internal policy of the state and which interacts with other trends of the state policy within the framework of its tasks. The adequate state regulation of the legal, social and economic and other relations within the society is necessary to achieve maximum full observance of the citizens' rights for the disease prevention, affordable highly qualified medical care and medical rehabilitation.Key words: public healthcare, medical care.

  18. Investigations on inertial confinement fusion at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garanin, S; Kirillov, G A; Kochemasov, G G; Mkhitaryan, L S; Murugov, V M; Sukharev, S A; Zhidkov, N V [Institute for Laser Physics Researches, Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, 37 Prospect Mira, Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod Reg., 607190 (Russian Federation)

    2003-12-01

    Since 30 years already, the All-Russia Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) is engaged in investigations on the problem of inertial confinement fusion. The high-power laser facilities 'Iskra 5' (Kirillov G A et al 1990 Laser Particle Beams 8 827-31) and 'Luch' (Sukharev S A 3rd Int. Conf. on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion ed W H Lowdermilk Proc. SPIE 3492 12-24) were created and are operating now in the framework of this programme. The main lines of the work at these facilities are the investigation of the physics of thermonuclear targets and the development of laser technologies. This work resulted in the development of a project of the new generation facility 'Iskra-6'. This report presents the main results of these works carried out at Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF in the period 1991-2002.

  19. Rheumatic diseases in children and adolescents in the Russian Federation (2009—2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In pediatrics, rheumatic diseases (RD are characterized by particularly severe social consequences. This investigation was undertaken to clarify the prevalence of RD from the 2009—2010 statistical data of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. Analysis of these data has led to the conclusion that the acute rheumatic fever situation is relatively favorable in Russia. As for musculoskeletal system diseases, patients with inflammatory RD are a small percentage among those with this pathology; however, they are critically ill and become disabled early and frequently despite the fact that the majority of novel highly effective drugs have not approved for use in children, which makes their timely use difficult. Most children with locomotor diseases suffer from non-inflammatory diseases. This shows the importance of measures for the prevention, early detection, and correction of acquired or inherited pathology of the joints and vertebral column.

  20. Thermal degradations of wood biofuels, coals and hydrolysis lignin from the Russian Federation: Experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Evgeniya; Chernov, Aleksandr; Maryandyshev, Pavel; Brillard, Alain; Kehrli, Damaris; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Lyubov, Viktor; Brilhac, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    The thermal degradation of wood biofuels (spruce, pine), of coals from different fields of the Russian Federation and of hydrolysis lignin is investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer under different heating conditions and under non-oxidative or oxidative atmospheres. The samples are indeed submitted to a linear temperature ramp of 10K/min or to a temperature ramp of 200K/min up to a residence temperature between 250 and 450°C where they are maintained during 4h (isothermal conditions). The values of the kinetic parameters are determined for these different samples in both thermal conditions, either using the differential isoconversional method or by means of an Extended Independent Parallel Reaction (EIPR) model. The values of the kinetic parameters obtained with this EIPR model for spruce trunk are also compared with that of its main constituents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, V.; Balanovsky, O.; Melnikov, A; Lash-zavada, A.; Khar'kov, V.; Tyazhelova, T.; Akhmetova, V.; Zhukova, O.; Shneider, Yu; Shil'nikova, I.; S Borinskaya; Marusin, A.; Spiridonova, M.; Simonova, K.; Khitrinskaya, I.

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and ...

  2. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (far right). On his right F. Grishaev, Adviser, Mission of the Russian Federation; opposite N. Koulberg and L. Maiani, CERN Director general

  3. The system of Collective Security of the Russian Federation in the format of CSTO and preconditions of its creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Sergey Mikhailovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of the security of the States included in the Collective Security Treaty Organization. The author gives the definition to the system of collective security in the CSTO. The main intergovernmental bodies of the Organization and the structure of the forces and means of the CSTO collective security system are outlined. The author enumerates the main sources of a military threat and threats to the national security of the Russian Federation arising at the turn of the XXI century, as well as peculiarities of their arising and development. The prerequisites for a system of collective security of the Russian Federation in the format of CSTO are identified. On the basis of the conducted research the author proposes the basic directions of activity of the Russian leadership in the field of development of the CSTO as an integral part of Eurasian security.

  4. Chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors in 12 regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchalin AG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander G Chuchalin,1 Nikolai Khaltaev,2 Nikolay S Antonov,1 Dmitry V Galkin,3 Leonid G Manakov,4 Paola Antonini,5 Michael Murphy,5 Alexander G Solodovnikov,6 Jean Bousquet,7 Marcelo HS Pereira,8 Irina V Demko9 1Institute of Pulmonology, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia; 2Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD, Genève, Switzerland; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Moscow, Russia; 4Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences, Blagoveshchensk, Russia; 5Worldwide Clinical Trials, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 6Worldwide Clinical Trials, Ekaterinburg, Russia; 7Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Montpellier, France; 8Research and Development Chief Medical Office, International Medical, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom; 9Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia Background: Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR and chronic bronchitis (CB were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD was defined as a post

  5. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION PRIOR AND AFTER THE CREATION OF THE COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Alexandru GENTIMIR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position and its cultural links, Russia has always had a special relation with Europe. In its attempt to shape its own place on the global stage, the Russian Federation has sometimes seen itself as an authentic European state, while in other cases and circumstances, it strongly supported and claimed its “Eurasian” features. Due to the enlargement of the European Union and its rise as a heavy international player, the European Union has turned into a geographical neighbor of the Russian Federation. From this perspective, it is not a surprising fact that the Russian Federation is to develop specific relations and shape a foreign policy with strategic features regarding the European Union. The institutional cooperation between the European Union and the Russian Federation aims at shaping a series of common objectives regarding the relations between the two sides and defining the actions needed in order to reach the proposed objectives, the implementation of the common projects considering the agreed order of priorities.

  6. The importance of flooded terrestrial habitats for larval fish in a semi-natural large floodplain (Volga, Russian Federation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorski, Konrad; Leeuw, De Joep; Winter, Hendrik; Khoruzhaya, Victoria; Boldyrev, Vasily; Vekhov, Dmitry; Nagelkerke, Leo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the importance of flooded terrestrial habitats for fish larvae in a semi-natural large floodplain (Volga, Russian Federation) by comparing abundances at the shoreline of permanent waterbodies with flooded terrestrial habitats. We found that overall larval abundance at the shoreline of

  7. METHOD OF THE EVALUATION OF THE MEDICAL EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Morozov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the comparable indexes in the given technique of the processing of the statistics of the population doses from medical allows to conduct a comparative analysis of the population medical exposure for administrative territories of Russian Federation.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2015-01-29

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II.

  9. Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy in the documents of the Russian Federation archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduced publication of the documents is dedicated to the Diocese of Donetsk, Don and Caucasus of Russian Old-Orthodox Church accepting Belokrinitsky hierarchy, which existed in 1947–1948 years. The documents, which were revealed in the State Archive of Rostov weren’t published earlier. In the introduction article and notes were used the documents of the Religious Cults Matters’ Council al the Council of People’s Commissars of USSR and his representatives in Rostov Oblast, Stalingrad Oblast, Astrakhan Oblast, Stavropol Krai and Krasnodar Krai, which are stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and State Archive of Volgograd Oblast. In the documents were reflected the changes in number and geography of the church parishes, deaneries and diocese’s borders, was showed internal church life. The episcopate’s autobiographies are testifying about difficult destiny of the Old-Believers clergy in USSR. Published documents are allowing to add our representation about Old-Believers’ history, about religious situation in the South of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, about the state and confessional policy in USSR in the middle of XX century.

  10. Transformation of the concept of border in the transition from USSR to Russian Federation: Implications for State survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Añorve Añorve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Russian foreign policy is judged by the Western world on the basis of a series of depreciatory adjectives. The aim of this paper is to effect an historical review of the Russian (and Soviet perception of their frontier. The Russian frontier is continually changing; and the country has been both invader as well as invaded. For historical reasons, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union kept both a close watch and a strong control over the Soviet frontier, to the point of rendering it almost impenetrable. During the early years of transition, border policies relaxed consederably, to the point of instability and placing the Russian Federation on the verge of balkanization. Both Putin and Medvedev put a stop to this process. Now, partially as a result of Western pressure and reluctance to cooperate, Russia has undertaken an aggressive border policy that threatens expansion. The enormous Russian diaspora has turned out to be a successful justification for the expansion of the Russian border.

  11. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  12. PROGRESS IN ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2006–2010. 3RD REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the third report of the Registry of Russian transplant society, taking into account donor and transplant activity in the Russian Federation in 2006–2010. Data analysis proves clear positive trends during the last 5 years. The further progress is possible through the creation and modernization of regional donor infra- structures whose activities should be aimed at increasing of the number of donor hospitals and its rational use by expansion of brain death verification and performance of multiorgan procurement. 

  13. LEGAL GROUNDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE POLICY IN CHILDREN'S HEALTHCARE PROTECTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.E. Lapin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific center of children's health, Russian academy of medical sciences the presented article is dedicated to the urgent issue — formation of the legal grounds of the state policy in children's healthcare protection. Based on the logical and scicentometric analysis of the main international documents on the children's rights there have been pointed out the key provisions, which should be taken into account during the development of measures for the state regulation of public relations in the interests of the children under modern conditions of the Russian federation.Key words: children's rights, children's healthcare protection, state policy, international documents.

  14. The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    variables extracted by remote sensing such as biomass and LAI. These steps will ensure that the model's predictions of forests under future climate will be acceptable. The updated and expanded version of FAREAST will be run for several future climate scenarios using projections from the PCMDI. Comparison between future and present FAREAST runs of the Russian federation will provide information regarding potential changes of the region's forests and land cover. Implications for biodiversity and climate interactions from these results will be analyzed, as well as socio-economic impacts for regional and local economies.

  15. Legal Regulation Of Citizens Of The Russian Federation Participation In The Electoral Process At The Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy O. Ezhevskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes features of the current legislation about elections in the Russian Federation with the latest changes. We consider legal regulation of Russian citizens participation in the electoral process, as well as the role and importance of the state and its agencies as participants in the electoral process. Legitimacy of free and fair elections at all levels requires that they relied on a solid legal basis, created in the democratic rule of law. Ongoing in the Russian Federation reforms of the political and economic systems are designed through the democratization of all aspects of life to connect the interests of the individual and society, in fact, to put people at the center of social development, to provide them decent living conditions, freedom and the opportunity to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their elected representatives. According to the author, in terms of democratization of state and society an important role is played by the polling relationships, based on the electoral law and the electoral process in the Russian Federation. In conclusion, author underlines that the distinguishing feature of the legal status of election commissions, government agencies, local governments, enterprises, organizations, institutions, media, as well as their officials is that they have the right to participate in the electoral legal relations strictly within their authority and cannot go beyond these powers, no matter what reasons motivated the necessity and expediency of actions that go beyond the law.

  16. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint US/Russian Progress Report for Fiscal 1997. Volume 3 - Calculations Performed in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the progress report provides documentation of reactor physics and criticality safety studies conducted in the Russian Federation during fiscal year 1997 and sponsored by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program of the US Department of Energy. Descriptions of computational and experimental benchmarks for the verification and validation of computer programs for neutron physics analyses are included. All benchmarks include either plutonium, uranium, or mixed uranium and plutonium fuels. Calculated physics parameters are reported for all of the contaminated benchmarks that the United States and Russia mutually agreed in November 1996 were applicable to mixed-oxide fuel cycles for light-water reactors.

  17. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain

  18. THE PROBLEM OF OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ITS PHARMACOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Krysanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of obesity that has turned into enormous economic and social burden, studies aimed at assessment of damages caused by this medico-social problem are seen as very important in the last years. Aim: To assess economic burden of obesity in the Russian Federation taking as an example three main socially significant medical conditions: acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Materials and methods: We analyzed available evidence on assessment of costs of management and treatment of obese patients and its relation to the disorders selected. To measure costs of obesity for the state budget, we used clinical and economic analysis “cost of illness” with consideration of risks of stroke, AMI and T2DM in the population. Taking into account specific features of cost assessment and based on publically available data, we developed separate models to calculate cost of illness for each selected disease type.Results: Obesity-related expenses incurred by the state for treatment and management of patients amounted to 10.2 billion rubles for stroke, 7.6 billion rubles for AMI and 346.3 billion rubles for T2DM.Conclusion: Оbesity is a serious problem causing significant economic and social losses that are increasing.

  19. Food security and nutrition in the Russian Federation – a health policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Lunze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Russian Federation (Russia, an elevated burden of premature mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases (NCDs has been observed since the country's economic transition. NCDs are largely related to preventable risk factors such as unhealthy diets. Objective: This health policy study's aim was to analyze past and current food production and nutritional trends in Russia and their policy implications for Russia's NCD burden. Design: We examined food security and nutrition in Russia using an analytical framework of food availability, access to food, and consumption. Results: Agricultural production declined during the period of economic transition, and nutritional habits changed from high-fat animal products to starches. However, per-capita energy consumption remained stable due to increased private expenditures on food and use of private land. Paradoxically, the prevalence of obesity still increased because of an excess consumption of unsaturated fat, sugar, and salt on one side, and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables on the other. Conclusions: Policy and economic reforms in Russia were not accompanied by a food security crisis or macronutrient deprivation of the population. Yet, unhealthy diets in contemporary Russia contribute to the burden of NCDs and related avoidable mortality. Food and nutrition policies in Russia need to specifically address nutritional shortcomings and food-insecure vulnerable populations. Appropriate, evidence-informed food and nutrition policies might help address Russia's burden of NCDs on a population level.

  20. Experiences in control of avian influenza in Europe, the Russian Federation and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I H; Pittman, M; Irza, V; Laddomada, A

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented global epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has and continues to present enormous challenges to the international community for control in the animal reservoir. Enhanced biosecurity, good surveillance, both passive and active, supplemented by strong veterinary services, can reduce the risk for incursion and subsequent spread in free countries. Surveillance of mortality and laboratory testing among wild birds are useful early indicators of incursion of the virus into areas in which domestic poultry are not infected. Conventional control methods used widely in Europe and the Middle Eastern region involve stamping-out, zoning, quarantine, movement restrictions, enhanced surveillance and disinfection. Use of preventive vaccination is increasing in the region. In the Russian Federation, all backyard poultry considered to be at high risk for infection have been vaccinated since 2006. Several countries in the Middle East permit the use of vaccine, although rarely as part of a formal statutory programme. In the European Union, conventional approaches for control have proved effective, but both emergency and preventive vaccination could be used. Application of such programmes would have to be preceded by an evaluation of the risks for introduction and spread and might be restricted.

  1. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  2. Cluster analysis of the factors influencing innovative development of economy in regions of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yur’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a statistical description aimed at identifying the factors, which influence on the innovative development in regions of the Russian Federation. Presented article refers to the results of previous research [1, p. 212–218]. On the first stage, there was given a terminology on the concepts of innovations and innovative development, as well as their role in the modern economy was stated. On the next stage, the factors, which may have an influence on the volume of innovative products, activities and services, were chosen. The results received from this article show the cluster analysis of the regions conducted according to three chosen methods. In the course of the research, data was collected from an official web page of Federal State Statistics Service in accordance to previously chosen factors, its’ analysis and conclusions were made, on the current step the cluster analysis was additionally conducted. To analyze the sample rates and to divide regions to the clusters we’ve used a fully integrated line of analytic solutions Statistica [2], for analyzing, visualizing and forecasting. As a result of a statistical analysis and Statistica use regions were divided into clusters according to the three methods: hierarchical classification, Kaverage method and two-input distribution. To make more detailed analysis, linear, power and exponential equations were built for each region. As a result there were drawn two tables: 1 with the Euclidian distances; 2 with the regression models and the meaningful factors. Thereby, regions were grouped. For each group conclusions and recommendations were given. The results of current research will be applicable for analysis and planning of different commercial and governmental market participants.

  3. THE POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ON THE BALTIC REPUBLICS’ (LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Dmitrievna Portnyagina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the EU in 2004 was of great significance not only for the EU members, but for the Russian Federation as the candidates were former USSR republics and countries that had been under the influence of the USSR.  The purpose of this article is to uncover the attitude of Russian and German officials to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The study uses the methods of historicism and objectivity as its basis. A regional approach that describes the development of the region into global political process is used.The author proves that Russia has underestimated the consequence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The Russian Federation made the hasty judgement that the Baltic countries’ joining the EU would automatically solve the bilateral problems in relations between Russia, Latvia, Lithiania and Estonia. Russian politicians failed to detect negative economic consequences, which the Baltic states’ joining the European Union brought about. The position of the German government was ambiguous. It was impacted by the obligations within its role as the ‘motor’ of European integration, but also had to consider the direct interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.  The German ruling coalition by morally supporting the intention of the Baltic Republics to join the EU delegated the role of an ‘advocate’ of newly independent republics to the northern European countries while taking the right to defend primarily national interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.The materials of the study can be used for further research of the history of the Baltic Region, in lectures and special courses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-32

  4. Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin, A.L.; Kulistikova, O.V.; Mokhova, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    International Northern Sea Route Programme, INSROP, is a five-year multilateral research programme. The main phase of the programme started in 1993. The three principal cooperating partners are research institutes in Russia, Japan and Norway. The aim of INSROP is to build up a knowledge base to provide foundation for a long-term planning and decision making by state agencies and private companies etc., for purposes of promoting rational decision making on the use of the Northern Sea route for transit and regional development. This report reviews the main legislative acts of former USSR and the Russian Federation, systematized by the responsibility types: (1) civil (property), (2) criminal and (3) administrative. It also discusses the issues of responsibility for marine pollution in accordance with the draft of the new Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation, which contains sections on liability for damage caused by oil pollution from ships or by transport of hazardous and noxious substances by sea. 18 refs.

  5. RADIATION MONITORING EXECUTED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION SUBJECT TERRITORIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of radiation monitoring management, done by the Russian Federation subject territories for the assessment of population radiation safety conditions and filling the radiation hygienic passport of the territory. An algorithm of generalized assessment of the radiation monitoring done by the territories is proposed based on the considerations of the scope of measurements and necessity of getting of all foreseen by the territory radiation hygienic passport values. Comparative analysis of radiation monitoring according to the data from radiation hygienic passports dated by 2009 is done with the use of proposed algorithm. On the base of this assessment Russian Federation subject territories were selected, which radiation monitoring were considered as unsatisfactory and needs serious improvement.

  6. Russia-China Trade Witnesses The Best Period——Interview with Sergey TSYPLAKOV, Trade Representative of the Russian Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Russian Federation and the P.R. China have a long standing friendship, which has been highly praised from generation to generation. During recent years, the close bilateral political relations and high-level government visits between the two countries have made solid foundations for promoting bilateral economic and trade cooperation. In 2006, China is celebrating Russia Year, in 2007 Russia will celebrate China Year, giving unprecedented opportunities for the promotion of trade and investment cooperation between the two countries. In August, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Sergey TSYPLAKOV, Trade Representative for the Russian Federation (of Minister Rank), he stated: "The bilateral economic and trade cooperation between Russia and China has never been better!"

  7. Comparative analysis of public service advertising regulation in Russian Federation and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureeva Maria, R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear

  8. Reproductive Ratio for the Local Spread of African Swine Fever in Wild Boars in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Montes, F; Perez, A; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; de la Torre, A

    2016-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) has caused the swine industry of the Russian Federation substantial economic losses over the last 7 years, and the disease spread from there to a number of neighbouring countries. Wild boar has been involved in the spread of the disease both at local and at transboundary levels. Understanding ASF dynamics in wild boars is prerequisite to preventing the spread and to designing and applying effective surveillance and control plans. The reproductive ratio (R0 ) is an epidemiological indicator commonly used to quantify the extent of disease spread. Here, it was estimated in nine spatio-temporal clusters of ASF in wild boar cases in the Russian Federation (2007-2013). Clusters were defined by exploring the maximum distance of association of ASF cases using K Ripley analysis and spatio-temporal scan statistics. A maximum spatial association of 133 km in wild boar cases was identified which is within de the conventional radius of surveillance zone (100-150 km). The mean range value of R0  = 1.58 (1.13-3.77) was lower compared to values previously estimated for ASF transmission within farms but similar to early estimates between farm (R0  = 2-3), in domestic pigs using notification data in the Russian Federation. Results obtained provide quantitative knowledge on the epidemiology of ASF in wild boars in the Russian Federation. They identify the ASF transmission rate value in affected natural wild populations, for the first time, which could provide basis for modelling ASF transmission and suggest that current surveillance radius should be reviewed to make surveillance in wild nature more targeted and effective.

  9. Comparison of mortality in Asbest city and the Sverdlovsk region in the Russian Federation: 1997–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalevskiy, E. V.; Schonfeld, S. J.; E. Feletto; Moissonnier, M.; Kashanskiy, S. V.; I.V. Bukhtiyarov; Schüz, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The Sverdlovsk region of the Russian Federation is characterised by its abundance of natural resources and industries. Located in this region, Asbest city is situated next to one of the largest open-pit chrysotile asbestos mines currently operational; many city residents are employed in activities related to mining and processing of chrysotile. We compared mortality rates from 1997 to 2010 in Asbest city to the remaining Sverdlovsk region, with additional analyses conducted for sit...

  10. MURDER COMMITTED BY EXCEEDING THE LIMITS OF NECESSARY DEFENSE, AMENDMENTS PROPOSED TO IMPROVE THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny Georgyevich BABICHEV

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined provisions of the current Criminal Code concerning the necessary defense, and considered the grounds for release of an accused, or for according mitigation in the seriousness of offence and the severity of sentence for crime committed in excess of the limits of necessary defense. The study cast light upon the specifics of the corpus delicti specified by the Russian Federation Criminal Code, Article 108, Part 1, and suggested amend-ments to improve legislation.

  11. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE POPULATION MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND TATARSTAN REPUBLIC FOR THE PERIOD 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Morozov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conducted comparative analysis of the medical exposure of the population of Russian Federation and one of its administrative territories reveals the leading importance for the medical exposure reduction of the renewing of X-ray equipment and the methods of the patient dose determining and the regulation of X-ray investigations. The introduction of the instrumental control methods predetermines comparatively low doses from medical exposure for the population of the Tatarstan Republic.

  12. [The main tasks concerning the organization of surveillance and prophylaxis of HIV-infection in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The main task concerning striving against HIV/AIDS epidemic is effective use of present political, financial, organizational, and informative possibilities. However, despite efforts, the epidemic situation with HIV/AIDS is constantly worsening. Approaches to and stereotypes of the organization of this work and its fulfillment cannot provide a complete solution to this problem. Among strategic tasks that should be fulfilled at the federal level are the following: strengthening of coordination of actions from the departmental level to interaction with Russian and international organizations and the community of people living with HIV/AIDS; determination of requirements and purchase of necessary diagnostic test systems for HIV-infection detection as well as pharmaceuticals, and providing subjects of Russian Federation with them. Tactical tasks that should be fulfilled at the level of subjects of Russian Federation are the following: medical aid to patients with HIV/AIDS should become more approachable; complete dispensary observation and treatment of these patients should be organized. Civil society and interaction between non-profit organizations and governmental structures play an important role in organization and fulfillment of striving against HIV epidemic.

  13. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  14. [Application of administrative enforcement while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, A E; Berskiĭ, O V; Nebredovskiĭ, V N; Zharkov, D A

    2013-05-01

    The article deals with the legal framework of an application of administrative enforcement. The authors analyzed the information about a quantity and structure of administrative violation in the sanitary and epidemiological welfare, revealed during 2009-2011 while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance by the Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense (TsGSEN MF RF) in military units and organizations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and applied administrative sanctions. The acquired data was compared with the same data acquired by The Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being (Rospotrebnadzor). The results of research give a reason to consider TsGSEN MF activity according to index of application of administrative enforcement as ineffective. It shows the significant underestimate of administrative sanctions for the failure to comply with requirements of the health legislation. The authors formulated practical recommendations for activation of legal mechanics application by the specialists of TsGSEN MF RF while carrying-out of federal sanitary and epidemiological surveillance in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

  15. RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELL-BEING ENSURING FOR THE POPULATION OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The report states priority goals of sanitary and epidemiological service and shows the analysis of the Service's administrative reforms and structural changes from 1991 to 2007. It considers the existing regulatory and legal background on all aspects of hygiene and epidemiology as well as the Concept of the Federal Service Development. It analyses the work of Rospotrebnadzor  bodies in ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, including current state of population radiation protection in Russian Federation.

  16. H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with (from left to right) V. Kaftanov, Ph. Bloch, N. Koulberg, F. Grishaev Photo 02: H.E. Mr Leonid A. Skotnikov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Geneva (centre) with Ph. Bloch (behind the Ambassador, V. Kaftanov) visiting the crystal laboratory in building 27.

  17. Strategy of development of small entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation for the period till 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shibileva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of the sphere of small business as one of the factors of innovation development of the country and improving the economic structure. The strategy is aimed at creating a competitive, flexible and adaptive economy that provides a high level of individualization of goods and services, a high rate of technological renovation and stable employment. The implementation of the development strategy of small and medium production is divided into 3 phases:. 2016-2018, 2019-2025 gg. and 2026-2030 gg., each of which has its own problems. In the first phase the task of updating all the instruments of state support of small businesses. The second phase is programmed for the creation of new market niches and ensuring stable dynamics of small businesses. The third stage aims to provide leadership in some sectors of activity at the global level, in accordance with the long-term scientific and technological priorities of Russia. small business sector is concentrated mainly in the spheres of trade and the provision of services to the population. In order to implement the Government strategy target indicators have been developed: an increase of 2.5 times the turnover of small businesses in relation to 2014; increase of 2 times the turnover per employee in the small business sector in relation to 2014; increase in the share of manufacturing in the back of small business from 11.8 to 20%; increasing the share of employed in the subjects of small business in total employment from 25 to 35%. Strategy of development of small business in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, is designed to reduce the pressure of the public and tax authorities to small businesses, to expand the subsidy programs, to increase financial resources and provide small businesses with qualified personnel that will undoubtedly have a positive impact on the economy and all regions country.

  18. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S

    2016-01-01

    Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  19. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  20. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  1. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Dave

    2006-04-01

    To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services) should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.

  2. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Dave

    2006-01-01

    To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied ...

  3. FEATURES OF PRICING OF THE MORTGAGE MARKET IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KASYANENKO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is determined by the importance of the market of mortgage loans as the main instrument of social policy. The aim of the article is to identify the relationship between the volume of mortgage loans and the value of residential real estate on both the primary and secondary markets. The article consists of two parts. The main objective of the first part of this article is to clarify the concepts and features of mortgage loans, and identification of peculiarities of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova. The methodological basis of the work is made up of methods of analysis and synthesis, the combination of logical and historical approaches, methods of economic comparison and statistical analysis. The result of the study of the first part of the article is to identify the stages of development of mortgage loans in the Russian Federation, an analysis of prices in the primary and secondary markets of residential property on the basis of aggregate statistical indicators that reflect the status and characteristics of the housing market. The Russian experience is correlated with the peculiarities of the development of the mortgage market in the Republic of Moldova.

  4. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  5. Implications of a Resurgent Russian Federation for U.S. European Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    republic and a member of NATO and the EU.174 The president of the Czech Republic is Vaclav Klaus ; elected to a five-year term in 2008.175 Russian...Republic has a Russian-leaning president in Vaclav Klaus , who seeks closer ties between the Czech Republic and Russia.212 This- coupled with growing...Eorsi, Istvan Gyarmati, Vaclav Havel, Rastislav Kacer, Sandra Kalniete, Karel Schwarzenberg, Michal Kovac, Ivan Krastev, Alexander Kwasniewski, Mart

  6. The Duty to Serve and the Right to Choose: The Contested Nature of Alternative Civilian Service in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Waisberg

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The drafting and passage of Russian legislation on alternative civilian service took almost nine years after it was constitutionally guaranteed.  The issue has been inextricable from sensitive debates over citizenship rights and duties, religious freedom, and military reform.  This article assesses the operation and meaning of alternative civilian service in the Russian Federation through an examination of the legislative drafting process, the debates on the various draft laws, and the provisions of the resulting legislation, finding that the passage of the most restrictive draft of the law resulted in large part from the relative strength of the military establishment among the stakeholders in the legislative bargaining process.

  7. Reperfusion therapy for ischemic stroke in the Russian Federation: Problems and promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Shamalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current technologies for treating ischemic stroke (IS within the first 4.5 hours after its onset involve highly effective brain substance reperfusion techniques (thrombolytic therapy (TLT aimed at restoring blood flow in the affected vessel. There has been a substantial increase in the number of systemic TLT procedures after establishing stroke subdivisions as part of regional vascular centers and primary vascular departments in our country. In the past 5 years, the number of IS patients undergoing systemic thrombolysis has virtually risen 10-fold. In 2009–2013, the primary and regional centers of the Russian Federation performed 10,718 systemic TLT procedures mainly in patients with moderate stroke. The further increase in the number of reperfusion procedures in IS patients is hindered by the fact that they seek medical advice too late for acute cerebrovascular attack (ACVA because the population has low medical knowledge (therefore education campaigns are so important for the population to increase its awareness of the signs of ACVA, prehospital delays and problems, poor organization of hospital admission (delays in diagnostic procedures.It is important that the patients should be admitted to specialized ACVA departments as soon as possible. According to the AHA/ASA guidelines, the time between admission and TLT initiation (door-to-needle time should not exceed 60 minutes. The major factors influencing the door-to-needle time are as follows: the time between admission and neurological examination, that between neuroimaging and its results, that of examination of necessary laboratory findings, that between admission and transfer to an intensive care unit after computed tomography. One may identify the following quality indices of the procedures (necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and other interventions, which negatively affect the safety and efficiency of TLT: errors in determining contraindications to reperfusion, noncompliance with the

  8. [THE CONDITION AND TENDENCIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL AND SANITARY MICROBIOLOGY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Shepelin, A P; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-08-01

    The import substitution becomes one of the strategic tasks of national economy as a result of prolongation of economic sanctions concerning the Russian Federation of part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other countries. It is not proper to be limited in import substitution only by goods because in conditions ofsanctions when access toforeign technologies is complicated Russia is needed to substitute foreign technologies by national designs in faster manner One of directions of effective import substitution is localization of production of laboratory equipment and consumables for clinical and sanitary microbiology on the territory ofthe Russian Federation and countries of Customs union. In Russia, in the field ofdiagnostic of dangerous and socially significant infections, all components for import substitution to implement gene diagnostic, immune diagnostic. bio-sensory and biochip approaches, isolation and storage of live microbial cultures, implementation of high-tech methods of diagnostic are available. At the same time, national diagnostic instrument-making industry for microbiology is factually absent. The few devices of national production more than on 50% consist of import components. The microbiological laboratories are to be equipped only with import devices of open type for applying national components. The most perspective national designs to be implemented are multiplex polimerase chain reaction test-systems and biochips on the basis of national plotters and readers. The modern development of diagnostic equipment and diagnostic instruments requires supplement of national collections of bacterial and viral pathogens and working-through of organizational schemes of supplying collections with strains. The presented data concerning justification of nomenclature of laboratory equipment and consumables permits to satisfy in fill scope the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in devices, growth mediums, consumables of national production

  9. Analysis of the Retail Trade and Automotive Industry in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Bolotov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines recent developments in the Russian retail trade and automobile industry as in the two very dynamic sectors of the Russian economy by stating and forecasting sales trends, presenting main market participants, shares of business forms and deducing perspectives for Central and Eastern European investors. The author uses a standard methodology for description of industries and one- and multi-dimensional time series models for forecasts and analysis. The article’s main benefit for Central and Eastern European managers is its concise and up-to-date description of the both sectors of the Russian economy, which is not easily accessible for foreigners due language barriers and marketing agencies’ fees.

  10. Belarus: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  11. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance.

  12. Standing Up a Narcotic Confirmation Laboratory for the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LukyanenkoMD, Victor [Russian Federation Ministry of Defense; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL; Coates, Cameron W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.

  13. Building of the rating assessments of the Russian Federation subjects by the blocks of socio-economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Molchanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article implements the econometric approach to the building of rating assessments of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The author defines three blocks of indicators for the construction of integral indices: “quality of the population”, “welfare of the population” and “quality of the social sphere”. They serve as the basis for determining the value of a single combined integral indicator. The author also gives recommendations on the improvement of the medical and demographic situation and enhancement of the “quality of the population” at the regional level

  14. Human smuggling in Austria: a comparative analysis of data on smuggled migrants from former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka-Benton, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the author’s research on human smuggling in Austria comparing migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation. The project’s primary intent was to collect more detailed information on migrants seeking asylum in Austria and their use of smuggling services to leave their home countries, including detailed information on demographics, force or threat of force by smugglers, routes and methods of transportation, costs of smuggling, payment methods, and deeper perceptual questions regarding the flight. Another central premise of the article discusses how current distinctions between human smuggling and human trafficking are arbitrary in many regards.

  15. Peculiar features of work of recruiting companies in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova M. A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite economic crisis personnel and recruiting remains one of the most important success factor of business in today’s Russia. This paper is devoted to the classification of recruitment agencies in Russia, describes selection and testing methods of candidates, focuses on basic tasks of recruitment process and the understanding of the Russian human resources risk factor.

  16. Use of Modern Methods of Credit Portfolio Risk Management in Commercial Banks of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii S. Melnyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the structure and factors of credit portfolio risk, analyses existing models of portfolio risk assessment and develops recommendations on the implementation of risk management adapted methods, presents recommendations on the optimization of the approach to credit risk minimization in Russian banking system.

  17. Russian Federation, the World Trade Organization, and the Eurasian Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrantino, Michael J.; Gillson, Ian; Schmidt, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses issues relating to tariffs and nontariff measures (NTMs) in relation to Russia's World Trade Organization (WTO) and Eurasian Customs Union (ECU) commitments. The analysis finds that full implementation of Russia's WTO tariff schedule through 2020, would raise goods imports by about $3.5 billion (1.1 percent) compared to 2012, with estimates of welfare gains to Russian ...

  18. Use of Modern Methods of Credit Portfolio Risk Management in Commercial Banks of Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrii S. Melnyk

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the structure and factors of credit portfolio risk, analyses existing models of portfolio risk assessment and develops recommendations on the implementation of risk management adapted methods, presents recommendations on the optimization of the approach to credit risk minimization in Russian banking system.

  19. Experience of Internal and External Education Quality Rate: Esg and the Legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov Ivan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of regulation of internal and external education quality rate has been presented. The development of regulation an independent assessment of higher education in Russia in the context of ESG has been considered. Authors noticed, that instruments of internal and external quality rate interact in Russian legislation insufficiently.

  20. [The tasks of the Federal Service for the implementation of the legislation of the Russian Federation aimed at optimizing the compliance and enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2011-01-01

    The priority of the Federal Service's activity in protecting consumer rights and human welfare is to execute a number of basic documents recently endorsed and directed towards observing the legislation on the optimization of supervision and control activities. To implement measures on the professional orientation and prehigher education preparation of schoolchildren and on the assistance with their entrance into the medical prophylaxis faculties of higher medical educational establishments within the framework of target enrollment, etc. is an urgent problem for the agencies and bodies of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare. Interaction with civil society has recently been activated, which is required to ensure the transparency of the Service's work, to enhance its efficiency, and to optimize supervision. Public reception rooms have been set up, the function of which is to receive citizens, the representatives of legal persons, and individual employers concerning the matters of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being, protection of the rights of consumers and a consumer market, and the activities of the agencies and bodies of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare. The better activities of the agencies and bodies of the Service will call for a set of complex tasks to be accomplished in the immediate future. The end result will depend on how competently, responsibly, and cooperatively the appropriate measures will be carried out in all the agencies of the Federal service.

  1. Multikulturalita Ruské federace a její reϐlexe ve školním vzdělávání. / Multiculturalism of the Russian Federation and its reflection in school education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Ježková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation is a considerably multicultural country, which also influences the school. The subjects of the study are two main areas: dealing with the nationalities issue and the language policy of the Russian Federation, namely at the level of the whole society and at the level of school education. In the summary the situation in the Russian Federation is compared to the situation in the Czech Republic and and other countries: Germany, Great Britain and Sweden.

  2. Visit of Mr. Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov, Minister of Science and Technology, Russian Federation at the LHC experiment exhibits (CMS, ALICE, LHC-B, ATLAS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1998-01-01

    From left: V. Matveev, Director INR Coordinator for the Russian Groups in CMS; A. Logounov, Director of the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP Protvino); O. Patarakin, Senior Specialist of the Ministry of Science of the RF; M. Della Negra, CMS spokesman; M. Kirpichnikov, Minister of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation; M. Danilov, Director of ITEP, Member of the CERN Scientific Committee. (Photo 05)

  3. [Results and prospects of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The issues of further development of scientific and methodological basis of the guarantee of sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population of the Russian Federation are highlighted in accordance with the implementation of the Concept of the activity of the Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare until 2015. Features of this work over the past 5 years have been characterized, they include: changes in the structure of the objects under surveillance; integration processes in the economy of the country rise of attention to social problems of society strengthening the influence of epidemiological and natural man-made disasters in the world and the country, improvement of the supervisory authorities of the Service, the formation of its new structure and development of legislative assembly, including sanitary legislation.

  4. Imbalances of innovative industrial development of subjects of Federation, members of the Russian Arctic zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharov V. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing the previously developed methodological approach and methods of assessing the innovativeness level of the industrial development of the regions – subjects of the Federation (members of the Russian Arctic zone – on the basis of the calculation and analysis of scorecard values have been presented. It has been shown that during the years 2005–2013, the highest level of technological innovation of industrial development had been achieved in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Представлены результаты апробации разработанных ранее методологического подхода и методики оценки уровня инновационности промышленного развития регионов – субъектов Федерации, входящих в Арктическую зону РФ, – на основе расчета и анализа значений системы показателей. Показано, что в течение 2005–2013 гг. наиболее высокий уровень технологической инновационности промышленного развития достигнут в Республике Саха (Якутия

  5. Shifts of heat availability and stressful temperatures in Russian Federation result in gains and losses of wheat thermal suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Caporaso, Luca; Santini, Monia; Di Paola, Francesco; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes are likely to shift the suitability of lands devoted to cropping systems. We explored the past-to-future thermal suitability of Russian Federation for wheat (Triticum aestivum) culture through an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5-GCMs outputs considering two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Thermal suitability assesses where wheat heat requirement, counted from suggested sowing dates, is satisfied without the occurrence of stressful hot and frost temperatures. Thermal requirement was estimated by means of phenological observations on soft wheat involving different wheat cultivar collected in different regions of Russian Federation, Azerbaidhan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan, whilst stressful temperatures were taken from a literature survey. Results showed projected geographical shift of heat resource toward the north-eastern regions, currently mainly covered by forests and croplands, but also an increase of very hot temperatures in the most productive areas of the southern regions. Gains and losses were then quantified and discussed from both agronomical and climatic perspective.

  6. The influence of external environment factors on the activity of higher educational establishments in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Leonidovna Guzakova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The instability of market economy development causes continuous changes in the activity of higher educational establishments. The article deals with the processes, taking place in the system of higher professional education in the Russian Federation in recent decades. On the basis of the analysis of statistical data and normative acts of the Government and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the key global and national trends in higher education are identified: increasing demand for higher education, resulted in its considerable offer (the growth of quantitative indicators is not always accompanied by improvement of higher education quality; reduction in the total number of students due to the demographic situation worsening; transition to a multi-level system of higher education under the Bologna process; change in specialties patterns and directions of training specialists with higher professional education due to the economy structural reforms and labor market needs; aggravation of competition. The tendencies lead to the emergence of demographic, political and economic risks. To reduce negative impact of the external risks to the universities’ activity it is necessary to develop corresponding state educational policy in the sphere of higher education and risk management in universities

  7. Productivity of different thyme varieties (Thymus vulgaris L. in the condition of non chernozem-zone of Russian Federation

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    Malankina, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creeping thyme (Thymus serpillum L. is mostly used as a medicinal plant in the Russian Federation. It has much more winter hardiness then common thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., which is similarly used in Europe. However, T. vulgaris is interesting as a plant in food industry and in medicine. T. vulgaris contains two to three times more essential oil (2 % than T. serpillum L. and a higher сontent of thymol in its essential oil (up to 35-40 % depending on the genotype. The objectives of the present study are to determine the total essential oil content, the total polyphenol content, the total flavonoid content and the yield from 8 varieties of thyme during two years. We found that the ‘Colchida’ and ‘Lemon’ varieties are characterized by high yields. The maximum amounts of essential oil were found in ‘Deutscher Winter’ (1.3 %, ‘Médoc’ and ‘Lemon’ (1.19 %, flavonoids content in plants was 1.27-2.87 %. Our studies have shown that T. vulgaris can be considered as a potential medicinal and aromatic plant for growing in the non-chernozem zone of the Russian Federation.

  8. Model of analyzing and forecasting the dynamics of industrial production and space sector of the Russian Federation

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    Dmitriy Yu. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comparative analysis of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of Russia. Methods an asynchronous method of harmonic analysis comparative method. Results the forecasts of the development of rocket and space industry for 2015 and 2016 are obtained which are compared with the data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development. The comparison of the results showed that the analysis and forecast data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development coincide only partially. The tendency to increase the volumes in rocket and space industry is shown. Scientific novelty the mathematical models are presented for the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation built on the basis of the asynchronous harmonic analysis. The retrospective of the rocketspace complex development is considered. Practical significance using the proposed mathematical models of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation based on the economy cycles the more accurate forecasts of economic development can be made. nbsp

  9. Enhanced surveillance for measles in low-incidence territories of the Russian Federation: defining a rate for suspected case investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, N T; Bichurina, M A; Gerasimova, A G; Zvirkun, O V; Vladimerova, N P; Mamaeva, T; Lipskaya, G; Elsaadany, S; Spika, J S

    2011-02-01

    The rate of case investigation for measles-like illness (MLI) is an important indicator for the quality of measles surveillance in countries targeting measles elimination. However, a benchmark rate is still being discussed. We assessed different rates of investigation in 11 territories of the Russian Federation with low reported measles incidence during the previous 4-7 years. Each territory maintained their existing surveillance activities and also undertook additional surveillance activities for MLI over a 3-year period. The annual routine rate of investigation varied from 0·06 to 1·8/100,000 population; the overall rate of investigation, including enhanced surveillance, varied from 1·4 to 7·2/100,000. Forty-nine (30·8%) of 159 measles cases detected were identified through enhanced surveillance. Based on the results of this study, the Russian Federation concluded that a rate of routine investigation of 2/100,000 provided the best balance between available resources and sensitivity for detection of measles cases.

  10. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus isolates originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogolovkin, Alexander; Yelsukova, Alexandra; Gallardo, Carmina; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Kolbasov, Denis

    2012-08-17

    African swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases of pigs and which caused significant economic damage on the pig production worldwide. Nowadays, it is still present on the African continent, in Transcaucasus countries (TCC), on Island of Sardinia and in Russia. Outbreaks of the disease have been reported in Russia for the last four years, affected especially the Southern Federal District of the country. Since 2010, a new outbreak area has been observed in the Northwestern Federal District. In order to study the evolution of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates, strains were collected in the Russian Federation from 2007 to 2011 and investigated by means of partial sequencing and fragment length polymorphism. In detail, 7 variable regions, namely B646L, E183L, I196L, B602L, I73R/I329R, I78R/I215L and KP86R were investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 100% nucleotide identity of B646L and E183L gene sequences of all examined isolates. All isolates formed one genetic cluster within genotype II. Moreover, no amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was observed for B602L, I196L, I73R/I329R, and I78R/I215L genes. The flanking primers used to amplify the KP86R gene failed to amplify a product in all the isolates. The obtained data strongly suggests that only one ASFV virus variant caused the outbreaks from 2007 to 2011 in the territory of the Russian Federation.

  11. [Poliomyelitis and vaccination strategy in Russian Federation in post-certification period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E

    2011-01-01

    Immunization schedules implemented in various countries by using poliovirus vaccines are presented. Approaches to prevent development of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis and risk groups for this infection are discussed. In recent years poliomyelitis morbidity situation in the European region has become more complex, with the example of poliomyelitis outbreak in Tajikistan in 2010. The resulting problem of protection of Russian against emergence and spread of poliomyelitis caused by wild type virus is discussed.

  12. Information security in the context of the protection of children's rights in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of information security of children and adolescents in our country. It gives organizational and legal basis of information security of children and teenagers in modern Russian society. Reflected the basic contradiction of the interaction between children and adolescents with information resources. The article gives examples of solutions to security problems of the Internet in Russia and other countries on the basis of a review of publications dealing with the problem.

  13. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DATA ON DOSES OF EXTERNAL TERRIGENOUS IRRADIATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION IN MUNICIPAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By this time in the Russian Federation there is collected a huge file of data describing the influence of all natural sources of ionizing radiation on population in municipal conditions. These data are collected and generalized in radiation hygiene passports of the Russian Federation for the last 16 years and in the reporting forms of federal statistical supervision No 4-DOZ “Data on doses of population irradiation due to the natural and manchanged radiation background” for a period of 14 years. These data are received by direct measurements of gamma radiation dose rate in the premises and in the open air on the territory of settlements. Measurements were made with the most different dosimeters; their technical and metrological parameters differ considerably. In this regard of certain interest is evaluation of this data reliability degree; that will help to find out the reasons of higher levels of the Russian Federation population external irradiation in comparison with average global dose values.In this article an attempt was made to evaluate reliability degree of data on the population external irradiation doses using the radiation hygiene passports of territories and reporting forms No 4-DOZ for the whole period of supervision. For this there was used the known dependence between the gamma radiation dose rate and natural radionuclides effective specific activity (AEFF in inhabitancy objects. For this purpose there were used the data on average AEFF values of building raw materials and of local manufacture materials, which are presented in radiation hygiene passports of territories. Definition of design value of gamma radiation dose rate in the buildings and in the open air according to AEFF measurement data in building raw materials and in local manufacture materials actually enables to get an independent evaluation of the population external irradiation doses. Comparison of two evaluations of the population external irradiation levels

  15. Public Participation and the Rights of the Child: Reflection on International Law Standards in the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Riekkinen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the much debated issue of children’s public participation from the perspective of legal practices in the Russian Federation. Having emerged at the level of national jurisdictions, the practice of engaging minors in decision-making processes on issues of public significance – or the practice of public participation of children – is stipulated by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based on Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Public participation of minors implies that children have clearly defined opportunities to take part in decision-making processes concerning those political and public matters affecting their interests.Albeit limited by the clause “regarding the issues concerning them,” the claims for such participation are dictated by emerging standards of international law. The author has examined the process of devising these standards in Russian public law. Moreover, an analysis of the evolution of academic views on public participation of children in Russian legal scholarship is also included in this article.Relying extensively on the method of legal analysis and the comparative analysis of the conformity of national public law standards with respect to international law, the author proposes several legal amendments to the Federal law “On the Basic Guarantees of the Rights of the Child in the Russian Federation,” which would lead to anchoring more solidly the participatory right of minors in the legal system of the Russian Federation.

  16. The Role and Place of State of Event-Strategic Megaobjects in the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Russian Federation

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    Vladimir Yuryevich Ivanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is actively trying to raise its image and rating in the international political, sports and social spheres. This can be achieved by hosting major All-Russian and international events such as APEC 2012 summit, the 2013 Summer Universiade, the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014, FIFA 2018, 2019 Winter Universiade etc. We point to the absence of complex scientific approach to managing such event-strategic megaobjects, and this has negative affect on the Russian economy. The subject of the present research is represented by the role of state event-strategic megaobjects in sustainable regional development of Russia. The analysis allowed to identify a number of features of these objects, and to point out key issues and risks in their implementation. We consider the use of innovative crowdfunding technology to be the positive aspect of public megaobjects’ management. The negative aspects include the excessive scale of the financial costs and problems of cost-effective use of megaobjects after the hosting events. The territorial aspect of the analysis revealed the absence of a systemic approach to the selection of regions for hosting international events, as well as the unevenness of the territorial distribution of megaobjects. The largest event-strategic megaobjects were implemented in the Far Eastern Federal district (APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the Southern Federal district (Krasnodar region, Sochi – The winter Olympic and Paralympic games in February 2014, Volga Federal district (the Universiade in Kazan in 2013. These districts did not become the leading regions in socio-economic development of Russia neither before nor after these events. The studies of such socio-economic and political phenomena will help to present theoretical and practical aspects of their application algorithm in the future for the purpose of balanced regional development of Russia.

  17. International relations of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation and the New North concept

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    Markushina Nataliya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of Russia — the North-West federal district — in the New North concept, which encompasses new political relations in the North of Europe in the framework of international organisations and regional cooperation — for instance, the Northern Dimension.

  18. The clinical course and standard therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus in the Russian Federation

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    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the clinical course and treatment of such as the severe disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, are virtually lacking in Russia.Objective: to evaluate the clinical presentations of the disease and its treatment in adult patients with active SLE in the cities of three post-Soviet countries (Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan in the ESSENCE study.Patients and methods. This paper concerns Russian patients. The data of clinical cases of 232 patients who were followed up in 6 centers (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Voronezh, Yekaterinburg, Kursk, and Yaroslavl were studied. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, SLE activity, laboratory and instrumental findings, treatment, and consumed healthcare resources were assessed.Results. The demographic characteristics of patients with SLE were generally comparable to those in other international studies. However, the Russian patients were 4–10 years younger and their SLE duration was 3–7 shorter; the majority of patients were noted to have a severe course of the disease. The level of SLE activity was higher in the patients of our study. There were frequent hospitalizations and unplanned visits to a physician because of exacerbations. The Russian patients who had repeatedly sought medical advice had obvious and severe SLE complications. The disease remained with great probability undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in a sufficiently large number of patients. There were pitfalls in the treatment of SLE: less than half of the patients received antimalarial drugs; nearly 100% took glucocorticoids; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used rarely. The ESSENCE study can form a view of the clinical picture of SLE in Russia. These findings may help to plan healthcare resources in our country.

  19. Phenomenon of organic carbon change in natural waters (system "catchment - Lake") of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Tatyana, Moiseenko; Tatyana, Kremleva; Natalia, Gashkina

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades in the Russian Federation was found significant increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in many aqueous systems. Most obviously, these changes may be related to global warming. It is known that increasing the temperature dominate during dry periods and increases the concentration of nutrients, primary production increases, leading to an increase of the dissolved organic matter. At the same time, it is known that some of the increase in DOC may be largely due to a decrease of anthropogenic sulfur deposition and increasing organic matter in the soil. The European Russia (ER) is a region with substantial industrial emissions of sulphur. In the central part of ER are concentrated metallurgical productions. This has resulted in high concentrations of anthropogenic sulphate and an increase in the prevalence of acidification as well as a rise in metal concentrations in the lakes of North Kola. However, over the last 30 years, sulfur emissions in ?ola North have decreased substantially. The aim of this work was to explain the mechanisms to improve the content of natural organic matter and to assess its role in the processes of acidification and recovery of water quality while reducing the deposition of technogenic acid. The increasing of organic matter content in lake waters is being also observed for the totality of lakes in the Kola North. This conforms to the data reported by Skjelkvale et al. (2001a) which demonstrates the significant increase of DOC. Some authors explain the increased DOC levels by reduction in strong acid flow and return of water chemistry to its natural parameters of specifying organic matter concentrations in water. It is known that DOC level has a direct relationship with water color. In analyzing long-term study data with regard to the group of 75 lakes (obtained during 1990-2010) DOC is increased year-over-year, but the color decreased. The following chemical processes developing in water can explain

  20. Cardiovascular burden and percutaneous interventions in Russian Federation: systematic epidemiological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The situation with cardiovascular (CV) burden in Russian population is alerting, and becomes of interest due to high CV mortality, and shorter lifespan if compare with the Western society amid the absence of the established monitoring or screening system for major CV risk factors. The purpose of this systematic epidemiological update was to explore CV burden in Russia. The study represents pooled results with a systematic epidemiological review of the national mass screening, selected randomized clinical trials and statistical datasets of the national public health CV institutions exploring the trends of the CV burden in all 83 regions of Russia. We overviewed data from a number of the available Russian-speaking national data sources of 2001–2014, and NANOM-FIM trial (NCT01270139) as the only available real-world population study. The CV diseases in Russia accounted for 54.9% of all deaths in 2011–2014. The death rate was 13.3 per 1,000 citizens with CV mortality of 653.9 per 100,000. The life expectancy achieves 64.3 years for male and 76.1 years for female. The mean age of pts in trial was 51.6 years (77.2% males). A total of 175 Russian PCI centers implemented 205,902 angio a year, and 75,378 PCI achieving 531 PCI per 1,000,000 with placement of 101,451 stents (1.37 stents per PCI; 48,057 DES). The smoking (17.3% of screened with a 2,786 cigarettes a year; 70.6% in trial), excessive alcohol consumption (1.8% of screened with a 11.6 L per year; 50.6% in trial), unhealthy Russian diet (abundance of carbohydrates/sugar, saturated and trans fats in 24.3% of screened), psychosocial factors (20%) and physical inactivity (19.6% of screened) remain the major modifiable risk factors. They, in turn, affect such risk factors as dyslipidemia (86.7% in trial), obesity (16.7% of screened; BMI in trial was 28.4), and hypertension (40.8% suffered; 86.1% in trial). CV mortality was not directly associated with a level of poverty (r=0.26, P=0.02) or socio-economic development

  1. ANALYSIS OF TRENDS OF DEBT CRISIS AND MONETARY POLICY IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Sheremeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic situation in Russia in 2013-14 characterized by increasing ofthe debt, credit, investment and financial problems that threaten the national financial and economic security. Features of the tight fiscal and monetary policies inRussia, based on the money (emission,credit and interest rate restrictions maylead to a debt crisis, trends of which are appearing now. Therefore it requires the radical change in the financial and monetary policy in order to maintain businessactivity and international competitivenessof Russian.

  2. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  3. [VACCINE-ASSOCIATED PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION DURING THE PERIOD OF CHANGES IN VACCINATION SCHEDULE (2006-2013 yy.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, O E; Eremeeva, T P; Morozova, N S; Shakaryan, A K; Gmyl, A P; Yakovenko, M L; Korotkova, E A; Chernjavskaja, O P; Baykova, O Yu; Silenova, O V; Krasota, A Yu; Krasnoproshina, L I; Mustafina, A N; Kozlovskaja, L I

    2016-01-01

    The results of virologic testing of clinical materials and epidemiological analysis of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases obtained in 2006-2013 during AFP surveillance are presented. Among the 2976 cases of AFP 30 cases were VAPP. 15 cases were observed in OPV recipients, whereas 15 cases were observed in non-vaccinated contacts. The age of the patients varied from 4 months to 5.5 years (13.6 ± 12.4 months old). Children younger than 1 year constituted 63.3% of the group; boys were dominant (73.3%); 53.3% of children were vaccinated with OPV; the time period between receipt of OPV and onset of palsy was from 2 to 32 days (18.7 ± 8.2). Lower paraparesis was documented in 48.3% of patients; lower monoparesis in 37.9%; upper monoparesis, in 6.9%; tetraparesis with bulbar syndrome, in 6%. The majority of the patients (85.7%) had an unfavorable premorbid status. The violations of the humoral immunity were found in 73.9% cases: CVID (52.9%), hypogammaglobulinemia (41.2%); selective lgA deflciency (5.9%). In 70.6% cases damage to humoral immunity was combined with poor premorbid status. The most frequently observed (76%, p poliomyelitis in the Russian Federation, WHO Polio eradication initiative, WHO's European Regional Bureau, Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 15-15-00147).

  4. An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Durkheim's Social Deregulation Thesis: The Case of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Cochran, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in sudden, widespread, and fundamental changes to Russian society. The former social welfare system-with its broad guarantees of employment, healthcare, education, and other forms of social support-was dismantled in the shift toward democracy, rule of law, and a free-market economy. This unique natural experiment provides a rare opportunity to examine the potentially disintegrative effects of rapid social change on deviance, and thus to evaluate one of Durkheim's core tenets. We took advantage of this opportunity by performing interrupted time-series analyses of annual age-adjusted homicide, suicide, and alcohol-related mortality rates for the Russian Federation using data from 1956 to 2002, with 1992-2002 as the postintervention time-frame. The ARIMA models indicate that, controlling for the long-term processes that generated these three time series, the breakup of the Soviet Union was associated with an appreciable increase in each of the cause-of-death rates. We interpret these findings as being consistent with the Durkheimian hypothesis that rapid social change disrupts social order, thereby increasing the level of crime and deviance. PMID:20165565

  5. Mining investment environment in Russian federation%俄罗斯联邦矿业投资环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈良玺; 陈正; 金玺; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the ore resources ,geological works ,investment and mining policies of Russian federation ,analyzes its pros and cons in mining sector and presents suggestions for Chinese mining investors .This paper recommends that the Chinese mining investors should strengthen their management and risk awareness under the guidance of the government ,using the law to safeguard their own interests ,resolving the issue of environmental protection ,actively looking for investment opportunities of the Russian mining market .%  俄罗斯联邦地处欧亚大陆北部,境内矿产资源丰富。本文整理了俄罗斯联邦的矿产资源情况、矿业管理部门及法规、投资政策等资料,分析了俄罗斯联邦矿业投资的有利及不利因素,建议企业在政府的主导下加强自身管理,提高风险意识,运用法律维护自身权益,妥善解决环境保护问题,积极寻找俄罗斯矿业市场的投资机会,为我国企业“走出去”提供支持。

  6. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  7. Specifics of Chemical Toxilogical Analyses in the Russian Federation for the Purpose of Identification of Narcotics in Biological Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Cameron W [ORNL; Eisele, Gerhard R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Russian Federation (RF) is committed to implementing a comprehensive drug testing program under its Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for military personnel involved in handling sensitive nuclear materials. This commitment leads to a number of mandatory requirements for the laboratory conducting the confirmation testing to ensure the legitimacy and integrity of the testing process. These requirements are established by the RF Duma to ensure that individuals conducting these tests have adequate training, certifications, and experience to conduct narcotic confirmation tests. This paper describes the facility requirements and personnel qualifications needed for conducting comprehensive drug abuse confirmation testing. Details regarding the personnel training and laboratory experience in the theory and practice of analytical forensic toxicology of drugs of abuse will be presented, as well as the facility requirements for the laboratory conducting such tests. Chain-of-custody, from sample receipt through completion of testing, reporting of results, and continuing until final disposition of specimens will be addressed.

  8. Rare species of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

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    Anatoliy S. Zheltukhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on 23 rare species of the Central Forest Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The state of their populations (groups of populations is assessed. The characteristics of landscape and coenotic confinement are given. Their biological and ecological features are briefly described, and the limiting factors determining the reduction in the number of some species are indicated. Over 85 years, many species have remained their biological positions in the Reserve, and their quantity has remained stable. At the same time, species of sedentary birds (Bubo bubo, Lagopus lagopus rossicus and birds nesting in the Protected Area (representatives of the Accipitridae family are now few in number due to the changes in the main habitats and deterioration of the forage resources. It is noted that the Central Forest Reserve is the largest Protected Area in Central Russia for the rare lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Menegazzia terebrata.

  9. A critical analysis and discussion of clinical research ethics in the Russian Federation and their implications for Western sponsored trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leintz, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Globalization, political upheavals, and Western economic struggles have caused a geographical reprioritization in the realm of drug development and human clinical research. Regulatory and cost hurdles as well as a saturation of research sites and subjects in Western countries have forced the pharmaceutical industry to place an unprecedented level of importance on emerging markets, injecting Western corporate initiatives into cultures historically and socially isolated from Western-centric value systems. One of the greatest recipients of this onslaught of Western business and research practices is the Russian Federation. Namely, market forces are dictating a focused research initiative in the traditional emerging markets, but this focus may be at the expense of individual and societal dignity.

  10. Statistical Studies of Non-price Competition in the Structure of Public Procurement in the Russian Federation

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    Svetlana Aleksandrovna Sergeeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The principle of securing competition is one of the basic principles of the contract system in public procurement in the Russian Federation. The law on the contract system in procurement stipulates that the contract system in procurement is aimed at creating equal conditions to ensure competition between the parties to procurement. An important aspect is that the competition for procurement should be based on compliance with the principle of fair price and non-price competition. The purpose of this provision is to identify the best conditions for supplying goods, performing works and providing services. The analysis of the state of non-price competition in the procurement structure requires statistical studies of the phenomenon. The article considers the theoretical basis of non-price competition; it presents an analysis of methods of statistical study of non-price competition.

  11. REVIEW OF MARKET MECHANISM FEATURES OF INNOVATION SUPPORT IN AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY IN MORE ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: STRATEGIES FOR RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Sandu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article shows examples of market mechanism application of innovations implementation based on the experience of the countries with advanced economies. The analysis is based on the agriculture industry. In the article innovation activity ‪encouragement‬ methods are presented. Government’s influence on the companies’ innovation activity is analyzed as well as tax remissions of the companies involved in agriculture R&D in a series of advanced countries. By using this long-term overseas experience Russian Federation can greatly benefit to speed up its innovation processes in rural economy. The article’s aim is to suggest the way to speed up innovation process.‬‬‬‬

  12. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  13. Psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylova Yu.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the aims, tasks and fundamental principles of psychological support of crime investigation with the involvement of minors as a one of the aspects of criminalistical support of the preliminary investigation in the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation are revealed. Discusses the following areas of psychological support of investigation of criminal cases with participation of minors: participation of a psychologist in the investigative actions, the preliminary interviews with the aim of preparing minors for investigation, the business of the investigator in the choice of tactics of investigative actions and other issues, psychological examination of the minor, the receipt of additional information from minors using methods of applied psychology, compiling a subjective portrait of the alleged offender, psychological analysis of testimonies of minors and others. Also this article discusses the basic principles end actual techniques of interview of minor sexual abuses victims are examined including NICHD Protocol developed by the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, NICHD.

  14. Rare insects of the Oka Reserve recommended for inclusion in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

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    Anna M. Nikolaeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on nine rare insect species of the Oka State Nature Biosphere Reserve recommended for inclusion in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (Animals. These are Dytiscus latissimus, Carabus menetriesi, Calosoma sycophanta, Osmoderma barnabita, Protaetia speciosissima, P. fieberi, Bombus armeniacus, Parnopes grandior and Parnassius apollo. Carabus menetriesi, Osmoderma barnabita, Parnopes grandior are few in number. But these species are consistently observed in the Oka Reserve. Some species have not been registered in the Oka Reserve for a long time: Protaetia speciosissima and P. fieberi (either not since 1998, Bombus armeniacus (not since 1985, Parnassius apollo (not since 1998, Dytiscus latissimus (not since 2009. Calosoma sycophanta's existence is known only on the base of literature data.

  15. Statistical Exploration of Local Transmission Routes for African Swine Fever in Pigs in the Russian Federation, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Gogin, A; Pfeiffer, D U

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of swine that is present in both pigs and wild boar in the western part of the Russian Federation and the eastern part of the European Union. It represents a significant threat for the European pig production industry as neither treatment nor vaccine is available. This study analysed the spatial and spatio-temporal distributions of ASF cases that were reported in domestic pigs and wild boar for assessing the likelihood of wild boar-to-domestic pig and farm-to-farm transmission routes in the epidemic that occurred from 2007 to 2014 in the Krasnodar and the Tver regions, two of the most affected areas of the Russian Federation. Results suggest that in both regions, the spatial proximity to an infectious farm was a strong risk factor for infection of a susceptible farm. In the Krasnodar region, the results of the statistical analysis suggest that the epidemics in wild boar and in domestic pigs were independent from each other. In contrast, there seemed to be a dependence between the two epidemics in the Tver region. But because outbreaks in domestic pigs were not statistically significantly clustered around wild boar cases, the joint spatial distribution of wild boar cases and of outbreaks in domestic pigs in the Tver region may be explained by regular spillovers from the domestic pig to the wild boar population. These findings confirm the need to maintain high biosecurity standards on pig farms and justify strict control measures targeted at domestic pig production such as culling of infected herds and local movement restrictions.

  16. OFFICIAL DISCIPLINE IN THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: WAYS OF IMPROVING

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    Margarita Hasanbievna Mashekuasheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological preparedness is a set of formed and developed psychological characteristics that are relevant to the specific psychological character of the operational (combat field service and are the necessary internal precondition for its successful implementation. It is this kind of training that plays an important role for overcoming the psychological difficulties of professional activities, ensuring the successful solution of the tasks. Deviations and professional personal deformations of officers, whose duty is to prevent and stop dangerous social deviations, are not only visible, but also dangerous both for society and for the Interior Ministry system itself. The European Code of Police Ethics, adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on 19 September, 2001 declares the main direction in implementation of the basic tasks of psychological service of the Russian Interior Ministry.

  17. Mechanism of realisation of state-private entrepreneurship in the social sphere of the Russian Federation

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    Stratan Dmytro I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that the socio-economic development of a region rests on the higher-than-anticipated growth of its infrastructure. Formation of the social infrastructure of a region is based on practical realisation of social priorities directed at a higher satisfaction of needs of the population in social services. One of the mechanisms in development of social infrastructure is the state-private partnership. The article provides theoretical and methodical aspects of development of instruments of managing investment activity in Russian regions and levelling of territorial heterogeneity of availability of social objects on the basis of use of the state-private partnership (SPP. The article conducts assessment of possibilities of use of SPP models in the social sphere, regional economy and management of state property.

  18. The chance of transport behavior paradigm in the largest cities of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Denis

    2017-06-01

    This article discusses the issue of transit scenarios (or paradigm) changes in the largest Russian cities. Carrying out research and evaluation studies the authors surveyed the passengers of the new rapid off-street transit system, the Moscow Central Circle (MCC). The survey was prepared using the MCC reports data on passengers landing measured in the morning peak hours. Analysis of the survey results obtained by the authors, reveals shifts in pedestrian traffic and permits to estimate its size and main directions. It was noted a significant change in common behaviour regarding the increased length of the walking distance to the stations of rapid off-street transport. In view of the fact that the issue of the walking distance standard governs a huge range of further decisions, the research results can be used in sustainable transit travel planning and urban territorial development as well as in preparation of the regulatory documentation.

  19. Medico-ecological zoning of the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.; Kagan, A. I.; Pyatigina, O. O.; Voronova, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    The medico-ecological state of Russian regions has been analyzed on the basis of statistical data. It is found that the incidence of different groups of diseases varies significantly in different regions. The regions of Russia are classified according to their medico-ecological parameters; the zones of maximal health risk caused by environmental pollutions, including air, water and soil pollution, are determined. The proposed methods for zoning by health level and the estimate of medico-ecological conditions in different administrative units provide the basis for the development of measures for the adaptation of population. These data can be used for the control of sanitary measures planned by regional organizations for the social-ecological protection of the population.

  20. THE OUTCOMES OF FUNCTIONING OF UNIFIED SYSTEM OF INDIVIDUAL DOSE CONTROL OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION CITIZENS BASED ON 2014 DATA

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    V. S. Repin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the outcomes of the generalized analysis of personnel, patients and population radiation doses information obtained from the Unified System of Individual Dose Control (USIDC for 2014. The analysis is conducted on the basis of the annual information from the forms of Federal State Statistical Observation No.1-DOZ, No.2-DOZ, No.3-DOZ and No.4-DOZ. The information is submitted by the organizations and territories accountable to Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-Being – ROSPOTREBNADZOR.According to No. 1-DOZ data the total number of organizations which submitted the information about personnel dose exposure in 2014 amounted to 16424, with the total headcount of 130688 employees. The average radiation dose of group A personnel was 1,13 mSv/annum. The collective personnel radiation doze totalled 132,5 man-Sv/annum.According to No.3-DOZ data 261 mln X-ray diagnostics were conducted in Russian Federation in 2014. The average medical radiation dose per capita was 0,46 mSv/annum and collective population dose was 66883.4 man-Sv/annum. Computer tomography makes the highest contribution into collective population radiation dose (40,3% .According to the forms of statistical reporting No. 4-DOZ for 2014 in Russian Federation the population’s average effective dose from natural ionizing radiation sources amounted to 3.48 mSv/annum. The population’s annual effective radiation dose from natural sources of ionizing radiation includes about 59% of radon isotopes and progeny. In 2014 the data was submitted about job-specific doses of 5651 employees from 50 enterprises located in 18 regions of Russia. The values of job-specific radiation of these enterprises’ employees ranged between 0.01 and 3,42 mSv/annum.The article includes the Annexes with final generalized forms of Unified System of Individual Dose Control based on the forms of statistical observations No. 1-, 2- and 4-DOZ.

  1. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

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    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  2. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES DUE TO DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. N. Goncharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains data on specific activity values of natural and artificial radionuclides in the water of underground and surface sources in 19 areas of Russian Federation and data on population internal exposure doses from drinking water consumption in these areas.

  4. On Expansion Of The Circle Of Norms Providing Special Types Of Release From Criminal Liability In The Chapter 22 Of The Criminal Code Of The Russian Federation

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    Farid A. Musaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article author conducts analysis of the circle of the criminal code of the Russian Federation (Charter 22 norms expansion, providing special types of release from criminal liability. Analyzes of the foreign legislation allowed author to draw a conclusion that the majority of the stimulating legal analogs to the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation are present in the legislation of the CIS countries – Azerbaijan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and some other, and also that release from the criminal liability on the tax crimes – is not less widespread stimulating norm in the foreign legislation. Special attention is paid to the questions of the positive post criminal behavior of persons who committed economic crime stimulation. According to the author it appears to be reasonable to include into the alternative condition of the release from criminal liability a sign of the voluntary statement of the crime commission or giving criminal income and also an alternative sign of the "active contribution to the disclosure and/or crime investigation". Author comes to the conclusion that a problem of the expansion of the stimulating norms in the Chapter 22 of the Criminal Codes of the Russian Federation action is interesting and actual in the conditions of criminal legislation in the economic sphere liberalization. In particular, in the foreshortening of the economic amnesty questions author believes that introduction of the stimulating norms of the Chapter 186 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation isn't expected soon.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCES OF PERINATAL LOSSES DUE TO CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS IN THE REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE STATE AND DEPARTMENTAL STATISTICS

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    E. N. Baibarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of comparative analysis of the structure of medico-biological factors affecting characteristics of perinatal losses due to congenital malformations in the regions of the Russian Federation in 2010. The authors represent the objective comparative analysis of the management of obstetric, gynecological and neonatal medical healthcare quality at different levels and stages.

  6. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Formation of Anti-Corruption Mechanisms in the System of Higher Education of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Ruslan A.; Sokolov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of the study lies in the fact that modern higher education in the Russian Federation are increasingly approaching the critical state--despite attempts to reform and use of successful foreign practices, our country is still lagging behind in the role. The aim of the article is the formation on the events that occurred in the country over…

  7. Standard medical care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in large specialised centres: data from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan (ESSENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasonov, E.; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; A Lila; Togizbayev, G; Ivanova, R.; Baimukhamedov, Ch; Omarbekova, Zh; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Shevchuk, S; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe disease characteristics and treatment regimens for adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoantibody positive disease in three countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan). Methods The ESSENCE study was a 1-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study. Data included patients’ characteristics, disease activity and severity, and healthcare resource use in 2010. Results Twelve centres enrolled 436 eligible patients:...

  8. Quantification of the areas of saline and solonetzic soils in the Ural Federal Region of the Russian federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Khitrov, N. B.; Pankova, E. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Yamnova, I. A.; Novikova, A. F.

    2011-04-01

    Soil Salinization Map of Russia on a scale of 1: 2500000 (the paper version) has been used for compiling an electronic map of the Ural Federal Region and an attribute database containing twelve characteristics of soil salinization. The areas of saline soils have been quantified for the entire region and its administrative districts. The total area of saline soils in the 0- to 200-cm layer averages up to 6.85 million ha or 5.53% of the plains in the region. The area of soilssaline in the 0- to 100-cm layer averages up to 4.91 million ha, including 4.13 million ha of weakly solonchakous soils (84%) and 0.78 million ha of solonchakous ones (16%). More than half of them (58.3%) are assigned to the moderately and strongly saline soils. The soils saline in the 0- to 100-cm layer are characterized by the neutral salinization type (45%) or the types of soda salinization and neutral salinization with soda (55%). The areas of the region with saline soils are dominated by solonetzic microassociations. The average area of the solonetzes is about 3 million ha. The area of solonchaks is about 0.09 million ha. The area of saline soils is the greatest in Kurgan oblast and the lowest in Sverdlovsk oblast and the Yamal-Nenets autonomous okrug. The formation of saline soils in the Ural Federal Region is related to the climatic conditions of the steppe zone with insufficient moistening and lithologicgeomorphologic conditions (saline Paleogene-Neogene deposits and poor drainage of the area).

  9. Activity of the Government Mashinery of the Russian Federation on Formation of the CSTO Management Bodies and the Legal Framework of Their Activities

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    Gontar Sergey Mikhaylovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts connected with territorial and national contradictions took place in the neighbouring states of Russia, and on Russian territories, that led the Russian government to the need of associating with these states. Their common goal is to protect the sovereignty, to stabilize the military and political situation and to consolidate peace. In this connection the government launched activity aiming at the formation of collective security system. The author points out main stages of activity by government bodies of Russian Federation on establishing the CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization managing bodies and their legal base. The article describes basic stages of Russian government activity on the development of CSTO managing bodies. The author connects the beginning of CSTO managing bodies formation with the signing of Collective Security Contract and defines the role of the main documentation adopted in the context of CSTO. The article enlists the main difficulties arising in the process of establishing and developing the organization’s legal base and studies the key military and political operations which had influence on these processes. The author evaluates the activity of government machinery of the Russian Federation which allowed establishing the main legal base of managing bodies. As a result the conflicts between post-Soviet states were prevented and the tensions in collective security regions were reduced.

  10. 77 FR 42273 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... order of importance, these physical characteristics are form, grade, nitrogen content, size, urea... the marketing process and selling functions along the chain of distribution between the producer and...

  11. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

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    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  12. Cenoses of phototrophic algae of ultrasaline lakes in the Kulunda steppe (Altai krai, Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Ph. V.; Kalinina, O. Yu.; Nikitin, M. A.; Samylina, O. S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, delivered samples of algo-bacterial mats from Kulunda steppe alkaline lakes (Petukhovskoe alkaline lake, Tanatar VI, and Gorchina III). The filamentous alga Ctenocladus circinnatus (Chlorophyta) acted as an edificator of the mats. The composition of cenoses algocomponents also included chlorophytes Dunaliella viridis and Picocystis salinarum as well as diatoms Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brachysira brebissonii, B. zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, N. cf. communis, and Nitzschia sp. 1. The composition and structure of phototrophic algae cenoses (including diatom taxocenes) were described for the investigated lakes for the first time. For the period from 2011 to 2012, the total mineralization significantly increased in lakes. This involved sensible alterations of cenoses. B. zellensis was the most permanent component of diatom taxocenes in both seasons. In the summer of 2011, it was often accompanied by A. sphaerophora and B. brebissonii. In the summer of 2012, A. sphaerophora was found only singularly in Lake Gorchina III, and some biotopes of Lake Tanatar VI were massively inhabited by N. cf. communis, including colonies that had not been previously described for the species. The genetic analysis of three diatoms, which are markedly different from each other in their appearance and were sampled from different lakes but were all determined as Nitzschia cf. communis, showed their complete similarity to each other with the 18S rRNA gene fragment and the highest similarity of all the three diatoms with the species Nitzschia communis.

  13. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2012 (V report of National Registry

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    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of a condition and prospects of organ donation and transplantation development in Russia in the form of the National Registry is carried out under the auspices of the Profile commission on transplantology of Minis- try of Health of Russia and the Russian Transplant Society. According to the registry in 2012 the indicator of do- nor activity decreased, but the indicator of transplant activity remained at the level of the last years. Decrease the number of deceased donors managed to be compensated by means of increase of efficiency of donor programs: by increase of the number of donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, by increase in average of the organs received from one deceased donor. In 2012 the number of transplantations of heart and liver increased. The main funding mechanism for organs transplantation in Russia is the state task to the transplant centers (fede- ral financing, its role increases. For increase of stability of donor providing it is necessary to continue to develop legal base in the organ donation and transplantation sphere. 

  14. COMMERCIAL LEGAL ENTITIES ACCORDING TO THE RENEWED CIVIL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    Kirsanov A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the question of reforming Russian public and private companies’ law and the various problems that accompany the reform of civil law. So it is noted that the Civil Code still maintain the existing division of legal persons for commercial and non-commercial, but offered no new legal entities. This is largely due to the fact that the legislator seeks only to remove the gaps. The author notes the lack of commitment of the legislator to offer promising models of commercial legal entities. However, the author notes that the elimination of errors only available legislation is not enough. For completeness of legal regulation it requires a new approach to the reform of civil law. We require the same approach for entrepreneurs as well. These subjects of civil and business relations need new models of business. Creating new models should be a subject to certain logic of their construction. The entire list of models of commercial legal entities must be built on the principle of scale. That is, each model of commercial entity must be subordinated to this principle on the basis of their economic importance

  15. PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE PERSONALITY AS PRIORITY TACTICAL TARGET OF CRIMINAL TRIAL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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    Denis N. Marinkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of Russia declares a priority of protection of the rights of the personality (person in Art. 2. Providing opportunities of realization of the rights and freedoms with citizens and their protection are carried out now by the specialized law enforcement agencies and for regulation of the public relations our legal system gives us a number of normative legal acts. Mandatory rules about legal responsibility, in particular, - criminal are of special interest for us (the most essential and rigid to the offender. It is necessary to recognize that the public relations protected by the criminal legislation are the most important for society and different options of protection of the rights are peculiar to practice of law enforcement. So, traditionally, refer self-defense and protection by means of specialized bodies to them. In the present time we can speak about a priority of human rights protection and for the existing Russian legislation the characteristic moment is existence of the principles on which all system of protection of the rights is under construction. So, continuous change of the legislation becomes a result of consecutive changes of priorities in the right. In this connection (and on some other the reasons practice of crime control and prevention that faces a number of problems. In work, on the basis of the conducted research by the author, the main problems of criminal trial in the context of designation are presented in the Constitution of Russia and the criminal procedure legislation of a main objective of criminal legal proceedings in the Russian Federation as protection of the rights of the personality (person. 

  16. Exceeding of Official Powers (Art. 286 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation: Identification and Analysis of Signs of Object and Victim

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    Sergey D. Brazhnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors defines attributes of object and victim in the framework of offense "abuse of power" (Article 286 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and conduct comparative analysis. At the first place questions of what should be considered as object of crime in the Russian legal doctrine. Author believe that "vertical" objects are divided into general, intragenic, clan, group, specific and direct, "horizontal" - at primary, secondary and optional. Author carried out a comprehensive analysis of each object under consideration provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Authors give particular attention to the study of victims of this crime. According to authors, lack of the unified approach to this issue is largely generated by the procedural legislation. Author concludes that victims of the power abuse in the criminal law sense may be citizens (any individual, organizations (legal entities, irrespective of their legal form, society and the state. Based on the comprehensive analysis of legal acts, court practice and a wide range of scientific sources authors justify the appropriateness of amending Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.

  17. Analysis of experience of legal regulation in the sphere of public administration of sanatorium providing of children in the Russian Federation

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    Kovalenko T.Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood and childhood are one of the main priorities of the government social policy for any country. The Ukrainian state, its President and government are keeping under scrutiny issues of improving quality of life and health of population, in particular, health of women and children. Continuing study of problems of Public Administration in the sphere of health resort services for children in Ukraine, in her previous scientific publications the author drew attention to insufficient scope of researches and weak grounds of theoretical justification of possible organizational changes in this sphere. This very fact stipulates the necessity to continue thorough scientific research and study, first of all, a positive experience of foreign countries as to implementing reforms in the sphere of health resort services for children. The share of separate factors of different nature, impacting indicators of public health depends on age, sex and individual-typological characteristics of a person. However, the greatest impact on a human health is made by his lifestyle that may be attributed to conditionally controlled process. In this case, it is appropriate to note that the controlled impact on lifestyle can be made both by internal factors (e.g., motivation, and external factors. One of the most powerful external factors of controlled impact on the public health is health resort provision. The experience of the Russian Federation in this area is extremely useful for the Ukrainian state, which is actively promoting the idea of the health system modernization in the domestic market as the area in need of such changes. Now, 1997 health resorts are operating in the Russian Federation, annually serving approximately 6 million people. The jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation encompasses 51 health resort facilities (HRF providing a wide range of health-improving services. The laws, government regulations

  18. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

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    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  19. Evaluation of extrapolation methods for actual state expenditures on health care in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Banin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting methods, extrapolation ones in particular, are used in health care for medical, biological and clinical research. The author, using accessible internet space, has not met a single publication devoted to extrapolation of financial parameters of health care activities. This determined the relevance of the material presented in the article: based on health care financing dynamics in Russia in 2000–2010 the author examined possibility of application of basic perspective extrapolation methods - moving average, exponential smoothing and least squares. It is hypothesized that all three methods can equally forecast actual public expenditures on health care in medium term in Russia’s current financial and economic conditions. The study result was evaluated in two time periods: within the studied interval and a five-year period. It was found that within the study period all methods have an average relative extrapolation error of 3–5%, which means high precision of the forecast. The study shown a specific feature of the least squares method which were gradually accumulating results so their economic interpretation became possible only in the end of the studied period. That is why the extrapolating results obtained by least squares method are not applicable in an entire study period and rather have a theoretical value. Beyond the study period, however, this feature was found to be the most corresponding to the real situation. It was the least squares method that proved to be the most appropriate for economic interpretation of the forecast results of actual public expenditures on health care. The hypothesis was not confirmed, the author received three differently directed results, while each method had independent significance and its application depended on evaluation study objectives and real social, economic and financial situation in Russian health care system.

  20. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  1. On the Role of Exogenous Shocks in the Great Recession: the Evidence from Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanchyk, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we provide evidence about the relative importance of foreign (Russian) and domestic monetary policy shocks for Belarusian economy. We employ a ten variable structural VAR model with block exogeneity and a set of dummy variables introduced to deal with instability of the data that corresponds to the periods of crises (2008 and 2011). We find that Belarus is significantly influenced by foreign shocks that account for 20 to 60 percent of fluctuations in domestic variables in the l...

  2. [The age and sex indicators of mortality of population and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the Russian Federation in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiytsov, S A; Samorodskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    The age-specific mortality coefficients and years of life lost as a result of premature mortality are among important medical demographic characteristics of population health. The study analyzed age and sex indicators of mortality of population in the Russian Federation. The number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality is calculated. The comparison of values of years of life lost in various subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The data of Rosstat concerning population size and number of the deceased in year age groups in the Russian Federation and subjects of the Russian Federation in 2012 was used. The indicator was calculated on the basis of technique included into "The global burden of diseases report" (2010). The minimal indicators of mortality of males are noted at the age of 11 years (25.4 per 100 000 of population) and females at the age of 10 years (18.2 per 100 000 of population). The maximal differences in indicators of mortality of males and females are marked in the age group 20-29 years (314.5 of males and 92.3 of females per 100 000 of population). The percentage of deceased prior 70 years consists 63.2% among males and 29.9% among females. The total number of years of life lost in the Russian Federation consisted 36 864 309 and out of them 24 321 992 (65.9%) as a result of death of males and 12 542 317 (34.1%) as a result of death of females. The maximum percentage of years of life lost among males is marked in the age group of 51-60 years (24.61%) and among females in the age group of 71-80 years (22.38%). The indicator of years of life lost per 100 000 of population consisted 25769 for total population, 36 753 for male population and 16 314 for female population. The highest rate of indicator of years of life lost is marked in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and the lowest rate in the Republics of the Northern Caucasus and Moscow. However, in all subjects of the Russian Federation indicator of years of life lost is

  3. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  4. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  5. Characteristics of Populations of the Russian Federation over the Panel of Fifteen Loci Used for DNA Identification and in Forensic Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Stepanov, V; Balanovsky, O P; Melnikov, A V; Lash-Zavada, A Yu; Khar'kov, V N; Tyazhelova, T V; Akhmetova, V L; Zhukova, O V; Shneider, Yu V; Shil'nikova, I N; Borinskaya, S A; Marusin, A V; Spiridonova, M G; Simonova, K V; Khitrinskaya, I Yu; Radzhabov, M O; Romanov, A G; Shtygasheva, O V; Koshel', S M; Balanovskaya, E V; Rybakova, A V; Khusnutdinova, E K; Puzyrev, V P; Yankovsky, N K

    2011-04-01

    Seventeen population groups within the Russian Federation were characterized for the first time using a panel of 15 genetic markers that are used for DNA identification and in forensic medical examinations. The degree of polymorphism and population diversity of microsatellite loci within the Power Plex system (Promega) in Russian populations; the distribution of alleles and genotypes within the populations of six cities and 11 ethnic groups of the Russian Federation; the levels of intra- and interpopulation genetic differentiation of population; genetic relations between populations; and the identification and forensic medical characteristics of the system of markers under study were determined. Significant differences were revealed between the Russian populations and the U.S. reference base that was used recently in the forensic medical examination of the RF. A database of the allelic frequencies of 15 microsatellite loci that are used for DNA identification and forensic medical examination was created; the database has the potential of becoming the reference for performing forensic medical examinations in Russia. The spatial organization of genetic diversity over the panel of the STR markers that are used for DNA identification was revealed. It represents the general regularities of geographical clusterization of human populations over various types of genetic markers. The necessity to take into account a population's genetic structure during forensic medical examinations and DNA identification of criminal suspects was substantiated.

  6. THE CONCEPT AND SCOPE OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNANCE ENTITIES’ COMPETENCE IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Larichev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.25The purpose of this article is to study the concept and the content of "competence" cate-gory in relation to the entities of municipal governance in Russia and Canada. The methods of theoretical analysis, along with legal methods, including formal-legal and comparative law methods are used to achieve this goal.In the article, the author notes the lack of consensus in legal science in determining the con-tent of "competence" category and its subjective identity. Some authors consider the compe-tence as a set of rights and obligations of public authorities (Yu.A. Tikhomirov, S.A. Avakyan, while others recognize the correct use of the word "competence" in relation to the public territorial collectives and institutions of public power in general (T.M. Byalkina et al..The Russian legal model for determining the competence of municipal governance entities also implies the distinction between the concepts of "local issues" and "powers." Unfortu-nately, the domestic legislator does not provide for the clear distinction of these concepts, and there is also a lack of content specification of the issues to be addressed at the local level. Recent changes in law also call into question the relation between the municipalities’ competency model and the constitutional autonomy of local government.At the base of the approach to the definition of the competence of municipal government entities in Canada, as well as within the Anglo-Saxon model in general, lies the need for decentralization of functions, which cannot be effectively carried out by the central author-ities or the private sector (A. Sancton. The competence carrier here is a municipality as a form of public corporation. This does not lead to contradiction between this carrier and other municipal governance entities (specifically, local authorities, as the latter carry out activities for the competence implementation on behalf of the corporation.The approach to the municipality as a

  7. Concept Of The Public Safety In The Russian Federation As A Legal Measure Of The Educational Institutions (Organizations Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Chesnokov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author researches basic positions presented in the Concept of Public Security in the Russian Federation and focused on the educational institutions (organizations. Author analyzes main sources of threat to the public security: the threat of a criminal nature; terrorist threats; extremist activity; increase in the number of crimes; complication of the crime situation; increase in the number of criminals; high levels of corruption; illegal migration; internal migration; social tension in society; deterioration of the technical state of transport infrastructure; likelihood of emergencies; risk of harm to the human life and health, environment; high probability of fire occurrence in Russia; natural variations in the characteristics of the hydrological regime of water bodies; seismic hazard. Author defines goals of public security, outlines priority (main and other tasks, as well as the principles and key activities to ensure public security. In the conclusion author concludes that public safety, in fact, involves complex nature of activity and contributes to the legal security of educational institution (organization, gives definition of the public security of the educational institution (organization and results of operations for its assuring.

  8. Medical irradiation risk assessment based on the data of radiation-hygienic passportization in the regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Golikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at methodology development for collective risk assessment of medical irradiation, basing on results of radiation-hygienic passportization in the Russian Federation regions, i.e. using values of collective effective doses for big groups of medical technologies: photoroentgenography, roentgenography, roentgenoscopy, and computer tomography. Use of the effective dose concept for medical irradiation risk definition involves a number of essential restrictions. Age and sex of the employees and of general population (effective dose concept has been developed for these groups of people may essentially differ from those in patients. Lifelong risk of stochastic effects occurrence in children is 2-3 times higher than the rating values used in effective dose concept, while for elderly people (about 60 years at irradiation time it’s 4-5 times lower. The article suggests the algorithm of effective doses values correcting factors assessment for consideration of dependence of radiogenic cancer risk factors on age and sex. This enables to assess more correctly collective risk of radiology and nuclear medicine imaging. Since patients tend to be elderly and their risk factor is below the rating used in the effective dose concept, the values of these correcting factors for most radiology and nuclear medicine imaging are below one. Thus, in most cases, the effective dose concept leads to conservative assessment of medical irradiation collective risk.

  9. Iodine Intake through Processed Food: Case Studies from Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current performance indicator for universal salt iodisation (USI is the percentage of households using adequately iodised salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodised salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodised salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: quantity of salt per unit of food product × minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production × average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodised salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodised salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status.

  10. MORBIDITY WITH SYPHILIS AND GONORRHEA IN CHILDREN IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION: REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN 2000–2006 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Novikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on children’s under the age of 14 years old morbidity with syphilis and gonorrhea analysis around the territory of the Russian Federation during the period from 2000 to 2006 are presented in this article. It is mentioned that the rate of children’s morbidity with syphilis has always been 2 times higher than by gonorrhea. The decrease of rate of children’s morbidity in Russia with syphilis is reduced twice, with gonorrhea — in 2.4 times. Authors detected essential interregional variability of rates, with the best results in European and South part of the country and with the worst results in Siberia and in the Far East. The social macroeconomic and national factors of children’s morbidity formation with syphilis and gonorrhea in Russia, and the various quality of registration of the pathology in regions of the country are supposed.Key words: children, syphilis, gonorrhea, morbidity.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(4:32-36

  11. General characteristics of the institute of bringing senior officials of the subjects of the Russian Federation to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepus A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of bringing senior officials of the RF subjects to criminal liability are analyzed. Legal immunity as the most important feature of their legal status is considered. General characteristic of the liability of such senior officials in the context of the institute of state and law enforcement is provided. The current Russian legislation and judicial practice in this area are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the history of the issue of bringing senior officials to justice, on the example of the Federation Council member status. Basing on the other authors’ researches, the author proposes his own view on the issues of senior officials’ immunity. It’s suggested that in modern legal science the problems of the liability of senior officials of the RF regions aren’t given due attention. There’s no clear understanding of what should be the grounds of such liability, its procedures and application, the legal nature of its sanctions. The author substantiates the position that it’s not necessary to include the regional leaders or heads of executive authorities of the RF subjects in the list of persons having immunity from criminal or administrative prosecution. The arguments are the federal practice – the ministers of the RF Government don’t possess the immunity, and the recent practice – dismissal as a result of loss of confidence. The need to control the activities of the senior officials of the RF subjects and other persons holding the highest positions in the authorities of the RF subjects is substantiated.

  12. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  13. [Peculiarities of regulation of legal relations in the field of environmental and hygiene safety of the population in The Russian Federation at the present stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Eremin, G B; Lomtev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The results of the comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental security have been presented, theoretical and legal basis for the subsequent development of recommendations for the development and harmonization of legislation in the field of providing environmental security and environmental protection has been defined. The formation of ecological civil law and conceptual questions of territory development guaranteeing ecological safety have been considered. Objects of the study were international treaties, Constitution of Russian Federation, Law on Environmental Protection, Land Code and other laws containing positions concerning ecological safety and environmental protection. Identified as a result of the present study the contradictions in the area of law allow to develop and submit proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the field of environmental and hygienic safety.

  14. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS TARIFF POLICY IN FOREST FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT BORDER TO CHINA REGION (FOR EXAMPLE ZABAYKALSKY KRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikovа

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23

  15. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Gough, R; Hawkins, W; Knowles, S; Kreek, S; MacLeod, G; Rockett, P; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Wohletz, K

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus icigianus Strain G1w1T Isolated from Hot Springs in the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka (Russian Federation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryanskaya, Alla V; Rozanov, Aleksey S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kotenko, Anastasia V; Peltek, Sergey E

    2014-10-23

    The Geobacillus icigianus G1w1(T) strain was isolated from sludge samples of unnamed vaporing hydrothermal (97°С) outlets situated in a geyser in the Troinoy region (Valley of Geysers, Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russian Federation; 54°25'51.40″N, 160°7'41.40″E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 3,457,810 bp and encodes 3,342 genes.

  17. How the Russian Federation Uses the Informational Instrument of National Power to Influence the Republic of Moldovas Strategic Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    O’Donnell, 1. 19 Marlene Laruelle, Aleksandr Dugin: A Russian Version of the European Radical Right? (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International...Russian Version of the European Radical Right? Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006. 95 Liber TV.md. “Ca răspuns la

  18. Belarus, A Chinese Fort in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ "In recent years,we've found increasing interest from Chinese investors in the Belarus economy.Please let China know,Belarus is always ready to be a true friend to China.We have built a fort in Europe for China,"the President of Belarus,Alexander Lukashenko told Zhou Xiaochuan,President of the Bank of China,during his visit to the capital of Minsk,on January 8th,he expressed his high praise and firm confidence in the development of Sino-Belarusian relations.

  19. His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Valery Loshchinin Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office in Geneva visit the ATLAS experiment in the cavern at Point 1 introducted by Prof. Peter Jenni.

  20. ACCIDENT AT «FUKUSHIMA-»I NPP: FIRST RESULTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE REPORT 2: ACTIVITIES OF THE ROSPOTREBNADZOR AUTHORITIES FOR THE RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION POPULATION ON THE EARLY STAGE OF ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic measures of the Rospotrebnadzor emergency response during the early stage of the «Fukushima-I» NPP radiation accident are being analyzed in the article. Radiation monitoring of the environmental objects of the territories of the Russian Federation Far East Federal District, radiation control of arriving from Japan vehicles, freights and passengers as well as imported from Japan food products were promptly organized. This allowed to get reliable evaluations of the levels of radioactive contamination at the Russian Federation territory and population exposure doses due to the «Fukushima-I» NPP accident, timely exclude the possibility of import to the Russian territory for the freights, vehicles, food products having contamination exceeding established in the Russian Federation standards.

  1. Replacement Of Reserves Zinc Producers In The Russian Federation Based On The Recycling Of Technogenic Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the key stage of the value chain in the zinc industry of the Russian Federation is considered. The study aims to examine the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the mining and metallurgical complex in the Urals region. The relevance of the assessment of the impact of technological change on the development of value chains in the processing of primary and technogenic raw materials in terms of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Complex is grounded. The methodological scheme of analysis of value chains and the impact on them of new technologies are developed in the study. It is shown that the analysis of value chains should be carried out, using as an analytical tool value added as well as a heuristic tool study of the value chain. Analysis of the value chain in the production of primary zinc and technogenic raw materials made in accordance with the proposed approach. An assessment of the value added in the production of zinc from primary raw materials held in the article. The gross volume and dynamics of revenue, net income and the cost of segments of the value chain in zinc production are analyzed. The leading role of the metallurgical segment in the value chain of the zinc industry is established. Share indexes of the metallurgical segment as a control link of the value chain in the structure of the consolidated revenue, profit, cost considered in the dynamics, the dynamics of change in the total expenditure on scientific and technological development and R & D expenditure are investigated. The conclusion about essential influence of new technologies on the change of value chains in terms of zinc production is confirmed.

  2. Belarus and China: from Trade to Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Trade cooperation between Belarus and China: does distance matter? The diplomatic relations between Belarus and China have been developing stably and successfully ever since the moment of their establishing (January 1992).The leaders of the two states have always treated these relations with great attention,responsibility,and care.The relationship has been boosted as a result of the visit of President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko to China in December 2005,during which Alexander Lukashenko and President of China Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration.In that document,the sides pledged they would do their utmost to boost mutual trade and work out new cooperation models.It was during that top-level meeting that President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko first voiced the trade goal which was to reach,by 2010,the trade turnover to the tune of 2 billion USD.

  3. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  4. RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE PATIENTS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION, 1998–2011 (Report of the Russian Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tomilina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the Russian Renal Replacement Therapy Registry covers the period from the year 1998 to 2011 and represents data on the national, regional, and individual patient levels. We summarize information about epidemiology of treated end-stage renal disease in Russia, and describe in details incidence and prevalence for all modalities of renal replacement therapy. The article contains broad spectrum of data on quality of treatment indicators, waiting list, pharmacological treatment, mortality, and survival patterns in patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and with functioning renal graft. 

  5. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CADETS OF NATIONAL GUARD TROOPS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the role of information technology in daily process of training of cadets of military schools of national guard troops of theRussian Federation.Methods. The methods involve system-oriented analysis, generalization and modelling.Results and scientific novelty. Informatization of modern society is characterized by growing use of information resources for different spheres of professional activity, suggesting radical changes in the content and technologies of its organization. The problems of informatization of the Russian higher military school are revealed: absence of the uniform methodology for implementation of new information technologies in educational process; low level of cooperation and coordination of activities of educational institutions during creation of a uniform basis of the software; insufficient training of the faculty, etc. The informatization process of military service and military experts of national guard troops of theRussian Federation as members of the security institute in the structure of the state is primarily associated with the creation and maintenance of necessary level of the equipment in order to solve professional tasks in various conditions of the operational environment. Modern realias dictate the need of search of ways and means of improvement of information literacy of cadets of departmental higher education institutions of national guard troops of theRussian Federation. The author of article has designated the main directions of intensive informatization of education of future army officers. The system use of a complex of information technologies of the general and special purpose in educational process of military higher education institution is described. The options of integration of these technologies in the contents of training sections of military experts are shown. Special attention is paid to opportunities of distance learning.Practical significance. The

  6. Proactive coping and spirituality among patients who left or remained in antiretroviral treatment in St Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Anna; Pacciolla, Aureliano; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mimiaga, Matthew; Kwiatek, Piotr; Blokhina, Elena; Verbitskaya, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Woody, George E

    2016-01-01

    Positive Psychology, the study of "positive" factors or strengths and evidence-based interventions to increase them, is a rapidly developing field that is beginning to be applied to HIV care. Proactive coping and spirituality are two positive characteristics that have been examined in multiple chronic serious health conditions. In the present study, lost-to-care (LTCs; did not attend treatment for ≥12 months; n = 120) and engaged-in-care HIV clinic patients (EICs; attended treatment for ≥12 months and adherent with antiretrovirals; n = 120) in Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation were compared on the Proactive Coping Inventory and View of God Scale. EICs had higher scores in proactive coping [t(229) = 3.69; p = .001] and instrumental [t(232) = 2.17; p = .03] and emotional [t(233) = 2.33; p = .02] support, indicating that they engage in autonomous goal setting and self-regulate their thoughts and behaviors; obtain advice and support from their social network; and cope with emotional distress by turning to others. LTCs had higher scores in avoidance coping [t(236) = -2.31; p = .02]. More EICs were spiritual, religious, or both [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 7.49, p = .006]. EICs were more likely to believe in God/Higher Power [χ(2)(1, N = 239 = 8.89, p = .002] and an afterlife [ χ(2)(1, N = 236) = 5.11, p = .024]; have a relationship with God/Higher Power [ χ(2)(1, N = 237) = 12.76, p = .000]; and call on God/Higher Power for help, healing, or protection [ χ(2)(1, N = 239) = 9.61]. EICs had more positive [t(238) = 2.78; p = .006] and less negative [t(236) = -2.38; p = .002] views of God. Similar proportions, but slightly more EICs than LTCs were members of a faith community; members of a12-step group; or attended religious or spiritual services, meetings, or activities. More EICs than LTCs engaged in private spiritual or religious activities, such as

  7. Belarus Attaches Great Importance to Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Belarus is an important trade partner of China.In January, a Belarus trade delegation, headed by Uldimir N. Bobrov, President of the Belarus Chamber of Commerce, visited China, and signed a series of agreements for economic and trade cooperation with CCPIT. When interviewed by China's Foreign Trade, he stressed that Belarus was ready to strengthen its commitment to comprehensive cooperation with China in many spheres.

  8. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  9. 75 FR 38983 - Magnesium Metal From the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ...: Background On March 1, 2010, the Department initiated sunset reviews of the Chinese and Russian antidumping..., by weight, and that have been entered into the United States as conforming to an ``ASTM Specification... weight, that do not conform to an ``ASTM Specification for Magnesium Alloy;'' \\2\\ (2) magnesium that is...

  10. Theoretical conception of classification of crimes against military service according to the existing criminal legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr S. Danilov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to implement a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the existing approaches to the definition of concept of crimes against military service their nature characteristics classifications and types. nbsp Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematic formallegal analysis synthesis comparison. Results on the basis of analysis of the norms of the Russian Criminal Code related to crimes against military service and the provisions of criminal and military criminal law doctrine the author has developed and proposed a new classification of crimes against military service depending on the object of crime. Scientific novelty the article substantiates the fact that the classification of crimes against military service is conducted exclusively within the doctrine of criminal and military criminal law on the basis of various criteria the direct object of crime the victim the objective aspect of crime the subject of crime the subjective aspect of crime etc. At the same time the authorrsquos classification of crimes against military service is proposed depending on the object of crimes under study 1 crimes against the established order of statutory relations between servicepersons Articles 332336 of the Russian Criminal Code 2 crimes against the established order of the general organization of military service Articles 337339 of the criminal code 3 crimes against the established order of carrying out special services stipulated by military regulations Articles 340344 of the Russian Criminal Code 4 crimes against the established procedure for the treatment of military property Articles 345348 of the Russian Criminal Code 5 crimes against the established procedure for the treatment of combat or potentially dangerous military equipment

  11. Rotavirus genotypes in Belarus, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeiko, Galina V; Yermalovich, Marina A; Poliakova, Nadezhda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Kerin, Tara K; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; Samoilovich, Elena O

    2014-12-01

    This study describes group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype prevalence in Belarus from 2008 to 2012. In 2008, data from 3 sites in Belarus (Brest, Mogilev, Minsk) indicated that G4P[8] was the predominant genotype. Data from Minsk (2008-2012) showed that G4P[8] was the predominant RVA genotype in all years except in 2011 when G3P[8] was most frequently detected. Other RVA genotypes common in Europe (G1P[8], G2P[4]) were detected each year of the study. This study reveals the dominance of genotype G4P[8] in Belarus and helps to establish the baseline genotype prevalence prior to RVA vaccine introduction in the country.

  12. Russian Contract Procurement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2010-03-29

    This contract supports the enhancement of physical protection or nuclear material control and accounting systems at institutes or enterprises of the newly independent states under the material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program. The contract is entered into pursuant to the MPC&A Program, a gratuitous technical assistance program, in accordance with the bilateral Agreements between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation of June 1992, as extended and amended by Protocol signed of June 1999, Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation regarding Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Materials Physical Protection, Control and Accounting of October 1999 and the Russian Federation law of May 1999 on the taxation exemption of gratuitous technical assistance with Russian Federation under registration No.DOE001000.

  13. Influence of the type of state system on constitutional legislation: some issues of theory and practice. (by the example of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolybek Zhunuskanuly Zhunuskanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the basic laws of the constitutional law functioning of Kazakhstan Republic and the Russian Federation and its subjects in the system of law and legislation as an institutional phenomenon to study the impact of government form on the constitutional law of the state. Methods general scientific dialectic approach to cognition comparativelegal theoretical predictive etc. and other methods integral institutional situational systemicfunctional etc. have been used in combination with the requirements of objectivity comprehensiveness historicism specificity and consistency generally accepted in the analysis of the statelegal phenomena. Results on the basis of comparative legal analysis of the Kazakhstan Constitution the Constitutions and charters of subjects of the Russian Federation normative legal acts regulating the constitutionallegal relations and research of the views of scientists on this topic the impact of government form on the constitutional law of a state was examine a conclusion was made about the significance of the Constitution in shaping the constitutional law. Scientific novelty for the first time with the use of the public methods the role of the Constitution and constitutional legislation of the countries in the development of the modern RussianKazakhstan legal discourse was investigated. The impact of government form on constitutional law was analyzed the concept of constitutional law was proposed. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when addressing issues of the role of the Constitution and constitutional law in the development of the legal system and the impact of government form on them. nbsp

  14. Attitudes and Beliefs of Pig Farmers and Wild Boar Hunters Towards Reporting of African Swine Fever in Bulgaria, Germany and the Western Part of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Guinat, C; Petkova, P; Gogin, A; Kolbasov, D; Blome, S; Molia, S; Pinto Ferreira, J; Wieland, B; Nathues, H; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of pig farmers and hunters in Germany, Bulgaria and the western part of the Russian Federation towards reporting suspected cases of African swine fever (ASF). Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire survey targeting pig farmers and hunters in these three study areas. Separate multivariable logistic regression models identified key variables associated with each of the three binary outcome variables whether or not farmers would immediately report suspected cases of ASF, whether or not hunters would submit samples from hunted wild boar for diagnostic testing and whether or not hunters would report wild boar carcasses. The results showed that farmers who would not immediately report suspected cases of ASF are more likely to believe that their reputation in the local community would be adversely affected if they were to report it, that they can control the outbreak themselves without the involvement of veterinary services and that laboratory confirmation would take too long. The modelling also indicated that hunters who did not usually submit samples of their harvested wild boar for ASF diagnosis, and hunters who did not report wild boar carcasses are more likely to justify their behaviour through a lack of awareness of the possibility of reporting. These findings emphasize the need to develop more effective communication strategies targeted at pig farmers and hunters about the disease, its epidemiology, consequences and control methods, to increase the likelihood of early reporting, especially in the Russian Federation where the virus circulates.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AVAILABILITY OF THE MEDICINES FOR PRIVILEGED CATEGORIES OF CITIZENS SUFFERING FROM DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND UKRAINE BASED ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV (Jr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization paid close attention to the timely detection and treatment of diabetes mellitus, since there are more than 382 million people suffering from this disease in the world. Life expectancy of patients with diabetes mellitus is twice as less when compared to their peers who do not suffer health problems and leading a healthy way of life. Based on the statistical data shows that 80% of patients on diabetes live in countries with a low standard of living. The dynamics of diabetes considered not only as a serious disease, but also as an important medical and pharmaceutical, social, economic and criminal legal problem, which is now very important for the Russian Federation, Ukraine and other countries of the world. This is because there is a constant increase in the number of patients suffering from diabetes on, with chronic diseases, the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, which lead to a reduction in life expectancy due to deterioration of its quality. At the same time the availability of the medicines for privileged categories of citizens, who suffer from diabetes mellitus in the Russian Federation and Ukraine depends on many factors. Some of these factors are improving of the management measures and control over the circulation of medicines (drugs; prevention and disease prevention; the use of personalized pharmacotherapy; ensuring the availability of essential medicines for privileged categories of citizens.Therefore, the aim of the work was to study the particularities of legal documents in Ukraine and Russia, aimed at organizing the rules regulating the circulation of the medicines used for diabetes mellitus pharmacotherapy by generalizing forensic and pharmaceutical practices related to the violation of the rights of patients with diabetes. To improve the system of measures of state control over the increasing availability of medicines for citizens of privileged contingent based on the norms of

  16. Russian privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, Y.; Dmitriev, A.; Klimov, S. [Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The Russian government instigated an intensive programme of federal shares sales in the coal companies at the end of 1997 with two large and viable companies: Kuzbassrazrezugol and Yuzhny Kuzbass Coal. 11 more joint-stock companies are included in the provisional privatisation schedule but it is unlikely these will be sold before the end of the third quarter of 1998. The article gives a brief description of the companies up for sale with details of shares, coal production employee numbers, coal sales, profit and losses, and state support funds. Despite the grave economic situation in Russia many coal companies have good prospects and are attractive for investors. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. TREND AND VALIDITY OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS PREVALENCE AND PATIENT MORTALITY RATES IN THE ADULT POPULATION OF THE TULA REGION VERSUS THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sorotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic systemic disease of the axial skeleton. Recently, there has been increased interest among practitioners and researchers in AS. Because of difficulties in conducting epidemiological surveys studying statistical data on its prevalence and patient mortality is of great importance. It permit introduction of necessary corrections into organization of medical care to patients on the basis of analysis of the situation in the region.Objective: to study the trend and validity of data on AS prevalence and patient mortality in the adult population of the Tula Region versus the Russian Federation.Subjects and methods. The investigators used the 2002–2010 statistical guidelines “Prevalence of diseases in adult populationof Russia” by the Ministry of Health of Russia; the 2006–2010 federal statistical inquiry forms No. 14 in the Tula Region and the Russian Federation; the European hospital database; the 2000–2011 mortality databases in the Tula Region, which had been obtained by the automated mortality registration systems, which contained 373,997 records and included all margins of “Medical Death Certificates”.Results and discussion. In the Russian Federation, overall prevalence of AS per 100,000 adult population increased from 27.6 in 2002 to 34.4 in 2010 (the increment was 24.6% while in the Tula Region its trend was unstable in this period. Incidence of AS here decreased by 31.8% from 2002 to 2010; in Russia its increment was 51.6%. From 2000 to 2011 in the Tula Region AS was registered as one of the causes of death in 29 cases.Conclusion. To plan measures aimed at improving the quality of medical care to AS patients, it is necessary to expand a comprehensive study of AS prevalence as well as outpatient and inpatient mortality from AS

  18. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  19. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ..., Department of the Treasury (not toll free numbers). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic and Facsimile... available via facsimile through a 24-hour fax-on-demand service, tel.: 202/622-0077. Background Following... procedure, Banks, Banking, Belarus, Blocking of assets, Credit, Foreign trade, Penalties, Reporting and...

  20. Universitety Severo-Zapadnogo federal'nogo okruga v rossijsko-shvedskom i rossijsko-finskom nauchnom sotrudnichestve [Universities of the North-western federal district in Russian-Finnish research cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between universities of the North-western federal district (NWFD of the Russian Federation, Sweden, and Finland, its intensity and territorial differentiation. The analysis was conducted on the basis of public domain information on the international activity of universities available on their official websites. The authors identify the principle areas and leading centres of such cooperation. The NWFD universities have significant experience in cooperation with Finnish universities. Cooperation with Swedish universities is proved to be less developed. Approximately 50 NFWD universities, 29 of which are located in Saint Petersburg, are involved in cooperation; most NWFD universities do not cooperate with the mentioned countries. Such low degree of cooperation in the field of education is a serious inhibiting factor, which reduces competitiveness on the modern market of educational services.

  1. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  2. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  3. Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Denisov

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. METHODS: Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. CONCLUSION: Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.

  4. Russian Model Of The Administrative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja I. Jaroshenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 25, 2014 it would be twenty-one year since the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on the national referendum on December 12, 1993. During this time, almost all constitutional provisions are implemented. The key point of course was the judicial reform in Russia, launched simultaneously with the adoption of Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted the new Civil Procedural Code, Criminal Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Federal Constitutional Law "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", Federal Constitutional Law "On the courts of general jurisdiction in Russia", Federal Constitutional Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". However, during twenty-one year of Russian Constitution work, the question on establishment of administrative courts in our country has not been resolved. Merger of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, which happened in the year 2014, also shown the need to resolve the status of administrative courts in Russia. Previously submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation" and is on the revision, which does not correspond to changes in the judicial system of the Russian Federation. Despite the failure of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation", in the opinion of the author, and it should be called that way, it Russia has already developed an own model of the Russian administrative justice, which is very specific.

  5. RESEARCH OF THE TERM “ORGANIZATION OF BUDGET EXECUTION” IN THE CONTEXT OF ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya V. Fedotova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of the country largely depends on the quality of the organization of budget execution at each level of the Russian Federation’s budget system. In turn, a precise and clear understanding of the economic sense, which concluded in the term “organization of budget execution”, is an integral part of improving the quality of the organization of budget execution itself. The historical aspect of the origin and formation of the term’s definition is quite a long process, which has not completed at this moment. The author uses a comprehensive approach to the formation of term “organization of budget execution” by studying the components of the notion as elements of the research subject. Formation of basic concept of the term “budget” began in the early years of the 19th century, in Russia, however, the term has received particular development from the middle of the 19th century. The article presents the evolution of approaches of Russian and foreign scientists-economists to the terms “budget” and “budget execution”. At the same time, despite the widespread use of the term “organization of budget execution”, the question of formulating definition remains poorly understood in the scientific community. The research involves the methods of comparison, analysis, synthesis and induction method. Through the prism of the budget execution processes by public authorities and local government, the author formulated the the definition of the studied term.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Enterprises Functioning in the Field of Nanoindustry in Germany and in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyntsev Ivan Dmitrievich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the development of the comparative analysis of the nanoindustry’s formation and functioning in various countries. Such comparative analysis would decrease the elaboration costs of effective solutions created for domestic economy. The article presents the diverse aspects of conducting the comparative analysis of enterprises according to their size, location, resources, profile, relation to basic structure and infrastructure, whether they form clusters which have well organized links with other enterprises functioning in Russian and German nanoindustry. The authors of the article discover the nanoindustry’s time, sectoral and space formation peculiarities in Russia and Germany, which are involved in the global trend of nanoindustry’s formation and development in different starting conditions. Thus, the authors take into account regional differences in state support and integration cooperation and nanogoods and services market expansion features in both countries. The authors present the differences in state nanotechnology and nanoindustry policy. After having investigated the operation of German and Russian nanoindustrial enterprises, the authors concluded that there is a lack of official statistical data in domestic nanoindustry economy. Currently, nanotechnologies’ and nano-relevant products’ statistics and the system of international standards in nanotechnology in Russia are being elaborated. Despite the problems, which prevent proper nanotechnological development, namely uncertain bounds, interdisciplinarity, dynamic and global nature and ambiguity of evolution ways, full and timely data in this sphere is an inalienable part of the nanotechnology’s efficient work.

  7. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  8. Transition of the Russian federation to new educational standard: independent work of students as a factor in the quality of educational process*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremlev Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to changes in the organization of independent work of students. These changes are associated with transition of the Russian Federation to new educational standards. In this regard, systemically-active approach to educational process, which is also called competence-based approach, comes to replace the knowledge-based model of education. Independent work of students as one of the main components of the competence-based approach is aimed not only at achieving of educational goals, but mainly on the formation of personal qualities of the future specialist - self-knowledge, self-development and self-realization. These qualities form a new competent person who meets the requirements of the labor market. The research includes consideration of issues such as organization, planning, monitoring methods of self-dependent student work taking into account the requirements of the educational standard.

  9. [The development of mass physical culture and sports in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation as a factor of formation of the healthy life style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakorina, E P; Rudiakova, S E

    2011-01-01

    Provision of proper conditions for the creation of healthy life style is a priority of the state policy in this country with special attention given to the development of the mass physical culture and sports. The present paper contains information on the proportion of the population of the Russian Federation regularly engaged in physical culture and sports, provision of necessary sport facilities, and budgetary expenditures for the purpose in different constituent entities of the country. Public satisfaction with the conditions available for mass physical education and sports is discussed. Taking into account the low average life expectancy of the country's population and the increasing morbidity and traumaticity rates among the younger generation, it appears impossible to address the global challenge of improving the health of the nation without promotion of mass physical culture and sports and renewal of interest in these activities among the general population.

  10. 浅谈俄罗斯联邦的建设工程预算%Shallow discussion on construction project budget of Russian Federation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韧

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了俄罗斯预算规范化发展的历史及现状,分别阐述了俄罗斯联邦固定价格预算和单价预算的特点及实施要点,以指导进入俄罗斯的中国建筑施工企业熟练掌握以上两种预算方法。%With a brief introduction on the budget normalization development history and status of Russian Federation,it respectively describes features and implementation points of fixed price budget and unit price budge,with a view to guide Chinese construction en

  11. [The order of coding road traffic injuries in accordance with ICD-10 at government forensic medical expertise institutions of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, G A; Kovalev, A V; Vaĭsman, D Sh

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the order of coding road traffic injuries in accordance with the 10th edition of the International Classification of the Disease (ICD-10) at government forensic medical expertise institutions of the Russian Federation. In addition, they analyse the application of the coding rules and the identification of the primary causes of death with a view to obtaining reliable road traffic accident mortality statistics compatible with the respective internationally available data. Special attention is given to the consideration and recommendation of the rules for making forensic medical diagnosis in accordance with the requirements of ICD-10 and its inclusion in the road traffic death certificates. The authors emphasize the importance of compliance with the rules for formulation of medical death certificates and identification of the cause of the fatal outcome for the reliable calculation of such demographically significant characteristic as road traffic accident mortality.

  12. COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF APIXABAN AS COMPARED WITH WARFARIN AND ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH NON-VALVULAR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. For prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF the following types of antithrombotic therapy are used: anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin, antiplatelet therapy (such as acetylsalicylic acid and novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Administration of vitamin K antagonists (VKA is complicated by the need for individual dose adjustment and frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR. Both warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid are widely used for thrombosis prevention in patients with NVAF in the Russian Federation.Aim. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of apixaban compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid in patients with NVAF from the Russian Federation national health care system perspective.Material and methods. This analysis used a Markov model that allowed estimation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for apixaban as compared with warfarin and acetylsalicylic acid over lifetime horizon in VKA suitable and VKA unsuitable patients with NVAF respectively. The model enclosed cardiovascular event rates based on the results of the randomized clinical trials comparing clinical effectiveness and safety of apixaban with warfarin (ARISTOTLE and acetylsalicylic acid (AVERROES. The following cardiovascular events were taken into consideration: ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, systemic embolism, intracranial hemorrhage, other major bleeds, clinically relevant non-major bleeds and myocardial infarction. Direct medical costs were determined based on the rates of the compulsory national medical insurance system. The price of the antithrombotic drugs was taken as a weighted average tender price for the year 2013. In the model both costs and benefits (quality-adjusted life years and life-years were discounted at 3.5%. Cost-effectiveness threshold was set at 1.4 million rubles per quality

  13. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Design: Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. Results: In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. Conclusions: This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC.

  14. A prospective, open-label, non-comparative study of palivizumab prophylaxis in children at high risk of serious respiratory syncytial virus disease in the Russian Federation

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    Turti Tatyana V

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs in children globally. Predisposing conditions for the development of serious RSV disease include preterm infants and those with cardiopulmonary illness, including congenital heart disease (CHD and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. No vaccine is currently approved for the prevention of RSV infection. It is recommended that children at high risk be prophylactically administered palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody that has been shown in a number of clinical studies to reduce hospitalization rates due to serious RSV infection. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab in preventing serious RSV disease in high-risk children in the Russian Federation. Children at high risk of serious RSV disease (ie, born at ≤35 wk gestational age and ≤6 mo of age, and/or aged ≤24 mo with BPD or hemodynamically significant CHD were enrolled. Subjects were to receive 3 to 5 monthly injections of palivizumab 15 mg/kg (depending on the month of the initial injection over the RSV season. The primary endpoint was RSV-related hospitalizations. Adverse events (AEs were reported through 100 days following the final injection. Results One hundred subjects received ≥1 injection of palivizumab; 94 completed their dosing schedule. There were no RSV hospitalizations or deaths. Six of 7 subjects hospitalized for respiratory/cardiac conditions had an RSV test, which was negative in all cases. Three non-serious AEs (acute intermittent rhinitis and rhinitis, 1 subject; atopic dermatitis, 1 subject were considered possibly related to palivizumab. All other AEs were mild or moderate and considered not related/probably not related to palivizumab. Conclusion Palivizumab was generally well tolerated and effectively prevented serious RSV infection in a mixed population of high-risk children in the Russian

  15. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation": the linguistic…

  16. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation":…

  17. Minority Languages of the Russian Federation: Perspectives for a Ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages. Mercator Working Papers = Las lenguas minoritarias de la Federacion Rusa Perspectivas para una ratificacion de la Carta Europea de las Lenguas Regionales y Minoritarias. Mercator Documentos de trabajo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytez, Eduardo J. Ruiz

    This paper describes the linguistic plurality of the Russian Federation, assessing the impact that the hypothetical ratification of the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages could have on it. Four sections focus on the following: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Part 1--The Linguistic Plurality of the Russian Federation":…

  18. Provision of educational service with the use of distance technologies for disabled persons (case study: the state of Alaska and Nothern regions of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distance education contributes to the solution of educational problems of disabled persons. The study of foreign experience is extremely important. North American universities saved up a wide experience in this sphere. Unlike self-made software products created by many Russian universities, Blackboard is the leading educational software package that professionally helps to solve educational problems of disabled persons. The international University of the Arctic has a growing interest in the use of information communication technologies and open educational resources and networks. In 2008 the subject network of University of the Arctic on distance education and e-learning began to function. The Internet and distance learning creates a new opportunity for disabled persons. Main goal: Whether distance education on Alaska and in Northern and Siberian regions of the Russian Federation promotes the solution of educational problems of the North for disabled persons. Main research problems: to reveal modern educational Arctic problems for disabled persons; to analyse specifics of remote education; to analyse a question of distance training of the circumpolar North; to carry out the comparative analysis of distance training on Alaska and in Russian northern and the Siberian regions; to analyse a contribution of distance training to wider problems of the Arctic policy and management. Relevance of work: The Arctic Human Development Report I specifi es that there are very few circumpolar researches in the fi eld of education, including for disabled persons. This article can begin initial discussion of a subject which can be in addition studied in future works. An emerging trend for Arctic education is its increasing accessibility. Accessibility is about students being able to take classes and fulfi ll their potential, that is, it concerns their possibilities for attending school, both physically and culturally. Even though this

  19. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  20. CERN-HI-1202040 tirage 29 (front row) Russian Federation Secretary of the Security Council N. Patrushev with Adviser T. Kurtyka and Permanent Mission to the UN Adviser A. Petrov in the LHC tunnel at Point 1.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    On 14 February Nikolai Patrushev, secretary of the Security Council for the Russian Federation, was welcomed to CERN. He visited the ATLAS underground experimental area, the LHC tunnel and ATLAS Visitor Centre before viewing the Universe of Particles exhibition at the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  1. The resolution of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” (Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation, November 17-18, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . . .

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief summary of the All-Russia conference “Seismic security of a region and the impact of seismogeological and socioeconomic factors” held in Kyzyl, Republic of Tuva, Russian Federation on November 17-18, 2015. Also provided is the full text of the resolution adopted at the conference.

  2. HYGIENIC STANDARDS FOR CS-137 AND SR-90 IN THE FOODSTUFFS: EXPERIENCE OF BELARUS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Kenigsberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of analysis for development and implementation of the national permissible levels for Cs-137 and Sr-90 contamination of the foodstuff and water. These permissible levels were introduced in Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP as a protective measure to limit the doses of internal exposure. The article also contains comparison between numerical values of permissible levels introduced in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian as well as between the potential doses of internal exposure which could be formed while consuming the contaminated foodstuff with the levels of contamination equal to the permissible levels. The possibilities for harmonization of the permissible levels in three countries are discussed. The expediency of establishing quotes for doses of internal and external exposure is considered.

  3. THE OUTCOMES OF FUNCTIONING OF THE UNIFIED SYSTEM OF INDIVIDUAL DOSE CONTROL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION CITIZENS BASED ON THE 2015 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the outcomes of the generalized analysis of personnel, patients, and population radiation doses information obtained from the Unified System of Individual Dose Control (USIDC for 2015. The analysis is conducted on the basis of the annual information from the forms of Federal State Statistical. Observation No.1-DOZ (personnel individual doses, No.2-DOZ (emergency doses, No.3-DOZ (patients’ exposure doses and No.4-DOZ (population exposure doses from natural and technogenically impacted background. The information is submitted by the organizations and territories accountable to the Rospotrebnadzor. The article presents a comparison with data obtained within the framework of Radiation-Hygiene passportization. In 2015, 16769 organizations providing management with artificial radiation sources submitted the form No.1-DOZ.The form No.1-DOZ contains data on 134 812 personnel individual doses, 123 404 of the personnel group A and 11 408 the personnel group B with personnel monitoring.Iin 2015,the average individual dose for the personnel group A was 1,14 mSv, the personnel group B – 0,79 mSv. In 2015, 11 720 healthcare organizations submitted the form No.3-DOZ. According to the No.3-DOZ data, more than 272 mln X-ray diagnostics were conducted in theRussian Federation in 2015. An average medical radiation dose per capita was 0,48 mSv/year and a mean medical radiation dose per an X-ray examination was 0,26 mSv. In 2015, the form No.4-DOZ contains results of 8 681 measurements of gamma dose rate in wooden houses, 12 642 measurements in one-storey stone houses, 160 174 measurements in multi-storey stone houses and 217 746 measurements on the open ground. Results of 4 441 measurements of radon concentration levels in wooden houses, 5 565 measurements in one-storey stone houses, 61 541 measurements in multi-storey stone houses are given. The population’s average effective dose from natural ionizing radiation sources amounted to 3

  4. 78 FR 61333 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; 2012; Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Federation, 68 FR 3859 (January 27, 2003). On January 31, 2013, Nucor submitted a request for an... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 288 (January 3, 2013). The... Revocation in Part, 78 FR 13631 (February 28, 2013). The Department examined U.S. Customs and...

  5. [Some problems of modern gerontology and geriatrics in the Russian Federation: the sight of the clinical physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakotnykh, V S

    2012-01-01

    This article presents some problems of modern Russian gerontology and geriatrics by eyes of the scientist--the clinical physician having long-term experience in the field. Educational, scientific, practical aspects of gerontology and those stereotypes of understanding of problems of elderly which developed for years are subjected the certain criticism, decades, but in the modern world any more absolutely correspond to a today's reality. It is offered to transform the ideology of the major directions of gerontology, having put at the head of a corner not ideas of prolongation of life as that and carrying out basically actions in relation to seriously ill, but improvements of quality of life, preventive maintenance and treatment of set of the age-related diseases, overcoming of the developed practice of the relation to elderly and senile patients as to persons dependent and demanding the constant help. The author urges the public health governing bodies to reconsider the norms of the geriatric help existing for many years but not meeting modern requirements in the conditions of polyclinic and a hospital and to make more clear and claimed by a society the possibilities and achievements of gerontology.

  6. Features of Touristic Territory Branding on the Example of Sochi City (Russian Federation and Jurmala City (Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gunare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brand is a harmonic combination of social and cultural life, modern infrastructure, authorities and business activities, attractive investing climate and historical heritage. In a modern world territory brand formation and its successful integration is a key aspect in ensuring of well-being and development of society. Geographic mobility is increasing and it influences welfare of territories. Complex of branding activities provides a sustainable place in a market for territory. Russian experience in tourism development demonstrates that each ruble spent on tourism promotion returns to growth of tourist flow, tax revenues and local producers’ incomes. So territory brand promotion expenditures can give a heavy impact to socio-economic development of the region. The brand of territory is directed to diverse target audiences, the most important of whom are investors, tourists, consumers of goods and services in the external market, residents. The article considers the touristic territory branding experience of Russia and Latvia. Research aims to analyze how the implementation of branding activities contributed to achieving a new level in tourism and investment attractiveness of cities, and if it allowed creating an image of unique place for visiting.

  7. [Normal values of temporal parameters of ECG in children according to results of clinico-epidemiological study ECG-screening of children and adolescents in Russian federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklashevich, I M; Shkol'nikova, M A; Kalinin, L A; Abdullatipova, I V; Osokina, G G; Deev, A D; Blinova, A V; Drozdova, A I; Lebed'kova, S E; Muratov, R A; Verevkina, O N; Timukova, A K; Lunegova, E V; Kozlova, L V; Svintsova, L I; Khomiakova, O I; Ashcheulova, N L

    2009-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable information about time-domain ECG parameters in Russian children and to analyse their links with physiological changes the Project "ECG screening of children and adolescents of the Russian Federation" was carried out in 2003-2008. Time domain ECG parameters were studied in the representative sample of 5387 healthy individuals aged 0 to 18 years. In each age group, lower and upper limits of the norm for heart rate (HR), P wave, PQ and QRS intervals were defined as 2nd and 98th percentiles of their distribution. The equivalent limits of QT interval duration were defined as its 5th and 95th percentiles. Relationship between time domain parameters of pediatric ECG and HR was analyzed as well as relationship of these parameters with sex and age. The most important differences from prior pediatric studies completed 30 years ago were obtained for the heart rate limits. Among children aged 0 to 3, there was a tendency toward lowering of age-specific lower limits and elevation of age-specific upper limits. At ages older than 3 years, there was a tendency toward lowering of both the upper and the lower limits of HR. The newly obtained 2nd percentiles of the heart rate were lower than the known lower limits in nearly all ages. This indicates the necessity for revision of criteria of bradicardia in children. The present study showed that 5th and 95th percentiles of QTc interval (Bazett's formula) varied between 340 ms and 465 ms and were not significantly dependent on children's age and only for ages under 13 also on sex. Results of the study allowed to build age-specific ranges of norm for the time domain ECG parameters presented in a tabular form.

  8. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  9. Belarus: Ready for More Advanced Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Belarus was one of the 15 member countries of the former Soviet Union. It has achieved independence since 1991. Belarus is situated in the center of Europe and the main drag of the Europe-Asia Continental Bridge. It takes the leading position in many economic indicators in the CIS.

  10. Russian Translatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porozinskaya, Galina

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Russian translatology after 1950. Introduces in chronological order some of the most important Russian works and discusses their main points. Deals with Russian approaches to key problems in translation such as equivalence, pragmatic relations, audience orientation, and problems of cultural transfer. (SR)

  11. The prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in selected cities from three Commonwealth of Independent States countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonov, E; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; Lila, A; Ivanova, R; Togizbayev, G; Omarbekova, Z; Shevchuk, S; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Smailova, Z; Chernogolov, V; Malynovska, K; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence and incidence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in 2010 in adults from four cities in Russia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Individuals with SLE were identified retrospectively from the medical records of specialized centers. Prevalent SLE patients were nondeceased city residents, diagnosed prior to December 31, 2010; incident patients were residents newly diagnosed between January 1 and December 31, 2010. Population size was obtained from official census data. The observed prevalence rates (per 100,000, 95% CI) were 9.0 (7.1-11.2) in Kursk and Yaroslavl, Russian Federation; 20.6 (15.4-27.0) in Semey, Kazakhstan; and 14.9 (10.9-19.9) in Vinnitsa, Ukraine. The cumulative incidence rates (per 100,000, 95% CI) were 1.4 (0.7-2.4); 1.6 (0.4-4.1) and 0.3 (0.0-1.8), correspondingly. All rates were higher among females compared to males, and incidence peaked in the population aged 25-44. These rates appear slightly lower than those reported from Western Europe and the USA. This could be because of study design (case-ascertainment), local health care practices or true differences in disease risk. Case age and sex distribution was similar to the known epidemiology of SLE. The rates were highest in Kazakhstan, likely because of a predominantly ethnic Asian population.

  12. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  13. [The directions of activity of the medical service on prophylaxis and early revealing of tuberculosis in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalimov, Iu Sh; Beznosik, R V; Shitov, Iu N; Dantsev, V V; Muchaidze, R D

    2012-07-01

    The basic directions of system of antituberculous actions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation includes: 1) non-admission of citizens, sick of tuberculosis, on military service; 2) allocation of group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis among all military servicemen, dispensary dynamic supervision over them and carrying out of chemoprophylaxis; 3) revealing of tuberculosis among military servicemen at preventive medical inspections (including fluorography), and also in case of reference for medical aid with the symptoms specifying on possibility of tuberculosis; 4) carrying out antiepidemic actions in military unit, in case of revealing patient, sick of tuberculosis, well-timed, qualitatively and in full. The major stage of antituberculous actions is a profound medical examination of young reinforcement (recruits under service call and under the contract) after the arrival in army. Preventive actions in group of persons with the raised risk of tuberculosis also are a priority for the medical service of military unit. Final desinfection, controllable emergency chemoprophylaxis and extraordinary fluorography of contact persons under epidemic indications are crucial important for decrease of morbidity in the army focuses of tuberculosis.

  14. Rare earth elements upon assessment of reasons of the geophagy in Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation), Africa and other world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichev, Alexander M; Popov, Vladimir K; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Stolyarova, Tatiana A; Zakusin, Sergey V; Sergievich, Alexandr A; Khoroshikh, Pavel P

    2016-12-01

    Rocks eaten by wild animals on the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur in the Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation) are zeolite-clay mineral complexes-products of weathering of zeolitized vitric tuffs of rhyolite composition, deposited in aqueous medium within the volcanic caldera of about 55 million years ago. By composition of rock-forming oxides, the tuffs refer to high-potassium calc-alkaline series. In trace elements of most favorite kudurites of the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur, there are significantly increased contents of most of rare earth elements (2-5 times in comparison with surrounding rocks). The results of our analysis of geological and geochemical data on kudurs and kudurites in another part of the Sikhote-Alin, as well as on other regions of the world (particularly, in Africa and Indonesia), taking into account new data on the prevalence of rare earth elements in living matter and their medical and biological properties, enable us to consider the version of causal connection of the geophagy with rare earth elements.

  15. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RATIONAL NUMBER OF THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THEIR GEOGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained. 

  16. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.

  17. THE METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE ESTIMATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF TAXES IN FORMING OF INCOMES OF BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BELGOROD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted questions of formation of tax incomes of budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Approaches of a regional tax policy are proved by granting of tax privileges. The system of factors allowing quantitatively to estimate value of tax payments in formation own and aggregate prots of the budget is offered; approbation on an example of the budget of the Belgorod region is spent.

  18. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law {sup A}bout agreements of products sharing'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L. [Petrozavodsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized.

  19. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  20. [Helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of original long-term investigation (1980-2006) and literary data on the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus is carried out. Seven species of reptiles were examined on Southern Belarus, 32 species of helminthes were found with total infestation 72.7%. It is established that the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus includes 33 species (18 trematodes, two cestodes, 12 nematodes, and one acanthocephalan). The largest number of helminth species (26) was recorded in the common water snake Natrix natrix, and the least number of species (four) was recorded in the turtle Emys orbicularis and snake Coronella austriaca.

  1. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  2. Lessons learned from the first US/Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C; Kreek, S; Smith, A; Sweeney, J; Wild, J; Gough, R; Rockett, P; MacLeod, G; Hawkins, W; Wohletz, K; Knowles, S

    1999-03-24

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998 whose objectives were to examine the functioning of an Inspection Team (IT) in a given scenario, to evaluate the strategies and techniques employed by the IT, to identify ambiguous interpretations of treaty provisions that needed clarification, and to confirm the overall utility of tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. To achieve these objectives, the United States and Russian Federation (RF) agreed that two exercises would be conducted. The first would be developed by the RF, who would act as controller and as the inspected State Party (ISP), while the United States would play the role of the IT. The roles would be reversed in the second exercise; the United States would develop the scenario and play the ISP, while the RF would play the IT. A joint control team, comprised of members of both the U.S. and RF control teams, agreed on a number of ground rules for the two exercises and established a joint Evaluation Team to evaluate both of the exercises against the stated objectives. To meet time limitations, the scope of this joint exercise needed to be limited. The joint control team decided that each of the two exercises would not go beyond the first 25 days of an on-site inspection (OSI) and that the focus would be on examining the decision-making of the IT as it utilized the various technologies to clarify whether a nuclear test explosion had taken place. Hence, issues such as logistics, restricted access, and activities prior to Point of Entry (POE) would be played only to the extent needed to provide for a realistic context for the exercises' focus on inspection procedures, sensor deployments, and data interpretation. Each of the exercises began at the POE and proceeded with several iterations of negotiations between the IT and ISP, instrument deployments, and data

  3. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases.

  4. Large-scale and Medium-scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Registered during Magnetic Storms over North-Eastern Region of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Vera; Kurkin, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Earth's ionosphere is dynamical steadily changed medium. On a level with daily and seasonal variations of ionospheric parameters there are irregular components connected with wave motions in neutral atmosphere. F2 ionosphere region disturbances are developed in global scale during geomagnetic storms and characterized considerable variations in F2-region critical frequencies and heights. High frequency oblique-incidence sounding method allows us to diagnose ionospheric parameters variations in regions poorly equipped with vertical sounding stations. In this work we provide the analysis of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS and MS TID's accordingly) registered during experiments from 2006 till 2011 which carried out by means of the monthly duration sets with 5-min intervals over oblique-incidence sounding paths located in the north-eastern region of Russian Federation. For the analysis we have been chosen experimental data obtained during minor and moderate geomagnetic storms. After ionograms processing maximum observed frequencies (MOF) deviations from median values were calculated. Using MOF deviations from medians the analysis of LS TID's appearance cases was carried out. Studied MOF deviations from medians can be caused by cusps on ionograms also. These cusps move with the course of time through the sequences of ionograms along upper rays from region with higher delays to region with lower delays. Such cusps on ionograms are caused by MS TID's. In this work the analysis of MS TID events registration by these cusps on ionograms was carried out. Then the comparison between LS and MS TID's appearance probability was performed. It is shown that registered MOF variations are caused by superposition of wave-like processes of different scales taken place in ionosphere during magnetic storms. This work was supported by the RFBR grants No 14-05-00259-a and No 14-05-00578-a.

  5. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsareva, Y.; Sokolnikov, M.; Okatenko, P. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Epidemiology Laboratory, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Deltour, I.; Schonfeld, S.J.; Schuez, J. [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Vostrotin, V.V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases. (orig.)

  6. Geomorphological risk analysis in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Romanenko V. GIS-Mapping and Assessment of Geomorphological Risk in Belarus / V. Romanenko, D. Kurlovich // The geomorphology of natural hazards: mapping, analysis and prevention. Abstract book. 17th Joint Geomorphological Meeting, Liege (Belgium). 1-3 July 2014. – Liege. – P. 116. In the present study an assessment of geomorphological risk in the Republic of Belarus has been made. Geomorphological districts (according to geomorphological zoning) were the objects of the research.

  7. FACTORS FORMING RELATIONSHIPS AND EVERYDAY RUSSIAN AND BELARUSIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Nodarievich Tuzhba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It consists in the analysis of the factors influencing the process of interaction, the nature of relationships and everyday life of the Russian and Belarusian communities. Methodology. Use the ideas of the system, interactionist, phenomenological and socio-psychological approaches. The empirical base totaled questionnaire data of the Russian population of the Krasnodar Territory; secondary analysis of sociological data of Russian and Belarusian research teams on studies. Results. Identified and analyzed factors of relationships and the culture of everyday life, especially their impact on the processes of interaction between Russian and Belarusian ethnic communities. Practical implications. Knowledge of the factors and content of the mutual influence of ethnic and cultural practices of the ethnic communities of Belarus and Russia will help to predict the interaction processes contribute to their consolidation and integration.

  8. Russian Reset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Holmgård, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Christoffer Holmgård. Russian Reset. Installation. HyperKult XXV: Shutdown, Lüneburg, FRG, Jul 9-11, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Christoffer Holmgård. Russian Reset. Installation. HyperKult XXV: Shutdown, Lüneburg, FRG, Jul 9-11, 2015....

  9. Project of law authorizing the approval of the agreement between the government of the French republic and the government of the Russian federation relative to the civil liability by way of nuclear damage owing to the supply of materials from the French republic devoted to nuclear facilities in the Russian federation; Projet de loi autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le gouvernement de la republique francaise et le gouvernement de la federation de Russie relatif a la responsabilite civile au titre de dommages nucleaires du fait de fournitures en provenance de la republique francaise destinees a des installations nucleaires en federation de Russie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Villepin, D. de

    2002-07-01

    An agreement between France and Russia was signed on June 20, 2000 about the civil liability of Russia because of the supply of French material devoted to Russian nuclear facilities. This agreement was necessary because Russia do not belong to any of the two big international civil liability systems relative to nuclear energy, i.e. the Paris convention from July 29, 1960 (in the OECD framework) and the Vienna convention from May 21, 1963 (in the IAEA framework). This agreement offers a protection to the French nuclear suppliers against any damage claims in the case of a nuclear accident occurring on the Russian federation territory. This project of law aims at approving this agreement. (J.S.)

  10. Vneshnie svjazi Severo-Zapadnogo federal'nogo okruga Rossijskoj Federacii i koncepcija «Novogo Severa» [International relations of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation and the New North concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markushina Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of Russia — the North-West federal district — in the New North concept, which encompasses new political relations in the North of Europe in the framework of international organisations and regional cooperation — for instance, the Northern Dimension.

  11. Water equivalent of snow retrieved from data of passive microwave scanning with the use of artificial neural networks over the Russian Federation territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volchek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of the Chang model for calculation of the snow water equivalent on the basis of measurements of the Earth thermo-microwave radiation by means of scanning polarimeters (SMMR, SSM/I, AMSR-E from board of orbital satellites does not allow obtaining the accuracy needed hydrological purposes. Low accuracy of the calculations is caused by both simplified character of the mathematical model, and due to significant influence of the surface characteristics (relief, vegetation and complex structure of snow thickness upon the microwave radiation propagation. This work was aimed at finding a way to increase accuracy of calculations of the snow water equivalent on the Russian Federation territory with its different climate conditions by means of application the neural network approach for processing of results of the passive microwave scanning of the Earth surface. Feed-forward multi-layer artificial neural network was trained by back-propagation algorithm using SSM/I data and results of snow water equivalent in situ measurements obtained at 117 meteorological stations during the period from January 1st, 1988 till December 31st, 1988. Validation was performed using data from the same sources collected during 7 years (1992–1998. Results of performed numerical experiments and obtained values of rootmean-square error (σ = 24.9 мм; r = 0.39±0,01 allow coming to conclusion that the best estimation of water equivalent of a snow cover is provided by artificial neural network using as the input data a set of the SSM/I channels 19.35, 37.0, 85.5 GHz of horizontal and vertical polarizations with meteorological data differentiated by types of the snow survey route.It is shown that low correlation coefficients (< 0.5 as compared with similar studies on small areas is not caused by the chosen mathematical model and its realization but it is due to a strong diversity of climatic conditions and low density of meteorological stations on the land areas

  12. Standard medical care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in large specialised centres: data from the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan (ESSENCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonov, E; Soloviev, S; Davidson, J E; Lila, A; Togizbayev, G; Ivanova, R; Baimukhamedov, Ch; Omarbekova, Zh; Iaremenko, O; Gnylorybov, A; Shevchuk, S; Vasylyev, A; Pereira, M H S

    2015-01-01

    To describe disease characteristics and treatment regimens for adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoantibody positive disease in three countries (the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Republic of Kazakhstan). The Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Enoxaparin in Non-Q wave Coronary Events (ESSENCE) study was a 1-year, retrospective, multicentre, observational study. Data included patients' characteristics, disease activity and severity, and healthcare resource use in 2010. Twelve centres enrolled 436 eligible patients: 232 in Russia, 110 in Kazakhstan and 94 in Ukraine. Mean age ranged from 36 to 42 years and median SLE duration from 3 to 6.8 years. According to study definitions, 69.2% of patients in Russia, 72.7% in Kazakhstan and 55.4% in Ukraine had severe disease at diagnosis. SLE activity (Nasonova classification, 1972) decreased from diagnosis to the last visit in 2010 in all countries. At the last visit, mean (SD) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score was 13.8 (10.5) in Russia, 19.4 (16.9) in Kazakhstan and 7.2 (6.8) in Ukraine, and Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index was 2.0 (2.2), 3.3 (3.2) and 2.2 (2.0), respectively. Treatment regimens included predominantly glucocorticoids (96.7-99.1%), immunosuppressants or cytotoxic drugs, for example, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide (20.7-53.2%), and antimalarial drugs (18.3-40.8%). The study provides reliable insight into the SLE clinical profiles in the referenced countries. Patients were 4-10 years younger in the study and had 3-7 years shorter SLE duration than in Western European countries and both SLE activity and severity were higher with higher rate of hospitalisations, but decreased during treatment. Local and international scales demonstrated correlation in SLE activity and organ damage evaluation. There were differences in

  13. ON INCREASING ENERGY SECURITY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is provided by the minimum required ratio of domestic and imported energy resources. Therefore, in the energy sector energy efficiency should be increased through the use of its own energy resources. Over the last hundred years of development of geological science a preferential distribution of oil and gas fields to areas (blocks of geological faults, many of which reach the surface of the foundation of our planet, has been determined. The complex process of oil and gas formation is predetermined by geological, geochemical, hydrogeological and other factors. The concepts of organic and inorganic origin of oil and gas are also relevant in the context under consideration. The formation of sufficient oil and gas fields is possible in the presence of highly porous and fractured rocks (for oil or so-called gas traps. Promising for the discovery of sufficient oil and gas fields are the central and southern areas of the Pripyat trough and the areas on the borders Mikashevichsi-Zhitkovichi ledge. The geological conditions of the areas in the Southern part of the Podlaska-Brest and the North-Eastern part of the Orsha troughs require most thorough investigations. In the area of the Belarusian anteclise, especially near the Baltic syneclise, at great depths in porous rocks the presence of oil and gas deposits of inorganic origin is possible. The use of plasma-pulse impact (that is a very effective one on the oil and gas underground reservoirs requires a study of the feasibility of their use in new and existing waste deposits. In the exploration of minerals such “exotic” methods, as the assessment of the discharge of helium, radon, radioactive analysis, etc. should also be applied. It is necessary to detect a possible fault zones and prospective search of hydrocarbon energy resources. To ensure energy security of Belarus, the evaluation of the possibility of using associated gas to supply with it a significant part of the country should

  14. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  15. Role of Universities in Forming a Competence of Innovative Activity as an Essential Factor of Successful Realization of a Strategy of Innovative Development of the Russian Federation Until 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available World economic crisis of 2008-2009 slowed down a development of Russian innovative system. Dedicated federal target programs have been worked out in order to restore after-crisis situation in the country and speed up a transfer to an innovative development. These programs envisage a range of activities aimed at forming competences of innovative activity, improvement of forms and scale of personnel training and re-training programs in engineering and scientific specializations, enhancing a range of educational programs in innovative entrepreneurship and technological management.The article describes mechanisms of attracting students, postgraduates and young researchers to solving tasks of Russia’s innovative development until 2020.

  16. The Sociological Dimension of the System of Art Education in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    Art education in Belarus is based on two fundamental state documents, the "Law on Education in the Republic of Belarus" and the "Law on Culture in the Republic of Belarus," which spell out the prospects of the development of art education in a unity of goals, tasks, and paths of implementation. The system of art education in the Republic includes…

  17. BRCA1 founder mutations compared to ovarian cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanevich, Alena; Oszurek, Oleg; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    In Belarus and other Slavic countries, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases, but the data on contribution of these mutations to ovarian cancers are limited. To estimate the proportion of ovarian cancers in Belarus, which are dependent on BRCA1 Slavic founder mutations, we sought the presence of three most frequent mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, C61G and, 4153delA) in 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer. One of the three founder mutations was present in 25 of 158 unselected cases of ovarian cancer (15.8 %). We recommend that all cases of ovarian cancer in Belarus be offered genetic testing for these founder mutations. Furthermore, genetic testing of the Belarusian population will provide the opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of ovarian cancer.

  18. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  19. Tarihsel Perspektif Işığında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Rusya Federasyonu Arasındaki İlişkiler (Relations Between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation In Consideration of Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DEMİR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In relations and state policies between Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation at present, we can see the traces of empires which were existent centuries before. Big wars occured between these empires, interests of these two empires conflicted with each other but both of them disappeared with the effect of nationalism movements, yet two new nation-states emerged from the ashes of these two empires: Republic of Turkey and Russian Federation. Long-term governments of Putin and Erdogan in Turkey and Russia provided these two states to make cooperation in the fields of politics, trade and energy, “win-win” strategy was followed but these two states had different policies in the areas of Cyprus, Chechnya, and Syrian Civil War. Especially the different oaths followed by two states in Syrian Civil War seems to be an important problem that can interrupt the good relations of these two countries. This study, while examining Russia and Turkey’s predecessors’ historical relations, at the same time reveals modern Russia and Turkey’s cooperation areas and foreign policy differences. In the light of these knowledges, predictions about relations between Turkey and Russia in the near future is left to readers’ discretion.

  20. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    combating high inflation , experiencing nearly 17% inflation in 2015. The steep decline in fossil fuel prices has hurt Russian budget revenues, and the...19.2 million Russians living in poverty in 2015, or 13.4% of the population, according to Russian Federal Statistics Service.20 Furthermore, capital...demographic crisis. For over 30 years, Russia has maintained negative population trends, most significantly in negative birth rate and low life expectancy.29

  1. Provision of educational service with the use of distance technologies for disabled persons (case study: the state of Alaska and Nothern regions of the Russian Federation)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    The distance education contributes to the solution of educational problems of disabled persons. The study of foreign experience is extremely important. North American universities saved up a wide experience in this sphere. Unlike self-made software products created by many Russian universities, Blackboard is the leading educational software package that professionally helps to solve educational problems of disabled persons. The international University of the Arctic has a growing interest in ...

  2. Elections to the Highest State Authorities in Western Belarus in 1940 as an Element of the Region’ Sovietization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Kuryanovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the poorly studied fragments of Russian history – elections of deputies of the USSR Supreme Council and the BSSR Supreme Council for Western Belarus. Inclusion of this territory into the USSR and the BSSR in 1939 was the critical issue in the region in order to establish a social system that existed in the USSR and the Byelorussian SSR for over twenty years. Within a few months the Soviet government implemented a major event (the nationalization of industry, confiscation of the land fund, etc., laid the foundation for a new system and launched the building of socialism in all directions. The study is considered an important element of the policy of the Soviet power – the election of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the BSSR Supreme Council of Western Belarus, which took place in 1940. On the basis of a wide range of original archival sources, most of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, the author reveals a large-scale picture of the election campaign designed to persuade the millions of people who had lived for more than 15 years in a completely non-Bolshevik political and socio-economic conditions, the advantages of a fundamentally different social model on socialist principles, as well as significantly enhance the legitimacy of the Soviet regime. The author assesses the situation prevailing in Western Belarus on the eve of the election, analyzes the electoral law, elections organizational aspects, forms and methods of campaigning. The special attention is paid to the unequivocal attitude of the people to the election campaign, and the appropriate assessment of the official results is carried out.

  3. A Visit to Kindergarten No. 490 in Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Linda A.

    Although opportunities for sharing information about early childhood education increased with the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991, knowledge about how young children are cared for and educated in countries of the former Soviet Union remains limited. This report presents observations of a kindergarten class in Minsk, Belarus conducted…

  4. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  5. Hypertension management in primary care in Belarus and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Rusovich, V.; Egorov, K.N.; Podpalov, V.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Both in Belarus and in the Netherlands, guidelines on the management of hypertension in primary care have been developed, including recommendations about detection, treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are meant to harmonize actual practice management of hypertension of improve the quality of c

  6. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  7. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  8. 75 FR 48933 - 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX94 2010 Russian Export Certification for Fishery... requirements for exportation of fish and fishery products to the Russian Federation as set forth in the Memorandum of Understanding between Rosselkhoznadzor (the responsible Russian government agency) and...

  9. Energy transit from Russia through Ukraine and Belarus. A risk for energy supply assurance in Europe?; Energietransit von Russland durch die Ukraine und Belarus. Ein Risiko fuer die europaeische Energiesicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2006-12-15

    Against the background of enhanced sensitivity for power supply problems, supply assurance of power supply from Russia is under discussion. As in the early days of power supply from Russia, when the issue was much discussed, there is a fear that Russia may use power supply as a political instrument, and there is also the new fear that petroleum and natural gas transit may be interrupted in case of political problems between Russia and its former satellite states Belarus and Ukraine. The problem is related to the vast importance of Russia for oil and gas supply to the rest of Europe. According to current forecasts, the dependence of Europe from Russian energy sources, as well as the reciprocal dependence of Russia on the European market, will continue through 2030. (orig.)

  10. [Problems of delivery of health care for children of servicemen and educates of general educational institutions of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalov, N P; Arsent'ev, V G; Tsiteladze, A A; Mikheev, A V

    2012-08-01

    On the basis of the legal, instructional-methodological data and evaluation of the organization of medical care for children and adolescents identified the main challenges of pediatric services for the optimization of the Russian Defense Ministry interagency medical personnel accompany the children and adolescents, pre-university students in military educational institutions, at the stage of military reform and optimize the structure of the military medical service. To provide medical assistance to children of servicemen and DVOU pupils in accordance with the standards of health required the integration of interagency efforts of the military-medical institutions and medical institutions of state and municipal health systems.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  12. Geologists of Russian origin in the francophone countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoumatchenco, P.; Durand-Delga, M.; Ricour, J.; Wiazemsky, M.

    2016-10-01

    Many ethnic Russian geologists have lived and worked in Francophone countries. We describe in this paper the life and career of geologists (i.e. all Earth scientists - geologists, mineralogists, tectonicians, geophysicists, geochemists, paleontologists, mining and drilling engineers, hydrogeologists, cosmos - geologists, etc.), regardless of their original nationality (Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, etc.) born in the territory of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union or the Russian Federation. (Author)

  13. Offense-defense theory analysis of Russian cyber capability

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Russian Federation is a key state actor in cyberspace; cyber events associated with Russian state and non-state actors have threatened Russia’s neighbors, shaped international cyber norms, as well as influenced strategists’ understanding of cyber power. This thesis seeks to understand Russian cyber capability through the lens of Robert Jervis’s offense-defense theory in order to answer the thesis’s central question: Do Russian cybe...

  14. Fostering the Sustainable Development of the Economy of the Russian Federation via the Creation of Small Innovation Enterprises at Institutions of Higher Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Dudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s relevance resides in the fact that, under present-day conditions, when the national economy is going through a stage of turbulence, there is a need to seek out new solutions that could help ensure the sustainability of national social-economic development in keeping with global trends. The paper explores the issue of ensuring Russia’s sustainable economic development via boosts in the innovation activity of entrepreneurship, which it is sought to achieve via a number of ways, including the creation of small enterprises at institutions of higher learning. The authors examine the experience of Russian and foreign educational institutions as to the creation of small innovation enterprises, look into the major forms of partnership between business and college, and describe a possible mechanism for implementing innovation projects at institutions of higher learning.

  15. 18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    18 June 2012 - DST Global Founder Y. Milner signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting the AD facility in building 193 with AEGIS Collaboration Spokesperson M. Doser and Adviser for the Russian Federation T. Kurtyka. Managing Director I. Osborne also present with Mrs J. Milner and DST Global A. Lebedkina.

  16. 16 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva Ambassador A.Borodavkin signing the the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Members O. Fedin, S. Malyukov and A. Romaniouk; throughout accompanied by Adviser T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    16 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other international organisations at Geneva Ambassador A.Borodavkin signing the the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting ATLAS underground experimental area with Collaboration Members O. Fedin, S. Malyukov and A. Romaniouk; throughout accompanied by Adviser T. Kurtyka.

  17. 77 FR 2512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; U.S. Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    .... Fishermen Fishing in Russian Waters AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... Economic Zone of the Russian Federation. Russian authorities may permit U.S. fishermen to fish for allocations of surplus stocks in the Russian Economic Zone. Permit application information is sent to...

  18. Russian Federation’s Relations with Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin CANAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relations of the Russian Federation, that is one of the main players of the second “Great Game”, with Azerbaijan. Nagorno Karabakh issue, legal status of the Caspian and struggle for the pipelines influence both internal and foreign policies of Azerbaijan as well as the relations between Moscow and Baku. Therefore, Russian Federation’s relations with Azerbaijan will be examined within the context of these problems. It is mentioned that there are two rival groups in the region (Russian Federation-Armenia-Iran on the one side and USA-Turkey-Azerbaijan-Georgia on the other. This group will be discussed in this article by examing the relations between Russian Federation and Azerbaijan. This article argues that there are no such rival groups in the region.

  19. The Policy of Regional Convergence in Russia-Belarus integration: Prospects for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygin Vladimir G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a number of cases, integration of a large international region or an interstate union can only be promoted by political means. The policy of regional economic convergence prevails in many sectors. The single economic market and membership in economic and monetary unions give a new impetus to consolidation. The study aims to identify and explore the problems of political governance, which the Union State of Russia-Belarus faces due to their asymmetric and not completely compatible economies. The author analyzes the process of interstate convergence, considering it as an essential part of integration and explores a number of specific characteristics underlying the Russian-Belarusian economic integration. The author offers a set of criteria of convergence/not convergence of the states, describes the principles of their economic and political rapprochement and offers models of convergence as well as prerequisites for them. The article examines the principles that determine the participation of a country in international integration as well as prospects for the further development of the regional economic and political mechanisms, which are being formed

  20. Provisional Measures in the Case Concerning Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Thienel

    2009-02-01

    , to facilitate humanitarian assistance, and to generally refrain from any action which might prejudice the rights under adjudication in the case. The Order of the Court was made by a vote of eight to seven, and gave rise to a Joint Dissenting Opinion by seven judges. Those judges expressed not only their dissent from the making of the Order, but also their disagreement with the majority’s finding of even prima facie jurisdiction.[3]

    The case has already raised a few interesting issues relating to the Court’s jurisdiction to indicate provisional measures, and to the interpretation of CERD. These issues were all hotly contested not only between the parties, but also between the judges of the ICJ. This note will give a brief overview of the decision of the Court, and will comment on some outstanding features of the different opinions expressed.


    [1]        Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation, Order of 15 October 2008 (Georgia v. Russia, available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/140/14801.pdf (last visited 10

  1. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  2. Norovirus infection in Belarus: occurrence and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paklonskayal, Natallia Uladzimirauna; Amvrosieva, Tamara Vasil'evna; Dziadziulia, Kanstantsin Leanidavich; Baranouskaya, Natallia Mikalaeuna; Kishkurno, Elena Petrovna; Kluiko, Nina Leonidovna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze molecular epidemiologic surveillance for norovirus infection in Belarus over the past five years (2009-2013). Laboratory diagnostics was carried out by RT-PCR in 684 patients. Two regions of norovirus genome, localized in RNA-polymerase and capsid protein genes, were used for phylogenetic analysis. Noroviruses were predominant causative agents in adults and second only to rotaviruses in children, they also prevailed among aetiological agents of outbreaks (66.7% of outbreaks). In 2009-2013, the major norovirus genotype was GII.4 (58.3% of all genotyped isolates). Genovariant GII.4 2006b circulated in 2009 and 2010, genovariant GII.4 2009 New Orleans - in 2010 and 2012. In addition to GII.4, genotypes GII.6 (16.6%), GII.2 (4.1%), GII.3 (2.2%), and recombinant genotypes GII.g-GII.12 and GII.g-GII.1 (10.4% and 8.3%, respectively) circulated in Belarus. The findings indicate a significant contribution of noroviruses in development of sporadic morbidity and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Belarus. Outbreaks or prominent increases of sporadic morbidity were mostly due to the emergence of a new genotype, or an epidemic genovariant.

  3. [On the implementation by Rospotrebnadzor (Federal service for the oversight of consumer protection and welfare) common principles and rules of technical regulation within the agreement of the Customs Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Agreement of the Customs Union on sanitary measures between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the customs territory of the Customs Union the Uniform sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements for goods subject to sanitary-epidemiological control are applied. Common sanitary requirements are binding for executive authorities of the Member States of the Customs union, local authorities, legal persons, whatever legalform, individual entrepreneurs, individuals. Currently, out of 47 planned to take priority technical regulations of the Customs Union 31 regulation, including the safety of railway rolling stock, production of perfumery and cosmetics, toys and products for children and teenagers, food products, grain, and other furniture products was adopted.

  4. THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE POPULATION IN THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ATTRIBUTED TO ZONES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (FOR ZONATION PURPOSES, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ja. Bruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chernobyl accident in 1986 is one of the most large-scale radiation accidents in the world. It led to radioactive contamination of large areas in the European part of the Russian Federation and at the neighboring countries. Now, there are more than 4000 settlements with the total population of 1.5 million in the radioactively contaminated areas of the Russian Federation. The Bryansk region is the most intensely contaminated region. For example, the Krasnogorskiy district still has settlements with the level of soil contamination by cesium-137 exceeding 40 Cu/km2. The regions of Tula, Kaluga and Orel are also significantly affected. In addition to these four regions, there are 10 more regions with the radioactively contaminated settlements. After the Chernobyl accident, the affected areas were divided into zones of radioactive contamination. The attribution of the settlements to a particular zone is determined by the level of soil contamination with 137Cs and by a value of the average annual effective dose that could be formed in the absence of: 1 active measures for radiation protection, and 2 self-limitation in consumption of the local food products. The main regulatory document on this issue is the Federal law № 1244-1 (dated May, 15,1991 «On the social protection of the citizens who have been exposed to radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant». The law extends to the territories, where, since 1991: – The average annual effective dose for the population exceeds 1 mSv (the value of effective dose that could be formed in the absence of active radiation protection measures and self-limitation in consumption of the local food products; – Soil surface contamination with cesium-137 exceeds 1 Cu/km2. The paper presents results of calculations of the average effective doses in 2014. The purpose was to use the dose values (SGED90 in zonation of contaminated territories. Therefore, the

  5. IUCN guidelines using for assessment of plants from the Red Book of Russian Federation at regional level: a case study for the Republic of Mordovia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khapugin Anatoliy A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 15 plant species included in the Russian Red Book, which occur in the Republic of Mordovia: Najas tenuissima, Koeleria sclerophylla, Stipa dasyphylla, S. pennata, S. pulcherrima, S. zalesskii, Fritillaria ruthenica, Iris aphylla, Cypripedium calceolus, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipogium aphyllum, Neottianthe cucullata, Orchis militaris, Neotinea ustulata, Thymus cimicinus. Of these, only C. calceolus is included in the Global Red List as Critically Endangered. Threat status for studied species in Mordovia was assessed, and their distribution dynamics in this region throughout 12 years was described. Recent floristic studies, inspections of herbariums and literature were used for searches all provided data. Grid mapping and IUCN criteria were used. Nine taxa were determined as Critically Endangered, three as Endangered, one as Vulnerable, one as Near Threatened and one as Data Deficient. The areas of occupancy and extent of occurrence in Mordovia were assessed for each taxon. All studied species should be included in the next edition of the Mordovian Red Book. F. ruthenica, E. aphyllum, N. ustulata, T. cimicinus require additional studies to confirm earlier observations.

  6. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  7. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China Advocacy e cobertura de projetos de troca de agulhas: resultados de um estudo comparativo sobre programas de redução de danos no Brasil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ucrânia, Federação Russa e China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Burrows

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs, effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.Para prevenir ou mitigar uma epidemia de AIDS entre usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI, atividades eficazes devem ser implementadas numa escala suficiente para atingir e ajudar um número suficiente de usuários e, portanto, modificar seus comportamentos de risco em relação ao uso de drogas e práticas sexuais. Um estudo recente do UNAIDS sobre "locais de cobertura alta", ao adotar as estratégias propostas acima, demonstrou que um dos elementos centrais para atingir uma cobertura alta é a advocacy permanente e bem-elaborada. Locais de redução de danos que apresentavam altas taxas de cobertura foram estudados através de uma revisão bibliográfica e visitas aos locais de maior cobertura, incluindo entrevistas com informantes principais, revisão de dados estatísticos dos serviços e análise de dados para poder documentar os passos que levaram à ampliação do alcance dos projetos, à definição da cobertura dos programas e às lições aprendidas. Os programas de redução de danos podem alcançar uma ampla cobertura de UDI. Além da coleta de dados rotineiros, os programas devem monitorar os projetos para definir o alcance sistemático (ou seja, dos UDI que estão em contato permanente com os serviços de redução de danos. A advocacy é fundamental para alcançar taxas de cobertura altas.

  8. Convergence on Cooperation: The Driving Factors in U.S. and Russian Cooperation on Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    regime and few have dared to challenge 68 Jane’s, “Security and Foreign Forces,” 69 Henry Hale, “ Democracy and Revolution in the Postcommunist ... democracy and a developed civil society; consolidation of Russia’s positions in the world and the main thing - a considerable growth in citizens’ welfare... World in Figures: 2005 edition. London: Profile Books, 2004, 203. Fairbanks, Charles H. Jr. “Georgia’s Rose Revolution,” Journal of Democracy . Vol

  9. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Under Section 402 (c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...) of the Trade Act of 1974—Republic of Belarus Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to... with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. You are...

  10. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22 U.S.C. 5811 note), as amended by section 5 of the Belarus Democracy and Human Rights Act of 2011 (Public...

  11. Transforming Educational and Business Practices in Belarus: Collaborative Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Gaytha A.; Litoff, Judy Barrett; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bryant College Collaborative Learning at a Distance (CLD) program in Belarus. Program components include Web-based courses, international virtual roundtable discussions via e-mail, seminars on business skills and Web design, Internet protocol video conferencing between the United States and Belarus, a faculty exchange and training…

  12. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  13. Five-year Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Russian Federation: Results From the RENSUR5 Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Zolotareva, Tatiana; Varlamov, Sergei; Zukov, Ruslan; Petkau, Vladislav; Mazhbich, Mikhail; Statsenko, Galina; Safina, Sufia; Zaitsev, Igor; Sakaeva, Dina; Popov, Alexander; Borisov, Pavel; Vladimirova, Liubov

    2017-08-09

    The 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has been rarely reported. The aim of the RENSUR5 registry study was to obtain real-world data on the use of therapy for mRCC and assess the 5-year OS in the Russian population. Patients were retrospectively identified at 11 cancer centers in different regions of Russia (Astrakhan, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Kazan, Krasnoyarsk, Obninsk, Omsk, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, St. Petersburg, and Ufa). Patients were included if mRCC had been diagnosed from January 2010 to January 2011. Anonymized data were collected through an online registry covering the demographic data, treatments, and outcomes. A total of 439 adult mRCC patients were included in the present study for analysis. The mean age at diagnosis of mRCC was 60.9 years (range, 33-90 years; with 9% of patients aged ≥ 75 years). The patients were predominantly men (70.2%) and 67.7% had nephrectomy. Clear cell and non-clear cell tumors were detected in 61.1% and 7.7% of patients, respectively. A total of 271 patients (62%) received systemic therapy. The median duration of therapy was 11 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-12.5 months). Most treatment was with interferon only (n = 145); 105 patients (23.9%) received targeted therapy, and 69 patients (15.7%) received ≥ 2 treatment lines. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rate was 49.4%, 18.9%, and 8.2%, respectively. The median OS from the start of treatment was 12 months (95% confidence interval, 9.7-14.4 months). RENSUR5 is a large real-world database assessing the mRCC treatment patterns and 5-year OS in Russia. According to the first results of the present study, we believe that 5-year OS should improve with novel therapies. The limited administration of targeted therapies was reflected by the results of the 5-year survival rate. The treatment of mRCC has changed in the past years with new treatment options significantly improving OS. The 5-year OS of patients treated with

  14. Growing inequalities and reproductive health in transitional countries: Kazakhstan and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia

    2010-04-01

    The present study examines how growing socio-economic inequalities in transitional countries that have followed different health policy paths affect women's access to reproductive health care. I conducted surveys in Kazakhstan and Belarus and used logistic regression analyses to determine accessibility to and satisfaction with reproductive health services, reproductive status, and reproductive history based on country of residence. By all measures, access to reproductive health services was most problematic for the low-income women in Kazakhstan but to a significantly lesser extent for economically disadvantaged respondents in Belarus. Differences in education had a significant effect on women's access to reproductive health services in Kazakhstan but were not present in Belarus. Household income was the most powerful predictor of self-perceived health in Kazakhstan, but not in Belarus. The unreformed health-care system in Belarus appears to be more accessible for all women than Kazakhstan's health-care system that underwent significant market-oriented reform.

  15. The contribution of I. I. Tegako to anthropology of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurbo Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L.I. Tegako started her studies of anthropology in the middle of 1960s when she received her research degree. The scope of her scientific interest included odontology and dermatoglyphics. For more than 40 years L.I. Tegako was a permanent supervisor of the group and later of the Anthropology department. From the beginning of 1970s Belarusian anthropologists started conducting complex anthropologic studies of the adult population of the republic in various parts of the country (anthropometry, anthroposcopy, dermatoglyphics, blood group factor. Comprehensive approach became the basis for studies of anthropogenic variety of local population on the territory of Belarus. In 1998 the team of anthropologists supervised by L.I. Tegako won a State Prize of the Republic of Belarus for the scope of work on the topic 'Person and his biocultural adaptation'. In 2000s the scope of L.I. Tegako's scientific interest included the determination of intersystemic correlations between dermatoglyphical and psychosomatic characteristics. During her academic career, L.I. Tegako published 17 monographs, 6 study guides, 11 brochures and 209 research papers. Lidiya Ivanovna worked at leading universities in the country; she had 7 students who completed PhD thesis. Since 1999 she worked as a professor of biology. L.I. Tegako deserves a credit for the organization of anthropological conferences in Minsk. She devoted a lot of attention to the international cooperation. As a result, L.I. Tegako contributed to the establishment of stable scientific and friendly ties with Serbian colleagues: Institute of History of the NAS of Belarus and Matica Srpska made a partnership agreement. This includes exchange of experience, scientific works, and realization of joint projects.

  16. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  17. Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  18. THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF CIVIL POSITION OF CADETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF RUSSIAN FEDERAL PENITENTIARY SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. KUZHEKOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moral and legal education of cadets of educational institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia as the main tool for shaping their sustainable citizenship. The author touches upon the historical aspects of the problem, it is concluded that the traditional means of education suppressed personality, being based on the authoritarian nature of the pedagogical relationship. It is stated  that the timely realization of studying the essence of the unity of the content of morality and law, what is happening on the emotional and rational levels, contributes to the disparate mix of individual knowledge and understanding of the complex moral and legal convictions. The author notes that the effectiveness of the process of formation of civil position effectively revealed through strategic (compliance with the rules of interaction of teachers, students, parents on the humanization of life educational organization, ensuring their joint moral and legal activities, the practical organization of students of life and especially tactical objectives (performance cadets duties at the university and outside it, the protection of their rights and freedoms, the practical organization of joint activities in the dyad "teacher-student", their interaction analysis in the organization of events on legal education, compliance with the established rules and standards in the development of university traditions, ways to overcome the stereotype of no confidence moral and legal education of cadets. The author concludes that the presented theoretical and methodological structure of the study will provide the necessary empirical basis of research and will be a guarantee of its effectiveness and usefulness. 

  19. Predprinimatel'skaja sreda v Respublike Belarus': ocenka vedushhimi finskimi kompanijami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  20. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2016-05-05

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  1. Russian delegation visits NIH and NCI to discuss research collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Center for Global Health hosted a delegation from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to discuss ongoing and future collaborations in cancer research. The delegation was accompanied by representatives from the US Embassy in Moscow and the Embassy of the Russian Federation in Washington DC.

  2. Biopharmaceuticals. Official position of Russian Association of Endocrinologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Russian Association of Endocrinologists

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the glucose-lowering drugs are biopharmaceuticals. This letter states the official position of the Russian Association of Endocrinologists about the treatment with biopharmaceuticals of patients with endocrine disorders. This topic has not yet beenadequately reflected in the legal regulation of the drug market in the Russian Federation 

  3. PHASE ANALYSIS OF THE CYCLICAL NATURE OF THE SHARE OF NATURAL GAS IN THE STRUCTURE OF EXPORTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION Фазовый анализ цикличности доли природного газа в структуре экспорта Российской Федерации

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyasov R. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Russia's economy has a pronounced raw-material orientation. A significant share in the export of the Russian Federation occupies natural gas. Analysis of the dynamics of the share of natural gas in Russia's exports show a tendency of to its insignificant reduction. Phase analysis on the basis of spline-approximation detects the cyclic dynamics of the share of natural gas in the structure of export of the Russian Federation

  4. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties During a Rare Case of Long-range Transport of Mixed Biomass Burning-polluted Dust Aerosols from the Russian Federation-kazakhstan to Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papayannis Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wavelength aerosol Raman lidar measurements with elastic depolarization at 532 nm were combined with sun photometry during the HYGRA-CD campaign over Athens, Greece, on May-June 2014. We retrieved the aerosol optical [3 aerosol backscatter profiles (baer at 355-532-1064 nm, 2 aerosol extinction (aaer profiles at 355-532 nm and the aerosol linear depolarization ratio (δ at 532 nm] and microphysical properties [effective radius (reff, complex refractive index (m, single scattering albedo (ω]. We present a case study of a long distance transport (~3.500-4.000 km of biomass burning particles mixed with dust from the Russian Federation-Kazakhstan regions arriving over Athens on 21-23 May 2014 (1.7-3.5 km height. On 23 May, between 2-2.75 km we measured mean lidar ratios (LR of 35 sr (355 nm and 42 sr (532 nm, while the mean Ångström exponent (AE aerosol backscatter-related values (355nm/532nm and 532nm/1064nm were 2.05 and 1.22, respectively; the mean value of δ at 532 nm was measured to be 9%. For that day the retrieved mean aerosol microphysical properties at 2-2.75 km height were: reff=0.26 μm (fine mode, reff=2.15 μm (coarse mode, m=1.36+0.00024i, ω=0.999 (355 nm, fine mode, ω=0.992(355 nm, coarse mode, ω=0.997 (532 nm, fine mode, and ω=0.980 (532 nm, coarse mode.

  5. Enforcement agreement between the French atomic energy commission and the federal atomic energy agency for the implementation of the framework-agreement dispositions related to the environmental multilateral program in the nuclear domain in Russian Federations during the nuclear cooperation in the framework of the G8 world partnership against the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their related materials; Accord d'application entre le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et l'Agence Federale de l'Energie Atomique pour la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de l'accord-cadre relatif au programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie lors de la cooperation nucleaire dans le cadre du partenariat mondial du G8 contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des matieres connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In order to give assistance to the Russian Federations, the G8 partners have agreed to carry on joint actions in the following domains: dismantling of out-of-service nuclear submarines of the Russian navy, management of the spent fuels and wastes generated by this dismantlement, rehabilitation of fuel storage and waste management facilities, management of nuclear materials and safety of facilities or sites with a potential radiological risk. This document defines the domain of cooperation between France (CEA) and the Russian federal atomic energy agency: creation of a coordination parity technical committee, financing conditions and conclusion of contracts for joint actions, access to sites, exchange of informations, intellectual property, nuclear safety and radioprotection, changes and amendments to the agreement, enforcement and duration. A protocol relative to the access of French representatives to Russian work sites is attached. (J.S.)

  6. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiski, Andrei; Belyasova, Natalya

    2009-03-15

    We present here the first study on the isolation and characterization of the lactococcal phage content of dairy products from various regions of the Republic of Belarus. Restriction analysis with EcoRI and HindIII was used to discriminate between isolates. Distinct isolates were then further characterized by multiplex PCR analysis and transmission electron microscopy. In total, 23 unique lactococcal phages were isolated. Fifteen of them belong to the c2 species, four to the 936 species, and four to the P034 species. The isolation of such high number of P034-like phages is unusual and suggests that this rare group of lactococcal phages may be emerging in certain regions.

  7. Radioanalytical determination of actinides and fission products in Belarus soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Gasparro, J; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Sharovarov, G

    1999-04-01

    Alpha emitting actinides such as plutonium, americium or curium were measured by alpha-spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The short range of alpha-particles within matter requires, after a pre-concentration process, a succession of isolation and purification steps based on the valence states modification of the researched elements. For counting, actinides were electrodeposited in view to obtain the mass-less source necessary to avoid self-absorption of the emitted radiations. Activity concentrations of gamma-emitting fission products were calculated after measurement with high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). These different methods were used to analyse soils sampled in the Republic of Belarus, not far from the Chernobyl nuclear plant.

  8. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  9. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  10. [Taenia martis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) from vertebrates in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Infestation of vertebrate animals with the cestode Taenia martis and its larvae was investigated in south-west Belarus during 2001-2008. Obligatory definitive host (common marten) and intermediate hosts (red-backed vole, yellow-necked mouse, striped field mouse, and red squirrel) of this helminth were established for the Republic of Belarus. Description and figure of the T. martis larva is given.

  11. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  12. Russian Federation Financial Sector Assessment Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    Financial infrastructure is the underlying foundation of a country’s financial system. It comprises all institutions, the rules, and standards of all the systems which enable financial intermediation. The quality of a country’s financial infrastructure determines the efficiency of intermediation, the ability of lenders to evaluate risk and of borrowers to obtain credit, insurance, and othe...

  13. The Russian Federation and the Kyoto Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Douma (Wybe); D.N. Ratsiborinskaya (Daria)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractThis book brings together the results of two conferences: 'The Kyoto Protocol and beyond: A legal perspective', organised by the University of Siena on 10-11 June 2006, and 'Tackling Climate Change: An appraisal of the Kyoto Protocol and options for the future', held at the T.M.C.

  14. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  15. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  16. Sources of Error in Remote Sensing-Based Bottom-Up Emission Estimates of Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue Burning in the Contiguous United States and the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Romanenkov, V.

    2010-12-01

    Since its publication in 1980, the Seiler and Crutzen bottom-up method of estimating biomass burning emissions has become an accepted and standard approach cited in nearly 500 peer-reviewed scientific publications. As the science of biomass burning emissions advances, the need to quantify error in variable inputs has also grown. This research focuses on bottom-up emission estimates of black carbon (BC), CO2, CO, CH4, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 from crop residue burning in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) and the Russian Federation. Crop residue burning emissions for the CONUS were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products, specifically multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product, and calibrated area estimates of cropland burning from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. An emission factor database was assembled from eleven published sources while fuel loads and combustion completeness were derived from expert knowledge and governmental reports. With the aim of transferring technique and knowledge to in-country collaborators, crop residue burning emissions in Russia were calculated from burned area estimates derived from the 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. A second analysis of burned area estimates from both a regionally tuned 8-day difference Normalized Burn Ratio product and the standard MODIS Burned Area product focused on the European region of Russia. For these analyses, BC emission factors were estimated by multiplying published BC to PM2.5 ratios to PM2.5 emission factors for similar crops in the CONUS. Errors and uncertainties were quantified for emission factors, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and accuracies of remote sensing products for both burned area and land cover type for the analyses in the CONUS and Russia. The uncertainty for the non-remote sensing variables was difficult to quantify given the lack of observations available. The results from this uncertainty

  17. POPULATION IMMUNITY TO INFLUENZA VIRUS A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2 AND B IN THE ADULT POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION LONG-TERM RESEARCH RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Konshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of changes in the population immunity level in adults for more than 20 Russian cities, collaborating with the Federal Center for Influenza, to circulating influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2 and B in the period from 2009 to 2015 performed. By the beginning of the pandemic (October 2009 the population of Russia was almost seronegative to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus. After the pandemia first wave mean geometric titers (GMTs of antibodies to the pandemic virus increased by 2.6 times, after the second one by 4.9 times in comparison with initial GMT (1:5.5. A consistent increase in GMTs antibody after each of the subsequent seasons of active circulation of pandemic virus was observed reaching the maximum (1:41 by April 2013, after the next epidemic caused by this virus. The proportion of people with protective antibody titers in October 2009 to already started circulating influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus was 8.2%, to influenza A(H3N2 virus — 58.3%, and influenza B virus — 59.7%. Level of population immunity in adults to seasonal influenza A(H3N2 and B viruses throughout the observed period was significantly higher than to influenza virus A(H1N1pdm09. The percentage of persons with protective antibody titers during the observed period varied for virus A(H3N2 in the range from 58.3 to 75.5%, for influenza B virus — from 59.7 to 82.3%. Accordingly, incidence rate for ILI and ARI in adult groups the population during influenza epidemic caused by these pathogens was lower than in the epidemics, associated with active circulation of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus. The data obtained can be used in influenza forecasting for the upcoming season regarding the etiology and the expected epidemic intensity need for the relevant preventing measures development to decrease the burden from influenza.

  18. Resource flows and levels of spending for the response to HIV and AIDS in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Belarus has a focused HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. However, until 2008, Belarus had no way of evaluating HIV spending priorities. In 2008, Belarus committed to undertaking a comprehensive National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA in order to analyze HIV spending priorities. NASA was used to 'follow the money' from the funding sources to agents and providers, and eventually to beneficiary populations. Findings Belarus spent the majority of its funding on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and on securing the blood supply. International donors and NGOs working within Belarus spent the majority of their funding on preventative activities for high risk groups while Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM solely funded antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions The data and experience obtained through conducting NASA will help build capacity for future resource tracking activities for HIV and other health priorities. This experience established the foundation for enhanced and future consistent quality-reporting of National Health Accounts. Monitoring the flow of resources for Belarus' HIV response provides valuable strategic information that can improve operations and planning as well as mobilize greater resources. NASA offers Belarusian policy makers an overview of HIV activities that merit their priority attention. In addition, the findings from Belarus are particularly relevant for the rest of the Commonwealth of Independent States due to their similar epidemiological profiles and centrally planned systems. The Belarusian government faces future challenges, especially in increasing public investments in HIV prevention for female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and among intravenous drug users.

  19. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  20. Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bebler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over Crimea attracted wide international attention. The purpose of this paper is to explain its historic, demographic, legal, political and military strategic background, its similarities with and differences from other “frozen” conflicts on the periphery of the former Soviet Union, the roles of three main parties directly involved in the Crimean conflict, its linkage with secessionist attempts in Eastern and Southern Ukraine, wider international ramifications of the conflict and the ensuing deterioration of the West’s relations with the Russian Federation.

  1. CYBERTERRORISM PROBLEM IN TERMS OF RUSSIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa P. ZVERIANSKAIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cyber-terrorism in the international community is considered a priority, the annual losses from cyber terrorism and cybercrime have recites over 400 billion dollars. State and private companies spend millions of dollars on cyber defense against terrorists, and simple cyber group hackers. As for our country, the Russian Federation was faced with manifestations of cyber-terrorism are relatively not long ago, but now we can see examples of cyber-terrorism against our country. In science and practice is still going debate about the public danger of cyber terrorism and its consequences. One reason for this, is that in the current legislation of the Russian Federation there is no legal definition of the concept of terrorism and cyberterrorism can not completely cover the entire spectrum of cyber-terrorism. The author of the article a study of cyber-terrorism from the perspective of Russian society. Examples of recent cyber act of terrorism committed in the territory of the Russian Federation and against it. Analyzed the effects of committed cyber act of terrorism and social danger of cyberterrorism. As a result of research suggested the adoption of amendments to the existing legislation that affects the scope of the information space, computer crimes and cyberterrorism. 

  2. The protection of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Maslova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East in the reserves and national parks of federal importance are presented, as well as the information on the representation of these groups of animals in regional Red Data Books and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is provided.

  3. [Lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, N A; Veialkin, I V; Leusik, E A

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of our research in the trends of lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus over 38 years. The number of newly diagnosed cases increased 4-fold in men (1046--1970, 4193--1996; 3710--2007) and doubled in women (277--1970, 555--2007). Lung cancer incidence in men grew significantly in 1970-1996 (28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand and 28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand, respectively) and stabilized later at 72.5 +/- 2.2% per ten thousand. The growth was higher in rural males than in urban residents, aged 60-79 years. A decline has been registered from the late 1990s until now (61.2 +/- 2.0% per ten thousand). A slow growth in standard incidence rates occurred in women (1970-1987). Actually, they have not changed ever since and are 4.7 +/- 5.6% per ten thousand now.

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  5. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  7. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  8. Russian Language Course

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new course of "Russian for Beginners", and is continuing a course for Advanced Students (3rd year). Interested persons are invited to contact: Mrs M. Mikhailova e-mail : mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com Tel. 022 788 27 53

  9. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis.

  10. Evaluation of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanskaya, Iryna; Zhurauskaya, Larisa; Pankratov, Oleg; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald C; Domeika, Marius

    2011-05-01

    The performance of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis, i.e. a microprecipitation reaction (MPR) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared with internationally recognized assays, namely the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Sera from 392 consecutive patients attending Brest (Belarus) regional dermatovenereological dispensaries were tested. The sensitivity of the MPR test was low (77.3%) compared with the rapid plasma reagin test, while the specificity was high (100%). In contrast, both Belarusian ELISAs performed well when compared with the TPPA (sensitivities of 99.2% and 100%, specificities of 98.7% and 99.0%, respectively). There is a clear need to improve the sensitivity of the existing Belarusian MPR test or to use a more sensitive screening test in order to improve diagnosis of the disease in Belarus.

  11. Strategy for elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus: evaluation of 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kachan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents results of implementation of successful program of elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus. Government decree (2001 requires mandatory use of iodized salt in food industry and public catering. While retail trade of non-iodized salt is not prohibited, all foods shops must have iodized salt on sale. All these measures resulted in increase of iodized salt consumption: 94% of house-holds in Belarus were using iodized salt. Iodine nutrition of population also sig-nificantly improved: median urinary iodine levels in general population (school-children reached 169 mcg/l and in pregnant women – 224 mcg/l. Endemic goiter morbidity decreased significantly in children, adolescents and adults as well as frequency of transitory thyroid dysfunctions in newborns. Belarus experience in prevention of iodine deficiency can be used by other industrialized countries of Europe and rest of the world.

  12. Formation of cluster policy in Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolaevna Kotlyarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of legal regulation of cluster development in the Russian Federation at the regional level. Basic regulations governing the formation and development of clusters were put in a system. It is concluded that own regulatory regions, and regions using mainly general federal approach to the formation of cluster policy are poorly developed. The practice of clustering of the Russian Federation was generalized. Prerequisites for the formation of clusters in the regions and their subsequent development were identified. A comparison of approaches to the formation of cluster policy in the Russian Federation was made, particularities in the areas of the clusters were highlighted and the types of state support for their formation were determined. The basic reasons for the development of regional clusters are: construction of the type of dominant firms, mutual cooperation of cluster members, active support from government and regional authorities (public-private partnerships and personal involvement of management in the region and bottom-up approach.

  13. Current report from Russian Diabetic Retinopathy Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valentinovich Lipatov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pandemic expansion of diabetes mellitus (DM observed nowadays across the globe is increasingly acknowledged as a disaster by all peoples of the world. Statistical analysis indicates an annual increase in prevalence of DM in Russian Federation that had reached 3 779 423 registered patients by 01.01.2013. Besides the humanitarian aspects, DM poses severe economic challenges for this country – challenges that stem both from high mortality and growing disability rate due to limb loss, decrease in visual acuity and need for hemodialysis, plaguing many DM patients.Aim. To produce an epidemiological evaluation based on the dynamics of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Russian Federation – nationwide and in individual regions – across the last 13 years.Materials and Methods. Current survey included patients from various regions of the Russian Federation that were examined during epidemiological missions conducted by the federal Endocrinology Research Centre (2000–2009, as well as National Programmes «Health» (2007 and «Diabetes – Learn In Advance» (2012–2013.Results. In the Russian Federation registered more than 630,000 patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among adults (18 years and older with type 1 diabetes is 35.25%, while in type 2 diabetes - 16.67%. On average, this means that almost one in five patients (17.63% with diabetes have certain eye problems.Conclusion. In summary, our data indicate a dramatic growth in the rate of diabetic ocular complications, with a particular increase in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, complicated cataract and neovascular glaucoma. These findings call for an even closer attention to early diagnostics, adequate management and, above everything else, timely prevention of ocular pathologies in patients with DM.

  14. High Humanistic Directivity of Russian Patriotic Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Yanush

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is in high need of professionals, meeting the requirements of international standards, highly skilled, well-informed, legally savvy specialists, patriots of their work, having civil maturity and high moral and ethic qualities. Modern Russian society wants the employers of all levels to have deep understanding of civil importance and social significance of their activities, strong moral and spiritual basis, high cultural behavior.Training of such specialists is closely related to patriotic upbringing, creation of value-motivational core of the society and resource base of Russia’s restoration through the reproduction of a man of culture, citizen, patriot, moral, responsible, composite and spiritual personality, having distinct guidelines, ideas and ideals of the Russian patriotism. According to the president of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin: ‘We need the strategy of national policy, based on civil patriotism. High patriotic idea, the idea of statehood is the backbone, the foundation of the spirituality of modern Russian society and its future.”Nowadays, when Russia ‘gathers stones’ of its history, patriotism as the phenomenon of national spirituality and the component of public consciousness is as crucial for Russian reality as it was many centuries ago. The power of any country is mainly determined by the depth of patriotism of its citizens.

  15. 对《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》及相关法律的解读%Interpretations to Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone and Its Relevant relevant laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳会新

    2015-01-01

    2014年底,俄罗斯出台《俄罗斯社会经济超前发展区联邦法》,目的是建立良好的投资环境,实现社会经济加速发展,创造宜居条件.规定了建设基础设施的资金保障、管理及市政监管、海关监管等方法.为配合该法,俄政府对联邦税法等相关法律进行了修订.%In the end of 2014, Russia issued Federal Acts of Russian Social and Economic Advancing Development Zone, aiming to establish good investment environment, accelerate the social and economic development and create favorable living conditions. The methods such as capital guarantee and management for infrastructure construction as well as municipal administration supervision and customs supervision, etc. are regulated. To cooperate with this Act, the Russian government made some revisions to the Federation Tax Law and relevant laws.

  16. Bedaquiline in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: Belarus experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Hennadz; Falzon, Dennis; Zhilevich, Liudmila; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dara, Masoud; Setkina, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations. After enrollment of patients, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and microbiological data were carefully collected at start, during treatment, and at follow-up. A total of 197 patients were enrolled: male, 140 (71%); female, 57 (29%); new TB cases, 83 (42%); previously treated, 114 (58%); extensively drug-resistant-TB (XDR-TB), 128 (65%), pre-XDR-TB (fluoroquinolone resistant), 34 (17%), pre-XDR-TB (injectables resistant), 25 (13%), and other MDR-TB cases, 10 (5%). According to the intermediate analysis, 186 patients currently are continuing with the treatment, two patients died, and nine patients were lost to follow-up. Sputum culture conversion were observed in 186 patients (94%) at 6months and one (0.5%) of these 197 patients started treatment; six patients (3%) remain sputum culture positive. The safety data were as follows: 135 patients (68%) experienced metabolism and nutrition disorders (hyperuricemia being the most common), 127 patients (64%) experienced hepatobiliary disorders (hepatic functions abnormality being the most common), 93 patients (47%) experienced electrolyte disorders (hypomagnesemia being the most common), 80 patients (41%) experienced cardiac disorders (abnormal electrocardiogram and arrhythmia being the most common), 68 patients (35%) experienced gastrointestinal system disorders (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain being the most common disorders

  17. [The medical organizational resources of fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmach, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of youth reproductive attitudes and the identification of the medical organizational opportunities for fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus is considered. Relying on the data of the sociological survey of representative youth sample of national level it is established that both the reproductive attitudes and reproductive behavior of Belarus youth population does not correspond to the demographic criteria of effective population reproduction. It is revealed that the enhancement of reproductive attitudes of young women is possible in the conditions of increase of the rate of first pregnancy planning. The economic benefit due to possible implementation of this uncovered resource is evaluated.

  18. [Hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis in the Republic of Belarus and their medical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The author presents the results of his own studies that were conducted during many years (1980-2007) and the data of Byelorussian helminthologists on the detection of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis and its larvae (strobilocercus), which induce hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis, respectively, in animals in the Republic of Belarus. This helminth (an imago and a larva) may parasite in man. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the residents of Belarus can be infected on chance ingestion of eggs of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis.

  19. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  20. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  1. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  2. The New Russian Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, Birgitte Beck

    print culture to a post-Soviet book market. It delivers a profound and critical exploration of Russian visual imaginary of classic, popular, and contemporary prose. Among all the carelessly bungled covers of mass-published post-Soviet series the study identifies gems from experimental designers......This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet...... the fields of Russian studies, contemporary book and media history, art, design, and visual studies....

  3. Proceedings of the 5. joint Russian-American computational mathematics conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    These proceedings contain a record of the talks presented and papers submitted by participants. The conference participants represented three institutions from the United States, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and two from Russia, Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF/Arzamas-16), and Russian Federal Nuclear Center--All Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics (RFNC-VNIITF/Chelyabinsk-70). The presentations and papers cover a wide range of applications from radiation transport to materials. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation: 1992-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-oganov, Nugzar

    2008-01-01

    Following the disintegration of the U.S.S.R., the Russian Federation, as a successor State, continued cooperation with Iran. From the start, it focused on the nuclear (including military) sphere. Thus, on 17 August, 1992, a bilateral agreement was signed on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, making provisions for the delivery to the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) of two VVER 440 reactors. On 8 January, 1995, Viktor Mikhailov, the Russian atomic energy minister at the time; and Reza Amrollahi...

  5. A comparison of the Lithuanian and Russian Biotechnology sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincentas Giedraitis; Alina Alekseyko

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare the development of the Lithuanian and Russian biotechnology sectors. In case of Lithuania we tried to uncover what are the circumstances surrounding the favorable development of the biotechnology sectors in Lithuania. In case of Russian Federation we looked at encouraging as well as discouraging circumstances surrounding this segment of economy. Drawing upon Schumpeter’s ideas of innovation and Porter’s business cluster theory, we argue that Lithuania is “...

  6. Problems and Characteristics of Russian Platinum Metals Exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDREEV A. M.; KELCHEVSKAYA N. R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper revealed the place and role of Russia in the global market of platinum metals,highlighted features of pricing in the export of Russian platinum group metals,the main problems of pricing in the export contracts related to the instability of markets and imperfect currency and customs legislation of the Russian Federation,proposed innovative ways to solutions to existing problems in the preparation and conclusion of export contracts.

  7. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  8. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  9. Russian Influence on Ukrainian Strategic Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Romania, which went unanswered. Yushchenko and Tymoshenko sent subsequent letters to De Hoop Scheffer, German Chancellor Angela Merkel , and French...Ukrainian leadership may be difficult to determine. An assumption made during this research was that it is possible to determine, with some degree of...Sent_Country=Russian+Federation (accessed 6 June 2011). 22 expect a NATO co- leadership to develop between the two powers.41 While most of NATO does

  10. WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    KIREGIAN ELISE

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper a...

  11. Russian Language Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new Russian course for beginners and will continue its course for advanced students (3rd year), both from September onwards. Anyone interested in taking part is invited to contact Mrs M. Mikhailova (e-mail: mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com or tel. 022 788 27 53) or Mrs C. Kukowka (e-mail: mailto:christinekukowka@orange.fror tel. ++ 33 4 50 42 43 22 after 8.00 p.m.).

  12. The Belarus Business Environment as Assessed by the Management of Leading Finnish Companies Operating in the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  13. Beyond the Limits of the European Higher Education Area: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille-Belova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    All European Union (EU) member states and many former post-Soviet countries joined the Bologna Process without major obstacles during the 2000s and today belong to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The only European country which was refused membership in the EHEA was Belarus, whose demand was rejected in 2012. The case study of this…

  14. Molecular characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from Gomel region, Belarus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapalski, D.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hasman, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    an infection outside hospitals in the Gomel region of Belarus. Thirty-one isolates were highly similar according to PFGE and MLVA typing, were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to ceftiofur, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-5) gene. These results indicate that a common source may have been responsible...

  15. Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: A Case Study of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Francesco; Verashchagina, Alina

    2006-01-01

    The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian…

  16. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  17. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekus, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  18. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypoth

  19. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  20. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's Republic of...'') initiated the second Sunset Reviews of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from...

  1. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel Concrete...

  2. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic... Department of Commerce (``Department'') that revocation of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete... of the continuation of the antidumping duty orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete...

  3. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  4. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  5. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., Deputy Agency Ethics Official, at 202-205-3088. Limited disclosure of business proprietary information... Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus...

  6. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  7. A study on demographic characteristics of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Surkova

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As Belarus is a high-burden MDR-TB country and treatment of drug-resistant TB is long and complicated, the findings of this study provided useful information to deliver effective community-based disease control measures and a proposed plane for the effective management of drug-resistant TB at the national level.

  8. Audit in Belarus under new law and in new environment: first results, problems, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Korotayev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the first results of application of the new law of the Republic of Belarus «On audit activity» since the 01.01.2014. The authors identify the problems inherent in auditing, propose specific measures to solve these problems, and to create the necessary conditions for the further development of audit.

  9. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF PURCHASING LOGISTICS REALIZATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Pavlova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays an interest to the problem concerning an efficient and rational purchasing control arises in the real sector of economy. Planning of resource requirements, an in-time delivery system, quality and productivity preferences have caused revision of many conventional purchasing concepts. The paper considers some theoretical aspects of purchasing logistics and practice of its application in the Republic of Belarus.

  10. Corporate targeting: Nike on the Russian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nike Corporation is one of leading global players in sports apparel and footwear market. Strategic development of Nike Co has always been based on superior marketing and engagement of world-class sportspersons in its advertising campaigns. When USSR collapsed, Nike immediately started with penetration on Russian market. By relying on its outstanding innovativeness in product development and marketing, Nike has become one of three biggest players in the market. As its distributor for Russian market, Nike has chosen Serbia-based company, Delta Sport. The strategy of penetration on Russian market is based on four major pillars: sport marketing, public relations retail marketing and advertising. The most relevant competitors on Russian market are Reebok and Adidas. Trying to increase its market share in the Russian Federation, Nike has used following competitive advantages: global brand, retail discounts and cost decrease. Regarding further development of the company's activities on Russian market, long-term objectives are as follows: maintaining the leading position, unfurling production on whole RF and CIS territories, new contracts and improvement of contracts with existing partners, expanding of retail network, establishment of own production on RF and CIS markets, and orientation of marketing department toward "Sport Marketing". Delta Sport, as an agent of Nike Co, has certain freedom in creating business policy but it still has to comply with basic principles adopted for the whole corporation. The most important factors considered when selecting a strategy are: positive sides of firm, its goals and interests top management relationships, financial resources, personnel qualifications influence of external environment, and time factor. Delta Sport has entirely adopted these principles and also developed internal ones, which are complementary with Nike's.

  11. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  12. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  13. THE ABSENCE OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEFINITION OF SUCH TERMS AS “INFORMATION” AND “COMPUTER INFORMATION” AS THE EDUCTION OF STRATEGIES TO COMBAT CYBERCRIME IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrisova Z. N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains legal theoretical definition of the concept of information and computer information, its juridical essence and fundamental characteristics in the context of formation of informational society. We have also made a short stage analysis of the formation of legal norms in Russian law in informational sphere. On the basis of the analysis the author gives his own definition of the term of computer information and concludes that problem requires immediate complex measures which should be directed to improvement of legislative norm

  14. Institutionalisation of Mediation for Dispute Resolution in the Field of Social Bankruptcy of Citizens in Russia or how to prevent losses of 300 billions rubles of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of modern Russia is poverty of about 22,1 billions citizens. because of illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest. About 4,2 billions citizens of Russian are social bankrupts. There are many obstacles for human right in court. Total budget for legal expenses may estimates over than 1,5-2 average annual income of household. Therefore author considers mediation as alternative procedure for dispute resolution between creditors and debtors. Some amendment of law desirable for institutionalization of mediation practice in this types conflicts such as mandatory mediation and so on.

  15. PROBLEMS OF RUSSIAN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN A MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. NIKIFOROVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses questions of teaching Russian language in multicultural educational environment. Due to acceptance of the "Law on Education in Russian Federation", introduction of the second edition of Federal State Education Standards, and approval of "Concepts of Teaching Russian language and literature in Russian Federation" as well as "Professional Standard of Educator", educational paradigm has changed. The goal of this research is to analyze current problems of teaching Russian language in new socio-cultural conditions. Problems such as teaching Russian language in multinational environment, multicultural education, teaching expat children, handicapped children etc. demand enhancing educational system and teachers. When solving a problem of language learning one needs to rely on scientific, sociolinguistic and contrastive- comparative research. It is very important to conduct lessons in bilingual environment, to improve basic educational programs, to create online degree programs, to improve Master's degree programs quality, to create qualified departments within educational institutions that would improve both research and hands-on practical learning. Learning Russian language should help students achieve academic success in other disciplines. System of secondary education has huge potential to improve lingual abilities. More attention needs to be paid to developing educational methods of teaching Russian language that satisfy the requirements of modern era. The article finds solutions to aforementioned problems based on the previous educational experience.

  16. The Fulcrum of U. S. Regional Rebalancing: Russian and U.S. Securitization Moves in Contemporary Strategic Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    and cooperation in the Arctic, protecting the Arctic ecology , and guaranteeing the use of the Northern Sea Route. 47 The Russian Federation has...Foundations of Russian Federation Policy in the Arctic until 2020 and Beyond,” The Journal of International Security Affairs 10, no. 18 (Spring 2010): 101...and the Levant, Northern Africa, the Balkans , and the Caucasus.”73 The inclusion of the Caucasus in this list directly conflicts with Russian

  17. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  18. [CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SCHEMES OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C GENOTYPE 1 IN PATIENTS WHO DID NOT ANSWER TO THE PRIOR THERAPY, IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyadushkina, E V; Avxentyeva, M V; Omelyanovsky, V V; Khachatryan, G R

    2015-01-01

    We conducted clinical and economic analysis of the protease inhibitor simeprevir versus currently available in Russia protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir) in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and dual therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 without polymorphism Q80K, who had not responded to previous treatment. Global cost-effectiveness model was adapted to the Russian health care system. We calculated differences in direct medical costs between the antiviral therapy schemes, treatment of long-term complications of chronic hepatitis C and the costs of achieving sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio - additional cost per life year saved was calculated as well. Available published data and the tariffs of the Russian healthcare system were used for the calculations. Simeprevir was shown to be more effective than dual therapy with acceptable additional costs and more effective than boceprevir and telaprevir in the number of life years saved being less costly therapy option.

  19. Russian Automobiles Horning in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Russian cars, usually priced under 80,000 yuan (US$9700), will soon be a new choice for Chinese customers. The SOK Group, Russia's third largest auto maker, said in mid-May that it would set up a joint venture auto factory with an annual production capacity of 100,000 cars in China next year. Zhong Xiaoyan, general manager of Shenzhen SOK Import and Export Trading Co Ltd, said Russian SOK planned to invest at least US$200 million in the new plant. SOK has sent delegates to dozens of Chinese cities and has chosen Shenzhen, Zhengzhou, Beijing,Shanghai and Ninbo as candidate locations for the joint venture.

  20. Geolocating Russian sources for Arctic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn

    2014-08-01

    To design and implement an effective emission control strategy for black carbon (BC), the locations and strength of BC sources must be identified. Lack of accurate source information from the Russian Federation has created difficulty for a range of research and policy activities in the Arctic because Russia occupies the largest landmass in the Arctic Circle. A project was initiated to resolve emission sources of BC in the Russian Federation by using the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). It used atmospheric BC data from two Arctic sampling stations at Alert Nunavut, Canada, and Tiksi Bay, Russia. The geographical regions of BC emission sources in Russia were identified and summarized as follows: (1) a region surrounding Moscow, (2) regions in Eurasia stretching along the Ural Mountains from the White Sea to the Black Sea, and (3) a number of scattered areas from western Siberia to the Russian Far East. Particulate potassium ions, non-marine sulfate, and vanadium were used to assist in resolving the source types: forest fire/biomass burning, coal-fired power plant, and oil combustion. Correlating these maps with the BC map helped to resolve source regions of BC emissions and connect them to their corresponding source types. The results imply that a region south of Moscow and another north of the Ural Mountains could be significant BC sources, but none of the grid cells in these regions could be linked to forest fires, oil combustion, or coal-fired power plants based on these three markers.