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  1. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  2. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

  3. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  4. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a

  5. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  6. Fiscal consequences of monetary integration within a common economic area: the case of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2005), s. 399-424 ISSN 1463-1377 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : monetary integration * public sector revenue s * Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.276, year: 2005

  7. Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the relationship between psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. These countries have been subjected to highly stressful and extensive social change associated with the transition out of communism. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (n = 10,406) in November 2001. Distress was measured by 12 psychological distress symptoms. Health lifestyles focused on measures of alcohol consumption, smoking and diet. We found that females carried a much heavier burden of psychological distress than males, but this distress did not translate into greater alcohol consumption and smoking for these women or for men. The greatest influence of distress on health lifestyle practices was on daily diets in that both less distressed females and males consumed a more balanced diet than more distressed persons. Our findings suggest that it is the normative demands of a particular lifestyle, rather than distress, that principally shapes the pattern of heavy male drinking. This is an important finding as some sources indicate heavy drinking is largely responsible for the health crisis in the former socialist states.

  8. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.

  9. Combined vaccines in the national prevention immunization schedules for the children in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Еhe announcement of the east European expert group for vaccine prevention presents position of the leading specialists of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan on key issues of the national pre vention immunization schedule. the authors examine in detail the aspects of vaccination against hepatitis type b, including optimal term of injection of the first vaccine dose, vaccination tactics for the premature and low weight newborns, safety of recombinant vaccines against hepatitis type в. based on the analysis of the morbidity of h. influenzae type b invasive forms along with the methods recommended by who (HIB RAT, experts recommend introduction of the vaccine against this infection into the prevention immunization schedule. The experts believe the basis for the combined vaccines in pediatrics to be the vaccines with cellfree pertussis component. This class of vaccines allows introducing the additional booster dose of pertussis vaccines for immunization of the preschool children into the immunization schedule, which is dictated by the present epidemic situation with due account for this infection. The experts note the importance of application of the combined vaccines in pediatrics, whose wide implementation into healthcare system practices is in the interests of the parents, medical officers and society.Key words: hepatitis type в, h. influenzae type b, HIB RAT, pertussis, diphteria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliovaccines, combined vaccines, prevention immunization schedule, children.

  10. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  11. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  12. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  13. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  14. Geopolitics. Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-09-15

    Kazakhstan is eager to create a new route for oil to Europe that bypasses Russia and thereby finally break the Kremlin's stranglehold on Kazakh oil transport. In natural gas, however, the Kazakhs remain closely tied to the Russian bear. The article is followed by an interview with Maksat Idenov, vice-president of KazMunayGaz In Kazakhstan. Western oil majors managed to gain hold of some of the world's largest oil and gas fields. But the Kazakh government is taking back what it says belongs to them. Kazakhstan wants a fair deal and equal treatment to create income.

  15. Belarus: Moving Forward Together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaniukovich, Uladzimir

    2015-01-01

    The 45th anniversary of INIS provides an opportunity for Member States to look back on significant events. Belarus was among the founding members of the system and the 45th anniversary of INIS also marks 45 years of this country’s participation. In 1992, Belarus began to work independently after a change in the political situation. As a result, the activity of the Belarus INIS Centre increased significantly. Within this time frame, about 6000 inputs were contributed and more than 100 copies of NCL were provided. Currently, Belarus submits about 300 inputs per year to INIS. This quantity reflects the activity of our scientists in the fields corresponding to the scope of INIS. In our country, interest in nuclear technologies is defined by two main factors – the severe consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the acute shortage of energy resources. Therefore, the main focuses of nuclear research are the behavior of ecosystems in conditions of radioactive contamination, and the impact of low dose radiation on living organisms, nuclear medicine, nuclear energy, radiation protection and radiation safety

  16. Personal dosimetry in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  17. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  18. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokumejko, J.M.; Matveyenko, I.I.; Germenchuk, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  19. COOPERATIVE THREAT REDUCTION: DOD Has Adequate Oversight of Assistance, but Procedural Limitations Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... more than $3 billion for the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program to help Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Moldova, and Georgia secure and eliminate weapons of mass destruction...

  20. African Journals Online: Kazakhstan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  1. Briefing notes on Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This document gives an overview of nuclear activities and atomic energy related infrastructure of Kazakhstan. Former USSR norms, standards and codes of practice are used in Kazakhstan. Assistance and training are seeked for radiation protection and handling problems due to radioactive contamination

  2. Singular technology – the research area promoting sustainable noosphere d evelopment in Belarus, Russia and other CIS nations

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Georgievich Nikitenko; Aleksandr Mikhailovich Il’yanok

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to nano- and femtotechnology as the basis for sustainable noosphere development of the global socio-economic mega system “nature–man–society” in its relation with the Universe (cosmos) in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and other CIS nations. Such factors as the formation of a new (noospheric) political and economic outlook and the changes in scientific and technological structure of economy are gaining paramount importance under the action of the law of time and t...

  3. Kazakhstan without nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abishev, M.A.; Iskakova, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    Kazakhstan have great heritage of the USSR military industry in form of test sites and scientific and technological complexes of different kind of weapons developments. The Republic of Kazakstan possesses of most large number of nuclear sites per head of the population. Developed industry of mining, processing of uranium ores demands solution of radioactive wastes handling problems. Therefore regime of non-proliferation and defense conversion are strategic priorities of state policy. For Kazakhstan ideals of non-proliferation of mass destruction weapon have particular meaning. Consequences of nuclear weapon tests of territory of Kazakhstan reflected on population health and on ecological balance of the region. Wide public support helps forms policy in sphere of non-proliferation of nuclear weapon. Kazakhstan executes obligations of Lisbon Protocol and consolidates the frameworks of strategic security

  4. Uranium of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalyuk, Yu.; Gurevich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over 25 % of the world's uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan. So, the world's largest Shu-Sarysu uranium province is situated on southern Kazakhstan, with resources exceeding 1 billion tonnes of uranium. No less, than 3 unique deposits with resources exceeding 100,000 tonnes are situated here. From the economic point of view the most important thing is that these deposits are suitable for in-situ leaching, which is the cheapest, environmentally friendly and most efficient method available for uranium extracting. In 1997 the Kazatomprom National Joint-Stock Company united all Kazakhstan's uranium enterprises (3 mine and concentrating plants, Volkovgeologiya Joint-Stock Company and the Ulbinskij Metallurgical plant). In 1998 uranium production came to 1,500 tonnes (860 kg in 1997). In 1999 investment to the industry were about $ 30 million. Plans for development of Kazakhstan's uranium industry provide a significant role for foreign partners. At present, 2 large companies (Comeco (Canada), Cogema (France) working in Kazakhstan. Kazakatomprom continues to attract foreign investors. The company's administration announced that in that in next year they have plan to make a radical step: to sell 67 % of stocks to strategic investors (at present 100 % of stocks belongs to state). Authors of the article regard, that the Kazakhstan's uranium industry still has significant reserves to develop. Even if the scenario for the uranium industry could be unfavorable, uranium production in Kazakhstan may triple within the next three to four years. The processing of uranium by the Ulbinskij Metallurgical Plant and the production of some by-products, such as rhenium, vanadium and rare-earth elements, may provide more profits. Obviously, the sale of uranium (as well as of any other reserves) cannot make Kazakhstan a prosperous country. However, country's uranium industry has a god chance to become one of the most important and advanced sectors of national economy

  5. Democratization and Instability in Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    fits-all Soviet identity, the process itself encouraged existence and, even more so, fermentation of national consciousness. The politics of...under the influence of the specific logics guiding the agents of change. The ideal condition for a full mimicry is the simul - taneous existence of

  6. Geopolitical warm spots : Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isautier, B.

    2004-01-01

    Kazakhstan has become an economic leader in the region of the former Soviet Union. This presentation described the economic transformation of the Republic of Kazakhstan since 1991 when it became an independent country and committed to a market economy. The newly formed government developed policies to attract foreign investment and implemented sound fiscal policies, paving the way for strong economic growth. Oil production in Kazakhstan has grown significantly since 1991 and the country has become an important player in world energy markets. Its' importance will continue to grow, given the new discovery of the large Kashagan Oil Field and the oil potential of the Caspian Sea. This presentation also outlined the challenges facing Kazakhstan, with reference to the need for sufficient pipeline capacity and a link to new markets. The need to refine government policies to promote competition and efficiency in the oil industry are two other challenges that will determine the future success of the country. PetroKazakhstan has succeeded in being a leader in the Kazakhstan oil sector. tabs., figs

  7. Customs control over the transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derevyashko, A.

    1998-01-01

    1. As it is shown in the name the main purpose of this Paper is to describe system of customs control over transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus, clarifying herewith influence of global situation on the creation of this system and noting technical needs of Customs Administration of Belarus in its activities aimed at strengthening the control system. 2. The Republic of Belarus has not the enterprises of atomic-industrial complex and does not produce radioactive and nuclear materials, so, control over them is largely connected with their transit through frontiers of Belarus and its territory. It is necessary to note, that the frontier of Belarus with the Ukraine, Poland and Baltic States is an external frontier of a Custom Union between Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. On the territory of the last three states are concentrated extraction and production of radioactive and nuclear materials, part of which can be transported by the shortest way to the European countries through the territory and frontiers of the Republic of Belarus. 3. The significant part of the republic territory suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe. In a number of the polluted regions of Belarus there were created the zones of >, the residing on them is prohibited by legislation. On those territories there were created numerous burial grounds for the conditionally radioactive and low radioactive wastes. In this connection, there is also a danger of illegal importation of various radioactive wastes from contiguous countries to these zones and burial them there. On the other hand, there are known the numerous cases of exportation of various materials, subjects, food from the polluted zones even out of Belarus. 4. Taking into account the aforesaid the Customs Administration of the Republic of Belarus as well as other public authorities, clearly recognizes the necessity of organization of an effective radiation control on

  8. Kazakhstan Country Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Almaty; - scarcity of land in Almaty preventing the city’s expansion for administrative needs; - need for economic uplift of the poor northern...6,846 km border with Russia) and the mood of the large Russian Diaspora in Kazakhstan. There are other important factors influencing the U.S

  9. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  10. Radiological problems in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan historical development and available mineral resources have pre-determined a scale of radiological problems in the state. Kazakhstan keeps leading positions in the world in explored uranium resources and hydrocarbon raw. More than five hundred nuclear explosions were performed in various regions of Kazakhstan. There is necessity to carry out remediation actions at the former test sites of Kazakhstan, especially at the Semipalatinsk test-site (STS). But because of the high cost of such actions it should be expedient to carry out them only in case of emergency and inclusion of the former test sites lands to the national economic activity, as in general, under conditions of competent policy of inhabitants, STS doesn't represent a hazard. At the same time, we ought not to lose an invaluable scientific material of test-sites. It is necessary to keep some areas of Semipalatinsk test-site as a rarities, reflected the important stages of the human evolution. Test-sites should be considered as world laboratory for studies of artificial radionuclides behaviour in natural medium. Illustrations of radiation-hazardous objects, of used technologies and procedures, under the Kazakhstan Republic instance, show that main power industries lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Mankind certainly will become aware of fact that industrial activities, under the current level of science and technologies development, will lead to the common increase of radioactivity materials in human environment. Solving of radioecological problems is possible only when people review their approach to a radioactivity, as a whole. Not only specialists involved in this field, but also all local population have to know rules of radiation safety and how reasonable manage with radioactive materials

  11. Rabies in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Abdybekova, Aida M; Karatayev, Bolat S; Torgerson, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology and economic effects of rabies in respect to Kazakhstan.

  12. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  13. Inequality in Belarus from 1995 to 2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yemelyanau, Maksim

    -, č. 356 (2008), s. 1-50 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inequality * social security * Belarus Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp356.pdf

  14. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterina...

  15. Kazakhstan sells its silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul.

    1995-01-01

    Kazakhstan's government seems keen to involve foreign companies in financing the large scale exploitation of Central Asia's hydrocarbon reserves. Despite domestic uncertainty about free market ethics, the country's rulers seem keen to sell off some of its present wealth, in terms of oil production, in order to raise finance for internal projects. The author explores which of several options for financing these large projects would prove most beneficial to the Kazakhs themselves. (UK)

  16. LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES IN BELARUS: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bozhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main results of investigations on logistics activities in the Republic of Belarus at year-end 2016 are presented in the paper. The paper identifies and analyzes basic components of this activity on the basis of economic evaluation of indices presented in annual State statistical reporting on logistics and transport and freight forwarding activities of the Republican organizations according to form 1-logistics (Mintrans – Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Belarus, a report of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Belarus on the results of the implementation of Republican Program for development of logistics systems and transit potential of the Republic of Belarus for the period of 2016–2020, World Bank reports on logistics performance index, some indices of logistics infrastructure position and also results of electronic questionnaire of the largest logistics centers of the Republic of Belarus. Methods of comparative analysis, generalization and economic analysis have been used in the process of research. The analysis has shown that a network of logistics centers with various specialization and forms of property are located and operating in all regions of the Republic of Belarus. Most of them are situated in the Minsk region near the II and IX trans-European transport corridors and in the Brest region near the border with Poland. Structure of the logistics centers includes temporary storage warehouses, customs warehouses, warehouses for general use, container terminals, car parking, customs clearance office, and automotive, railway and other cargo transport facilities. Indices of logistics activity in the Republic of Belarus demonstrate its development in 2016. Storage space of logistics centers and main financial and volumetric indices of logistics activity which are included in the State statistical reporting have been increased during in recent times. These facts testify to the demand for

  17. Prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Malykhin, A.P.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Yakushau, A.P.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Tushin, N.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Belarus relates to the countries with limited organic fuel resources. So, the share of own fuel resources is about 15% from the total energy consumption. Therefore, Belarus is forced to buy fuel-energy resources, mainly in Russia. Natural gas (∼68%) and oil (18%) are prevailing in the structure of fuel-energy resources consumption in Belarus. At present Russia supplies gas to Belarus by the price of 30 USD/1000 m 3 that is lower then European prices. However, and under these conditions the share of fuel-energy resources reaches 60% in the volume of Belarus import and is about 2 bill. USD, what is commensurable with the value of an annual state budget of Belarus. Prices for gas will be sufficiently risen in Russia for the nearest future. So, according to the assessments of Russian specialists a wholesale price for natural gas will be risen by a factor of 3.7 in Russia by 2005 in comparison with 2001 what makes Belarus production ultimately non-competitive in the world market. Recently Belarus has been observing the growth of economic indicators, and this progress has to be substantiated with an appropriate energy park. Further development of the national economy calls for a sustainable power industry free of the impact of the changing economic situation in the fuel market. The necessity is to lower a level of dependence of the Republic on the imports of fuel and electric power. Electric energy plays a special role in the energy supply system in the Republic. The forecasted energy consumption will be about 55 bill. kW·h in Belarus by 2015. At present the demands of the Republic in electric energy are satisfied by 70-80% due to generation at own power electric plants operating mainly on import fuel, and by 20-30% due to electric energy import generated at Smolensk (Russia) and Ignalina (Lithuania) NPPs. But the share of electric energy import from Russia will be decreased by 2015 in connection with the forecasted growth of its internal demands. Ignalina

  18. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  19. KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC SAFETY RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rakhmatulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan essentially depends on how the Republic’s transit potential is used and how internal demands in energy resources are met. There are many legal, investment, technological and other challenges with respect to these aspects. Main ways to solvethe problems are: to form potential transit development legislation conforming to respective international standards; to take specific transport infrastructure modernization measures; to simplify railway and road transport state border crossing procedures; to develop service facilitiesalong interstate trunk roads; to improve competitiveness of domestic oil-processing enterprises; to further develop integrative cooperation withRussia in the oil processing field.

  20. Safeguards and physical protection - The Belarus experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevsun, E.

    1999-01-01

    Taking into account the new initiatives of the IAEA Belarus indented to continue activity on improving the Material Protection, Control and Accounting system in various directions. The significant ones are: electronic transmission of information to the IAEA, measurement standards of nuclear materials, upgraded Wiegard cards with photographs of their holders, preventive measures (threat, evaluation of safety for objects, sabotage from the staff etc.). The Belarus experience testifies that there is a unique way for increasing nuclear and radiation safety: cooperation and exchange of experience on a global scale

  1. Remediation of legacy sites in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiryaeva, Nina; Skurat, Vladimir; Zhemzhurov, Michail; Myshkina, Nadezhda; Chaternik, Romouald; Yacko, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Belarus there are several kinds several types of radioactive waste repositories, which present the different legacy sites, namely: 1-) Decontamination wastes of the Chernobyl origin from decontaminating the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Decontamination wastes (DW) are placed in repositories of near surface type with engineered barriers and without them; 2-) Disused radioactive sources, that were found in the territories of the former military bases disbanded in Belarus after disintegration of the Soviet Union. These wastes have been stored in the concrete wells in different places of Belarus. Decontamination wastes of the Chernobyl origin are a great problem for Belarus. They result from decontaminating the territory of Belarus from radioactive fall-outs after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident. Decontamination wastes were placed in more than 90 repositories near 78 settlements. Their disposal sites were mainly chosen without detail account of hydrogeological conditions. Therefore the most of them are of potential hazard because of possible secondary radioactive contamination of the ecosystems. At the moment in accordance with the State Program of Republic of Belarus to mitigate and overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident the necessary measures on the guaranteeing of decontamination waste storage reliability have been performed, such as compacting of DW disposal sites; upper isolation of DW with the protected one or two layers clay layer of 0.5 m thickness and soil layer from near territory of 1.0 m thickness; turfing of disposal site territory by sowing grasses. At present works are being continued on decontamination of residential properties, and also dismantling and burying of contaminated industrial equipment. For these purposes and also for control and maintenance of these legacy sites Belarus allocates 1.6 million dollars annually. After disbanding the military divisions of

  2. Selection of NPP for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

    2003-01-01

    Commercial NPP for Kazakhstan should to meet to several main requirements: 1). Safety operation (accident probability not more than 10 -6 1/p. year). 2). High efficiency > 40 %. 3). Possibility of use for high-temperature chemistry and hydrogen production. 4). Possibility for manufacturing of considerable part of equipment in Kazakhstan. 5). Possibility for fuel production and reprocessing in Kazakhstan. 6). Independence from existence of large water-supply sources. Comparative analysis of several NPP with different reactors (WWR-1000, Candu, BREST, VG-400; graphite molten salt reactor) shows that NPP with the graphite molten salt reactor meets to all above requirements, but hydrogen production it is possible by more complete 4-stage technology, since coolant temperature is 800 Deg. C. The principle advantage is possibility of manufacturing of main equipment and fuel in Kazakhstan that reduce the cost of NPP construction and operation

  3. FRANCHISE EXPECTATIONS: CASE OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Raissa Kaziyeva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a critical review of franchising development in Kazakhstan by focusing on the relationship between the franchisor and the franchisee. We have conducted extensive research and communicated with lots of potential and existing Kazakhstani franchisors and franchisees, operating since 2003. Our findings show that the process of signing franchising agreements is quite challenging in Kazakhstan.  Thorough investigation of the differences between expectations ...

  4. Radon measurement studies in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevost'yanov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, one has to admit that despite the important role and certain achievements in providing the radiation control in Kazakhstan, radon measurements still present some problems related to clear definition of physical quantities applied, correct use of methods, and application of adequate measuring devices to meet requirements of regulatory documents currently in effect, such as NRB-99. The paper provides some data on radon measurements, describes the problem status in Kazakhstan and proposes ways to solve it. (author)

  5. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  6. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, E.P.; Drobyshevskaya, I.M.; Cherstvoy, E.D.; Astakhova, L.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Okeanov, A.E.; Germenchuk, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  7. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  8. Computerised safeguards in Kazakhstan and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    1999-01-01

    Hereby will be described the Kazakhstan computerized safeguards system. Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency (KAEA) developed guides concerning of Y2K problem for facilities. The results of preliminary analyze of this problem are presented. (author)

  9. Atomic industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents a structure of uranium-extractive industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan and the prospects of atomic industry in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the aspect of uranium world market tendencies. (author)

  10. Belarus and Interdependence: The Influence of Dependence on International Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Behrends, Haylee

    2016-01-01

    In today's globalized world it is nearly impossible for countries to act independently without some degree of cooperation. It is even more diffult for countries with high levels of dependence. Dependence in Belarus on others influences its foreign policy in a way that inhibits Belarus' power. The degree of dependence, power, and interdependence in Belarus is analyzed by looking at its level of participation in international organizations, trade partners, and reliance on foreign aid. Powered b...

  11. The state and perspective of Belarus power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.A.; Molochko, F.I.

    1994-01-01

    The economy of the Republic of Belarus has a high fuel and power resource deficit. In according to the National power engineering programme the power balance must be achieved by means of reconstruction and development of the energetics system on the basis of difference modern technologies, as well as carrying out power saving programme, It is suggested the building of a nuclear power plant in Belarus. The power engineering development directions for Belarus is discussed. The structure and dynamics of a power balance of the economy is described. It was shown the electric and heat energetics perspectives for Belarus by using of difference power sources. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Radiation risks and monitoring of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Khazhekber, S.; Poznyak, V.L.; Chernykh, E.E.; Passell, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    works was used in preparation of the International project C aspian Rivers , contemplating organization of the system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura rivers, flows of that comprise 90 percent of all the flows in the Caspian Sea. Participants of this project are scientific institutions from Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. The collaborator of the project is the SNL as well. The work-setting on radiation and hydro-chemical research and monitoring of Ile and Irtysh rivers with participation of scientific organizations from China, Kazakhstan and Russia is being discussed

  13. Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale, Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The first Eurasia International Sculpture Biennale was held from 4 July to 4 August 2017 in the atrium of the Palace of Peace and Reconciliation as one of the most important events of the cultural program EXPO-2017, commissioned by the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  14. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  15. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  16. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  17. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.; Piotukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    Belarus are located at the Academic Scientific and Technical Center 'Sosny'. Modern system of physical protection was started to operate in October 1996. Without going into details, the system of physical protection makes it possible to maintain automatic control of access to the most sensitive zones and the facility as a whole, automatic detection and testing of all components, automatic generation of alarm signal in case of an incident and taping of video signal. During operation and maintenance of the system we have encountered some difficulties like the absence of national producers of necessary spare parts and expensive prices of such parts with foreign producers, the necessity of adaptation of some system components to local climatic conditions, etc. Export/import control and prevention of non-authorized use of nuclear materials - The Law of the Republic of Belarus On Exports Control came into force in January 1998. This law defines the legal bases for activities of state bodies, legal and natural persons of the Republic of Belarus in the field of export control and regulates relations arising in connection with the movement of objects subject to export control across the customs border of the Republic of Belarus and their subsequent use. The objects subject to export control include such items 'as goods, technologies and services connected with nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear materials which can be used for production of nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive systems' as well as 'dual purpose commodities'. Information support of the export/import control system is provided by ORACLE-controlled computer data bases. This system includes the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Customs Committee, the Academy of Sciences and other agencies. The Republic of Belarus became a member of the Nuclear Supplies Group in 2000. According to the decrees of the Council of Ministers 675 dated June 1997, licensing and state supervision of activities involving use and

  18. Georgia's Economy in the Space of Contradictions Regional Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Degtev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the economic ties between Georgia and four countries neighbouring the Caucasus region: Russia, Turkey, Iran, and Kazakhstan. The authors focus their attention on regional analysis and, for comparison, give figures on Georgia's relations with three global players: the USA, the EU, and the PRC. The authors postulate at least three challenges to Russia’s interests in Georgia. First, both Georgian establishment and society regard integration with the EU and NATO as main goal of the state, which in case of NATO evidently contradicts Russian national interests. Second, from the economic point of view, the USA is no longer a financial driver of Georgian reforms. The EU, main trade partner of Georgia for the past 15 years, has replaced it. The CIS surpasses the EU in commodity turnover with Georgia, however it is in fact an amorphous organization that formally combines its member-states and lacks for common economic policy, unlike the European Union that acts as an integration association. Third, Chinese investment in Georgian infrastructure within the "New Silk Way" project serves as a ponderable alternative to Russian financial flow. For a comprehensive analysis of the situation the authors used some figures concerning commodity trade, FDI, cross-border financial flows, tourism, and transport development. Major pipeline branches, including the planned projects, are taken into account as well. The findings are based on the results of desk research, and on empirical data obtained through meetings with Georgian government officials.

  19. Kazakhstan: there are no nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golev, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the article it is noted, that in 1992 Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine signed Strategic Attack Weapon-1 Treaty, and actually refuse from nuclear bases on theirs territories. On the whole Kazakhstan had in technical capability two missile basis and one basis of strategic bombardment aviation. During 1996-1999 in period of nuclear objects liquidation in Kazakhstan 96 S S-18 missiles and 18,000 tones components of missile fuel were taken out to Russia

  20. Business Ethical Decisions In Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Erdener

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of ethnicity, nationality, and gender on responses to a variety of business ethical dilemmas in Central Asia.  The data were collected in spring 2010 from MBA students at an American-style business school located in Kazakhstan.  The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the conceptual categories of western philosophies of ethics (utilitarianism, deontology, individual rights, justice, etc.).  Possible implica...

  1. Upgrading of regulatory activities in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Shabanov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    Upgrading of the National regulatory regime in the Republic of Belarus started in fact in 1992 after the Interregional Nuclear and Radiation Safety Inspectorate had been established in the Gostekhnadzor of Belarus. In this connection, the Gostekhnadzor was transformed into the Gospromatomnadzor - the State Committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety. In 1993, by special decrees issued by the Council of Ministers the Gospromatomnadzor was designated a National Competent Body responsible for nuclear materials. Now the Committee is part of the Ministry for Emergencies. In the Committee, the issues of nuclear and radiation safety are dealt with by 6 departments among which the Department for Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulation and the Interregional Nuclear and Radiation Safety inspectorate play major role. The created regulatory structure makes it possible to fully perform the control of situation at nuclear- and radiation-hazardous facilities and take adequate measures aimed at strengthening their safety. The priority directions of regulatory work by the Promatomnadzor include development and revision of regulations governing radiation and nuclear safety and upgrading of the training procedure to enhance the radiation safety and technical knowledge of the Promatomnadzor staff. (author)

  2. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. Georgia - Energy Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Gustavson Associates was retained by Millennium Challenge Georgia (MCG) to prepare a model to calculate the economic rate of return (ERR) for rehabilitation work...

  4. Kazakhstan big oil transportation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakipov, K.E.; Mazhkenov, S.A.; Kunaev, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    One the most important priority identified with the framework of the long-term Republican development aim implementation defined in the Programme of Long-Term Development of Republic of Kazakhstan by 2030 is exploration of huge hydrocarbon reserves. Strategic direction of Kazakhstan petroleum industry development is a comprehensive approach towards the improvement all elements of the complex processing chain, from exploration to production and from transportation to oil and processed product marketing. Republican Association of Young Engineers and Specialists, Engineering Academy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RAMIS EA RK) considers the most perspective and realistic route. The pipeline will pass from Western region of Kazakhstan to Kumkol further via the existing Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline, Turkmenistan, Western Afghanistan, Pakistan to sea terminal; on the Pakistan coast of the Arabian Sea. Omsk-Chardzhou pipeline was built 12 years ago and is currently no operating. Its length is 2.000 km with 1.800 km crossing Kazakhstan's territory. Even now this pipeline is enable of transporting up to 20 million tonnes of oil per year with the optional increase up to 30 million. Construction of similar pipeline could have cost $2 billion. Connecting Atyrau-Kumkol and Omsk-Chardzhou pipelines could enable Russia and Kazakhstan to penetrate, via Central Asia, Indian and South Asian countries to the Arabian Sea. According to the World Bank Data this region will be rapidly developing within next 15-20 years. During 1995-2010 the estimated demand for the hydrocarbon should double, from 18.0 to 31.69 million tonnes per annual. This means an annual average growth rate of 3.8 %, the highest demand growth rate in the world on petroleum. Transportation of one barrel of West-Siberian oil via Omsk-Pavlodar-Shymkent-Chardzhou route towards the Indian Ocean will bring additional two dollars revenue as compared with the existing route transportation. For the pre-Caspian oil revenue will reach

  5. Nuclear installations in Belarus: Implications of political and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    The report deals with some aspects of past and present supervisory activities at nuclear installations in Belarus. It briefly describes an existing supervisory system for nuclear installations in the Republic of Belarus, its legislative basis and functions of the supervisory body. Consideration is given to further development and improvement of the supervision in such fields as revision and elaboration of normative documents on nuclear safety, training of inspectors, co-operation with other governmental bodies while examining the nuclear option in the Republic of Belarus. (author)

  6. Republic of Kazakhstan : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report on the report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) in Kazakhstan provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Kazakhstan. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and draws on international exper...

  7. Legal Regulation of Employment in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamzin, Amangeldy Sh.; Aldashev, Sarsengali; Tileubergenov, Yerazak M.; Kussainova, Ainur K.; Khamzina, Zhanna A.; Buribayev, Yermek A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing financial and economic crisis which had begun in 2014 the main prerequisite for employment in Kazakhstan acts unemployment which is accompanied by various social, economic and psychological problems. Analysis of the current state of labor market in Kazakhstan needs urgent actions in prevention and reducing…

  8. International Voices: Reading in Kazakhstan and Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Keith; Golopyatova, Nina; Goodwin, Maureen; Peirce, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This column focuses on the innovative strategies some teachers from Kazakhstan and Oceania are using to overcome the challenges they face. In Kazakhstan, schools organize reading days to encourage and inspire children to read. In the predominantly oral culture of the Cook Islands, Niue Island, and Rarotonga, teachers and administrators model…

  9. Features of social modernization of Kazakhstan society

    OpenAIRE

    Southbaeva S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of social modernization of the Kazakhstan society is carried out. The article provides information on sociological analysis, analysis of normative legal acts aimed at improving the social modernization of Kazakhstan society. The level of legal culture and spiritual and moral values of the Kazakh society are singled out. Further development prospects for improving social modernization are given.

  10. Decontamination in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsipov, G.V.; Matveenko, S.A.; Mirkhaidarov, A.Kh.

    2002-01-01

    To continue the decontamination work in the Republic of Belarus, which was carried out by the military troops, the state specialized enterprises were formed in Gomel and Mogilev in 1991. The organization and regulations were developed inside the country: instructions, rules, radiological and hygienic criteria and norms. The enterprises concentrated on decontamination of the most socially significant facilities: kindergartens, schools, medical institutions and industrial enterprises. During 9 years Gomel State Specialized Enterprise 'Polessje' decontaminated 130 kindergartens, schools and hospitals. The total decontaminated area was 450 000 m 2 . The ventilation systems and equipment at 27 industrial enterprises in Gomel were decontaminated. The practical decontamination methods for areas, buildings, roofs, industrial equipment, ventilation systems were developed and tested. The special rules for handling wastes contaminated with Cs were elaborated. The paper analyzes and sums up the acquired experience which is important for implementation of rehabilitation programs and improvement of decontamination methods. (author)

  11. Uranium production and the environment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of uranium from open-pit and underground mines in Kazakhstan has terminated. Currently, uranium is extracted in Kazakhstan only by the In Situ Leaching (ISL) method. This method has a number of economical and ecological advantages. During a short period in the 70s-80s, Kazakhstan created a firm basis for developing uranium extraction by the ISL method. Now more than half of the world's uranium reserves amenable to the ISL method are located in Kazakhstan. By 2005, a significant increase in uranium production is planned. Thereby, Kazakhstan has the ability to grow into a world leader in uranium extraction through a lower cost and low environmental impact operations using the ISL method. (author)

  12. Kashagan oil field development. Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak, D.; Gerebizza, E.; Wasse, G.; Kochladze, M.

    2007-12-01

    Based on our research and field investigations of the Kashagan oil field development and relevant infrastructure in the Atyrau and Mangistau regions of Kazakhstan (cities and vicinities of Aktau, Atash, Atyrau, Bautino, Bolashak, Karabatan and Koshanai) evidence has been collected that raises serious concerns about environmental, social and health effects of this oil field development - such as sulphur emissions and storage which may pose serious threats for the communities close to the Kashagan oil facilities and for the Caspian Sea environment. Furthermore, since becoming the single Operator of the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (PSA), the Agip Kazakhstan North Caspian Operating Company N.V. (Agip KCO) has failed to release all information available on the environmental, health and social impacts of its operations in the Kashagan oil field. As requested by the local communities and required by Constitution of Kazakhstan Republic and Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters ratified by Kazakhstan in 2001, such information must be made available. There is also a growing concern among the civil society that the European Commission through its officials is publicly expressing support to European oil companies' members of the Agip KCO despite their failure to fulfil basic environmental regulations. This continued support contradicts the European Union's fundamental values and frequent statements related to Human Rights and Sustainable Development. Thousands of people have already been relocated in the region because of sulphur emissions and other highly poisonous chemicals such as mercaptans, which are present at very high levels in Northern Caspian oil. Unprotected storage of large quantities of sulphur is also recognised as a major cause of acid rain on a global level. This Report implores Agip KCO to release all available and required information on the

  13. Kazakhstan's Mangistaumunaigaz: a striking deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The reasons for the severe fall in output at Manistau, once Kazakhstan's biggest producing oil field complex, are discussed. Many of the oil fields are still operating in accordance with old Soviet traditions based on massive cost-ineffective use of manpower and machinery. Persistent labor problems and the inability of the Kazakh authorities to pay the labor force, coupled with the fall in oil prices, are all discussed. The lack of foreign investment and the Asian financial crisis are also cited as contributory problems. (UK)

  14. Upgrading nuclear safeguards in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Maribeth; Murakami, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Kazakhstan inherited 1,410 nuclear warheads. Within three years, by 1994, Kazakhstan had formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and transferred its last nuclear warhead to Russia in April 1995. Its NPT safeguards agreement with the IAEA came into force in 1994 and all facilities are under safeguards. In February 2004 Kazakhstan signed the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement, though this not yet in force. Kazakhstan played a key role during the Soviet era as a supplier and processor of uranium. The BN-350 fast reactor at Aktau (formerly Shevchenko), on the shore of the Caspian Sea, successfully produced up to 135 MWe of electricity and 80,000 m3/day of potable water over some 27 years until it was closed down in mid-1999. The IAEA being involved in upgrading the nuclear material accountancy and control systems of all Member States requested, Japan and Sweden to conduct independent evaluations at the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC), and specifically at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMP) and identified areas that could be improved with respect to nuclear material accountancy and control. In June 2003 the Agency, with four Member States and the European Union, undertook a programme to upgrade the nuclear accountancy and control systems within Kazakhstan with special emphasis on the UMP in Ust-Kamenogorsk in northeast Kazakhstan. The current IAEA programme is focused on upgrading hardware and software systems and the training of personnel in Kazakhstan. Due to the complexity of the facility, special emphasis is on training personnel and upgrading systems at the UMP. At the UMP the focus is on reducing the uncertainty in the hold-up (material which cannot be cleaned out) in the process lines, better determining the amount of nuclear material that is released from the facility as waste or retained at the facility as waste, increasing the ability of the facility to more

  15. Kazakhstan innovation projects in nuclear technologies field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkol'nik, V.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan in preparation and realization stage there are several innovation projects related with use of advanced nuclear technologies. Projects are as follows: 'Implementation of Kazakhstan thermonuclear reactor tokamak (KTM)'; 'Implementation at the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University the inter-disciplinary research complex on the heavy ions accelerator base'; 'Development of the Technological Park 'Nuclear Technologies Center in Kurchatov city'; 'Development the first in the Central-Asian region Center of Nuclear Medicine and Biophysics'. The initiator and principal operator of these projects is the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  16. 76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... time. See Notice of Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation: Uranium from Russia, 65..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation (``Russia''), Tajikistan... Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan was being sold at less-than-fair-value by...

  17. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelin, T.; Bleuer, J.P.; Averkin, J.I.; Okeanov, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  18. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  19. Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This case study was prepared as one in a series for the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new and retrofit laboratory buildings in both the public and the private sectors. The energy-efficient elements of the laboratory featured in this case study-the Georgia Public Health Laboratory, Decatur, Georgia-include sustainable design features, light-filled interior spaces for daylighting, closely grouped loads (such as freezers), the use of recirculated air in administrative areas, direct digital controls for heating and cooling equipment, sunscreens, and low-emissivity window glazing. These elements, combined with an attractive design and well-lighted work spaces, add up to a building that ranks high in comfort and low in energy use.

  20. Safeguards Implementation in Kazakhstan: Experience and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhantikin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Experience of Kazakhstan joined the NPT in 1993, just after desintegration of USSR, and enforced Safeguards Agreement in 1995 can be interesting in implementation of safeguards in non-standard cases. Having weapon materials and test infrastructure legacy, the country together with IAEA and several donor countries found acceptable approaches to meet NPT provisions. One of challenges was to provide protection of sensitive information that could be accidentally disclosed in safeguards activities. With support of several weapon countries in close cooperation with the IAEA Kazakhstan liquidated test infrastructure in Semipalatinsk, implemented projects on elimination and minimization of use of HEU in civil sector, decommissioning of BN-350 fast breeder reactor. Now the IAEA LEU Bank is going to be established in Kazakhstan, and more challenges are coming in implementation of safeguards. Some technical and organizational details will be described from the experience of Kazakhstan in these projects. (author)

  1. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  2. Astana, Kazakhstan: A Full-Year Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higdon, Melody

    2006-01-01

    This Country Climatology Digest is a climatological study of Astana, Kazakhstan. After describing the geography and major meteorological features of the entire region, the study discusses in detail the climatic controls of Astana's weather...

  3. Informed Questions Paper: Kazakhstan Domestic Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    .... Mainly Muslim, native Kazakhs "speak a Turkic language, but are Mongol in appearance." A Kazakh Empire emerged in the 15th Century from a conglomeration of nomadic hordes living on the plains of present day Kazakhstan...

  4. Industrial types of uranium deposits in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyodorov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main industrial uranium deposits of Kazakhstan that can be commercially mined, are located in two ore regions and are represented by two types of the uranium deposits. The first region is named Chu-Syrdarya (75.6% of total resources of Kazakhstan) and is located in the South of Kazakhstan and this one is the largest in the world among the regions of the deposits connected with the bed oxidation zone, localized in the permeable sediments and amenable for in-situ leach mining. The second region is named Kokshetau (16% of total resources) and is located in the North of Kazakhstan at the north edge of Kazak Shield and is characterized by the vein-stockwork type of deposit. Other industrial deposits (8.4% of total resources) are grouped in two regions that have been determined and are retained as reserves for economical and ecological reasons. These are: Pricaspian region with the organic phosphate type of uranium deposits; and Ili-Balkhash region with mainly the coal-uranium type. There are 44 industrial uranium deposits with resources ranging from 1000 t to 100000 t U and more in each of them, in all, in Kazakhstan. Seven of them are completely mined now. Total uranium resources in Kazakhstan are determined at 1670000 t U. (author)

  5. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  6. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova... orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia...

  7. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  8. The handling with orphan sources of ionizing radiation in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskij, A.I.; Beresneva, V.A.; Pribylev, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the emergency response actions, when detecting orphan sources, provide specific organs of government within their competence. Overall coordination and work on the collection, processing, exchange, accounting and transfer in the established order information about the sources of ionizing radiation interacting organs and relevant international organizations assigned to the Emergency Situations Ministry. Created in Belarus response system in case of detection of orphan sources can provide the level of emergency preparedness and response, and generally satisfy international best practice in this area. (authors)

  9. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  10. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  11. Environmental restoration plans and activities in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.

    1997-01-01

    During the period of uranium mining activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan so far more gm 200 million tonnes of radioactive waste with a total activity of about 250,000 Ci has accumulated. The problem of environmental restoration of contaminated uranium mining and milling sites is very topical and important for Kazakhstan. This paper presents the radiological status of the situation in Kazakhstan, the characteristics of the uranium mining and mill tailings and the approach to the tailings management for stabilization and isolation from the human environment. Legislation in the field of atomic energy including radwaste management has been established in Kazakhstan through a structure of State Bodies such as Ministries of Science, Ecology, Bioresources, Health and Atomic Energy Agency. An organization for radiation safety regulation has also been created. Studies regarding stabilization of radiological situation have been started in Kazakhstan with the support of IAEA and EU. This paper deals with the regional project for assessment of immediate measures to be taken for remediation of uranium mining and mill tailings sites. (author)

  12. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  13. Technical and scientific support of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the end of 1986 the construction of the first NPP in Belarus was stopped after Chernobyl accident but investigations in the nuclear field were continued. Recently the decision about nuclear power development has been accepted again. Therefore at present technical and scientific support of managerial, administrative and organisational decisions and activities in this sphere is of great importance. (author)

  14. Comparative food niche analysis of Strix Owls in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexey K. Tishechkin

    1997-01-01

    Three Strix species breed sympatrically in Belarus. The Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) is one of two commonest owl species in the country, and is distributed throughout the whole territory. Its' range overlaps widely with two other species, the Ural Owl (S. uralensis) which is common in the forests of the northern part and the Great...

  15. Analysis of food radiation monitoring system in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Food radiation monitoring system in Belarus due to the Chernobyl accident is analysed. Structure of radiation monitoring network, instrumentation and modern developments. Information on permissible concentration levels in foodstuffs and water is presented and calculations of radionuclide intake for man are performed. Proposals on the creation of social centres of food radiation monitoring for Belarussian population are considered. 4 tabs

  16. Geoecological and technical aspects of radon mapping in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    There are presented some actual directions of radon mapping in order to stimulate this procedure in Belarus. The first steps should be both providing the detail investigation of potential radon dangerous regions and adopting of existing devices for measurements of radon in ground water and soil

  17. Current alcohol policy in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the state alcohol policy is presented. The dynamics of total alcohol consumption, unregistered alcohol consumption and alcohol sales in Belarus were evaluated for the period 1980-2009. It was shown that the implementation of measures within the framework of the state alcohol policy resulted in a significant reduction in unregistered alcohol consumption and a slight reduction in total alcohol consumption.

  18. Autoimmune diseases incidence in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovich, O.O.; Titov, L.P

    2010-01-01

    The statistical analysis has shown undulation the incidence of thyroiditis since 1998. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a constant increase of cases. Data testify to the tendency of increasing the prevalence autoimmune diseases in Republic of Belarus. (authors)

  19. Public relation to possibility of atomic energetics development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of sociological studies on the relation of various groups of population in Belarus to the problems of nuclear power development in the republic are given. The study showed that the the number of opponents and adherents of NPPs construction is practically equal. It is noted that the population is insufficiently informed on the nuclear power problem

  20. Legal aspects of radiation therapy in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatskevich, G.V.; Tarutin, I.G.; Khoruzhik, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons that lead to harm to patients during radiotherapy considered. Some examples of radiation damage presented. The types of liability for harm to the patient used in the Republic of Belarus described. The recommendations to ensure legal protection for medical and technical personnel suggested

  1. Georgia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Georgia. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA) and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in ...

  2. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  3. The State Language of Kazakhstan and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazilyz M. Abduova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some actual problems of real bilingualism (polylingualism in modern Kazakhstan.One of the most important aspects of the Kazakhstani society of economic and social modernization is the policy in the field of language. In the modern world, multilingual and multicultural, the problem of language conjugation is more urgent than ever, the search for effective and viable programs in the field of languageson the consolidation of societies. Integration of Kazakhstan into the world community depends today on the realization and realization of a simple truth: the world is open to those who can master new knowledge through mastering the dominant languages. In Kazakhstan the notions of “bilingualism” and “polylingualism” mean the equality of languages.It is quite natural that bilingualism (polylingualism gains more and more importance in our republic.

  4. The 1997 remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmaus, K.; Robert, B.; Berezin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    In June and July of 1997, the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Republic of Kazakhstan Ministry of Science - Academy of Science conducted a remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan. The mission was conducted as a technology demonstration under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of Energy and the Republic of Kazakhstan's Ministry of science - Academy of Science. The mission was performed using a US Navy P-3 Orion aircraft and imaging capabilities developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. The imaging capabilities consisted of two imaging pods - a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pod and a multi sensor imaging pod (MSI). Seven experiments were conducted to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to support city planning, land cover mapping, mineral exploration, and non-proliferation monitoring. Results of the mission will be presented

  5. Creation of the uniform Chernobyl register of Russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnouskaya, Alena; Kotava, Aksana; Ivanov, Victor; Maksutov, Marat

    2008-01-01

    Creation of operation of uniform medical and dosimetric data banks for carrying out of collateral wide-scale radiation epidemiological researches and prediction of medical consequences of Chernobyl accident (ChA) in territory of Russia and Belarus. On the basis of medical and dosimetric data banks of the national registers of Russia and Belarus the uniform technology of collection personal of a state information of health of the population, injured from ChA . Three levels of observation are created. The first level - Bryansk area of Russia and Gomel area of Belarus, interests of research - radiation hazards of oncologic diseases of various localizations for the population living in these territories. The second level - Bryansk, Kaluga, Tula and Oryol area of Russia and Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Minsk and Mogilyov area of Belarus, preferred direction of researches - thyroid cancer. The third level all territory of Russia and Belarus, area of research - medical consequences for health of the liquidators, their children and persons migrating from polluted territories. Personal uniform sub-registers are created and function on a stationary value to a basis. Is sub-registers containing information about diseases by a thyroid cancer, leukemia and breast cancer, uniform register of the liquidators and their children, uniform cancer-register of the liquidators and uniform cancer-register of the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 . The personal information on 20440 cases of thyroid cancer, 5234 cases of a leukemia, 16679 cases of breast cancer, 252884 liquidators, 6882 cases of a cancer of various localizations among the liquidators, 35423 children of the liquidators, 11407 cases of oncologic diseases among the population living in territories with density of contamination on Cs 137 more than 185 kBq/m 2 is accumulated. (author)

  6. Georgia's Workforce Development Pipeline: One District's Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa H.; Hufstetler, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Launched in 2006, the Georgia Work Ready initiative seeks to improve the job training and marketability of Georgia's workforce and drive the state's economic growth. Georgia Work Ready is a partnership between the state and the Georgia Chamber of Commerce. Comprised of three components, Georgia's initiative focuses on job profiling, skills…

  7. Kazakhstan or challenges of an oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coville, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The economic growth of Kazakhstan is in full rise, marked by an activity supported by a public demand for full expansion and financed by the rise of the oil incomes. The budgetary expenditure consists mainly of investments in infrastructures in Astana and Almaty, and in the social fields and education. Exports are also in very big rise (+ 40% in 2005) induced by the rise to power of the quantities of exported hydrocarbons. An economic boom which depends on the oil receipts, in spite of the reforms resulting from the economic growth, Kazakhstan remains confronted with the Islamism rise like its neigh ours of the Central Asia. (author)

  8. Implications of the establishment of a custom union between Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus for the Dutch agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Dvortsin, L.

    2011-01-01

    De douane-unie tussen Rusland, Wit-Rusland en Kazachstan kan tot meer concurrentie leiden voor Nederlandse exporteurs naar deze landen, vanwege restrictievere invoerregels aan de gemeenschappelijk buitengrens en een voorkeursbehandeling voor de onderlinge handel. De regels rond markttoegang tot de

  9. Fiscal consequences of monetary integration within the common economic area: the case of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzagalieva, Ainura

    -, č. 254 (2005), s. 1-46 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : seigniorage * monetary integration * transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp254.pdf

  10. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 27 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of Belarus to the Agency and, as requested therein, the text of a statement by the Governor for Belarus is attached hereto, for the information of Member States

  11. Energy balance of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demur Chomakhidze

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that, traditionally, the energy balance of Georgia is in deep deficit. The suggestions for its improvement are provided in the Article. The country imports almost all amount of oil and natural gas. Electricity balance is relatively stable. In the recent years, some amount of electricity is exported to the neighboring countries. Generally, the country satisfies only 30–35% of own energy consumption by local generation, and the rest amount of resources are imported from abroad. The reason of deficit to some extent is irrational and wasteful consumption of energy resources. The article examines the organizational difficulties in drawing up energy balance of Georgia and statistical problems of recording of energy production and consumption at the initial stage of market economy.

  12. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  14. Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Akhmetova

    2016-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started work on formation of literacy in the field of media education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and considers issues of…

  15. Prospects for nuclear power development in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The possible use of NPP with single medium-sized units (600-700 MW) and large-sized units (over 1000 MW) is considered in the Republic of Kazakhstan as base electric power sources in order to meet the rising demand of electric power in conditions of national economy development. The results of feasibility studies on NPP construction estimability in Kazakhstan which were pursued within by efforts of NNC RK and other Kazakhstan organizations with methodical support of JAPC (Japan) within the period from 2006 to 2009, are discussed. The feasibility studies have been conducted based on data on electric power consumption and generation considering characteristics of electrical power systems and plans for transmitting lines construction in Kazakhstan, available conditions for NPP siting (cooling water, roads and communication lines, human resources, other elements of infrastructure and control), natural conditions, potential hazards for NPP caused with industrial economic activity; social factors, consequences of NPP impact on the environment including the radiation effect on population in case of radiation accident

  16. Radiation situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudebekov, D.K.; Murtazin, E.Zh.; Bultekov, N.U.

    2005-01-01

    The article presents results of environmental monitoring at the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2000-2004 that was executed by RSE 'Kazgidromet' personnel. Radiation situation is monitored via sampling of atmospheric fallout for total beta-activity and measurements of gamma-dose rate. (author)

  17. Nuclear industrial and power complex of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemanskiy, V.A.; Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zelenski, D.I.; Papafanasopulo, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    While selecting the national power supply strategy of economic potential development four factors are laid in the basis of discussions and technical and economic decisions: effect either power complexes on people health, consequences environmental, economics and resources existence. Atomic power requires the balanced approach to power politics which, by that, avoids the dependence on any energy source. The existing electric power generation structure in Kazakhstan is Featured by the following numbers: -TEPP on coal - 79%; - TEPP on gas-black-oil fuel - 12-13%; - HEPP - 6-7%; - Atomic PP - about 0.7%. The ground for nuclear power development is considerable uranium deposits and rather developed atomic industry. Kazakhstan atomic industry includes: - uranium extractive enterprise - State Holding Company 'Tselinnyi Mining-Chemical Plant' (SHC 'TCMP'), Stepnoy Ore Division (SOD), Central ore Division 6 (COD 6), KASKOR (Aktau); - plant on fuel pellets production for APP (JSC 'UMP'); - plants on production of rare and rare-earth metals - Irtysh Chemical and Metallurgical (JSC 'CMP') and Ulba Metallurgical Plant (JSC 'UMP'); - Mangyshlak Power Plant (MAEK); - Scientific Complex of NNC RK of Ministry of Science-Academy of Science. About 25% of world deposits and uranium resources are concentrated in Kazakhstan bowels. The scientific potential of atomic production complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan is concentrated in NNC RK divisions (IAE and INP) and at JSC 'UMP' and MAEK enterprises. Ministry Energy and Nature Resources is a Board responsible for the development of atomic industry and power branches. Atomic Energy Agency of the Republic Kazakhstan performs the independent effective state supervision and control providing safety of atomic industry power installations operation

  18. Health lifestyles and political ideology in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.

  19. Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimchik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)

  20. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  1. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherstvoy, E.; Pozcharskaya, V.; Harach, H.R.; Thomas, G.A.; Williams, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  2. RADIATION PROTECTION OF BELARUS POPULATION OF AFTER THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja. E. Kenigsberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The  article  describes  the  evolution  of  the  formation  of  the  conceptual  approaches  and  regulation documents for the population radiation protection the after the Chernobyl disaster in Belarus. Zoning scheme showing Belarus contamination is given as well as the dynamics of the quantity of settlements located in the contaminated areas, and population living in them. The methodology of regulation of radionuclides content in the foodstuffs is stated. The data on the population effective exposure doses changing is given for the post-accident period.

  3. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  4. Measuring language attitudes. The case of Trasianka in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender, Natallia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Belarus there are currently two languages being predominantly used: Russian and Belarusian. Besides dialects and other varieties there is to be found a variety called Trasianka, which is widespread throughout the country. Trasianka can be considered as a variety built of elements from other varieties in Belarus, but mainly from Russian and Belarusian. Originally the term Trasianka stems from agriculture describing a 'mixed fodder of poor quality'. Language attitudes towards this variety have hardly been examined thus far. In a recent study based on the matched-guise technique, 227 Belarusian adolescents listened to and evaluated a female speaker reading the same text in Russian, Belarusian and Trasianka. When the speaker used Trasianka, she was given low ratings by test participants in matters of socio-structural issues such as profession and education. Regarding competence, the test participants assumed that the Trasianka speaker was less qualified, as shown by answers to a question on competencies in foreign languages. Finally, the test participants were more reluctant to accept the Trasianka speaker as a neighbor. With this responsiveness, they performed a bigger social distance. By these findings, there is ample reason to conclude that there are negative attitudes existing amongst today's population in Belarus regarding speakers of Trasianka.

  5. Homicide in post-Soviet Belarus: urban-rural trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of homicide in urban and rural regions of Belarus in the post-Soviet period. All-age male and female homicide mortality and population data were obtained for the years 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005 for urban and rural regions of Belarus. These data were recalculated into three age categories and directly standardised. To assess relative changes in rural-urban homicide rates across time Poisson regression models were used to calculate rate ratios. Between 1990 and 1995 homicide rates rose sharply in urban and rural regions although the rise was greater in the former. Although there was little change in homicide rates in 2000, a notable divergence had occurred by 2005. While homicide rates rose slightly in rural areas, a large fall occurred in the rates of both men and women in urban areas. This resulted in significantly higher rural homicide rate ratios at the end of the study period. With some variations age-specific homicide rates followed this overall general pattern resulting in significantly higher homicide rate ratios in all rural groups aged 15 and above in 2005. It is probable that a combination of factors such as high levels of poverty, the effects of alcohol consumption, as well as the poor provision of emergency medical services underlie both the high levels of lethal violence and the growing rural-urban divergence in homicide rates in contemporary Belarus. Urgent action is now needed to address the deteriorating social and economic conditions underpinning violence, especially in rural regions.

  6. Preliminary study of the nuclear power option in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Kazazyan, V.T.; Malykhin, A.P.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Yakushau, A.P.; Yaroshevich, O.I.

    1999-01-01

    The Republic of Belarus possesses an economy with many energy intensive branches. At the same time the share of domestic energy resources is about 15% of total energy demand. The share of the payment for primary energy resources reaches 60% or USD 2 billion of the total energy import. That is comparable with the annual state budget. In addition to that, about half of the installed capacities have reached their operation life and 90% of the units have to be retrofitted or replaced until 2010. Thus, the problem of energy supply is one of the most important ones for Belarus' economy. The nuclear power appears to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy demand problem in Belarus which has, as in case of many countries of Central and South-Eastern Europe, limited energy resources. In 1992 - 1994 the works for studying the possibility of NPP siting were recommenced and six relatively competitive sites have been chosen out from 54 possible locations for NPP siting. Parallely, works on assessment of environmental NPP effect in these sites were carried out. As concerning the reactors to be purchased and installed in the sites selected, the following options were taken into consideration: PWR of American Company WESTINGHOUSE; PWR N4 of France Company FRAMATOME; PWR KONVOI of German Company SIEMENS. Also promising are the new generation of Russian Reactor NPP, namely NPP - 91, NPP - 92 and NPP with NGWWER - 640 reactors. Preliminary assessment having in view the feasibility characteristics, safety, reliability as well as the degree of completion shows the Russian projects NPP - 92 and NGWWER - 640 as more preferably at present. Concerning the radioactive waste management, sites for storing low and medium active waste have been determined as well as regions for high active waste disposal. At present Belarus Republic disposes of a definite production, engineering and scientific potential, which can be used when the nuclear power program will be launched. Construction

  7. Landslide Hazard in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Tsereteli, Emil; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades of the XX century, protect the population from geological hazards, to maintain land and safe operation of the engineering facilities has become the most important social - economic, demographic, political and environmental problems for the whole world. Georgia, with its scales of origination of the natural-catastrophic processes (landslide, mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.), their re-occurrence and with the negative results inflicted by these processes to the population, agricultural lands and engineering objects, is one of the most complex mountainous region. The extremely sensitive conditions were conditioned by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Activation of the negative meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic changes and their abnormally frequent occurrence (mostly increased atmospheric precipitations, temperature and humidity); 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. Following the problem urgency, a number of departmental and research institutions have made their operations more intense in the given direction within the limits of their competence. First of all, the activity of the Department of Geology of Georgia (which is at present included in the National Environmental Agency of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection), which mapped, identified and cataloged the hazardous processes on the territory of the country and identified the spatial limits and developmental regularities of these processes for tens of years. The increased risk of Geological catastrophes in Georgia first of all is caused by insufficient information between society and responsible persons toward this event. The existed situation needs the base assessment of natural disasters level, the identification of events, to determine their caused reasons, to develop special maps in GIS system, and continuous functioning of geo monitoring researches for develop safety early

  8. The modern trends in energy and nuclear industry of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhemurat, D.; Sergey, K.; Timur, A.

    2000-01-01

    Kazakhstan has in perspective the potential to be self-sufficient in energy resources and also to export such resources to other countries. This article describes the energy sector of Kazakhstan, the perspectives of the development the energy and nuclear industry and shows the problems and methods of its solutions. The energy sector of Kazakhstan has diversified sources of energy resources. The open market of electricity will generate the investments and direct them to the development for more efficiency use of these resources. Rehabilitation of old power stations and their modernisation will allow to cover the future needs of Kazakhstan. The nuclear industry of Kazakhstan has the infrastructure, high-qualified staff, enterprises, reactors and investments for the development. The energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is directed to find the balance between different sources of energy to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gas. (author)

  9. Communication of 3 December 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a press release received by the Secretariat on 4 December 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Belarus about the withdrawal of the last inter-continental ballistic missile from Belarus

  10. EVALUATION OF SHALE GAS POTENTIAL IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Parkhomchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the primary evaluation of the shale gas resource potential in Kazakhstan, as well as defines the most problematic issues for the large-scale shale gas production over the state. The authors pay special attention to the national strategy of the Kazakhstani government in the sphere of the unconventional energy sources production, defining the possible technological and environmental problems for the shale gas extraction. The article also notes that implementation of the fracking technologies in the country could cause both positive and negative effects on the economy of Kazakhstan. Therefore, further steps in this direction should be based on the meaningful and comprehensive geological data regarding the shale gas potential.

  11. Integaration capacity of Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Auganbaevna Kalieva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the analysis of various theoretical approaches to assessment of international integration is carried out (3 blocks of criterions of degrees of countries integration are allocated: degree of involvement of nationaleconomy into international trade, degree of participation of national economy at the international movement of production factors and level of economic development of the country as well as the author's approach is offered to assessment of level of trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia on the basis of following coefficients: coefficient of preference, coefficient of mutual preference and coefficient of relative preference. The approach offered by the author to an assessment of the international economic cooperation, in particular trade integration of Kazakhstan and Russia, can be used for the analysis of bilateral cooperation within the SCO, the CIS, the Eurasian economic community and other integration groups.

  12. After Action Report - Kazakhstan NSDD July 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Caterina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eppich, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kips, Ruth [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, Kim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Belian, Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, Paul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Canazaro, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-25

    On Monday 20 July, Caterina Fox, Ruth Kips and Kim Knight were invited to participate in Kazakhstan's nuclear material inventory management working group meeting coordinated by Alexander Vasilliev as nuclear forensics subject matter experts. The meeting included participants from Kazakhstan's nuclear regulatory agency (CAESC, the Committee on Atomic and Energetic Supervision and Control) and 3 institutes 1. Institute of Nuclear Physics, INP (Almaty), 2. National Nuclear Center, NNC (Kurchatov), and 3. Ulba Metallurgical Plant, UMP (Oskemen). CAESC requested attendance of an MC&A expert, an IT Specialist, and a Physical Security Specialist from each site. The general meeting concerned considerations for creating unified or compatible systems for nuclear material inventory management. NSDD representatives provided an overview of nuclear forensics and presented considerations for developments of inventory management that might be synergistic with future consideration of development of a National Nuclear Forensics Library to support nuclear forensics investigations.

  13. Tyura Tam Space Launch Facility, Kazakhstan, CIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Located in Kazakhstan on the Syr Darya River, the Tyura Tam Cosmodrome has been the launch site for 72 cosmonaut crews. The landing runway of the Buran space shuttle can be seen in the left center. Further to the right, near the center is the launch site for the Soyuz. The mission control center is located 1,300 miles away near Moscow. In the lower right, is the city of Leninsk, seen as a dark region next to the river.

  14. Flower Retail in Kazakhstan: Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Talgat, Baidauletov; Alikhan, Abdigali

    2010-01-01

    Executive summary Flower retail industry in Kazakhstan is estimated to be around USD $80-100 million. Current market environment allows for entrance of a new player, focused on highly lucrative part segment of the market. Our business will differentiate itself by offering exceptional level of service while retaining competitive market prices. This business plan describes a way to turn USD $204,000 into a business with a turnover above $ 7 million in four years by capturing premium 10% o...

  15. Nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Major factors by which the radiation situation in Kazakhstan is formed are: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining and milling activity and geological exploration of uranium; nuclear power plant and research reactors; residues of atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions, which were conducted for military and peaceful purposes at different test sites; mining and milling of commercial minerals accompanied by radioactive substances; use of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific research. Since 1991, after getting sovereignty, creation was started of an own legislative basis of the country for the field of atomic energy use. It includes laws, regulations and standards for nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations, personnel, involved in the activity with using of atomic energy, population and environment. An applicable system of state regulation in this area (including a central regulatory body in the field of atomic energy use) and various ministries, agencies and committees, was created. As a result of these reforms, regulatory activities were improved in the country. This paper presents the current matters of nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan and some difficulties which Kazakhstan encountered during the transition to an independent state. (author)

  16. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia...

  17. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic of China...-0371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete...

  18. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  19. THE PROTECTED SPECIES OF LEPIDOPTERA IN THE LANDSCAPE RESERVE ‘ZVANETS’ (BELARUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulak, A. V.; Yakovlev, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the data on distribution, population, habitats and phenology of 16 species of lepidopteran insects (Insecta: Lepidoptera), inhabiting the landscape reserve “Zvanets” (Belarus, Brest region) and listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus: Rhyparioides metelkana, Pericallia matronula, Callimorpha dominula, Arytrura musculus, Diachrysia zosimi, Chariaspilates formosaria, Scopula caricaria, Gagitodes sagittata, Lycaena dispar, Euphydryas aurinia, Eu. maturna, Melitaea ...

  20. The development of the cancer control service in Belarus (the 80th birthday of N.N. Alexandrov)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, E.A.; Mashevskij, A.A.; Shitikov, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    History of the development of oncological service in Belarus is discussed in view of the 80-th birthday anniversary of N.N. Alexandrov being the founder of Belarus oncology and the first director of the Belarus Research Institue of Oncology and Medical Radiology died in 1981. Developed original techniques of radiotherapy, progress in radiotherapy and automation processes are considered

  1. Avalanche hazard and control in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, area of 124 thousand km2 is prone to the avalanche hazard. Avalanches are released down in mountain regions situated along the eastern boundary of Kazakhstan. Systematic studies of avalanches here were started in 1958 by explorer I.S. Sosedov; later on, I.V. Seversky continued these investigations in Institute of Geography of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Actually, he founded the Kazakh school of the avalanche studies. In 1970–1980s, five snow-avalanche stations operated in Kazakhstan: two in Il’ Alatau, two in Zhetysu Alatau, and one in the Altai. At the present time, only two stations and two snow-avalanche posts operate, and all of them are located in Il’ Alatau.Since 1951 to 2013, 75 avalanches took place in Kazakhstan, releases of them caused significant damages. For this period 172 people happened to be under avalanches, among them 86 perished. Large avalanche catastrophes causing human victims and destructions took place in Altai in 1977 and in Karatau in 1990. In spring of 1966, only in Il’ Alatau avalanches destroyed more 600 ha of mature fir (coniferous forest, and the total area of forest destroyed here by avalanches amounts to 2677 ha or 7% of the total forest area.For 48 years of the avalanche observations, there were 15 winters with increased avalanche activity in the river Almatinka basin when total volume of released snow exceeded annual mean value of 147 thousand m3. During this period, number of days with winter avalanches changed from three (in season of 1973/1974 to 28 (1986/1987, the average for a year is 16 days for a season. Winter with the total volume of snow 1300 thousand m3 occur once in 150 years. Individual avalanches with maximal volume of 350 thousand m3 happen once in 80 years.Preventive avalanche releases aimed at protection of roads and settlements are used in Kazakhstan since 1974. These precautions are taken in Il’ Alatau, Altai, and on Kalbinsky Range. Avalanches are released with the

  2. The contribution of I. I. Tegako to anthropology of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurbo Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L.I. Tegako started her studies of anthropology in the middle of 1960s when she received her research degree. The scope of her scientific interest included odontology and dermatoglyphics. For more than 40 years L.I. Tegako was a permanent supervisor of the group and later of the Anthropology department. From the beginning of 1970s Belarusian anthropologists started conducting complex anthropologic studies of the adult population of the republic in various parts of the country (anthropometry, anthroposcopy, dermatoglyphics, blood group factor. Comprehensive approach became the basis for studies of anthropogenic variety of local population on the territory of Belarus. In 1998 the team of anthropologists supervised by L.I. Tegako won a State Prize of the Republic of Belarus for the scope of work on the topic 'Person and his biocultural adaptation'. In 2000s the scope of L.I. Tegako's scientific interest included the determination of intersystemic correlations between dermatoglyphical and psychosomatic characteristics. During her academic career, L.I. Tegako published 17 monographs, 6 study guides, 11 brochures and 209 research papers. Lidiya Ivanovna worked at leading universities in the country; she had 7 students who completed PhD thesis. Since 1999 she worked as a professor of biology. L.I. Tegako deserves a credit for the organization of anthropological conferences in Minsk. She devoted a lot of attention to the international cooperation. As a result, L.I. Tegako contributed to the establishment of stable scientific and friendly ties with Serbian colleagues: Institute of History of the NAS of Belarus and Matica Srpska made a partnership agreement. This includes exchange of experience, scientific works, and realization of joint projects.

  3. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Heidenreich, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  4. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Biko, J.; Geworski, L.; Olthoff, M.; Demidchik, E.P.; Streffer, C.; Paretzke, H.; Voigt, G.; Kenigsberg, Y.; Bauer, W.; Heinemann, G.; Pfob, H.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  5. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  6. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  7. Distribution of Georgia Oyster Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The feature class in this ESRI Geodatabase contains polygons representing oyster reefs along the Georgia coastal waterways from Chatham County south to Glynn County....

  8. Bologna Process Principles Integrated into Education System of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the parameters of the Bologna Process in the education system of Kazakhstan. The author gives short review of higher education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan with necessary data. And the weaknesses of the system of higher education are identified. Moreover, implementing…

  9. 78 FR 58556 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on imports of silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to... Venezuela. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on October 1, 2012 (77 FR 59970) and...

  10. Monitoring Rangeland Ecosystems with Remote Sensing: An example from Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper introduces the problem of desertification in Kazakhstan in both a historical and modern context. The vegetation of Kazakhstan is dominated by shrubs and grasses, many of which are adapted to saline or sandy soils, with a very limited growing season. A model of vegetation production under ...

  11. Kazakhstan and America: the Frontiers of Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekbolat Almadiyev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and use of policy instruments and tools for energy cooperation promotion between Kazakhstan and the United States. The role of energy diplomacy in foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is due to the progressive growth of the relationship between the economic interests of Kazakhstan and the United States. The main objectives of the energy policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan are: the internal energy market formation, energy supplies on a competitive basis and energy security provision, as well as the improvement of the environmental sustainability of the energy. Modern American transnational enterprises have at their disposal significant financial resources, technological and managerial capacity. They are able to develop oil and gas fields effectively in the Republic of Kazakhstan with the least financial costs and minimal environmental damage.

  12. Social aspects of the Chernobyl activity in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has caused heavy impact on the environment in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. It has also resulted in a significant worsening of the economic situation in the affected republics of the former USSR, as well as in disruption of social life in large territories, growing anxiety and fears among the people living in contaminated areas and significant medical effects on all categories of the people affected by the accident. The USSR authorities knew about the seriousness of the radiological situation caused by the Chernobyl accident from the very beginning. However, at the time of the accident, the Soviet Union was in a state of deep economic crisis and was unable to implement necessary measures to mitigate the radiological consequences of the accident. That was one of the reasons for the USSR to conceal the true information about the accident and its consequences from the Soviet people. The traditional Soviet policy of concealing all data on any unpleasant event happening in the Soviet Union had played a very important role too. The collapse of the USSR created the formal possibility to develop appropriate policy aimed at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. However, implementation of this policy has been limited due to lack of necessary material and financial means. These and other problems are the subject of the present report. (J.P.N.)

  13. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137 Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km 2 (15 Ci/km 2 ). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Development of the cancer registration system in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeanov, A.E.; Polyakov, S.M.; Sobolev, A.V.; Winkelmann, R.A.; Storm, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer registration was established in Belarus in 1953, however was not complete until the 1970's. In 1973 a computerized central cancer registry was established (files available only from 1978) based on coded and anonymous information received from each of the 12 oncological dispensaries in the country. In 1985 a computer system of dispensary control for cancer patients was set up in the oncological dispensaries in Belarus, whereby identification of individual cancer patients in the cancer registry was made possible. The Belarussian cancer registry records all cases of cancer including those of the lymph-hematopoietic system, and carcinoma in situ. The registry is person-based with information on all tumors and their treatment in a given individual. Coding and classification is carried out in accordance with ICD-9. For histology a local classification is used. Currently the registration system is under modernization in order to achieve full correspondence with internationally accepted standards and for the purpose of easy linkage to the Belarussian Chernobyl Registry

  15. Epidemiology of fishborne trematodiasis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanov, A; Abdybekova, A; Abdibaeva, A; Shapiyeva, Z; Yeshmuratov, T; Torgerson, P R

    2014-10-01

    Fish borne trematodes are an important cause of morbidity in Kazakhstan. The number of human cases of opisthorchiidosis (infection with parasites of the family opisthorchiidae) reached a peak of 2521 recorded cases (17 cases per 100,000) in 2002 with a gradual decline to 1225 cases (7.4 cases per 100,000) in 2011. Most human cases are found in the north and north east part of Kazakhstan in areas drained by the Irtysh River and it tributaries. A further focus is found in the north west in the Ural river basin in the European part of Kazakhstan. The most common occupations of patients with opisthorchiidosis included the manual laborers, those employed in the home or unemployed. Necropsy investigations of village dogs in an endemic region revealed 37 of 51 (72%) village dogs infected with either Opisthorchis felineus or Methorchis bilis. Likewise an investigation of 242 cats consisting of strays, village, suburban and city cats revealed 79 (33%) animals infected with O. felineus. Higher prevalences were seen in strays and village cats compared to suburban cats. No urban cats, which lived in apartments, were found to be infected. Other important zoonoses included Echinococcus granulosus, detected in 2 of the 51 necropsied village dogs and E. multilocularis was found in 2 out of 124 necropsied stray cats. Investigations of locally caught fish revealed 10 of 107 (9%) roach (Rutilus rutilus), 49 of 68(72%) ide (Leuciscus idus) and 2 of 79 (2.5%) bream (Abramis brama) infested with trematode metacercariae. No metacercariae were found in 609 crucian carp (Carassius carassius), 35 tench (Tinca tinca), 79 carp (Cyprinus carpio), 46 perch (Perca fluviatilis) or 20 zander (Sander lucioperca). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger bet...

  17. Market reforms and 'Economic miracle' in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan's postcommunist transition is characterized by gradual changes under the conditions of a limited democracy. These changes have embraced extensive price and trade liberalization, and resolutely promoted privatization and the building of market institutions, although structural reforms and the struggle against corruption have made little progress. The country's financial independence was established with the introduction of the tenge in 1993. Transformational recession reached its maximum in 1995, since when only the 1998 Asian and Russian crises have interrupted continuous growth. However, the Kazakh economy is very sensitive to fluctuations in world energy and mineral prices, as the extractive industries, primarily oil and gas, have a crucial role in its development.

  18. Currency strategy of constructivism in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Lutsyshyn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of constructivism is one of the most efficient ones for the countries which stand at the intersection of interests of large players in the global economy. The modern currency reformation and principles of positioning of Kazakhstan could be a bright example of how the internal policy should be implemented to ensure the interests of a socially oriented state, including definitions of the currency mechanism. All measures and actions of the central bank and the government have always been weighted, consistent and foreseeable: the logic and economic substantiation have always been adhered to in the exchange rate policy at simultaneous liberalization of the foreign exchange market

  19. Predprinimatel'skaja sreda v Respublike Belarus': ocenka vedushhimi finskimi kompanijami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  20. Singular technology – the research area promoting sustainable noosphere d evelopment in Belarus, Russia and other CIS nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Georgievich Nikitenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to nano- and femtotechnology as the basis for sustainable noosphere development of the global socio-economic mega system “nature–man–society” in its relation with the Universe (cosmos in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and other CIS nations. Such factors as the formation of a new (noospheric political and economic outlook and the changes in scientific and technological structure of economy are gaining paramount importance under the action of the law of time and the adequate need to change the logic of socio-economic behavior of the population of planet Earth. Singular technology can become a strategic priority in finding practical solutions to these issues. When creating new productive forces and relations of production, these technologies act as a synergetic and bifurcation (unpredictable interaction of the three system technologies: artificial intelligence, molecular nanotechnology and molecular biotechnology. As soon as man grasps the essence of singular technology, it will be possible to create a new structure of matter at the nano- and femtotechnology levels, and to exercise control over this process. The new structure of matter is the basis for the creation of new productive forces and relations of production in the noosphere economy. Technological singularity originated in the mapping of the human genome, creation of a self-replicating organism, and a self-replicating machine. The nearest strategic objective (2020–2030s of singular technology is to create an artificial brain – a “digital man” on the basis of nano-and femtotechnology. This research area and practice will open the way to new forms of energy, productive forces, industrial relations and socio-economic noosphere systems in general. The wide application of singular technology in the economy will contribute to the conservation and civilizational development of the planetary megasystem “cosmos–nature–man–society”

  1. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2017-04-01

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  2. Information report of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrey, K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of 50 th years in Kazakhstan there exists a number of industries producing different radioactive wastes. Also, on the territory of the Kazakhstan more than 400 nuclear explosions have taken place. According to the sources of origin all radioactive wastes are divided into 5 types: uranium processing and geological works - 250 000 Ci, 219 mill. t; mining and processing with high content of radioactive elements - 519 Ci, 1,57 mill. t; nuclear explosions - 11 600 Ci (surface) and 12, 87 mill. Ci (underground), 12.3 mill. t; nuclear sites - power 26562 Ci, 9000 t intermediate activity); research - 50 Ci 3000 t (low activity); isotope production - 25 000 Ci, 100 000 pieces. In connection with the decommissioning of the fast breeder reactor BN-350 in Aktau and exploration of oil deposits in West Kazakstan a considerable growth of the radioactive waste on the territory is expected. A decision for the building of a regional storage facility on the territory of Aktau city has been adopted. The general contractor for design and construction of the facility as well for decommissioning of the BR-350 is Open Joint Stock Company 'KATEP'

  3. THE PROSPECT OF INFLATION TARGETING IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhandos Ybrayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of countries that began to pursue an Inflation Targeting monetary policy framework. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, each of the fifteen newly created independent countries started to develop and run their own autonomous monetary policies. Kazakhstan announced the implementation of an Inflation Targeting policy in August 2015. At the same time, a number of researches show that Inflation Targeting might not work as well for developing countries as it does for developed ones due to certain fundamental differences and preconditions that must be met before the implementation phase. Thus, this paper discusses the case of Kazakhstan as a typical emerging market economy example, examines its ability to respond to various external shocks and identifies the main transmission channels in order to contribute to the knowledge in this particular area. Identification assumptions generate contemporaneous monetary shocks on domestic inflation behavior, which also take into account various features of the small open economy as well as indicate different important transitory and persistent effects. The results show, based on the interpretation of impulse response functions, a positive interest rate shock has an uncertain inflationary impact, which raises questions about the effectiveness of interest rate manipulation in keeping inflation within the given band. In addition, a positive exchange rate shock leads to a stronger upward pressure in inflation rates. Finally, inflation inertia explains a substantial increase in future inflation rates.

  4. Regional Peculiarities of Gender Policy in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flura I. Khramtsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the state gender policy at the present stage in the Republic of Belarus is substantiated. The regional peculiarities of the implementation of the state program document «The National Plan of Action for Ensuring Gender Equality for 2017-2020» are disclosed. The experience of designing a regional plan for the implementation of the state gender policy of the Minsk City Executive Committee for 2017-2020 is shown on the example of the Academy of Management under the President of the Republic of Belarus. In the broad sense, gender policy is understood as one of the strategic directions of social policy. At the same time, gender policy is aimed at overcoming discrimination based on gender, gender asymmetry in the sphere of power relations, gender imbalance in the labor market, employment. Gender policy in the context of international legislative acts takes into account the national identity, the features of the political system, and the socio-economic development of a concrete state. With all existing differences, gender policy in its narrow meaning is a purposeful, dynamic, adaptive process of public administration, regulation, coordination, control in the sphere of gender relations on three bases: political doctrine; state ideology; program priorities and values of gender equality. The interdisciplinarity of gender policy integrates it with other areas of social policy. Thus, gender policy is implicit in goals, the content of state family policy, demographic, educational, youth, protection of maternity and childhood . Formation and implementation of gender policy is based on analysis, interpretation of statistical data (social policy directions, which are disaggregated by sex, in the dynamics of indicators. Based on the UN used methodology, taking into account the national specifics of the Belarusian society, has been created relevant gender statistics and it is developing as an information resource for decision-making. Gender

  5. The Development of a Tourist Brand in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina Smykova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the development of a tourist brand in Kazakhstan, taking into account the theoretical materials and relying on applied research. There is a necessity to form a tourist brand in Kazakhstan, which is currently connected with low level of recognition. On the basis of empirical research, an approximate model of the tourist brand in Kazakhstan was developed. The analysis revealed an ambiguous attitude from the sides of foreign tourists and residents. Priority indicators for the development of a tourist brand in Kazakhstan were identified; in particular the most important tourist destinations, the symbol and slogan of the country's iconic events and preferred cuisine, attractive historical monuments, and natural resources. The analysis showed that the tourist brand in Kazakhstan, with its identification and attributes, should be aimed at associating with the nature and cultural traditions of Kazakhstan. The research also identified priority types of tourism at each stage of the life cycle of the tourist product of Kazakhstan.

  6. Agricultural Technical Maintenance in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of market reforms introduction of maintenance system as a body of interrelated means, normative documents and executor of services and works with the purpose to ensure efficient designated machinery application and its serviceable condition within the whole service life period takes rather important significance. In order to provide commodity producers with the required types of service it is necessary to create competitive market of service executors. It is recognized that the dealer′s system is the most efficient one out of a great variety of existing and new structures, forms and methods of technical maintenance organization. The system of technical maintenance in the agroindustrial complex of Belarus should ensure profitable conditions of the production activity to all its participants: machinery manufacturers, their users and commercial agents.

  7. The energy challenge facing the Republic of Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padalko, L. [Economics and Organisation in Power Industry Dep., Belorussian State Polytechnical Academy, Minsk (Belarus); Manykina, L.; Rasmussen, B. [Economics Dep., Economics and Linguistics Univ., Minsk (Belarus)

    1996-12-31

    Belarus hat a plethora of energy-related problems which had their origin in the cheap oil days of the former USSR. These problems include inefficient and energy-intensive industrial plants, few methods of conserving energy, no pricing strategies for increasing the efficient utilisation of the electric generating system, dependency on Russian oil, virtually no domestic source of conventional fuel and no plans for developing alternative energy sources and an ageing electric generating capacity. The solution to these problems is made more difficult by a depressed Belorussian economy which limits the ability of government to finance needed energy projects. At present, a prolonged downturn in the economy has masked a project power outage. Assuming that the economy will recover, a substantial power outage will occur and measures need to be taken now to lessen the effect. The authors indicate that a piecemeal approach will not work, and they set forth a comprehensive plan to deal with the problems. (author) 3 refs.

  8. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accident to the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in April 1986 led to the exposure of substantial populations in northern Ukraine and southern Belarus to radioactive fallout. Recently, increases in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer have been reported from these areas. The possible casual association between exposure to the isotopes of iodine in the fallout and the increased thyroid cancer is examined, with a view to predicting the public health consequences of this aspect of the accident. The reported increases are shown to be consistent with a casual association and, if this is established, then a substantial increase in thyroid cancer can be expected over the next 50 years in the exposed populations. This conclusion underlines the urgent need for research to establish beyond doubt the origin of the reported increases and to formulate and appropriate public health response, including exploration of possible mitigating measures for the future 5 refs, 3 figs

  9. Implementing the ICPD Plan of Action in Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan (CARAK). Kazakhstan. Looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujsekeev, A; Kajupova, N

    1995-01-01

    An ecological disaster besets the central Asian republic of Kazakhstan. The Aral Sea has shrunk so much, due to removal of its water for massive irrigation projects, that it may even disappear soon. The soils of the coastal zone have been degraded and denuded. Radiation activity from nuclear tests and chemical fertilizers pose a major health hazard. The poor economy and declining social services exacerbate Kazakhstan's problems. The new Republic of Kazakhstan has passed legislation that denotes the state and society as protectors of family, maternity, paternity, and childhood. Women comprise 62% of specialists with higher and secondary specialized education. Their critical contribution to the national economy merits policies to protect the social, economic, and health status of women. The quality of their reproductive health connects them with their social and economic status. Kazakhstan's relatively high maternal mortality rate has fallen over the last four years. Complications of pregnancy and labor as well as during the postpartum period account for most causes of maternal death. The percentage of maternal deaths from such complications has declined from 40% to 31.1% between 1991 and 1993. In fact, the percentage of maternal deaths from other causes has also decreased. The general state of women's health, reproductive function, and the quality of health services are interdependent factors influencing maternal mortality. The main determinants of maternal mortality are maternal age and parity, especially when the birth interval is less than two years. Unwanted pregnancies contribute greatly to maternal mortality. Health officials consider family planning to be a means to prevent and reduce abortions. They use the mass media to inform the public about family planning and the reproductive system. They promote breast feeding.

  10. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  11. Forest complex of Belarus at the modern stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь Шарухо

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest is one of the main types of natural resources, the national wealth of the country that has that resource. Forests play an important role not only in maintaining the gas balance of the atmosphere, but also serve as a source of building material, fuel, paper and other useful products. The article presents information about the changes and the current state of the timber industry complex of the Republic of Belarus for the years of independence (since 1991. At the present stage of development of the forest industry was given much attention. This contributes to the high availability of forest resources, which at the moment is 40%. This factor does not only take place from the point of view of satisfaction of domestic needs but also export. Functional role of the complex – provision of economy and population in timber and products from it, as well as a variety of wild and non-wood forest products. The leading place belongs to the complex industrial activities, but a fundamental part of his development is the forestry sector, which supplies them with wood. In connection with the transition of Belarus from OKUD international standard (OKRB 005-2006 statistical reporting according to the 01.01.2011 in the article it is timber industry the timber industry. Timber industry complex of the country has a high export orientation. But the possibility of export potential is not fully used. From sales, the country receives considerably less than Europe. The reason lies in a shallow wood processing. High country’s forest cover attracts investors (China, European countries. With the participation of investors built a number of businesses. The main task of the complex in the coming years is to increase its competitiveness and efficiency and renewal of fixed assets, modernization of existing and establishment of new production facilities for deep processing of wood raw material.

  12. Convergence on Cooperation: The Driving Factors in U.S. and Russian Cooperation on Belarus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, John W

    2005-01-01

    .... It then examines the mutuality of U.S. and Russian interests in Belarus in the areas of democracy and human rights, drug and human trafficking, arms proliferation, oil and gas transit, and Russo-Belarusian trade and political integration...

  13. Public-Private Partnership Potential in Property Management of Russia and Belarus Union State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Vihrjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of implementation of an institute of public-private partnership, mainly concessions, as a notable component of management system of the Union State's of Russia and Belarus Property.

  14. Health status and follow-up of the liquidators in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeanov, A.E.; Antipova, S.I.; Polyakov, S.M.; Sobolev, A.V.; Bazulko, N.V.; Cardis, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents information on the organization of the follow-up of Chernobyl liquidators in Belarus. The characteristics of the liquidators cohort and results of preliminary analyses of their health status, including cancer incidence and general morbidity, are presented

  15. IAEA Delivers Report on Nuclear Power Development to Belarus Deputy Prime Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency today delivered the final report from an IAEA Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission to Belarus. The report concludes that Belarus has made important progress in its development of nuclear infrastructure for a nuclear power programme and that Belarus is on its way to being well-prepared with its infrastructure to support the construction of a nuclear power plant. The report makes 16 recommendations and 22 specific recommendations to assist the national authorities in preparing the infrastructure necessary for the project. ''Belarus has already implemented some of the recommendations that we shared with them in June, and the Government plans to implement all the remaining ones,'' IAEA Deputy Director General Alexander Bychkov said after delivering the document to Belarusian Deputy Prime Minister Anatoly Tozik. ''This shows that the country is taking the report seriously.'' The main recommendations in the report include to revise Belarusian nuclear legislation to adequately address issues such as radioactive waste and spent fuel management, review the enforcement process, and norms relevant to civil liability for nuclear damage; to strengthen the regulatory body and the regulatory framework for licensing; and to develop comprehensive management systems for the nuclear project. Additionally, specific suggestions were made about its infrastructure development activities based on guidance contained in the publication Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. ''The report acknowledges Belarus' strong expertise in radiation protection and environmental monitoring and recognizes that good coordination in the development of Belarus' nuclear power programme is beneficial,'' Bychkov said. Belarus began considering nuclear power in the 1980s and recently renewed its efforts. The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus, promulgated in September 2007, called for

  16. Layering of IFRS and Dual Institutionality of Accounting Standards in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David; Alon, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Submitted version of an article published in the journal Accounting in Europe. There is an ongoing debate about the applicability and efficacy of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption in countries with diverse institutional infrastructures. We examine financial reporting in Belarus and factors that are shaping its development. In Belarus, IFRS has been adopted through layering where it is an additional requirement to the existing reporting specified by the national ac...

  17. State program on scientific support of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following the decision on NPP construction in Belarus, the Organization on Technical and Scientific Support of Nuclear Power Development (Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny') has been nominated. In 2009, the Government adopted the State Program on Scientific Support of Nuclear Power Development in the Republic of Belarus for period up to 2020. The paper reviews activities implemented within the framework of this Program. (author)

  18. Environment pollution observation service in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznyak, Eh.L.

    1997-01-01

    Information about Environment Pollution Observation Service attached to Main Department of Hydro-meteorology of Republic of Kazakhstan is cited. General stages of observation organization for atmospheric pollution, surface waters, soil by substances of origin are described. Analysis of formation of methodical and laboratory base of the service is given. It is noted, that in 1954 the State Observation System for Radioactive Contamination on the base of meteorologic stations of Kazgidromet is created. Assays have been taken on summary beta-activity and isotope content. Taking of water samples for determination of strontium-90 content has conducted. Measuring of exposure dose rate has been implemented on 170 meteorological stations. Isotope content of aerosol samples and falls have being determined by semiconductor detectors and impulse analyzers

  19. INES application in Kazakhstan, annual review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, S.

    1997-01-01

    For the period from the last TCM meeting all Kazakhstani facilities operated rather good. Only one event which attracted public attention occurred at BN-350 on 23 March and was rated as level 0. It had been reported according to INES procedure. I would like to suggest the TCM participants some additional information related to our nuclear activities in Kazakhstan. Our first own law of the Atomic energy use put into force on 14th of April 1997. The research reactor WWER-K nearby to Almaty after 8 years under shutdown reached first critically on 18 April under restarting program. The program to restart of the reactor have to be completed at the end of this year. For the improvement of the relations with the public since this year IAEA started to provide our government TV channel the information about safety status and radiation situation at and around of the nuclear facilities on weekly basis

  20. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapargaliev, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  1. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  2. Project approach in enterprise management in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdykulova G. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the article is dedicated to study the advanced case of small business of Kazakhstan on reorganization of organizational structure in accord with the methodology of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK.

  3. Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Kazakhstan is an important power in Central Asia by virtue of its geographic location, large territory, ample natural resources, and economic growth, but it faces ethnic, political, and other challenges to stability...

  4. Epidemiological assessment of leukemia in Kazakhstan, 2003- 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Moore, Malcolm A; Igissinov, Saginbek; Baidosova, Gulnara; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Bukeyeva, Zhanar; Omralina, Yelvira

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire world, and Kazakhstan is not the exception. The aim of this study was to present an epidemiological assessment of leukemia in the population of Kazakhstan during 2003-2012. This descriptive and retrospective study was based on data obtained from all oncological organizations of the whole country. Age standardized incidence rates per 100,000 population for leukemia were calculated. Totally, 6,741 new cases of leukemia were registered in Kazakhstan during the 10 year period. The mean age of patients with leukemia was 48.5. The ASRs for leukemia among men and women were 5.3 and 3.6, respectively (pKazakhstan, especially in the north of the country. The incidence of leukemia was significantly higher in males and increased with age. Determining and controlling important risk factors of leukemia may lead to decrease in its burden.

  5. Development of Uranium Mining by ISL in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demekhov, Yuriy; Gorbatenko, Olga

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 60s, feasibility of Uranium production from low-grade ores by in-situ leaching (ISL) was proved. This radically changed the situation in the raw material base in Kazakhstan. Rapid development of uranium mining by ISL in Kazakhstan caused by factor of availability of large sandstone type uranium deposits. Kazakhstan continuously carries out exploration and prospecting to expand the resource base of uranium. In 2011 and 2012 uranium resources increased by more than 110 thousand tU and 40690 tU was mined. Resource growth is 2.5 times higher than the depleting. Since 2012 Kazatomprom is prospecting for new uranium sandstone deposits in southern Kazakhstan by efforts of Volkovgeologia and at their own expense. The program lasts until 2030. Prior to 2015, allocated more than 20 mils. U.S. dollars in prospecting works. In near future the discovery of new deposits is expected.

  6. Kazakhstan's Pension System: Pressures for Change and Dramatic Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Seitenova, Ai-Gul S.; Becker, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    Five years ago, Kazakhstan embarked on a dramatic reform of its pension and social security system in order to move from an unsustainable public defined benefit ("solidarity") system to one of defined mandatory contributions (accumulative system). While assessment of long-run success is premature, early results have exceeded expectations. This paper considers the reform's rationale and initial impact: Why did the Government of Kazakhstan decide to introduce a new pension system? What advantag...

  7. Reassessing the Barriers to Islamic Radicalization in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    of modern Kazakhstan: examin- ing attitudes and approaches to Islam. It investigates the historical roots and perspectives of a nomadic life- style ...2010.27 The Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Kazakhstan is an authoritative institution, not a spiritual one, ac- cording to one of the country’s...operation.47 The only linkage between these incidents and radical Islam ap- parently relates to the discovery of radical literature in the trunk of a

  8. Petroleum taxation: a comparison between Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Salata, D. V.; Drebot, V. V.; Vorozheykina, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper compares mineral resource recovery taxes for oil to be paid in Kazakhstan and the RF. It provides a case study on an average Kazakh oil and gas company and presents tax calculations as an example. To compare the taxation systems in Kazakhstan and the RF, the situation is modelled as if the field was located in the RF and the relevant calculations are carried out in compliance with national laws and regulations.

  9. Development of political advertisement in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nassimov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the importance and place of contemporary political advertisement of Kazakhstan as social phenomena. We know century we live as century of informatization. And the basis of advertisement is not only commercial information; it is also social, political, ideological informatization too. Realizing concept of the advertisement we can determine the importance of advertisement in social and political processes of society. In Kazakhstan politi- cal advertisement an interest to dai...

  10. SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE CSR DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar Baisakalova Author_Email: NIL

    2011-01-01

    There is little research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Central Asian countries, in particular, in Kazakhstan. To understand the development of CSR in Kazakhstan the following issues are addressed: CSR perceptions and expectations of different stakeholders, driving forces and priorities in CSR activities, and the roles of business, state and civil society in CSR development. The study is conducted mainly through library and Internet research. Data sources include business CSR rep...

  11. Development of approach and preparation of initial information for feasibility investigations of the introduction of nuclear power in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakoushev, A.; Popov, B.; Chtcherbitch, A.; Vorontsov, V.

    1997-01-01

    The experience in using the MACRO, DEMAND and BALANCE Modules of ENPEP in the conduct of energy planning studies in the Republic of Belarus is described in this paper. The work was done in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project BYE/0/003 ''Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Belarus Using ENPEP''. The paper presents results of the work undertaken by the members of the Belarus team for this project. (author). 18 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Communication received on 25 April 1995 from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On 25 April 1995, the Director General received a letter from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency submitting the official notification of the signing of Belarus of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. At the request of the Resident Representative, the text of the attached notification is circulated for the information of Member States

  13. Development of approach and preparation of initial information for feasibility investigations of the introduction of nuclear power in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iakoushev, A; Popov, B [Institute of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Chtcherbitch, A [Belarus Scientific Research Heat Power Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Vorontsov, V [Institute of New Technics and Technology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-09-01

    The experience in using the MACRO, DEMAND and BALANCE Modules of ENPEP in the conduct of energy planning studies in the Republic of Belarus is described in this paper. The work was done in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project BYE/0/003 ``Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Belarus Using ENPEP``. The paper presents results of the work undertaken by the members of the Belarus team for this project. (author). 18 figs, 3 tabs.

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Energy used by Georgia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions

  16. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I.; Satow, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  17. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  18. [Health care in today's Western Belarus in the inter-war period (1921-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszczenko, E M

    2001-01-01

    During the inter-war period, today's Western Belarus, which under the Treaty of Riga constituted part of the Second Polish Republic, stood out for its higher morbidity in various disease categories than other regions of the country. Heightened threats of epidemics prevailed in that area, and typhoid fever, trachoma, tuberculois and venereal disease were serious health problems. Specific features of the health care of today's Western Belarus could be observed that set it apart from both that of Eastern Belarus forming a part of the Soviet Union as well as from the central and western provinces of Poland. Compared with Eastern Belarus, there was a lack of health services, including anti-tuberculosis, anti-venereal and paediatric dispensaries, or they were in the process of being created. But physicians' self-government bodies functioned, as did out-patient care with dispensary-like elements and health care provided by local health centres. There also existed the institution of full-time family doctors within the insured health-care system - something lacking in Eastern Belarus. As in other voivodships (provinces) of the Second Republic, there existed multi-sector health care: state, local, insurance-based and private. The Western Belarus had Poland's smallest number of physicians, new hospital beds and pharmacies. On the other hand, today's Western Belarus stands out by virtue of maintaining field-medicine traditions. To this day, assistant medical officers provide health care to the rural population - an arrangement not typical of the central and western provinces fo pre-war Poland.

  19. Resource flows and levels of spending for the response to HIV and AIDS in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Belarus has a focused HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. However, until 2008, Belarus had no way of evaluating HIV spending priorities. In 2008, Belarus committed to undertaking a comprehensive National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA in order to analyze HIV spending priorities. NASA was used to 'follow the money' from the funding sources to agents and providers, and eventually to beneficiary populations. Findings Belarus spent the majority of its funding on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and on securing the blood supply. International donors and NGOs working within Belarus spent the majority of their funding on preventative activities for high risk groups while Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM solely funded antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions The data and experience obtained through conducting NASA will help build capacity for future resource tracking activities for HIV and other health priorities. This experience established the foundation for enhanced and future consistent quality-reporting of National Health Accounts. Monitoring the flow of resources for Belarus' HIV response provides valuable strategic information that can improve operations and planning as well as mobilize greater resources. NASA offers Belarusian policy makers an overview of HIV activities that merit their priority attention. In addition, the findings from Belarus are particularly relevant for the rest of the Commonwealth of Independent States due to their similar epidemiological profiles and centrally planned systems. The Belarusian government faces future challenges, especially in increasing public investments in HIV prevention for female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and among intravenous drug users.

  20. Kazakhstan's Environment-Health system, a Big Data challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Bella Gazdiyeva, Bella; Tucker, Allan; Russell, Andrew; Ali, Maged; Althonayan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan has witnessed a remarkable economic development in the past 15 years, becoming an upper-middle-income country. However it is still widely regarded as a developing nation, partially because of its population's low life expectancy which is 5 years below the average in similar economies. The environment is in a rather fragile state, affected by soil, water, air pollution, radioactive contamination and climate change. However, Kazakhstan's government is moving towards clean energy and environmental protection and calling on scientists to help prioritise investments. The British Council-funded "Kazakhstan's Environment-Health Risk Analysis (KEHRA)" project is one of the recently launched initiatives to support Kazakhstan healthier future. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that the above mentioned factors (air/water/soil pollution, etc.) affecting public health almost certainly do not act independently but rather trigger and exacerbate each other. Exploring the environment-health links in a multi-dimensional framework is a typical Big Data problem, in which the volume and variety of the data needed poses technical as well as scientific challenges. In Kazakhstan, the complexities related to managing and analysing Big Data are worsened by a number of obstacles at the data acquisition step: most of the data is not in digital form, spatial and temporal attributes are often ambiguous and the re-use and re-purpose of the information is subject to restrictive licenses and other mechanisms of control. In this work, we document the first steps taken towards building an understanding of the complex environment-health system in Kazakhstan, using interactive visualisation tools to identify and compare hot-spots of pollution and poor health outcomes, Big Data and web technologies to collect, manage and explore available information. In the future, the knowledge acquired will be modelled to develop evidence-based recommendation systems for decision makers in

  1. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  2. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  4. Post-crisis Belarus: Marxism and the lender of last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing literature has examined the predictions and proscriptions of Karl Marx in response to the 2008 global financial crisis. However, the suggestions put forth by the Marxist-leaning literature never took hold and state-level banking and finance policies have remained largely unchanged. While many criticisms of Marxism exist, this paper examines Belarus, a ‘neo-communist’ or ‘market-socialist’ state, to provide a new perspective on the continuation of capitalism in the United States and Europe. In the case of Belarus, the International Monetary Fund and the Eurasian Economic Community's Anti-Crisis Fund provided both the critical liquidity needed to temporarily quell the effects of the financial crisis. Their demands meant that Belarus agreed to speed its move away from the Soviet-era finance and banking policies and more towards its western capitalist neighbors. Its failure to implement these policies further hurt its recovery. Examining Belarus' path to and out of its financial crisis makes apparent that the role of the international lender of last resort (LOLR. The LOLR acts as a key element in protecting states embroiled in the financial crisis from facing the possibility of making the difficult policy changes put forth by the Marxist literature. By ignoring its promises under the loan conditions from its LOLRs, Belarus moved further from the recovery promised by the Marxist suggestions.

  5. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrej, Stavrov

    1995-01-01

    As a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP almost the forth part of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been contaminated with radioactive elements, near two billion people continue to live at this territory. An enormous economic damage to the republic has been caused, what affects all the population. The situation in considerable extent is complicated because of the heavy energy crisis in Belarus. One of the main reason of the crisis is practically complete absence of fuel resources in Belarus. These circumstances caused the return of the idea to create atomic power engineering in Belarus. Coincidence in time of the events mentioned above has created the situation when public opinion up to the recent time was negative in respect to construction of a NPP in spite of availability of strong factors in favour of that. The reason is evident - Chernobyl NPP accident. Activity related to public acceptance of nuclear power in Belarus has specific features, since the people suffered from nuclear power directly. That circumstance has required the development of nonstandard approach, composing both advertisement of positive features and merits of NPP and radioecological education of practically all population of the republic to satisfy the measures on radiation protection and overcoming the consequences of catastrophe

  6. Problems of nuclear power creation in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A substantiation of necessity of the nuclear power development in Kazakhstan is given in this report even though rich stocks of the raw fuel of an organic origin are available in our Republic. It is caused by the following circumstances: (a) non-uniform distribution of the coal - main energy source for power stations and heating upon the of territory of Kazakhstan, causing import of the electric power to western and southern areas of Kazakhstan from neighbour countries; (b) availability of essential stocks of uranium (about 25 percent of the researched world reserves), 70 percent from which can be developed by the cheapest and non-polluting method - by uranium underground leaching; (c) availability of main enterprises of a nuclear fuel cycle in Kazakhstan: enterprises on uranium extraction and its processing. A powder - dioxide of uranium, from which tablets as a fuel for the NPP, is produced on Ulbinsk plant; (d) availability of legal base in the Republic necessary for development of nuclear engineering; (e) availability of the qualified experts working on decommission of power fast reactor BN-350 and three research nuclear reactors NNC KR, (f) availability of the scientific research institutes working in the field of atomic engineering at the National Nuclear Center of the Kazakh Republic;(g) Kazakhstan accepted the Kyoto Agreement which limits burning of organic fuel to avoid g reenhouse effect , which can cause catastrophic climate changes on the Earth. Problems of the Kazakhstan nuclear power development and its' solution are considered in this report. They are as follows: (a) a choice of the nuclear power reactor project of the maximal safety, reliability and economic competitiveness of nuclear power plants, corresponding to the highest international requirements of the twenty first century; (b) problems of the manipulation with the highly radioactive long-living waste formed in fuel assembly of reactor; (c) radio phobia, necessity of

  7. Georgia’s Brightest Future Includes Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    should not automatically signal that Georgia is doomed to the stagnation, interference and corruption that normally permeate Russian satellite...associated with Russian tourism . Though Russian tourism is growing in Georgia and represented 8% of their total visitors in 2010, 58 they could...to Russian markets once again. 58 Georgia National Tourism Agency official statistics, http://www.gnta.ge/?61/statistics/&lan=en, Chart entitled

  8. Forest statistics for Georgia, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Tansey

    1983-01-01

    Since the fourth inventory of the forest resources of Georgia in 1972, the area of commercial forest land decreased over 4 percent, or by almost 1.1 million acres. Commercial forests now cover approximately 23.7 million acres, 64 percent of the land area in the State. Nearly 5.1 million acres were harvested, while about 2.9 million acres were adequately regenerated...

  9. Georgia Species at Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Robins, ten at Fort Stewart, and three at King’s Bay. GA-DNR contracted with the Natural Resources Spatial Analysis Laboratory (NARSAL) to produce...stagnant, tannin -stained waters in creeks and impoundments, especially in areas with heavy aquatic vegetation (Hoover et al. 1998). A management...was contracted to the Natural Resources Spatial Analysis Laboratory (NARSAL) at the University of Georgia, who previously completed mapping at a

  10. INVESTMENT CLIMATE OF KAZAKHSTAN: CURRENT STATUS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madina Abugalievna TEMIRBULATOVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture still remains a little attractive to most of investors. Modern investment into agrarian sector of Kazakhstan and growth of its investment appeal restrains an acute shortage of financial resources, poorly developed material base, low solvent demand of the population therefore growth of investments is one of major factors of ensuring economic development of agriculture in general, improvement of quality of life of the population of the village, updating of regional technical and technological base, fixed assets in agriculture. In this regard special relevance researches on improvement of mechanisms of attraction of investments into agrarian sector of economy and methods of increase of investment appeal of agriculture for the purpose of ensuring its sustainable economic development. If to consider already created interstate unions, in this plan it is expedient to consider relationship between Romania and Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan and Romania will develop in common electronic decisions in education, medicine and agriculture. In Kazakhstan communications with inclusion of the earth in market the turn appears need for new financial instruments as mortgage valuable issue papers (bonds. The proposed Мodel of land - mortgage lending will be the main way to increase the investment attractiveness Republic of Kazakhstan.

  11. Mentoring a health technology assessment initiative in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratov, Sergei; Hailey, David; Foerster, Vicki; Brady, Bruce; Juzwishin, Don; la Fleur, Philip; McGowan, Jessie

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assist in the development of a health technology assessment (HTA) program for the Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Republic of Kazakhstan Mentoring of an initial HTA program in Kazakhstan was provided by the Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH) by means of a partnership with the Kazakhstan MOH. HTA materials, courses, and one-on-one support for the preparation of a series of initial HTA reports by MOH HTA staff were provided by a seven-member CSIH team over a 2.5-year project. Guidance documents on HTA and institutional strengthening were prepared in response to an extensive set of deliverables developed by the MOH and the World Bank. Introductory and train-the-trainer workshops in HTA and economic evaluation were provided for MOH staff members, experts from Kazakhstan research institutes and physicians. Five short HTA reports were successfully developed by staff in the Ministry's HTA Unit with assistance from the CSIH team. Challenges that may be relevant to other emerging HTA programs included lack of familiarity with some essential underlying concepts, organization culture, and limited time for MOH staff to do HTA work. The project helped to define the need for HTA and mentored MOH staff in taking the first steps to establish a program to support health policy decision making in Kazakhstan. This experience offers practical lessons for other emerging HTA programs, although these should be tailored to the specific context.

  12. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  13. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented

  14. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended... Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22 U.S.C. 5811 note), as amended by section 5 of the Belarus Democracy and Human Rights Act of 2011 (Public Law 112-82). You are authorized and directed to publish this...

  15. Communication of 3 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 3 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the IAEA, including a statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus on the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan

  16. 76 FR 25330 - Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063-Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Georgia Power Company; Project No. 485-063--Georgia and Alabama, Bartletts Ferry Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... Ferry Hydroelectric Project. The Programmatic Agreement, when executed by the Commission, the Georgia...

  17. Kazakhstan's Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe: An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Shirin Akiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive international comment and analysis was devoted to the Kazakhstan's Chairmanship in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE. No previous candidate for this office received such treatment. Kazakhstan's agenda of aims and objectives included important issues. During the year several steps were taken towards implementing Kazakhstan's agenda.

  18. Environmental problems on Kazakhstan and the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesipbaeva, K.; Chang, C.

    1997-01-01

    In this coherent and consistently - argued article, the authors explore ecological problems in Kazakhstan, a process of Kazakhstan's integration into international antinuclear movement. They look at what a moratorium on nuclear weapons testing Semipalatinsk meant to peoples in Kazakhstan. The authors research a history of the Nevada-Semipalatinsk antinuclear movement. (author)

  19. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  20. 78 FR 9034 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Reviews of the... India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela. The Department finds that revocation of these antidumping duty orders... INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela...

  1. Strategy for elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus: evaluation of 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kachan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents results of implementation of successful program of elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus. Government decree (2001 requires mandatory use of iodized salt in food industry and public catering. While retail trade of non-iodized salt is not prohibited, all foods shops must have iodized salt on sale. All these measures resulted in increase of iodized salt consumption: 94% of house-holds in Belarus were using iodized salt. Iodine nutrition of population also sig-nificantly improved: median urinary iodine levels in general population (school-children reached 169 mcg/l and in pregnant women – 224 mcg/l. Endemic goiter morbidity decreased significantly in children, adolescents and adults as well as frequency of transitory thyroid dysfunctions in newborns. Belarus experience in prevention of iodine deficiency can be used by other industrialized countries of Europe and rest of the world.

  2. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the system of nuclear terrorism counteractions at Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.; Azarov, V.A.; Silayev, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: After collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Kazakhstan has inherited a wealthy nuclear legacy from the former superpower. The Kazakhstan enterprises were actively engaged into a closed nuclear fuel cycle existing in the USSR. In addition, the Kazakhstan territory housed strategic nuclear forces defense bases, nuclear weapon test-sites, and research institutions engaged in studying and developing of nuclear technologies including these for defense and space purposes. After gaining its independence, the Republic of Kazakhstan made efforts to rid itself of many components of this system: military bases were closed; nuclear weapon was withdrawn from Kazakhstan territory; nuclear test-sites were closed; many fuel cycle enterprises having lost orders for their products had to reduce their output or close down; scientific and research institutions were re-oriented to perform operations in the field of peaceful nuclear and radiation technologies use. All these actions were not only appreciated by the international politics thus promoting the integration of the newly independent state into the international economy, but have also created the necessary prerequisites for qualitative change of the ecological conditions at Kazakhstan territory. However, there are negative consequences of an old political system collapse also. One of them is a significant reduction of control over nuclear and radioactive materials located at Kazakhstan territory. In the end of the last millennium and with the beginning of the new one, numerous radical terrorist organizations have livened up their activities. The situation arisen in Kazakhstan may be used by such organizations to acquire nuclear and radioactive materials for the purposes of terrorist acts and threats. It is likely that some organizations acquire such materials to sell to third parties or foreign terrorist organizations rather than use them in any acts within Kazakhstan. Due to structural reorganization of force

  3. Public acceptance of prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusha, N.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.; Tushin, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The issue of constructing a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus is far from being new. The Republic was oriented to development of nuclear power industry by the Energy Programme adopted in the former USSR. In 1983 the construction of the Minsk Nuclear Heat and Power Plant (NHPP) with a projected output of 2 million kW was initiated, the construction of a NPP with an output of 6 million KW was planned. The Chernobyl accident however shut down all on-going projects in nuclear power engineering. After the collapse of the interconnected power system that united the republics of the former USSR, Belarus found itself in the energy crisis. The nuclear industry is thus considered to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy problems, which are nowadays intensively discussed through mass media. One of the major arguments spoke out by nuclear power opponents is the Chernobyl syndrome, which is incident to a significant portion of the population. The sociological monitoring of the public opinion is carried out for revealing the attitude of the population to the suggested ways of overcoming the energy crisis and the prospects of developing the nuclear power industry. During the period of 1995-1998 three sociological studies were accomplished. The first sociological study showed that 40.9% of population supported the NPP construction, 39 % were against and 19.2% could not answer. In the second study the poll covered general public and 'experts', representatives of scientific community, educationalists, managers of various levels etc. The result confirmed a growing support of construction NPP by the population. The third sociological study was conducted autumn 1998 which polled both mass media professionals and general public. Among the respondents 67.5% revealed their stiff and rather bellicose attitude to possible construction of NPP. While among the population only every third respondent can be related to the convinced opponents of the NPP construction and among the

  4. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war were Turkestan and Omsk Military Okrug, combining all military institutions of the Steppe Governorate General, including the ones of North-Eastern and Central Kazakhstan. The source base of the research is the materials of Kazakhstan and German archives, the recollections of the former prisoners of war and the published collections of documents and materials.

  5. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  6. HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA-KAZAKHSTAN GEO-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Ильич Цай

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the perspective directions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the sphere of fuel and energy complex. The authors give particular examples of the joint implementation of the adopted documents aimed at strengthening the two countries’ cooperation in the exploration and production of oil and gas in the past decade. Particular attention is paid to the Russia-Kazakhstan cooperation in the spheres of nuclear power, oil and oil products. These areas are considered by the example of the largest enterprises of fuel and energy complexes of Russia and Kazakhstan. One of the main components of the fuel and energy complex is the Petroleum Industry.

  7. Radiation endocrinology as science and its tasks in Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is known, that radiation endocrinology as science was formed comparatively not long ago and it is developing at the turn of endocrinology, medical radiology, radiobiology and immunology. Tasks of clinic radiation endocrinology for scientists of Kazakhstan are related with following problems: - radiation effects in condition of Semipalatinsk test site (Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar, East-Kazakhstan regions); - with definition of radiation factors (related with nuclear explosions) in ecologic systems for solution of national problems; - with contamination of Kazakhstan territory, associated with industrial radioactive materials handling ; - with goiter enemy in districts with unfavorable radiation situation; - with mass character of injuries of both the radiation exposure and the iodine deficit on territory of Republic. It was emphasised, that there is principle problem of population rehabilitation through systems of mass measures including prevention of endocrine complication in late time

  8. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  9. Plutonium in the air in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, J.; Salminen, S.; Jaakkola, T.; Outola, I.; Pulli, S. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Tarvainen, M.; Ristonmaa, S. [Finnish Authority for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Zilliacus, R. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Ossintsev, A.; Larin, V. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-31

    Weekly air samples of 25000 m{sup 3} volume were taken with two air samplers over a period of one year in 2000-2001 in the town of Kurchatov in Kazakhstan. For another three-month period in 2001, the samplers were run in the city of Astana, about 500 km west of Kurchatov. {sup 137}Cs, Pu and U concentrations were determined from the filters. Pu activities in Kurchatov varied in a 100-fold range; median {sup 239,240}Pu activities were 100 nBq/m{sup 3} and {sup 238}Pu activities 34 nBq/m{sup 3}. The corresponding values for Astana were considerably lower: 29 and 9 nBq/m{sup 3}, respectively, and in half of the filters the {sup 238}Pu activity was below the detection limit. Plutonium concentration correlated with the amount of dust retained on the filters only at the highest dust loads. Also no correlation between wind speed and the plutonium activity in the filters was observed. Thus, resuspension does not seem to be the mechanism responsible for the airborne plutonium. No clear seasonal variation of Pu air concentration was observed, though levels were somewhat elevated in February to April. There was no correlation between the plutonium and {sup 137}Cs concentrations. In most of the filters the cesium concentration was below the detection limit, but in those filters where it could be detected the cesium concentration was practically constant at 3.9+/-1.6 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}. Dose estimation for the inhalation of the airborne plutonium gave a low value of 0.018 {mu}Sv/a for the inhabitants in Kurchatov, which is about a thousand times lower than the dose caused by the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po. Air parcel trajectory analysis indicated that the observed Pu activities in the air could not unambiguously be attributed to the most contaminated areas at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  10. Steppe Eagle in the Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Between June 22 and July 18, 2017, fieldworks were carried out to study the population structure and demographic characteristics of the Steppe Eagle breeding groups (Aquila nipalensis in the central part of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. In the course of the work 808 birds we found, 280 Steppe Eagle breeding territories were localized. Within 10 registration areas 277 Steppe Eagle breeding territories (96.18 % were examined, including 70 successful nests with 102 nestlings. The occupation of breeding territories was 87.73 %, while the percentage of active nests in the occupied breeding territories was 69.14 %. Successful were 42.26 % of nests from the number of active nests and 25.63 % from the number of identified breeding territories. The number of nestlings in broods ranged from 1 to 3, averaging (n=71 1.45±0.56 nestlings per successful nest and (n=168 0.61±0.80 nestlings per occupied nest. With a very high percentage of nests with unsuccessful breeding (54.46 % of the number of active ones, high percentage of nests with dead clutch was recorded – 34.55 % of the number of nests with unsuccessful breeding. Distribution density of Steppe Eagle active nests averaged 7.67/100 km2, varying in different areas from 4.11 to 12.90/100 km2. The distribution density of Steppe Eagle successful nests on the areas varied from 0 to 4.81/100 km2 averaged 3.24/100 km2. For the area of habitats suitable for breeding across the Karaganda region (142,549.9 km2, the abundance of the Steppe Eagle in nesting was 4,794–5,814, at average 5,275 pairs and 2,183–2,647, at average 2,402 successful pairs.

  11. Scientific Lightning Detection Network for Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for lightning location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a lightning activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use lightning data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are lightning detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full lightning information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field lightning antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.

  12. RECYCLING OF SCRAP AND WASTE OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a new casting and mechanical shop of unitary enterprise «Tsvetmet» in December 2015 has allowed to solve the complex problem of processing and utilization of scrap and wastes of copper and copper alloys in the Republic of Belarus. The technological processes of fire refinement of copper and manufacturing of copper rod from scrap and production of brass rod by hot pressing (extrusion of the continuously casted round billet have been mastered for the first time in the Republic of Belarus.

  13. Post-Chernobyl contamination of Belarus biosphere with plutonium and americium-241 radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.; Boulyga, S.F.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Kievets, M.K.; Yaroshevich, O.I.; Bazhanova, N.N.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.; Zhuk, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of Post-Chernobyl soil surface contamination in Belarus are presented, as well as the data on vertical migration of Pu and 241 Am in soils, on actinides concentrations in the near-ground air, sizes and the activity aerosol 'hot' particles, Pu content in organs and tissues in the inhabitants of Belarus. It is shown that hairs can be test-tissue for a lifetime assessment of the levels of Pu intake and content in the organism of a human being. (author)

  14. [MEDICAL SOCIAL MODELING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ACTIVE AGING IN KAZAKHSTAN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benberin, V V; Akhetov, A A; Tanbaeva, G Z

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses a new model for active ageing in Republic of Kazakhstan with participation the state, population and medical social services. Achieving active longevity will lead to positive trends in the development of human capital of the state, because it enables to use experience and knowledge of senior generation in enhancing the effectiveness of socio-economic transformation in health care. The study was carried out on the base of the Central clinical hospital of the President's affairs administration in Republic of Kazakhstan, with the participation of 147 admitted patients of elderly and senile age.

  15. Power engineering of Kazakhstan. Movement to the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukenbaev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the book an optimal solution of problems on transition of current system of Kazakhstan power engineering management to free market relationships is made an attempt. In the work achievements of world power engineering system in introducing of International standards of generation and distribution of electric energy were taken into consideration. The book is intended to all levels managers of power engineering branch and it could be used in business circles having interest to capital investment to Kazakhstan power engineering as well as to students and postgraduates

  16. Kazakhstan: coronary and structural heart interventions from 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhov, Orazbek S; Kuzhukeyev, Murat E; Kodasbayev, Almat T; Egemberdiev, Tolegen Zh; Berkinbayev, Salim F; Zholdin, Bekbolat K; Alimbaev, Serik A; Zhangelova, Sholpan B; Rakhimov, Rustam A; Makhanov, Daniyar I; Sabitov, Yersyn T; Teleuov, Dauren A; Baisebenov, Ruslan K; Kuzhukeyev, Arystan M

    2017-05-15

    This paper presents data on the nascence and development of the interventional cardiology service in Kazakhstan. It provides details of the structure of the Kazakhstan interventional cardiology service, staff training, the number of coronary and structural heart interventions for the period of 2010-2015, as well as the peculiarities of the capitation payment method. The number of coronary interventions is increasing year by year, though the number of intracoronary imaging techniques and intracoronary flow/pressure techniques remains inadequate. Structural heart interventions are mostly performed at tertiary hospital level, with an ever increasing number of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures.

  17. New Records To The Vascular Flora Of Kazakhstan (Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Aleksandr L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents distributional data for seven species new for the flora of Kazakhstan: Atriplex gardneri var. aptera (A. Nelson S. L. Welsh. & Crompton, Cardamine hirsuta L., Carduus acanthoides L., Galega orientalis Lam., Silene cserei Baumg., Didymophysa fedtschenkoana Regel and Acinos arvensis (Lam. Dandy. Didymophysa fedtschenkoana is a native element in the Kazakh flora; the other species should be treated as alien, expansively spreading or invasive in this part of Asia. A list of localities of the species in Kazakhstan and their habitat preferences are presented.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Hughes, Rachael A; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Nicoli, Emily; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2018-02-28

    To examine associations of parental socioeconomic position with early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) trajectories in a middle-income country. Overall, 12,385 Belarusian children born 1996-97 and enrolled in a randomised breastfeeding promotion trial at birth, with 3-14 measurements of BMI from birth to 7 years. Cohort analysis in which exposures were parental education (common secondary or less; advanced secondary or partial university; completed university) and occupation (manual; non-manual) at birth, and the outcome was BMI z-score trajectories estimated using multilevel linear spline models, controlling for trial arm, location, parental BMI, maternal smoking status and number of older siblings. Infants born to university-educated mothers were heavier at birth than those born to secondary school-educated mothers [by 0.13 BMI z-score units (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07, 0.19) for girls and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for boys; equivalent for an infant of average birth length to 43 and 38 g, respectively]. Between the ages of 3-7 years children of the most educated mothers had larger BMI increases than children of the least educated mothers. At age 7 years, after controlling for trial arm and location,  children of university-educated mothers had higher BMIs than those born to secondary school-educated mothers by 0.11 z-score (95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) among girls and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.27) among boys, equivalent to differences in BMI for a child of average height of 0.19 and 0.26 kg/m 2 , respectively. After further controlling for parental BMI, these differences attenuated to 0.08 z-score (95% CI: 0, 0.16) and 0.16 z-score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.24), respectively, but changed very little after additional adjustment for number of older siblings and mother's smoking status. Associations were similar when based on paternal educational attainment and highest household occupation. In Belarus, consistent with some middle-income countries, higher socioeconomic

  19. PSYCHROPHILIC PSEUDOMONAS SP. RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As mercury circulates and deposits globally, the remediation of extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan is critical. High-levels of mercury contamination exist within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and e...

  20. Application Features of Language Acquisition Assessment System in Kazakhstan: KAZTEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinayeva, Bekzat B.; Sapina, Sabira M.; Utanova, Aizada K.; Aitova, Nurlykhan N.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of peculiarities of language acquisition assessment system in Kazakhstan--KAZTEST. The author pays attention to the role of control as a way of assessment students' skills, habits and knowledge. In addition, author determined the place and functions of tests as a form of control. The author explores the…

  1. Civil Service Training in Kazakhstan: The Implementation of New Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimenova, Gulimzhan

    2016-01-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the few countries in Central Asia in a historically short period of time managed to take strong positions in the international arena. However, under the conditions of rapidly changing world, the country has to face challenges driven by new requirements to civil servants professional level. Therefore, the 100 Steps Government…

  2. Rapid assessment of bilateral cochlear implantation for children in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosherbayeva, Lyazzat; Hailey, David; Kozhageldiyeva, Laura

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) compared with unilateral CI for deaf children in the context of the Republic of Kazakhstan health system. Methods. A literature search was conducted, using the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase data bases for studies that compared the effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral CI in children. The search included English language, publications from 2002-2012. Two reviewers independently evaluated all relevant studies. Administrative data relevant to CI in Kazakhstan were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Three relevant systematic reviews and an health technology assessment report were found. There was evidence of incremental benefits from bilateral CI but the quality of the available studies was poor and there was little information on longer term outcomes. No conclusions could be drawn regarding later incremental improvements to speech perception, learning, and quality of life. To date, in the Republic of Kazakhstan there is not full coverage of audiological screening due to the lack of medical equipment. This leads to late detection of hearing-impaired children and a long rehabilitation period, requiring more resources. Age of implantation in children is late and only a small minority attend general schools. The clinical effectiveness of bilateral CI, an expensive health technology, requires further study. Given the current situation in Kazakhstan with audiological screening and access to unilateral CI, there appeared to be other priorities for improving services for children with profound hearing impairment.

  3. THE BEHAVIOR OF MICROORGANISMS RESISTANT TO MERCURY FROM PAVLODAR, KAZAKHSTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is extensive mercury contamination surrounding a chloralkali plant in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan that operated from 1970 to 1990. High-level mercury contamination exists within the confines of the plant, at nearby off-site waste storage and evaporation ponds, in Balkyldak Lake w...

  4. The cryogenic collection of fruit biodiversity in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of the biodiversity of fruit crops is important to the future of horticulture in Kazakhstan. A field collection of fruit germplasm with more than 4000 cultivars and wild selections is grown in the Pomological Garden of the Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture near Almaty, to preser...

  5. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Kazakhstan, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Medetov, Zhumagul B.; Kyraubayev, Kakimzhan B.; Bumburidi, Yekaterina; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; MacNeil, Adam; Bayserkin, Baurzhan S.; Ospanov, Kenes S.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) surveillance data from southern Kazakhstan during 2009–2010 and found both spatial and temporal association between reported tick bites and CCHF cases. Public health measures should center on preventing tick bites, increasing awareness of CCHF signs and symptoms, and adopting hospital infection control practices. PMID:22469505

  6. Legitimation and the Party of Power in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Sordi, A.; Brusis, M.; Ahrens, J.; Schulze Wessel, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter surveys the legitimation strategies enacted by the political leadership of the contemporary post-Soviet republic. While showing that Kazakhstan bases its legitimation primarily on international recognition and the country’s economic performance, it also focuses on an institutional

  7. Kazakh: Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtautas, Ilse

    The text is designed for classroom and self-study of Kazakh by Peace Corps volunteers training to serve in Kazakhstan. It consists of language and culture lessons on 13 topics: personal identification; classroom communication; conversation with a host counterpart or family; general communication; food; money; transportation; getting and giving…

  8. Cruelty to animals in Kazakhstan: moral and legislative aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmetov, Roman; Baysalov, Aly; Rahymova, Gakku

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the issues related to animal cruelty. Some problems of the moral side of such acts. Particular attention is paid to the legal aspects in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of animal protection, as compared with foreign countries, we have it developed quite weak.

  9. PetroKazakhstan Inc. 2004 annual report : going beyond boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    PetroKazakhstan is a vertically integrated Calgary-based energy company that has been involved in the acquisition, exploration and production of oil and gas in Kazakhstan. The company also has shares listed in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany. Financial information from PetroKazakhstan was presented and a review of their 2004 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's proved plus probable reserve base as of January 1, 2005 has been assessed at 549.8 million barrels of equivalent. In 2004, the company generated record earnings of $0.5 billion, an increase of 58 per cent from 2003. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements, and common share information including the accounts of PetroKazakhstan and the company's proportionate share of the assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  10. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from...

  11. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  12. History Textbook Writing in a Post-Totalitarian and Authoritarian Context: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadora, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses school history writing in a specific context: Belarus--a post-totalitarian and authoritarian state. School history teaching has always been a powerful instrument for transmitting national identity and legitimising political structures, and political authorities tend to control it. Perestroika marked the beginning of a new…

  13. Audit in Belarus under new law and in new environment: first results, problems, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Korotayev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the first results of application of the new law of the Republic of Belarus «On audit activity» since the 01.01.2014. The authors identify the problems inherent in auditing, propose specific measures to solve these problems, and to create the necessary conditions for the further development of audit.

  14. The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in Mogilev region [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komleva, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the present level of radioactive situation and contamination of areas of agricultural companies with radiocesium at in Mogilev region. There were suggested methodical approaches on organizing the use of the lands in such a way as to get the minimum content of radionuclides in the manufactured products

  15. Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Rose, R

    2001-01-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of effective tobacco control policy in Belarus and other parts of the former Soviet Union. It is particularly important in view of the way the tobacco industry has targeted this region since transition. A nationally representative household survey designed to explore smoking behaviour and its determinants was undertaken in Belarus in April 2000. Data were available on 1090 individuals aged 18 years and over (response rate 53.4%). Respondents were similar demographically to the population of Belarus. Fifty three percent of men and 9% of women are current smokers and an additional 18% and 7% respectively are ex-smokers. Differences in smoking habits between successive generations were identified. These included a ninefold higher rate of ever-smoking amongst 18-29 years old women compared with those aged over 60 years (p workplace where 65% smoke, is common. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have positive beliefs about the health impact of active and passive smoking (p < 0.0001). Amongst women the odds of smoking is 13 times higher in those living in large cities compared with those living in villages. In men, disadvantage and a positive attitude to the west appear to increase the likelihood of smoking. To date policy responses have been inadequate. Unless effective tobacco control policies are introduced, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Belarus.

  16. Influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikova, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing of quantity diseases of cancers caused only Chernobyl accident aren't revealed. Because increase of the oncology morbidity in Republic of Belarus is stimulated and of radiation and both of environmental contamination carcinogen factor and of factors acted on organism level

  17. Here we go again: the january 2007 transit crisis between russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, Varro

    2007-01-01

    In January 2007 Russia interrupted oil deliveries in the Druzhba (Friendship) pipeline due to a transit dispute with Belarus. Although the issue was resolved quickly and existing commercial and strategic stockpiles proved adequate, the episode had the potential to develop into a serious energy security crisis. The crux of the problem was the allocation of rents generated by Russia's oil export tax system. Because of the customs union between the two countries, this created an artificially high profitability for re- exports of oil products from Belarus. Although Belarus is generally regarded as a political ally of Russia and certainly lacks the western orientation of Ukraine's orange revolution, the accumulating transit and rent sharing revenues became sufficient to trigger a forceful action from Russia. The main significance of the Belarus episode is that it highlighted the energy security risks associated with excessive reliance of a single pipeline system. It also dispelled any hope that the January 2006 Ukraine gas crisis was a once off event. Consequently both Russia and the importing regions are expected to raise their priorities in diversifying transit routes and sources. (author)

  18. A study on demographic characteristics of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Surkova

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: As Belarus is a high-burden MDR-TB country and treatment of drug-resistant TB is long and complicated, the findings of this study provided useful information to deliver effective community-based disease control measures and a proposed plane for the effective management of drug-resistant TB at the national level.

  19. To the Question of the Nature of Belarus and Russia Union State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Gwarishwili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the actual problem of defining the nature of Belarus and Russia Union State (US as unique international creation. The author analyzes different definitions that reflect variations of conceptual positions in the understanding of the essence of the State Union and offer his own definition of US.

  20. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  1. Prevention of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials (Belarus Customs) [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    With continuing technical assistance from the IAEA, Belarus begins to introduce an effective radiation control system at its borders, and a centralized information network. The video shows one road and one railway checkpoint, and the tools for the detection of ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. The system of nuclear material control of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The State system for nuclear material control consists of three integral components. The efficiency of each is to guarantee the non-proliferation regime in Kazakhstan. The components are the following: accounting, export and import control and physical protection of nuclear materials. First, the implementation of the goals of accounting and control bring into force, by the organization of the system for accounting and measurement of nuclear materials to determine present quantity. Organizing the accounting for nuclear material at facilities will ensure the efficiency of accountancy and reporting information. This defines the effectiveness of the state system for the accounting for the Kazakhstan's nuclear materials. Currently, Kazakhstan's nuclear material is fully safeguarded in designated secure locations. Kazakhstan has a nuclear power plant, 4 research reactors and a fuel fabrication plant. The governmental information system for nuclear materials control consist of two level: Governmental level - KAEA collects reports from facilities and prepares the reports for International Atomic Energy Agency, keeping of supporting documents and other necessary information, a data base of export and import, a data base of nuclear material inventory. Facility level - registration and processing information from key measurement points, formation the facility's nuclear materials accounting database. All facilities have computerized systems. Currently, all facilities are safeguarded under IAEA safeguarding standards, through IAEA inspections. Annually, IAEA verifies all nuclear materials at all Kazakhstan nuclear facilities. The government reporting system discloses the existence of all nuclear material and its transfer intended for interaction through the export control system and the nuclear control accounting system. Nuclear material export is regulated by the regulations of the Nuclear Export Control Law. The standard operating procedure is the primary means for

  3. [Osteoarthritis in the adult population of the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaeva, M G

    2015-01-01

    To analyze overall and new-onset osteoarthritis (OA) morbidity among the adult population in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2011-2012. The data of annual statistical reports "On Population Health and Public Health System" (Form No. 12) in 2011-2012 were analyzed. The indicators in the Republic of Kazakhstan were taken from the statistical collected articles "Population Health in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Activities of Healthcare Facilities". A comparative analysis of the indicators revealed a rising trend in overall morbidity by 1%, including in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) by 3% (the increase rate per 100,000 population was 2%). An analysis of the incidence of MSD per 100,000 population in some regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan showed an upward trend in the Almaty Region: the incidence increased among the women and the 18 or more year olds by 23 and 16%, respectively. Among the adults (aged 18 years or older) and women, the number of patients with a newly diagnosed coxarthrosis (CA) increased by 43 and 18%, respectively; the number of those with gonarthrosis (GA) rose by 36 and 33%, respectively. The people older than 60 years of age and women showed 122 and 82% rises in the number of patients with a newly diagnosed CA; there were 78% increment rates in the patients with GA and 68% in the women. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, there was a high incidence of OA in both the people aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed CA, GA and the people over 60 years of age, in women in particular.

  4. Prospects for Formation and Development of the Geographical (Territorial) Industrial Clusters in West Kazakhstan Region of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashev, Eduard Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and implement an economic and geographic approach to forming and developing geographic (territorial) industrial clusters in regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose necessitates the accomplishment of the following scientific objectives: to investigate scientific approaches and experience of territorial economic…

  5. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  6. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan

  7. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that the 20th century became a thing of the past was important for Kazakhstan from the view of territory and state establishment. This year the Republic of Kazakhstan celebrates 10 years of independence. After the USSR breakup in 1991, Kazakh SSR became a sovereign state that inherited the unique test complex Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, the pride of the entire Soviet people in the past. For the first time in the history of nuclear weapon (one of mass destruction types) creation, development and partial elimination the test site created for testing such weapons was eliminated. The Republic of Kazakhstan declared itself a non-nuclear state and started solving such complicated problems as the possibility to use the territory of the former nuclear test site in the national economy. For this it was necessary to start work on nuclear test infrastructure elimination and this work commenced. Great assistance in conduction of such work has been and is rendered by the specialists from the USA, different international organizations, for example, IAEA, NATO etc. In order to determine whether it's possible to transfer the test site territory to national economy it is necessary not only to eliminate tests infrastructure but also to obtain reliable data on the dimensions and degree of radioactive contamination of the territory within and outside the test site borders. National Nuclear Center specialists working in close cooperation with many Kazakhstan and International Organizations contributed much to studies on radioecological situation at the former STS territory and regions adjoining it, as well as to radiation parameter data obtaining process. The problems of Semipalatinsk test site are in focus of the State. At the Second UN General Assembly, the President of Kazakhstan pointed out this problem and appealed to the International Community to solve it in cooperation. In order to implement Resolution 52/169M of UN General Assembly 'on international cooperation

  8. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  9. Communication of 22 March 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding Kazakhstan's nuclear policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Director General has received a note verbale of 22 March 2002 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan providing information about the nuclear policies and practices of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the light of the wish expressed in the note verbale, its text is attached hereto

  10. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  11. Problems and prospects of using of straw as a bio-fuel in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharenka, H.V.; Tocareva, A.D.; Shabanov, A.A.; Rodzkin, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Belarus has reasonable perspectives of using of straw as a bio-fuel. In the connection with it there are certain ecological advantages and logistical problems which are discussed in the article. (authors)

  12. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  13. 2012 Oconee County, Georgia ADS80 Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All imagery was collected during the 2012 Spring flying season during leaf-off conditions for deciduous vegetation in the State of Georgia. The sun angle was at...

  14. 2013 Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5 foot pixel resolution, four band (RGB, Near IR) orthoimages covering Athens-Clarke Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data...

  15. Strait of Georgia chinook and coho fishery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, A. W

    1983-01-01

    The chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon fishery in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, is a valuble sport and commercial resource...

  16. Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) leadership academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Public agencies like the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) are continually challenged with : reduced staff levels, reduced budgets, increased workloads and expectations for services provided. In : addition, the current economic and politica...

  17. The problems of nuclear security in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabakhtiani, N.

    2006-01-01

    Georgia is carrying out activities to improve nuclear security according to the demands of international standards and rules. The support of developed countries and international organisations is very important to solve the associated problems. (author)

  18. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  19. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J. [Research Clinical Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-12-31

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented 9 refs.

  20. The system of physical protection of nuclear materials in the Republic of Belarus: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotukh, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is a matter of common knowledge, that the responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear material and facilities within a state shall rest entirely with the Government of that state. In Belarus all nuclear materials, including HEU, are located at the Center of Nuclear Technologies of the Belarus National Academy of Sciences 'Sosny'. Through regulatory resolution on measures for physical protection of nuclear materials issued by the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus in 1993, the committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety (Promatomnadzor) was appointed as the authority responsible for ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities and was tasked to develop and approve relevant normative documents. In 1994 Promatomnadzor issued the order on ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transportation that was in line with then relevant IAEA recommendations. Since September 2001 Promatomnadzor has been a department of the Ministry for Emergencies of the Republic of Belarus. The system of physical protection at 'Sosny' includes elements of the 'old' system set up in 1984, and the 'new' one installed in 1996 as a result of a multilateral co-operative effort between Belarus, Sweden, Japan and USA. The main technical components of the system are: detection system including magnetic, microwave and infrared sensors; video-surveillance system; system of access delay including electronic blocking devices; system of authorized access including magnetic cards; system of computerized control over all components and communication system. Discussions between potential donor states are taking place regarding various security upgrades, particularly to the protected area where main security sensitive buildings are located. In 2000 Promatomnadzor requested an international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS) mission from the IAEA. The

  1. CTBTO tests its on-site inspection regime in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The former Soviet Union's nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in the east of today's Kazakhstan was closed down after Kazakhstan became an independent State in 1991. This region in the Kazakh steppe is deserted and pockmarked by countless craters, remnants of over 450 nuclear explosions that were detonated there. In September 2008, the area will start brimming with activity. Scientists, diplomats and journalists will arrive from all over the world to witness an endeavour in the Kazakh steppe that is of great significance for the safety of our planet. The organization that monitors the comprehensive ban on nuclear testing will conduct a large scale exercise to test one of the key elements of its global alarm system - on-site inspections.

  2. About status of oncological illness rate in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarova, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal problem of Republic of Kazakhstan's pediatricians is onco-hematological diseases. In 1999 hematological illness rate in the Republic makes up 2964.8 per 100,000 of children's population. Side by side with widespread iron-deficit anemia the aplastic anemia and the acute leukemia are often meeting. Annual index of acute leukemia illness number in Kazakhstan makes up 2.6 per 100,000 of children's population. Core of examined children group with acute leukemia presents children living nearby nuclear sites and arrived from Chernobyl and who in consequence (after 3-5 years) fallen ill. It is concluded, that cause of leukemia is sum of unfavourable epidemiologic factors

  3. Organizational structure of power engineering of Kazakhstan. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathways of integration in Kazakhstan power engineering are considered and economic structure formation in the branch is revealed as well. In 1994 privatization plan for power engineering branch was accepted. All state enterprises were reorganize in to joint-stock companies. At that there is single state monopoly company - National Power System (NPS) Kazakhstanehnergo. NPS makes a wholesale market of electric energy at the expense of it generation at base power plants, additional purchase abroad, following transport in all regions and its selling to territorial power companies as well as separate buyers. Last time wide application of commercial principles in state sector is observed. For formation of wholesale and retail markets was organized Kazakhstan EnergoPool

  4. Nuclear fuel industry of the republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, D.; Dara, S.

    2001-01-01

    National Atomic Company Kazatomprom has been established in 1997 by special presidential decree with the purpose to coordinate the former USSR Nuclear Industry enterprises located on the territory of Kazakhstan. The Government of Kazakhstan entrusts the republican nuclear sector's future to Kazatomprom. Although Kazatomprom is a state-owned company and operates on behalf of the government, it is private in terms of ownership, being organized in a form of a closed type joint stock company, and within its structure there are daughter companies with a certain share of private capital. Formally Kazatomprom has started only a few years ago, but it should not create confusion. Because Kazatomprom has only united the USSR traditional nuclear cycle units, which, I want to emphasize for, count as long history as that of the nuclear industry itself. This fact is the guarantee of high quality production culture inherent to the former USSR Defense Industry

  5. Natural radionuclides and toxic elements in transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V; Kabirova, G; Stepanov, V; Ryazanova, L; Lennik, S; Liventsova, A; Bychenko, A; Zheltov, D

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on the study of radionuclide and elemental composition of water, bottom sediment and soil samples collected at the border areas of the following transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan: Chagan, Ural, Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh, Emel, Ili, Tekes, Shu, Karabalta, Talas and Syrdarya. The employed analyses include the following methods: instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, XRF and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Evidence of water environment contamination with radionuclides and toxic elements has been revealed in many of the studied rivers both in Kazakhstan and in adjacent countries. Transboundary transfer of the contaminants is most likely related to local industry (uranium mining and processing) and the presence of radioactive substances in the river basins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Historical distribution and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikembayev, Alim M; Lukhnova, Larissa; Temiraliyeva, Gulnara; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Pazylov, Yerlan; Zakaryan, Sarkis; Denissov, Georgiy; Easterday, W Ryan; Van Ert, Matthew N; Keim, Paul; Francesconi, Stephen C; Blackburn, Jason K; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2010-05-01

    To map the distribution of anthrax outbreaks and strain subtypes in Kazakhstan during 1937-2005, we combined geographic information system technology and genetic analysis by using archived cultures and data. Biochemical and genetic tests confirmed the identity of 93 archived cultures in the Kazakhstan National Culture Collection as Bacillus anthracis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis genotyping identified 12 genotypes. Cluster analysis comparing these genotypes with previously published genotypes indicated that most (n = 78) isolates belonged to the previously described A1.a genetic cluster, 6 isolates belonged to the A3.b cluster, and 2 belonged to the A4 cluster. Two genotypes in the collection appeared to represent novel genetic sublineages; 1 of these isolates was from Krygystan. Our data provide a description of the historical, geographic, and genetic diversity of B. anthracis in this Central Asian region.

  7. Catching air? Climate change policy in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonis-Helf, Theresa

    2003-01-01

    Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan have each participated actively in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conferences of the Parties, and each is developing domestic rules and institutions to address UN obligations under the treaties. Russia and Ukraine are each Annex I/Annex B countries. Kazakhstan will become Annex I upon ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet established itself as Annex B. Each state has evolved a distinct set of policies and priorities in the domestic and the international arena. Drawing largely on interviews in each country, this article presents brief histories of the evolution of climate policy, focusing on each state's behavior in the international arena, the sources of domestic policy leadership, and the forces that led to change in each national approach. Current policies and practices are evaluated with an eye towards learning from the successes and failures in each state

  8. Iodine-131 distribution on the territory of the Republic of Belarus during the first period of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Shagalova, E.D.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    To reconstruct space distribution of iodine-131 on the territory of Belarus we used the following data: (i) contents of iodine-131 in soil measured by gamma spectrometry method in May-July, 1986; (ii) contents of iodine-131 in samples of radioactive atmospheric fall-outs measured by gamma spectrometry method in May, 1986; (iii) daily measurements of exposure dose power levels on the territory of Belarus obtained in April-July, 1986; (iv) results of aerial gamma radiation mapping, obtained in May, 1986; (v) daily measurements of radioactive contamination of milk on the territory of Belarus obtained in May-July, 1986; (vi) measurements of iodine-131 content in links of biological chain 'soil-grass-milk' sampled from 15 reference farms; (vii) maps of specific activity of natural hayfields grass on the territory of Belarus (for every district) obtained on June 2 and 5, on July 3, 1986. Dose commitments on thyroid gland caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2.5 months after the accident. Local irradiation of this organ was stipulated by high accumulation factor of iodine isotopes in thyroid gland that caused increasing of malignant thyroid tumors incidences, including children, on all over the territory of Belarus. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland tumor incidences among children on the territory of Belarus map shows that the more level of iodine contamination the more malignant thyroid gland tumor incidence

  9. Peculiarities of general atmospheric circulation above Kazakhstan and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turulina, G.K.; Muradov, M.A.; Sal'nikov, V.G.; Bogacev, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    Essential information is gathered for analysis and typification of atmospheric processes observed above Kazakhstan during studied period (1964-1986). Peculiarities of atmospheric processes and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances above Kazakhstan territory are researched. Received data indicate on actuality of the problem for Republic of Kazakhstan and necessity of signing of the International Convention on trans-bordering pollution with purpose of integration in fulfillment of International Program of observation and assessment of spreading of air pollutants in Europe. (author)

  10. [Molecular epidemiological analysis of HIV-1 in Kazakhstan in 2009-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovok, I A; Laga, V Y; Kazennova, E V; Vasilyev, A V; Dzissyuk, N V; Utegenova, A K; Abishev, A T; Tukeev, M S; Bobkova, M R

    2015-01-01

    In this study pol gene analysis of 205 HIV-1 samples collected in Kazakhstan in 2009 and 2012-2013 was carried out. CRF02_AG variant is dominating in Almaty and actively circulates in East Kazakhstan Province. IDU-A variant is dominating in the rest of Kazakhstan. The data on low prevalence (3%) of HIV drug resistance mutations in native patients were obtained.

  11. About climate changes impact on the Kazakhstan pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.V.; Belenkova, Z.S.; Turbacheva, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of arid pastures vulnerability situated under direct influence of regional climate change related with greenhouse effect is carried out on Northern Aral Sea area as example. Climate change variants calculated with future prospects for on Kazakhstan territory with use up-to-date models of GFDL (USA), CCCM (Canada) climate theory are used. Number of protective measures are proposed for mitigation of consequences of possible vulnerability of pastures during simultaneous impact of complex of anthropogenic and natural factors. (author)

  12. MARKET REFORMS AND “ECONOMIC MIRACLE” IN KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    György Simon

    2009-01-01

    Kazakhstan's postcommunist transition is characterized by gradual changes under the conditions of a limited democracy. These changes have embraced extensive price and trade liberalization, and resolutely promoted privatization and the building of market institutions, although structural reforms and the struggle against corruption have made little progress. The country's financial independence was established with the introduction of the tenge in 1993. Transformational recession reached its ma...

  13. Kazakhstan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    Coalition to back him. Many oppositionists supported a Movement for a Just Kazakhstan, which backed Zharmakhan Tuyakbay, the head of the Social Democratic...members of the obscure Islamic Jihad Group/Union of Uzbekistan (reportedly an offshoot of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan). It alleged that the...against women and discrimination against non- ethnic Kazakhs in government, persons with disabilities, and those in the LGBT community were problems

  14. International Briefing 29: Training and Development in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Monowar; Baimukhamedova, Aizhan

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia, to the south of Russia and to the north-west of China. It occupies an area equal to 2724.9 thousand sq. km. and stretches east from the Caspian Sea and Volga plains to the Altai Mountains, from the foothills of Tien Shan in the south and southeast to the Western Siberian lowland in the north.…

  15. Sex selection abortion in Kazakhstan: understanding a cultural justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Dennis; Chesnokova, Irina

    2011-12-01

    The topic of abortion has been extensively researched, and the research has produced a large number of arguments and discussions. Missing in the literature, however, are discussions of practices in some areas of the Developing or Third World. In this paper, we examine the morality of sex selection abortions in Kazakhstan's Kazakh culture, and argue that such abortions can be ethically justified based, in part, on the unique perspectives of Kazakh culture. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. New structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1998-01-01

    The basic stags of structural changes in Kazakhstan petroleum and gas industry management are considered. It is shown, that in new economic situation the traditional branch scheme of management became out date and does not meet demands up the times. The spent structural changes in petroleum and gas industry management will promote to strengthening of strategic role of hydrocarbon raw material production and processing in prospect. (author)

  17. Ecological and technical situation of flooded oil wells in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuterbekov, K. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.; Nurakhmetov, T. N.; Zhaksigulova, A.; Nukenov, D. N.; Kushkimbaev, B. M.; Nurmukhanbetova, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The data of ecological and technical condition of flooded and inundated wells in Atyrau and Mangystau regions of the West of Kazakhstan is given in this abstract. There is necessary to elaborate methods for liquidation, individual plans of conservations, to produce isolating and liquidation procedures on wells and to estimate environment effects. Also we will provide for estimation technical condition of conservation oil wells on territory of flooded by Caspian sea. (Authors)

  18. EITI and sustainable development: perspectives from Aktau, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Emma

    2013-02-15

    Kazakhstan joined the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in 2005 and passed the five sign-up requirements to become a Candidate country in 2009. It hopes to pass Validation and become a fully Compliant country in 2013. EITI is a voluntary global initiative to promote revenue transparency in the oil, gas and mining sectors that requires countries to declare the revenues they receive from companies, and companies to declare what they pay. In discussions around EITI in Kazakhstan, proponents feel there should be more relevance to the regions outside Kazakhstan’s major cities, Astana and Almaty. This includes addressing issues such as how extractive industry-related funds are spent locally and how civil society, industry and government engage at the local level. In order to explore these issues, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), the Regional Aarhus Centre (Zhayik-Kaspy), and the local civil society organisation Eko-Mangistau convened a meeting on 28th and 29th May 2012 in Aktau, a small town and oil industry hub on Kazakhstan’s west coast. The aim was to discuss EITI and broader issues of transparency and good governance in the oil and gas sector. The meeting was sponsored by the Soros Foundation, Kazakhstan, and is part of a series of meetings on EITI supported by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office in Kazakhstan. Present were 30 representatives of the Akimat (regional government), maslikhat (local elected council), companies, and civil society organizations (CSOs), including participants from CSOs in neighbouring Aktau and from Astana and Almaty.

  19. A review of the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2007-02-15

    Kazakhstan is endowed with significant oil and gas resources and is expected to become one of the world's top 10 oil producers within the next decade. The high cost of doing business in the country, however, means that Kazakhstan will need to improve its institutional framework to successfully compete for Western investment. A large degree of risk and uncertainty continues to plague the oil and gas sector as the government makes significant changes to the petroleum tax legislation and takes an aggressive approach in ''rebalancing'' contractual arrangements with industry. High levels of bureaucracy, regulatory burden, and corruption persist, and economic factors appear to be subordinated increasingly to geopolitical objectives aimed to strengthen relationships with China and Russia. The rapid pace of change and the high degree of uncertainty present significant challenges and risk to foreign investment. The purpose of this paper is to review the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan and highlight recent developments in the petroleum legislation, business climate and government policy. (author)

  20. A review of the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Kazakhstan is endowed with significant oil and gas resources and is expected to become one of the world's top 10 oil producers within the next decade. The high cost of doing business in the country, however, means that Kazakhstan will need to improve its institutional framework to successfully compete for Western investment. A large degree of risk and uncertainty continues to plague the oil and gas sector as the government makes significant changes to the petroleum tax legislation and takes an aggressive approach in 'rebalancing' contractual arrangements with industry. High levels of bureaucracy, regulatory burden, and corruption persist, and economic factors appear to be subordinated increasingly to geopolitical objectives aimed to strengthen relationships with China and Russia. The rapid pace of change and the high degree of uncertainty present significant challenges and risk to foreign investment. The purpose of this paper is to review the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan and highlight recent developments in the petroleum legislation, business climate and government policy

  1. Radiation heritage of the past in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Mukusheva, M.K.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Baldov, A.N.; Zhantikin, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    For the whole period of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) operation 456 nuclear tests were conducted not only for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons but also as 'peaceful' underground nuclear explosions. Apart from STS in Kazakhstan there are several testing sites where nuclear explosions were conducted for peaceful purposes. These are explosions of Batolit, Meridian, Region series, as well as Azgir and Lira sites. In Kazakhstan there is great number of plants which have been involved in the development of nuclear weapons. Kazakhstan mining industry was the main supplier of natural uranium and nonferrous metals necessary for production of nuclear-rocket weapons. Along with extraction of uranium ore there were complexes dealing with the development of nuclear technologies. For instance, the complex of unique reactor facilities situated at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site where nuclear rocket engines were tested. High-technological industrial BN-350 reactor complex belongs to a new generation of fast breeding reactors. BN-350 reactor is designed mainly for development of new nuclear technologies. This paper contains generalized results of radiation investigations carried out in regions where nuclear experiments were conducted and nuclear facilities are located. (author)

  2. Kazakhstan uranium industry: towards the XXI century with clean technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhakishev, M.E.; Yazikov, V.G.; Dujsebaev, B.O.; Zabaznov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Kazakhstan is a leading country of the world by uranium resources, and in the it Earth's interior 19 % of world proved resources are concentrated. At present the National Atomic Company (NAC) Kazatomprom is responsible for uranium mining and production of natural uranium and its compounds in the Republic. The company activity covers the exploring, mining and export of natural uranium; production of slightly enriched uranium compounds and fuel pellets production for nuclear reactors. In the company there are three Uranium Ore Mining Departments in the South Kazakhstan, VolgovGeology Geological Exploration Enterprise and Ulba Metallurgical Plant. Mining is carrying out by technologically progressive ecologically clean technology of in-situ well leaching. The key importance the company pays to environment protection activities. NAC Kazatomprom sees perspectives of Kazakhstan uranium industry in formation of general all-sufficient technological cycle from uranium mining to fuel supply on the nuclear plants. The missing links - enrichment by U-235 isotope and fuel assemblies production - should be replaces by formation of steady partnership cooperation with foreign enterprises

  3. Leadership Transition in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan: Implications for Policy and Stability in Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Shane A

    2007-01-01

    .... Analysts found a region brimming with both promise and concern. This thesis focuses on the future succession of two regional presidents, Nursultan Nazarbayev (Kazakhstan) and Islam Karimov (Uzbekistan...

  4. Borehole permafrost data, Kumtor and Taragai Valleys, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes observations of the permafrost temperatures in the Inner Tien Shan were started in 1986 by Kazakhstan Alpine Permafrost Laboratory....

  5. PERFORMANCE REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION OBJECTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Leschenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main direction of the Belarus building complex development is an increase in housing construction volumes that solves a problem stipulated by the program of social and economic development of our country that is an increase in rates of growth pertaining to provision of accessible and qualitative habitation to the population. Along with the development of a domestic building complex and annually increasing plans on habitation building requirements to building structures have become more enhanced and in order to meet them an enterprise must manufacture competitive building products. The paper presents results of the executed performance review and development of the Belarus building complex and reveals tendencies of its development. Application of marketing investigations with the purpose to determine optimum parameters of building elements is shown in the paper.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIALTIES AND QUALIFICATIONS IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Oleks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present publication short data on the system of specialties and qualifications functioning in Republic of Belarus, her features, scope of application are given. The purpose and problems of the revision of the National classifier of the Republic of Belarus «Specialties and qualifications», its orientation to reduce the gap between the content of education and content of activity of graduates of establishments of education are described. The main tendencies of change of the operating classification – on the basis of types of economic activity and international standard classification of education taking into account requirements of employers, minimization of economic expenses for education, including due to minimization of classification units, rapprochement of positions with educational systems of other states are revealed. Prospects of development of national system of specialties and qualifications are disclosed. Tendencies and prospects of the expected changes are shown on the examples of the certain specialties offered by BNTU (Belarusian National Technical University.

  7. Particularities of the Chernobyl's trace forming in Belarus and its dynamics during the posterior years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchokin, Yu.K.; Germentchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    A complex method was used, including both results of direct measurements, received at a different time, and accounting-theoretical models, allowing to reconstruct an initial contamination. As an experimental base of our investigation we used a computer database of spectrometric measurements of soil samples, obtained at a different time, as from first days. Moreover, data on contamination of milk and other foodstuffs, vegetation were taken into account, as well as known data on the dynamics of source power and changes in the meteorological situation at a period of a radioactive trace forming. Received results allow to get more detail picture of radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, and to understand better a dynamics of its forming, as well as to make the prognosis of changing its isotope composition at following years. They also give more full set of data for the evaluation of doses received by the population of Belarus

  8. Self-perceived health in Belarus: Evidence from the income and expenditures of households survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grigoriev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from five cross-sectional household surveys conducted during 1996-2007, this study provides initial results of an analysis of self-perceived health in Belarus. The findings suggest that there has been a compression of morbidity. Self-perceived health has been improving steadily for both sexes and at all ages. Despite this notable improvement, Belarus still remains far behind Western Europe in terms of healthy life expectancy. This disadvantage is mainly due to higher mortality among the working-age population, but health at older ages also plays an important role. Education appears to be the most important factor associated with self-rated health.

  9. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident: Incidence, prognosis of progress, risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.; Golovneva, A.; Demidchik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from 1990, an increasing number of persons, suffering from thyroid cancer was diagnosed in Belarus. These persons were exposed to radiation in 1986 due to the Chernobyl Accident and were children and adolescents at the time of the accident. This paper gives an overview of the total number of thyroid cancer cases observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among the persons exposed to radiation under 18 years of age. Duration of the latent period and background incidence rate are under discussion. Based on the most reliable data about thyroid doses and incidence rate among the persons exposed to radiation under 6 years of age, the estimation of risk coefficient for radiation induced thyroid cancer was carried out. For childhood exposure from I-131, the excess absolute risk per 10,0000 PYGy was 4.5 (author)

  10. Belarus is a 'touchstone' for public acceptance of nuclear power energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The economy of the Republic of Belarus which become an independent state at the end of 1991 is in strained circumstances because of the shortage of its own energetic resources, and the deficit of generating electric capacities. Th real way out of an energetic crisis is the development of own nuclear power as it is in Central and Eastern Europe. Besides, Belarus has suffered most that all other states as a result of the Chernobyl accident, located out of its borders. About a quarter of its population and lands are on the territory contaminated with radionuclides. That's why the author emphasised that formation of public opinion is a key problem when deciding about the construction of nuclear power plants in Berlarus. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Communication of 22 February 1999 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a communication from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus concerning a Note of 28 January 1999 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus which provides information about the nuclear export policies and practices of Belarus. In light of the wish expressed in the Note, its text is attached hereto

  12. Sanitation of children from the ecologically unfavourable zones of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyalikov, S. A.; Makarchik, A. V.; Slabodskaya, N. S.; Pats, N. V.; Ruksha, T. V.; Obukhov, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the effectiveness of the sanitation of 186 children living permanently in unfavourable environmental conditions is given. 128 children from that group were treated on lake Baikal, 18 - in Italy, and 40 - in Belarus. The treatment on lake Baikal turned out to be more effective than that in Italy. It contributed to improving of endocrine glands functioning and of the immune system indices, to reducing the radioactivity doze accumulated in the organism. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.; Makejchik, A.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Divergent trends in abortion and birth control practices in belarus, Russia and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris P Denisov

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. METHODS: Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. CONCLUSION: Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia.

  15. Childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine after Chernobyl and at present

    OpenAIRE

    Demidchik, Yuri E.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid cancer in children is usually rare, but in the individuals exposed to radiation risk of disease increases considerably. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, an over 10-fold maximal elevation in the incidence of thyroid cancer was registered about a decade later, cumulatively resulting in more than a thousand of newly diagnosed cases in children who lived in the territories of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine affected by radioactive fallouts. Experience from the epidemic substantially pro...

  16. The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    between the two countries continued: In June 2002, a Day of Iranian Cinema took place in Belarus, and an exhibition of Iranian goods took place in Minsk...with which Iran closely cooperates,113 but by some segments of the French elite, who are not averse to Iran as a nuclear power.114 Former French ...President Jacques Chirac stated that he saw no prob- lem in Iran having a couple of nuclear bombs. Later, French officials said the President was

  17. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  18. The radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalej, O.D.; Dackevich, P.I.; Komissarov, F.D.; Basharina, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    The main results of the long-term radioecological monitoring of the some water ecosystems of the contaminated districts of Belarus are presented. The main components of water ecosystem (water, suspensions, bottom sediments, water vegetation) were observed. The migration of Cs 137 and Sr 90 on the water-collection areas were investigated in detail. The tendency of Sr 90 increasing in the components of the surface water systems is observed

  19. Divergent Trends in Abortion and Birth Control Practices in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Boris P.; Sakevich, Victoria I.; Jasilioniene, Aiva

    2012-01-01

    Context The last decade witnessed growing differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine despite demographic, social, and historical similarities of these nations. This paper investigates changes in birth control practices in the three countries and searches for an explanation of the diverging trends in abortion. Methods Official abortion and contraceptive use statistics, provided by national statistical agencies, were analysed. Respective laws and other legal documents were examined and compared between the three countries. To disclose inter-country differences in prevalence of the modern methods of contraception and its association with major demographic and social factors, an analysis of data from national sample surveys was performed, including binary logistic regression. Results The growing gap in abortion rate in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine is a genuine phenomenon, not a statistical artefact. The examination of abortion and prevalence of contraception based on official statistics and three national sample surveys did not reveal any unambiguous factors that could explain differences in abortion dynamics in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. However, it is very likely that the cause of the inter-country discrepancies lies in contraceptive behavior itself, in adequacies of contraceptive knowledge and practices. Additionally, large differences in government policies, which are very important in shaping contraceptive practices of the population, were detected. Conclusion Since the end of the 1990s, the Russian government switched to archaic ideology in the area of reproductive health and family planning and neglects evidence-based arguments. Such an extreme turn in the governmental position is not observed in Belarus or Ukraine. This is an important factor contributing to the slowdown in the decrease of abortion rates in Russia. PMID:23349656

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF EXPORT PORTFOLIO CURRENCY STRUCTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Коrоbiyna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of currency portfolio structure of export industrial enterprises in the Republic of Belarus, by which we shall understand a currency structure of export contracts of an international enterprise, is considered as one of the most important problems in the financial management of an enterprise. Statement and analysis of industrial enterprise alternative costs and simultaneous investigation of tendencies pertaining to changes in the exchange rates give the possibility (under other equal status to reduce non-systematic risks in foreign trade. Diversification of industrial enterprise currency portfolios with the purpose to decrease financial risks and with due account of exchange rate correlation can lead to an increase of payments in Russian currency and Eurocurrency under enterprise export contracts. The given changes decrease currency risks in the foreign trade however they entail possible increase of the export share of products to the Russian Federation in total export volume of the Republic of Belarus that increases dependence of the Republic of Belarus on the Russian Federation as the main foreign trade partner.

  1. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.; Buard, Jerome; Jeffreys, Alec J.; Nesterov, Valeri N.; Krouchinsky, Nicolay G.; Ostapenko, Vladislav A.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Giraudeau, Fabienne

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

  2. Radioecological mapping of the territory of Belarus on the base information of radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermentchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Shagalova, E.D.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1997-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) is the largest technogenic accident of our time. The global consequences of this accident for the whole mankind will be of a larger significance with the course of time. An important problem which arose during the period following the accident was the evaluation of radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and the creation a specific monitoring system. Although the radioactive contamination caused by the Chernobyl accident affected the whole world, Belarus was subjected to the most intensive radioactive contamination. Around 23% (46,450 km 2 ) of the territory of Belarus was subjected to more than 37 kBq/m 2 contamination by caesium-137. There are 27 cities and more than 3600 populated districts with a total population of 2.2 millions which were contaminated. The preparation of maps of the distribution of iodine-131 according to the situation on 10 May 1986, and ruthenium-106 and cerium-144 for 30 May 1986 has been carried out. Every three years, based on the results of the complex examination, maps of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes in the soil are issued. Because of the non-uniformity of the radioactive contamination, 350 thousands of personal plots of land are examined, and radiation passports issued to their owners. This measure was taken for reasons of protection as well as an effort to reduce the dose loads, thus increasing the safety of the residents of the contaminated territories. (author)

  3. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance

  4. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to NPP power reactors that will be under construction in Kazakhstan are proved and given in the report. A comparative analysis of the most advanced projects of power reactors with light and heavy water under pressure of large, medium and low power is carried out. Different reactors have been considered as follows: 1. Reactors with high-power (700 MW(el) and up) such as EPR, French - German reactor; CANDU-9, Canadian heavy-water reactor; System 80+, developed by ABB Combustion Engineering company, USA; KNGR, Korean reactor of the next generation; APWR, Japanese advanced reactor; WWER-1000 (V-392) - development of Atomenergoproect /Gydropress, Russian Federation; EP 1000, European passive reactor. 2. Reactors with medium power (300 MW (el) - 700 MW (el): AP-600, passive PWR of the Westinghouse company; CANDU-6, Canadian heavy-water reactor; AC-600, Chinese passive PWR; WWER-640, Russian passive reactor; MS-600 Japanese reactor of Mitsubishi Company; KSNP-600, South Korean reactor. 3. Reactors with low power (a few MW(el)- 300 MW(el)): IRIS, reactor of IV generation, developed by the International Corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries, SMART, South Korean integrated reactor; CAREM, Argentina integrated reactor; MRX, Japanese integrated reactor; 'UNITERM', Russian NPP with integrated reactor, development of NIKIET; AHEC-80, Russian NPP, developed by OKBM. A comparison of the projects of the above-mentioned power reactors was carried out with respect to 15 criteria of nuclear, radiating, ecological safety and economic competitiveness, developed especially for this case. Data on a condition and prospects of power production and power consumption, stations and networks in Kazakhstan necessary for the choice of projects of NPP reactors for Kazakhstan are given. According to the data a balance of power production and power consumption as a whole in the country was received at the level of 59 milliard kw/h. However, strong dis balance in the

  5. Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestvirishvili, Maia; Zurabishvili, Tinatin; Iakobidze, Tamar; Mestvirishvili, Natia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine statistical predictors of homophobic attitudes among the residents of Tbilisi, Georgia. We analyze 2013 survey data from a representative sample of the Tbilisi adult population. Residents were asked about their attitudes, beliefs, and political and social values in the context of the May 17, 2013 attack on LGBT activists on the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHOT). Findings show that homophobia is significantly predicted by male gender, lower levels of education, acceptance of social inequality, nonliberal attitudes, and perceiving homosexuals as a "threat to national security." However, psychological perceptions and personal experiences also indirectly influence homophobic attitudes: the findings suggest that males report homophobic attitudes more often than females do and tend to be even more homophobic when they believe that homosexuality is inborn rather than acquired. The study also found that people without liberal attitudes tend to be more homophobic when they have personal contacts with homosexuals. This article highlights the need for a more comprehensive approach to education and the promotion of liberal values as well as legal equality for LGBTQ individuals to decrease the level of homophobia in Georgian society and, specifically, in Tbilisi.

  6. The Development of the system of evaluation of public policies and programs in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigmetov Kaisar Kairkenovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the features of the assessment in the Republic of Kazakhstan and abroad. Recommendations on further development of evaluation of public policies and programs in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  7. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. Georgia's law was enacted in May 2008 in order to assist low income students to transfer out of low performing public schools. Operations under the new act began in late 2008. The law permits taxpayers in Georgia to reduce their annual state taxes…

  8. Tracking Nuclear Material At Proliferation Sensitive Points In The Kazakhstan Fuel Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Delbeke, J.F.A.; Caviglia, M.; Janssens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1995 with the ratification and enforcement of the Non Proliferation Treaty in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC) is responsible for the implementation of the State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC). In the SSAC, data on nuclear material

  9. Problems of Realization Women’s Right to Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanalinova A. U.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of realization women’s right to policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The author reviews the different methods of political quota, which are used in some countries of the world. Besides that the author reveals the reasons of the women’s low political activity in Kazakhstan

  10. 78 FR 4437 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, Venezuela: Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... on subject imports from Venezuela was adequate, and [[Page 4438

  11. Tuberculosis deaths averted by implementation of the DOTS strategy in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, M; Belilovsky, E; Aitmagambetova, I; Ismailov, S; White, M E; Chorba, T

    2010-12-01

    Kazakhstan began implementing the DOTS strategy for tuberculosis (TB) in 1998. Data were analyzed 1) to determine if changes in TB mortality rate (MR) and case fatality rate (CFR) in Kazakhstan for 1998-2003 differed from those of Uzbekistan and four adjacent Russian Federation (RF) oblasts that had not yet implemented DOTS, and 2) to estimate the number of deaths averted in Kazakhstan as a result of DOTS. Observed MRs were calculated, and predicted MRs for Kazakhstan were approximated by linear regression based on average slope of MRs from 1998 through 2003 in adjacent non-DOTS-implementing territories. Deaths averted were calculated by comparing predicted MRs to actual MRs by converting rate differences to numbers of deaths. TB MRs in Kazakhstan decreased markedly, but remained stable or increased in the neighboring territories. CFRs decreased markedly in Kazakhstan and marginally in Uzbekistan, and increased in the neighboring RF oblasts. From 1998 to 2004, DOTS appears to have helped avert approximately 17,800 deaths in Kazakhstan. DOTS has contributed markedly to a decrease in TB mortality in Kazakhstan. In settings where mortality data are relatively complete, deaths averted can be another indicator of DOTS effectiveness.

  12. Blueprints for water user associations' accountability versus local reality: evidence from South Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union there have been major changes in the agricultural sector in Kazakhstan. While during the Soviet Union agricultural production was organized in large scale state and collective farms, after independence Kazakhstan started to privatize the agricultural land and

  13. Silicophosphate Sorbents, Based on Ore-Processing Plants' Waste in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubekova, Sholpan N.; Kapralova, Viktoria I.; Telkov, Shamil A.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of ore-processing plants' waste and man-made mineral formations (MMF) disposal is very important for the Republic of Kazakhstan. The research of various ore types (gold, polymetallic, iron-bearing) MMF from a number of Kazakhstan's deposits using a complex physical and chemical methods showed, that the waste's main components are…

  14. Importing Education: Europeanisation and the Bologna Process in Europe's Backyard--The Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampayeva, Gulnara Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the problem of the implementation of European educational standards in Kazakhstan higher education. This is considered in the frame of post-socialist education, when reforms in several post-Soviet states were undertaken under the Bologna Process. Kazakhstan, as this article argues, is justified for consideration in the frame…

  15. Ethno-cultural Component Implementation in the System of Higher Education of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz K. Tleuzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the ethno-cultural aspect of the educational process of the higher school on the example of one of the leading institutes of higher education of Kazakhstan. Priorities and tendencies of language education and language policy of Kazakhstan, opportunities of its realization through the prism of the system of higher education are presented

  16. Volatile oil composition of Carthamus Tinctorius L. flowers grown in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aknur Amanbekovna Turgumbayeva

    2018-03-01

    Volatile oil from the flowers of the Kazakhstan safflower species ‘Ak-Mai’ were investigated by GC/MS which allowed the detection of 20 compounds. Biologically active complex of the flower of the Kazakhstan safflower species ‘Ak-Mai’ was released for the first time by using this oil

  17. 78 FR 60846 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import... Venezuela would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in... orders on silicomanganese from India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff...

  18. Development of nuclear technologies and conversion of nuclear weapon testing system infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.; Takibaev, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the work done by the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in development of nuclear technology and conversion of nuclear weapon testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. Content and trends of works are as follows: 1. Peaceful use of all physical facilities, created earlier for nuclear tests in Kazakhstan; 2. Development of methods and technologies for safe nuclear reactors use; 3. Examination of different materials in field of great neutron flow for thermonuclear reactor's first wall development; 4. Liquidation of all wells, which were formed in the results of underground nuclear explosions in Degelen mountain massif of former Semipalatinsk test site; 5. Study of consequences of nuclear tests in West Kazakhstan (territory of Azgir test site and Karachaganak oil field); 6. Study of radiological situation on the Semipalatinsk test site and surrounding territories; 7. Search of ways for high-level radioactive wastes disposal; 8. Construction of safe nuclear power plants in Kazakhstan

  19. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  20. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N.P.; Bolotov, B.M.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Zashkvara, O.V.; Matveeva, I.M.; Polyakov, A.I.; Ryabikin, Yu.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and A zgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  1. Prisoners of War of the Triple Alliance within Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva; Nurzipa K. Alpysbayeva; Shotbek T. Bulgauov

    2015-01-01

    The work studies the problem of the detention of prisoners of war of the Triple Alliance in the camps, located within Kazakhstan. During the first months of war, the Russian authorities treated the prisoners of war in accordance with ‘Convention on the Treatment of the Prisoners of War’, approved by the Emperor of Russia. The content of this document corresponded to the Hague Convention with Respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The major areas of the detention of prisoners of war w...

  2. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.

    2001-01-01

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  3. Culture and maternity care in Kazakhstan: what new mothers expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Brett J; Kabylbekova, Zhanar

    2015-01-01

    Maternity care in the developing nation of Kazakhstan has been characterized as low in quality, with mothers having low levels of health knowledge. Some nongovernmental organizations have been offering childbirth preparation courses to address the lack of knowledge and encourage participation and decision making among expecting mothers. The participants of this study, however, report that information is more for preparation than for decision making, and that the relational aspects of their care, namely, emotional support and trust, are most important. This emphasis reflects the cultural and historical influences that need to be considered when adopting foreign models of care and health education.

  4. Dynamic modeling of cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben de Blasio, Birgitte; Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children vaccine cost at vaccination program costs would be entirely offset. To further evaluate efficacy of a vaccine program, benefits of indirect protection conferred by vaccination warrant further study.

  5. ICBMs and the environment: Assessments at a base in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.; Butler, B.

    1999-01-01

    A paper by two U.S. scientists explores the environmental/health hazard posed by abandoned missile launch sites and control facilities (dismantled by 1998 as part of the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program) at an ICBM base in north-central Kazakhstan. It summarizes the findings of Environmental Site Assessment Reports based on a program of water and soil sampling at the sites, with a particular focus on testing for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls, various toxic metals, and radiation. The study is important in that it documents levels of contamination (and describes abatement measures) at a former Soviet missile base.

  6. HOW TO DEVELOP A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY ACTION PLAN (SEAP) IN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AND CENTRAL ASIAN CITIES ─ GUIDEBOOK. PART I - THE SEAP PROCESS, STEP-BY-STEP TOWARDS THE -20% TARGET BY 2020

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELAITIENE IRENA; MELICA GIULIA; PAINA FEDERICA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO; PANEV STRAHIL; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present guidebook is to help the Covenant of Mayors signatories in Eastern Partnership countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) and five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) to reach the commitments they have taken by signing the Covenant, and in particular to prepare within the year following their official adhesion a Baseline Emission Inventory (BEI) and a Sustainable Energy Act...

  7. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  8. The Geographic Reference Atlas of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liparteliani, Guliza; Kurtubadze, Manana; Sologhashvili, Nato

    2017-01-01

    of the exploration of the nature, population, economy and history of Georgia. Both, the first and the second atlases are scientific by the content, the purpose and the design. Nowadays, Georgian society requires to understand country not only from maps, but also from photos, related text annotations and graphic...

  9. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  10. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  11. The attitude to nuclear energy in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saralidze, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Georgia, as a new independent state, is facing new problems regarding energy sources in the conditions of market economy. Great attention is given by the Government to search for various ways and versions to overcome the energy crisis. While nuclear energy may be an option for some reasons detailed in the paper, a nuclear power plant is not officially considered as an alternative. (author)

  12. Educational Initiatives for Industrial Development in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Paul M.; Johnson, Berman E.

    Georgia's two-year technical institutes have played a prominant role in linking education with industry. Five major interrelated efforts have worked to transform the state from an agrarian economy to one utilizing advanced technologies. The first of these, the Quick-Start Program, offers state-paid services, such as consultation, employee…

  13. Ibsen in Georgia: milestones in the reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakhaber Loria

    2015-02-01

    Ibsen was and is constantly referred to in Georgian literary studies, not least in connection with Georgian writers. In post-Soviet Georgia, Ibsen is very much on the agenda, and his plays are produced and discussed as they always have been.

  14. Snapshots of biodiversity in Georgia agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia agricultural landscapes are composed of a diversity of commodities. Here we present biodiversity and biotic interaction data from multiple agricultural systems including: cotton, corn, peanut, blueberry and non-cropping wildflower areas over multiple years. Our goal is to better understand t...

  15. Legislative Update: Georgia School Funding Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. Thomas; Sielke, Catherine C.

    2000-01-01

    Fully 40 percent ($5 billion) of Georgia's FY 2000 general funds budget is for K-12 education. There is increased funding for a homestead exemption, expansion of the HOPE (higher education) Scholarship Program, capital outlay projects, remedial assistance programs, and instruction of limited-English speaking students. (MLH)

  16. Dollarization in emerging markets: evidence from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau-Aslanidi, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 70-84 ISSN 1540-496X Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 259027 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dollarization * Georgia * money-in-utility function Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2012

  17. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  18. Deregulation of natural gas in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Natural Gas Competition and Deregulation Act of 1997 in Georgia is discussed. New legislation passed the Natural Gas Consumer Relief Act in 2002 legislative session to provide additional protection and increase competition. This Act and its impacts are discussed in detail. Additional commission responsibilities are summarized. (R.P.)

  19. Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George

    2017-04-01

    Georgia belongs to one of world's most complex mountainous regions according to the scale and frequency of Geological processes and damage caused to population, farmlands, and Infrastructure facilities. Geological hazards (landslide, debrisflow/mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.) are affecting many populated areas, agricultural fields, roads, oil and gas pipes, high-voltage electric power transmission towers, hydraulic structures, and tourist complexes. Landslides occur almost in all geomorphological zones, resulting in wide differentiation in the failure types and mechanisms and in the size-frequency distribution. In Georgia, geological hazards triggered by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic change; 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. The prediction and monitoring of Geological Hazards is a very wide theme, which involves different researchers from different spheres. Geological hazard monitoring is essential to prevent and mitigate these hazards. In past years in Georgia several monitoring system, such as Ground-based geodetic techniques, Debrisflow Early Warning System (EWS) were installed on high sensitive landslide and debrisflow areas. This work presents description of Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia.

  20. THEORETIC AND METHODOLOGIC BASICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study, the aim of which is the formation of the theoretical and methodological foundations in the framework of scientific maintenance for the further development processes of the national logistics system in the Republic of Belarus. The relevance of the study relates to the fact that at present the introduction of the concept of logistics and the formation of the optimal infrastructure for its implementation are the key factors for economic development of Belarus as a transit country. At the same time the pace of development of the logistic activities in the country is currently slightly lower in comparison with the neighboring countries, as evidenced by the dynamics of the country’s position in international rankings (in particular, according to the LPI index. Overcoming these gaps requires improved competitiveness of the logistics infrastructure in the international market. This, in turn, is possible due to the clear formulation and adherence of the effective functioning principles for macro logistics system of Belarus, as well as by increasing the quality of logistics design by means of applying econometric models and methods presented in the article. The proposed auctorial approach is the differentiation of the general principles of logistics specific to the logistics systems of all levels, and the specific principles of development of the macro level logistics system related to improving its transit attractiveness for international freight carriers. The study also systematizes the model for determining the optimal location of logistics facilities. Particular attention is paid to the methodological basis of the analysis of transport terminals functioning as part of the logistics centers both in the stages of design and operation. The developed theoretical and methodological recommendations are universal and can be used in the design of the logistics infrastructure for various purposes and functions

  1. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  2. Development of System Regulating and Support for Nuclear Security in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, D.; Astashka, R.; Lugovskaya, O.

    2015-01-01

    A safeguards strengthening in Belarus is realized as complex for measures of legal authorities building, advance staff education and international cooperation. The main scope of complex coordinated activities is to provide the sustainable development of national regulatory system and support for current and future challenges in a more globalized world to assure relevant safeguards measures and implements, to get the sustainable international and regional cooperation. Collected and implemented information and knowledge, analytical thinking of involved specialists will improve cooperation between IAEA and States to optimize technical support and experience exchange. Some authorities are responsible in regulating and oversighting for nuclear security in Belarus. The main challenge of national system development is realization the conception of effective coordination. The nuclear regulatory authority (the Ministry for Emergency Situations/ Gosatomnadzor) has the responsibility either to build up own technical capabilities for detailed review and assessment of processes and activities of the NPP operator or to make sure that a technical support organization equipped with sufficient knowledge and structural capabilities is involved in assessment and analysis of processes at all phases of the NPP use. There is developed the conception for creation of analytical and technical support laboratory including both stationary and mobile equipment and techniques for nuclear security prevention and control measures and arrangements. It is actually the realization of conception the Joint Center for Nuclear Security Competence in Belarus for national and cooperational purposes. The implementation of strengthening plans and put-up arrangements will lead to integrated regulatory activities in order to allow practical optimization of the resources to get benefits from exchange of experience and issues from safety analysis and oversighting as synergy effect. (author)

  3. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  4. Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat; Hjorth, Peder; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2016-11-09

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets. As hardly any information exists about sanitation in rural Kazakhstan, the study essentially focuses on water services. The results show that 65% of rural dwellers want to connect and pay for the piped water supply. At the same time, about 80% have toilets outside their home. Consequently, the water program aiming at providing 80% of rural people with access to tap water from a centralized piped system will not be possible. However, by carefully managing the existing water supply and sanitation system in joint collaboration with the local users, significant progress can be made. The present results show the important first steps that need to be taken in this direction.

  5. Ethnic differences in all-cause mortality rates in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletov, K; McKee, M; Berkinbayev, S; Battakova, Z; Zhussupov, B; Amirov, B; Junusbekova, G; Rechel, B

    2016-04-01

    This article explores mortality rates in Kazakhstan by ethnic group and some of the potential lifestyle factors that might help to explain the observed differences on a population level. Repeated cross-sectional data analysis. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates from all causes by ethnic group, gender and age for 2009-2012. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption and other lifestyle factors from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study, conducted in 2012. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates are generally much higher among ethnic Russians than among ethnic Kazakhs, both among women and men and in rural as well as urban areas. These differences are most pronounced in the age group 20-59 years. Information on self-reported alcohol consumption and smoking by ethnic group, gender and age shows major differences between ethnic groups, with consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among ethnic Russians, both in women and men and across all adult age groups. Policies to improve the health of the population of Kazakhstan must take account of ethnic differences. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptospirosis in Cattle From Markets of Almaty Province, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkimbayeva Zhumagul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  7. Training Problems of Religious Studies in Independent Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Erpay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.

  8. Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation in Rural Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshat Tussupova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs require nations to ensure adequate water supply for all. For Kazakhstan, this means that rural areas will need much stronger attention as they have been rather neglected in efforts to comply with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. This study aims to establish a baseline data concerning the current situation in villages that will need interventions according to the SDGs. The study was performed by means of questionnaires. The results should be seen as initial guidelines that can help to illuminate some of the uncounted challenges in future efforts to meet the SDG targets. As hardly any information exists about sanitation in rural Kazakhstan, the study essentially focuses on water services. The results show that 65% of rural dwellers want to connect and pay for the piped water supply. At the same time, about 80% have toilets outside their home. Consequently, the water program aiming at providing 80% of rural people with access to tap water from a centralized piped system will not be possible. However, by carefully managing the existing water supply and sanitation system in joint collaboration with the local users, significant progress can be made. The present results show the important first steps that need to be taken in this direction.

  9. [Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismil'din, F B; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Anpilova, E N

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in the northern hemisphere on the boundary of two continents--Europe and Asia--at a longitude of 45 degrees E--87 degrees E and a latitude of 40 degrees N--55 degrees N. The total area of the republic is 2,724,900 square kilometers. Kazakhstan shares a border with the Russian Federation to the north-west, north and east: the border between the two countries is almost 6500 km long. To the south, Kazakhstan shares a border with the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan (380 km), Uzbekistan (2300 km) and Kyrgystan (980 km). To the south-east, it shares a border with China (1460 km): to the west is the Caspian Sea (600 km). Thus, the total length of Kazakhstan's external borders is 12,000 km. Because of the geographical, natural and climatic features prevailing throughout most of the Republic, there is a potential danger that local transmission of malaria may begin again if the disease is imported from abroad. The areas most at risk are the Panfilov and Uigur raions of Almaty oblast, which share a border with malaria-endemic regions of China, and the Saryagash and Makhtaral' raions of South Kazakhstan oblast along the border with Uzbekistan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan places particular emphasis on malaria prevention and control, taking into account the historical data about the prevalence of malaria from the late 1920s to the early 1940s, amounting to hundreds of thousands of cases every year. Government Decree No. 840 entitled "Urgent Measures to Protect the Population from Blood-Sucking Insects and Ticks Dangerous to Humans", which lays down measures for the control of malarial mosquitoes in the areas most susceptible to malaria resurgence, was adopted in 1996. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan issued instructions in 1998 and 1999 which were designed to motivate all health facilities in the field of malaria prevention and control. At present, as part of the directives developed by the

  10. Blood disorders in children and adults in Belarus after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.P.; Ivanov, V.E.; Shuvaeva, U.; Tolocko, G.; Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.M.; Nekolla, E.

    1997-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus within the framework of the National Register of Blood Disorders Programme, the WHO Pilot Project ''Haematology'', IPEHECA programme and the European Childhood Leukaemia/Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) the data on blood malignancies were collected retrospectively by means of the epidemiological retrieval and screening of medical documentation, records in the Registers General etc. for the seven years preceding (1979-85) and seven years after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1992) and in 1993-1994. Our results are presented in following figures and tables. Figs, tabs

  11. Role river flow for Sr 90 decontamination of polluted territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudel'skij, A.V.; Smith, J.T.; Zhukova, O.M.; Rudaya, S.M.; Sasina, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    Sr 90 contamination of the water flow Dnepr, Pripyat', Sozh, Besed', Iput' rivers is considered. The dynamics of reducing the average year activities of Sr 90 and the variations of the levels of Sr 90 activities in river water during spring-autumn high water are shown. The results of investigation of Sr 90 activity of the sediments of Pripyat' and Braginka rivers are connected with the second effects of the contamination of the river flowing off Sr 90 during high water period. Sr 90 transfer in composition of the flowing off river during 1990-1995 (from Belarus to Ukraine) is being estimated. (authors)

  12. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  13. Blood disorders in children and adults in Belarus after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E P; Ivanov, V E; Shuvaeva, U; Tolocko, G [Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Minsk (Belarus); Becker, S; Kellerer, A M; Nekolla, E [Institute of Radiobiology, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In the Republic of Belarus within the framework of the National Register of Blood Disorders Programme, the WHO Pilot Project ``Haematology``, IPEHECA programme and the European Childhood Leukaemia/Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) the data on blood malignancies were collected retrospectively by means of the epidemiological retrieval and screening of medical documentation, records in the Registers General etc. for the seven years preceding (1979-85) and seven years after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1992) and in 1993-1994. Our results are presented in following figures and tables. Figs, tabs.

  14. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  15. Overview of system of accounting and control of nuclear materials in Belarus and its development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakou, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of technical and software means involved in the system of accounting and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in the Republic of Belarus. The existing SSAC and its main components are described, namely legal framework, requirements for accounting and control at the facility level, and reporting procedures. Further development of the SSAC is outlined along such lines as improvement of accounting information processing, measuring capabilities, training of personnel, upgrading of regulatory practice, and strengthening of international co-operation. The 2000 year problem concerning the SSAC is briefly addressed. (author)

  16. Strategical Approaches and Regulatory Infrastructure for Radioactive Waste Management in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalouskaya, L.

    2016-01-01

    Three major types of RW, each requiring special consideration: • Institutional RW buried and disposed for long-term storage at the national centralized RW management facility Ekores; • Waste generated in the process of clean-up activity in the Chernobyl contaminated areas; and • RW to be generated during operation of the first Belorussian NPP after its commissioning in 2018. The paper presents strategic approaches exercised for managing the RW in past and expected developments and options for RW management in Belarus in future

  17. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C.; Katlabai, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m 2 ). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where 137 Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m 2 . The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in the process of rehabilitation of living

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN ELECTRIC-POWER IN-DUSTRY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Oleshkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates technical and economic indices (specific capital inputs, construction period, pay-off period, possible economically substantiated generation of electric power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources under climatic conditions ofBelarus. The indices have been compared with the data of nuclear power engineering. The most efficient directions are wind and biomass power engineering. In accordance with its technical and economic and ecological indices the biomass power engineering is more profitable than nuclear, hydro- and solar power engineering.

  19. Electricity and heat energy co-generation process modelling in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chtcherbitch, A [Belarus Scientific Research Heat Power Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Iakoushev, A; Popov, B [Institute of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Vorontsov, V [Institute of New Technics and Technology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the experience gathered in the application of the ENPEP package to the conditions of Belarus energy system, focusing on the principal problems encountered in modelling a system having an important component of co-generation systems to satisfy the demands for electricity and heat. The approach used to solve this problem and some recommendations for future enhancements of the ENPEP program are discussed. The preliminary results obtained with the use of the model, as well as further analyses expected to be conducted in the near future are also described. (author). 6 figs.

  20. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 

  1. Scientific excellence in biomedical research: new opportunities and challenges in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay

    2012-04-01

    Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in the world by territory, having a land mass similar to Western Europe and a population of 16 million. Oil and gas reserves rank it among the top 10 countries in the world and have fueled an average growth rate of 9.4% as well as a doubling of Kazakhstan's per capita gross domestic product since 2001. A strategic goal of Kazakhstan is to diversify the economy in other sectors such as construction, heavy machinery, agriculture, tourism, and education.

  2. KEY DEVELOPMENT FACTORS OF THE TRANSIT AND TRANSPORT POTENTIAL OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidulla ABDULLAYEV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Republic of Kazakhstan is dynamically forming up its transit policy, improving its directions and the development of new vectors. This article looks into the development of the transit and transport potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It presents the main conclusions on the development of a feasibility study for the construction of a logistics terminal in the seaport of Lianyungang (China as one of the directions of building transit policy, improving its direction and the formation of new vectors. The urgency of building a logistics terminal is conditioned by the necessity for national interests and further expansion of political and economic advantages of Kazakhstan.

  3. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on a rural population in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanoglou, X.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Karamanis, D.T.; Stamoulis, K.; Averin, V.; Howard, B.J.; Howard, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent research endeavour under programme ECP9 (transfer of radionuclides to animals, their comparative importance under different agricultural system and appropriate countermeasures) three distinct sites in the Republics of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus were selected for detailed radioecological study. The objective of this investigation was to identify the sources of radiocesium and radiostrontium intake to a specific segment of the population, i.e. subsistence farmers residing in areas where high contamination levels persist after the Chernobyl accident. The results was obtained from the District of Bragin in Belarus. Contamination levels in foodstuffs produced in the selected site were assessed by means of two approaches using a geographical modelling approach of estimating contamination levels in food products through deposition information and transfer parameters, and via direct measurements of activity levels in foodstuffs from private households. This information was combined with food consumption rates derived from dietary surveys on the population of the area in order to calculate radiocesium and radiostrontium intake. The results were then compared to data from whole body activity measurements

  4. ETHICAL REVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN BELARUS: CURRENT STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2011-04-01

    The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and political factors of transition have major impact on capacities of the Belarusian RECs to ensure adequate protection of human subjects. Among the main problems identified are non-equivalent stringency of ethical review for different types of biomedical research; lack of independence, multidisciplinarity, pluralism and lay representation experienced by RECs; low level of research ethics education and transparency of RECs activities. Recommendations are made to raise the issue of research ethics on the national agenda in order to develop and maintain the research ethics system capable to effectively protect research participants and promote ethical conduct in research.

  5. Contemporary State of the Problem of the Iodine Deficiency Elimination in the Belarus Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Mokhort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of implementation governmental strategy of the iodine deficiency diseases elimination in the Belarus Republic based on the wide using of iodinated salt is presented. For the control of this program fulfillment more than 1300 children from 6 districts of Republic were examined. Middle Republic level of median of the urine iodine elimination for the period of the program realization has increased in more than 4 times and was equal to 179.2 ug/l and iodine deficiency decreased from 80.9 per cent in 1997 to 14.0 per cent in 2006. Consumption of iodinated salt has increased from 30.0 per cent in 1997 to 93.6 per cent in 2006. As the result the goiter rate in Belarus decreased from 17.2 per cent to 12.8 per cent. These results allow getting conclusion concerning efficiency of the strategy of using the iodinated salt recommended by the UNICEF as universal prophylaxis measure for the iodine deficiency diseases elimination.

  6. PET Radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil and Belarus: Economic Comparison Using the Case of 18FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkevich, Sviatoslav; Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Portilho, Filipe Leal; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    The production of radiopharmaceuticals, especially the PET ones, is a complex combination of economic and social factors. Despite the social aspects, that are essential, the economic issue must be considered and play an important parameter for the implementation and maintenance of producer centers around the world, with especial regards for countries which face economic crisis and/or belongs to aegis of under development countries. In order to evaluate this scenario with carried out this study, comparing a well-established producer center in Brazil and a new on in Belarus. The results showed that the producer center in Brazil face serious economic problems and all the production logistic must be re-done. On the other hand the new producer center in Belarus started following a new model of production and although it has not been profitable, the perspectives seem to be better than the Brazilian producer center. The Brazilian model for PET radiopharmaceutical productions should be revised in order to avoid waste and create a new perspective for the research area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Concept and problems on modernization of existing points for radioactive waste disposal in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemzhurov, Michail

    1999-01-01

    At present Belarus has no operating nuclear power plants (NPP) on its territory, the works with fissile materials carried out at the available nuclear and physical benches have been stopped. But not long ago a research reactor IRT-M with the capacity of 5000 kw was under operation from 1962 to 1986 at the Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, now reorganized (located in Sosny settlement, 10 kilometers from Minsk-city), and a prototype of a small-sized mobile NPP with electric capacity of 630 kw was tested in 1985-1987, as well as a whole complex of nuclear and technical benches were into service, such as large-scale reactor loop plants for testing fuel elements and critical assemblies. About 1000 industrial, medical, scientific and research institutions use radioactive materials and the devices containing them in Belarus. Annually about 8000 kg of RAW and 6000 units of the spent sources of ionizing radiation (SIR) are generated by these enterprises which are to be obligatory disposed. Annual disposal of such RAW and SIR constitutes 10-50 tons with activity of 1-5).103 Ci. The paper presents the recommendations on extraction, reprocessing and conditioning of radioactive waste from the existing storages when PDWD reconstruction which have been developed with using the created computer database on the stored RAW

  8. Optimal electricity generation system expansion and nuclear power option in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushau, A.; Mikhalevich, A.

    2000-01-01

    After having declared independence, the Republic of Belarus was forced to import 90% of fuel consumed and 25% of electricity. The deficit of peak electric capacity reached 40%. The imported fuel covers the last years because the drop in the production reduced the energy consumption in the Republic but not the needs of the energy sector. Annual payments for imported fuel and electricity are equal to the sum of an annual state budget of Belarus (about 1.5 billion USD) and current debts were not lower 300 million. Comparative analysis of the different scenarios of the electricity generation system expansion showed that an optimum way for electricity generation is installation of the combine cycle units and construction nuclear power plants. The results of the study also showed that the option based on replacement of deficit of the electricity generation by the way of the construction combine cycle units with capacities 450 MW turned out to be the best solution among non nuclear options. (author)

  9. Approaches to technical and scientific support for the nuclear regulatory body in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobacha, Dmitry J.; Teskeb, Hartmuth

    2010-01-01

    Approaches to technical and scientific support for the State NPP Program in Belarus are described and compared with the recommendations of the IAEA. The past infrastructure in Belarus did not have specialized technical support organization (TSO) for the nuclear regulatory body. Currently, there are two technical and scientific support centers, nominated by decrees. They are part of the NPP infrastructure and belong to the National Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Energy. It is a challenge to establish the needed TSO capacities for the nuclear regulatory body (the Ministry for Emergency Situations) inside existing institutions of the Ministry for Emergency Situations (MES). Initially, the new technical support structure could focus on well known topics like emergency preparedness and radiation protection. The scope of work has to be extended to all major aspects of radiation and nuclear safety of the new NPP soon. National education as well as international knowledge transfer are important for that. Tasks and challenges of new technical safety institution(s) are described. (author)

  10. The Public Diplomacy Resources Of The Union State Of Russia And Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Borishpolets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public diplomacy has become a common attribute of the global political life since the early 21 century. The interest for the public diplomacy is also evident among the EEU countries. Nevertheless, the question of the public diplomacy resource savailable for the integrating post-Soviet states and their usage remains open. The practice of the Union State of Russia and Belarus (USRB is characterized by a wide range of public initiatives to increase the public attractiveness of the bilateral integration project. It communicates with a broad international environment and thereby creates a positive image for the Russian-Belarusian partnership. Public diplomacy of the USRB is a complex phenomenon combining various functional components, mechanisms and. Two mutually complementary vectors in its development can be distinguished, the first one related to the actions of officials and leaders of partner countries, and the second one – to the practice of non-state actors in the form of public organizations, business communities, academics, and the media. The state institutions along with the special social structures are actively involved in different projects boosting the international public image of USRB and play a critical part in creating a positive image of the Russian-Belarus cooperation. This fact represents the growing structural interaction of the traditional and new actors of the world political processes.

  11. Industry turns its attention south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia's oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia

  12. RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkhojayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) will allow complete hands-free access control, monitoring the whereabouts of employee and record the attendance of the employee as well. Moreover, with a help of this system, it is possible to have a nice report at the end of the month and based on the total number of worked hours, the salary will be allocated to each personnel. The access tag can be read up to 10 centimeters from the RFID reader. The proposed system is based on UHF RFID readers, supported with antennas at gate and transaction sections, and employee identification cards containing RFID-transponders which are able to electronically store information that can be read / written even without the physical contact with the help of radio medium. This system is an innovative system, which describes the benefits of applying RFID- technology in the Education System process of Republic of Kazakhstan. This paper presents the experiments conducted to set up RFID based SCS.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of mammals from ecologically unfavourable regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapbasov, R.; Sejsebaev, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring of mammals' natural population living in unfavorable regions of Kazakhstan were carried out. With this purpose level of chromosomal aberration and genome mutation different species of mammals were studied in comparative aspect. It was revealed reliable increase of chromosomal disturbances and genome mutation in rodents' somatic cells living in Semipalatinsk test site. Genome instabilities common level for different age sheep keeping on pasture areas of the Semipalatinsk site with different rate of radiation contamination in 2-3 times exceeds indexes of animals from other regions of the Republic. Same chromosomal disturbances in bone marrow cells were established with sheep breeding in Atyrau oblast. In bone marrow of 2-3 year-age of sheep there are 3.61 % cells with chromosomal aberration, 2.96 % cells with hyperploid chromosomes set and 3.28 % with polyploid chromosome set

  14. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Kazakhstan. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  15. Secretly political: Civic engagement in online publics in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Valtysson, Bjarki

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of networked forms of communication has captured the attention of media and scholars alike. We have never had quite as many resources for communication as we have today, and such communicative potential has implications for social change. In this article we consider public spheres...... that emerge through communication in the digital realm, paying atten- tion to how networked publics operate within such spheres. We present results from a study of a popular local online discussion forum in Kazakhstan. Steeped in Habermas’s idea of the public sphere, this study focuses on cultural public...... spheres defined through engagement and participation of diverse publics. We consider a range of publics that might emerge, such as mundane-publics, issue-publics, and counter-publics and how these differ in their content and purpose. While the majority of work on networked publics has been situated...

  16. Uranium contamination of drinking water in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Aparin, V.; Shiraishi, K.; Ko, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nagaia, M.; Katayama, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. But it is concentrated in certain rock formations. Most of the uranium for nuclear weapon produced in the Soviet Union during the Cold War came from Central Asia. Uranium has negative effects on the human body, both as a carcinogen and as a kidney toxin. WHO (2004) prescribed that uranium concentrations in drinking water should be less than 15 mcg/l for only chemical aspects of uranium addressed. We determined high uranium concentrations in drinking water in the central region of Uzbekistan (Y. KAWABATA et al. 2004). In this area, some discharge water from farmland has higher uranium concentration. Irrigation systems Kyzyl-orda in Republic of Kazakhstan and in Karakalpakstan in the Republic of Uzbekistan have drains deeper than 5 m, in order to protect against salinization. Water in these drains can mix with ground water. In this area, ground water is used for drinking water. We investigated uranium concentrations in water in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. In the half of drinking water sampling points, uranium concentrations exceeded the WHO (2004) guideline level for drinking water. Uranium is a suspected carcinogen that can also have a toxic effect on kidney. However, WHO addresses only the chemical aspects of uranium by giving uranium concentrations in drinking water. The effect of uranium exposure from drinking water on people in these areas is significant. The uranium concentration in the Aral Sea was higher than that in sea water. Aral Sea is accumulating uranium. (author)

  17. Career intentions and dropout causes among medical students in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizullina, Kamila; Kausova, Galina; Kalmataeva, Zhanna; Nurbakyt, Ardak; Buzdaeva, Saule

    2013-01-01

    The number of new entrants to higher medical schools of Kazakhstan increased by 1.6 times from 2007 to 2012. However, it is not known how it will affect the shortage of human resources for health. Additionally, human resources for health in rural areas of Kazakhstan are 4 times scarcer than in urban areas. The aim of the present study was to investigate the intentions of students toward their professional future and readiness to work in rural areas, as well as to determine the causes for dropping out from medical schools. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 medical universities in Almaty during the academic year 2011-2012. The study sample included medical students and interns. In total, 2388 students participated in the survey. The survey tool was an anonymous questionnaire. The students of the first years of studies compared with those of later years of studies were more optimistic about the profession and had more intentions to work in the medical field. Only 8% of the students reported a wish to work in rural localities. On the other hand, 4% of the students did not plan to pursue the profession. On the average, every third medical student dropped out on his/her own request. Associations between intentions to work according to the profession and the year of studies, faculty, and residence area before enrolling in a medical school were documented. The majority of the students who came from rural areas preferred to stay and look for work in a city, which might contribute to an unequal distribution of physicians across the country.

  18. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, L. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  19. Radioactive contamination of the Dnepr-Sozh river basin in Belarus after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Matveenko, I.I.; Pokumejko, Yu.M.; Shagalova, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic control over the radioactive contamination of surface waters is carried out at five main rivers of Belarus: Dnepr, Sozh, Pripyat, Iput, Besed. The experimental watershed of Iput river (Dnepr-Sozh basin) have been chosen for revealing the general rules of radioactive contamination of the rivers of Belarus on the basis of generalization of the monitoring data and field investigations. It has been found that transport of radionuclides on suspended solids is one of the main forms of migration of radionuclides in the river (caesium-137 in particular). Thus, the analysis of contamination of the rivers of Belarus has shown that the most intensive runoff of radionuclides from the territories of the watershed occurs in the head of the Dnepr basin, namely by its tributaries, Iput and Sozh. The annual runoff of radionuclides in soluble form by the rivers of Belarus in 1987-1996 has decreased significantly. Transport of radioisotopes with suspended and drawn wash loads significantly affects their migration and its contribution to the total runoff of radionuclides has increased with time. The runoff of radionuclides with transported wash loads varied within 20-80% from the total runoff of radionuclides. Sedimentation of river suspended load carrying radionuclides in the sites with slow river flow creates local movable ecologically dangerous centres of accumulation of radionuclides in bottom sediments particularly in front of the diverting dams. Existence of such centres of radioactive contamination requires their monitoring, assessment of their possible effects, and, if necessary, their decontamination

  20. Communication of 18 June 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The following documents received on 18 June 1996 from the Resident Representative of Belarus are reproduced here: the 'Appeal to States Members of the United Nations on the tenth anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant' signed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the 'Resolution of the European Parliament on the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident'

  1. TACIS Belarus - an overview of results and planned activities in the field of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1996 the nuclear safety authorities of the Republic of Belarus were assisted with TACIS activities entitled: 'Transfer of Western European Regulatory Methodology and Practices to the Nuclear Safety Authorities of Belarus'. Considering the results of the Exploratory Mission which was arranged in 1996 the Regulatory Assistance Projects BE/RA/01 and BE/RA/02 were successful realised in 1998/1999 and in 2003/2004, respectively. These projects were financed by the Commission of the European Communities (EC) and implemented by a consortium of Technical Support Organisations (TSOs) from France (IRSN (former IPSN)), Germany (GRS) and Sweden (SSI) led by Riskaudit IRSN/GRS International. Beneficiary of the projects were Promatomnadzor at the beginning and later the Ministry for Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus each in connection with the Republican Centre of Radiation Control and Monitoring (RCRCM). The actual project BE/RA/03 'Regulatory Assistance to Belarus in the Field of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection including Radiological Emergency Preparedness' was started by the end of August 2006. (author)

  2. The experience of the Republic of Belarus in the field of safe and secure transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashka, R.; Kronava, Z.; Prykhodzka, A.; Tkachonak, I.

    2016-01-01

    The experience of the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus includes domestic and international movements. Transit is a substantial part of international movements taking into account the location of the country. Legislative and regulatory requirements on safety and security of radioactive material transport being in force in the country include the demands making by such state structures as the Department on Nuclear and Radiation Safety, the Department on supervision for the safe industrial activities, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. At the same time response to accidents and security events belongs to the scope of activity of special subdivisions of the Ministry for Emergency Situations and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. For safety purposes all the above-mentioned structures are executing their duties in close collaboration with each other and are following the IAEA safety and security recommendations. The regulatory infrastructure concerning the safe and secure transport of radioactive material of the Republic of Belarus is the subject of the contributed paper. (author)

  3. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchuk, V.E.; Gurachevskij, V.L.

    2006-04-01

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  4. Fire evolution in the radioactive forests of Ukraine and Belarus: future risks for the population and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Evangeliou; Y. Balkanski; A. Cozic; WeiMin Hao; F. Mouillot; K. Thonicke; R. Paugam; S. Zibtsev; T. A. Mousseau; R. Wang; B. Poulter; A. Petkov; C. Yue; P. Cadule; B. Koffi; J. W. Kaiser; A. P. Moller

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the current and future status of forests in Ukraine and Belarus that were contaminated after the nuclear disaster in 1986. Using several models, together with remote-sensing data and observations, we studied how climate change in these forests may affect fire regimes. We investigated the possibility of 137Cs displacement over Europe...

  5. Research Programs in the Field of Nuclear Power Engineering and Technologies in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.; Takibaev, Zh. S.

    2000-01-01

    In 1991 the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was closed under the decree of President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, N.A. Nazarbayev. Later, the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) was established under President's decree 779 dated May 15 1992. A range of NNC RK activity was specified in the decree: ' To create National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the basis of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and appropriate scientific organizations and facilities situated in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a view to conduct work on radiation safety and ecology, investigation of problems related to utilization and radioactive waste disposal, development work in the field of nuclear technology and nuclear power engineering'. Tasks outlined in this decree, later on, became the work program of NNC RK

  6. Specific Features in Kazakhstan Economic Development: before and after the Crisis Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Akbergenova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the analysis of the done and forthcoming work on overcoming of structural crisis in Kazakhstan Republic. The basic stages of formation and development of economic process are characterized.

  7. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  8. Geo policy of Commonwealth of Independent States and ecological destiny of territories and population of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Author points out, that in Kazakhstan environmental problems does not are priorities of state programs right up to 2030. Number of urgent measures on state national ecological policy which it necessary adopt are presented

  9. Status and development trends of the National Space Monitoring System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultangazin, U.M.; Spivak, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Principles of construction and architecture of space monitoring of Kazakhstan are presented, structure and specifications of space and ground segments are described, top-priority tasks of monitoring are determined. (author)

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  11. On the prospect of atomic engineering development in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Mahanov, U. M.

    2002-01-01

    There is a necessity of some additional electric power sources in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is caused by insufficiency of electric power especially in the southern and western regions of Kazakhstan; construction insufficiency of new power plants; aging and deterioration of equipment of thermal power plants and necessity of its updating. Such alternative source of energy can be nuclear energy, provided by the highest natural stocks of uranium in Kazakhstan, appropriate for the cheapest way of production - by in situ leaching; availability of the enterprises for production and processing of uranium; for manufacturing of uranium fuel and beryllium; poor ecology of Kazakhstan, threat of greenhouse effect while using organic origin fuel etc. Problems of Kazakhstan nuclear engineering development and it's basic criteria such as high safety degree, corresponding to the increasing requirements of the second half of X XI century and economic competitiveness, are discussed in this report. The problem of choice of the Kazakhstan reactor strategy development and way of the nuclear fuel cycle development are considered. Comparative analysis of safety of advanced large, medium and small sized reactor projects are carried out; the most preferential rectors are determined from the view point of safety and economic competitiveness. Nowadays medium and small sized reactor are the most acceptable for Kazakhstan due to condition of the greater safety provision and proven of system and components, availability of pretty small electrical distributive systems in the country, remoteness of a plenty of the consumers from large power transmission lines, requiring autonomous electric and heat supply. The classical complete nuclear fuel cycle, availability of it's elements in Kazakhstan, ways of the problem solution, caused by lack of nuclear fuel cycle elements are considered in this report. Three ways of nuclear engineering and fuel cycle development for Kazakhstan are considered

  12. Culex coronator in coastal Georgia and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulis, Robert A; Russell, Jennifer D; Lewandowski, Henry B; Thompson, Pamela S; Heusel, Jeffrey L

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, adult Culex coronator were collected in Chatham County, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina, during nuisance and disease vector surveillance efforts. A total of 75 specimens of this species were collected at 8 widely separated locations in Chatham County, Georgia, and 4 closely situated sites in Jasper County, South Carolina. These represent the first Atlantic coastal records of this species in Georgia and the first confirmed records of Cx. coronator in South Carolina.

  13. Music Circulation and Transmission in Tbilisi, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Sebald, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation, based upon two years research in Tbilisi, Georgia, questions how popular music travels from the performer to the audience and how it circulates among audience members. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, the state-run music industry collapsed, taking the infrastructure for music distribution with it. In the years since, a music industry has not been rebuilt due to uncertain economic realities and a shaky political situation. Because of this, per...

  14. Solar Data Mining at Georgia State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angryk, R.; Martens, P. C.; Schuh, M.; Aydin, B.; Kempton, D.; Banda, J.; Ma, R.; Naduvil-Vadukootu, S.; Akkineni, V.; Küçük, A.; Filali Boubrahimi, S.; Hamdi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this talk we give an overview of research projects related to solar data analysis that are conducted at Georgia State University. We will provide update on multiple advances made by our research team on the analysis of image parameters, spatio-temporal patterns mining, temporal data analysis and our experiences with big, heterogeneous solar data visualization, analysis, processing and storage. We will talk about up-to-date data mining methodologies, and their importance for big data-driven solar physics research.

  15. Vanadium contents in Kazakhstan fossils hydrocarbons by data of nuclear-physical analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear physical methods possibilities of vanadium determination analysis in organic fossils and an application of these methods for solution of scientific and practical tasks are presented. Vanadium contents in high viscous petroleums and petroleum bituminous rock of different deposits of Western Kazakhstan and carbonaceous shales of Dzhangariya are studied. Presented data evidence that organic fossils of numerous deposits of Kazakhstan have industrial interest because of high vanadium concentration in its contents

  16. The comparative analysis of payments for negative environmental impact in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Ospanov, A. T.; Salata, D. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article represents the calculation of the payment for negative environmental impact caused by the development of the uranium ores deposits in the Republic of Kazakhstan. To compare the deposits in Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, the event is simulated as if the object were located in the territory of the Russian Federation. The comparison of the results serves as an evidence to substantiate the experts’ claim that the financial mechanism of land management in Russia should be reformed.

  17. Architecture of high-rise buildings as a brand of the modern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrassilova, Gulnara; Kozbagarova, Nina; Tuyakayeva, Ainagul

    2018-03-01

    Using practical examples article reviews urban-planning and space-planning features of design and construction of high-rise buildings in Kazakhstan conditions; methods are identified that provide for structural stability against wind and seismic loads based on innovative technical and technological solutions. Article authors stress out the fashion function of high-rise buildings in the new capital of Kazakhstan, the Astana city.

  18. Prehistory of geophysical service establishment in the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanchugov, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    To look to the future it is necessary, seeing the present, not to forget the past. Obviously it is important to know 'how was it?', 'in the beginning was the word' - the word of the Ministry of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 15, 1992 about establishment of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Originally a geophysical service formed the National Nuclear Center RK as Geophysical Party 35 and Borovoe Geophysical Observatory. (author)

  19. The Environmental Consequences of Growth: Empirical Evidence from the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amantay Akbota

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the effect growth has on CO2 emissions in Kazakhstan, controlling for energy consumption, in the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration framework. We find that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis seems to hold for Kazakhstan; this effect at a low level of income increases CO2 but at a high level decreases it. We also find that energy consumption increases CO2 emissions.

  20. Networking and cultural differences in Human Resource Management: The Case of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Altynbekov, Mardan

    2014-01-01

    The new emerging markets are becoming significant players in global market in recent decade. This study follows current pace in employing institutional theory to explore the specific pressures and factors makes networking essential in Human Resource Management in different countries. The study is a detailed qualitative analysis of networking and cultural differences in Kazakhstan, a country with very different value and government structure. Contrary to simplistic expectations, Kazakhstan sho...

  1. Situation and perspectives of the development of investigation on photovoltage conversion of solar energy in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, Z.A.; Taurbaev, T.I.; Mikhailov, L.V.; Bychkov, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the research and development on photovoltaic conversion of solar energy in Kazakhstan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. It is shown that the use of solar energy devices in particular on the basis of photovoltaic cells has the economical advantage in Kazakhstan arid lands. The description of some photovoltaic cells on the basis of aluminium and gallium arsenide is presented. (A.A.D.)

  2. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  3. Mission Report on the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR), 18-29 June 2012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. Counterpart: Ministry of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In a letter dated 23 November 2011, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Organizations in Vienna requested the IAEA to carry out an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission (INIR). The Republic of Belarus (hereafter Belarus) also provided their self-evaluation report (in Russian and English) entitled: Report on the Assessment of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus. After preparatory activities, the INIR mission was conducted from 18 to 29 June 2012 in Minsk and represents an evaluation of the development status of the infrastructure issues described in the Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). The methodology for the evaluation is described in Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-3.2). Given the status of Belarus's programme, the mission covered conditions for both Phases 1 and 2. Belarus began its preparations for nuclear power in the 1980s but stopped after the Chernobyl accident. In July 2006, after strategic energy planning activities, Belarus decided to again consider the possibility of introducing nuclear power into the national energy mix. Subsequently on September 17, 2007, The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus was approved by the Decree No. 433 of the President and included a plan to commission two nuclear power units with total power capacity of 2000 MWe by 2020. The Resolution of the Security Council of Belarus in 2008 approved the construction. The Law on the Use of Atomic Energy in Belarus was adopted on July 30, 2008 and provides the legal basis for safe nuclear power development. In 2009, the Master Plan of Key Organizational Measures for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant was adopted. The mission team concluded that the Government of Belarus has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to

  4. Remarks at Institute of Retraining and Professional Development, 2 April 2012, Minsk, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Good morning, Ladies and Gentlemen. I am delighted to address participants in this training course for first responders to nuclear and radiological emergencies. Belarus gained considerable experience in responding to nuclear emergencies after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, which had a significant effect on your country. Experts from Belarus have shared the knowledge and expertise acquired through that experience with the IAEA and its Member States. This proved extremely valuable when we had to respond to another nuclear emergency in my home country a year ago. I am referring, of course, to the Fukushima Daiichi accident. That accident was a reminder to all of us that, when it comes to nuclear safety, we cannot take anything for granted. I visited Fukushima Daiichi several months after the accident and was filled with admiration for the courage and dedication of everyone at the site. Their work to restore normality was undertaken in difficult conditions and at great personal risk. All of us owe a debt of gratitude to the men and women who are willing to undertake the potentially dangerous work of first response after a nuclear or radiological emergency. Your work is vitally important. As you may know, good progress has been made in restoring normality at the Fukushima Daiichi plant. The Japanese authorities have declared that cold shut down status has been achieved. The IAEA has been doing everything it can to help Japan bring the situation at the site under control and to mitigate the consequences of the accident. The IAEA's Incident and Emergency Centre, led by my distinguished Belarussian colleague Dr Elena Buglova, worked around the clock for many months to address this accident. We will continue to assist Japan in tackling the challenging work of decontamination and remediation in the affected areas. Last September, our Member States endorsed a 12-point IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. I will not list all 12 elements, but they included agreement

  5. DETECTION OF REFLEXIVE SIGNS IN TOWN PLANNING SYSTEMS OF UKRAINE AND REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Smilka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a city is a complex system, it complies with the principles pertaining to organization and management of systems. System analysis makes it possible to figure out the difference between managing systems (subject from systems that are managed (object. There is a link between these system formations which unites them in a common system. Such relationship is a source of information for development of management action. Impact on the system is achieved through availability of influential means and data. Urban planning science represents a city as a complex of socio-economic, territorial-productive and demographic-ecological systems of the following type: “population” – “environment” – “activity”. “Environment” is thought of as a technical system with such synonyme notions as “urban planning system”, “anthropogenic environment”, “settlement system”. “Environment” has two components – territory and buildings. Ukrainian legislation determines that management of urban planning activities is carried out through developing urban planning documentation and carrying out urban planning monitoring. Results of the urban planning monitoring are taken into account while preparing urban planning documentation (introduction of amendments to it and programs of socio-economic development. Thus, urban planning monitoring represents a management system of urban planning activity in the Ukraine. Legislation of the Republic of Belarus contains some provisions which regulate urban planning activity through urban development planning and zoning of territories; creation and maintenance of urban planning cadastre; control over development and implementation of urban planning, architectural and construction projects; implementation of state construction supervision. Data of the urban planning cadastre are taken into account in urban planning documentation. In comparison with the Ukraine management of the urban planning system in the

  6. Law of the Republic of Belarus about radiation protection of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Law of Republic of Belarus about radiation protection of the population determines bases of legal regulation in the field of guarantee of radiation protection of the population and is directed on creation of conditions for protection of life and health of the people from harmful influence of ionising radiation. The law contains the following mail articles: Legal regulation in the field of guarantee of radiation protection; Principles of guarantee of radiation protection; Measures for guarantee of radiation protection; Functions of the state in the field of guarantee of radiation protection; System of the executive authority bodies in the field of guarantee of radiation protection; The state programs in the field of guarantee of radiation protection; State standardisation in the field of guarantee of radiation protection; Licensing of activity in sphere of handling with ionising radiation sources; Industrial control for guarantee of radiation protection; Estimation of a condition of radiation protection; Duties of the user for guarantee of radiation protection at handling with ionising radiation sources; Guarantee of radiation protection at influence of radon and gamma - radiation of natural radioisotopes; Guarantee of radiation protection at production of foodstuff and usage of drinking water; Guarantee of radiation protection of the citizens (patients) at a medical irradiation; Control and account of individual irradiation dozes; Protection of the population and workers (personnel) from radiation accident; Duties of the user of ionising radiation sources for guarantee of radiation protection at radiation accident; Standardisation of irradiation of the citizens attracted for liquidation of consequences of radiation accidents; Right of the citizens of Republic of Belarus, foreign citizens and persons without citizenship for radiation protection; Right of the citizens and public associations on receiving of information; The public control for guarantee of radiation

  7. Migration Policy of the Regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Socio-political Mechanisms of Easing the Interethnic Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsara Madanievna Kappassova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A change in the ethnic structure of the population is observed in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is described by ethnic and cultural diversity. The current situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan has been analysed based on the author's methodology for the quantitative assessment of interethnic tension. The author outlined a set of measures to stabilise interethnic relations, strengthen mutual understanding between citizens of various nationalities, and prevent interethnic conflicts in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  8. Analysis of methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, A.M.; Krivoruchko, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation induced pathology of the thyroid gland comprising specifically the cancer cases in children are currently recognized to be the only indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. The iodine prophylactics took place neither in Belarus nor in the Ukraine or was effected only too late. Thus with rather full case registers available there is a unique possibility to determine the radiation risk coefficients for NPP large-scale accidents at least for the pathology mentioned above. For the measuring equipment being regretfully inadequate to the scale of the radiation exposure in the early (or so called iodine) phase of the accident, the detailed information on the spreading of the iodine nuclides and the doses to thyroid gland has been irretrievably lost. 13 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.; Fomina, Z.N.; Khmel, R.D. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-12-31

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down`s syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author).

  10. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  11. NORMALIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE CHARACTERISTICS WHILE OPERATING THEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Flerko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety provision for the operated auto-transport facilities is of great significance all over the world. The problem is also considered as an actual one for the automotive transport of theRepublicofBelarus. Provision of higher brake system reliability for the operated vehicles is one of the directions to solve the problem pertaining to improve traffic safety.The paper contains an analysis of basic national standard documents which regulate brake characteristics for the operated vehicles, evaluates checking methods of braking efficiency and vehicle stability at the moment of braking, considers some problems pertaining to methods used for checking and estimation of braking control systems of transport facilities. 

  12. Knowledge of the inhabitants of Belarus on the radiation and power problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastchenko, S. V.

    2000-01-01

    The anonymous questionnaire of the inhabitants living in various regions of Belarus and having different age and level of education ha been done. The poll has been carried out aiming at definition of a general radiation erudition, as well as revealing the knowledge of the population about the effect of power stations (nuclear and thermal) on the environment and the health of a human being. The analysis of answers shows that people have a rather vague idea in the sphere considered. The analysis of the questionnaires shows that women are informed worse than men about the problems on radiation subjects. The investigation carried out has shown what problems on nuclear power (and radiation safety) should be given the more serious consideration when working with population, especially with women's audience, in order to raise the level of accepting nuclear power as the necessary source of energy. (author)

  13. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, A.F.; Mostovenko, A.L.; Radchikov, V.F.; Tsaj, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  14. Analysis of methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutsko, A M; Krivoruchko, K A [International Sakharov College of Radioecology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-09-01

    The radiation induced pathology of the thyroid gland comprising specifically the cancer cases in children are currently recognized to be the only indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. The iodine prophylactics took place neither in Belarus nor in the Ukraine or was effected only too late. Thus with rather full case registers available there is a unique possibility to determine the radiation risk coefficients for NPP large-scale accidents at least for the pathology mentioned above. For the measuring equipment being regretfully inadequate to the scale of the radiation exposure in the early (or so called iodine) phase of the accident, the detailed information on the spreading of the iodine nuclides and the doses to thyroid gland has been irretrievably lost. 13 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Interaction between Floods Occurrence and Gender and Age Structure of Population in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Kvach, Alena

    2017-04-01

    The high spring snow-melting or rainfall flooding is the most important and actual event in hydrological cycle for the territory of Belarus. It caused an inundation that means exceeding of water level in the river above safe line and water floods to the adjacent territories. Inundations led to significant destruction of adjoining territories, huge financial damage and threat for human being. The frequencies of spring flooding in Belarus is defined by intensity of river network, its morphometric characteristics and hydrometeorological conditions during the season before floods. The aim of the present study is to estimate the spatial distribution of flood inundation frequency and gender and age structure of national population which might be suffer under extreme phenomena on the rivers. We analysed dangerous thresholds in the river water levels and the frequency of floods of various severity within different river basins, quantity of men and women and their ratio, the quantity of people in the age upper 70 years old as a most sensitive to the flood risk group of population and ratio of rural houses to the entire housing resources as a most vulnerable infrastructure in the different regions of the country. During floods the dangerous levels which cause the inundation have been recorded in the 4 largest river basins passes the territory of Belarus. The most frequent inundations (every two years) occur in the south of the country in the Prypyat` river basin, and in the Dnepr river basin (every 4-5 years) on the majority of the rivers. The hypothesis of our study is that quantity of women population is higher in the flood risk regions (we defined 30 regions with highly frequent inundations) and their ratio high with the age. The majority of them live in potential flood dangerous regions. The strong connections between size of the river basin, its potential flood risk and quantity of population in the region was established. The ratio of men and women over country varied

  16. Safety aspects related to the radioactively contaminated forest areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SULLIVAN, T.; GIBBS, B.; ANDERSSON, K.G.; ROED, J.; RYMKEVICH, V.; BREKKE, D.

    1998-01-01

    Doses currently received in Belarus through various pathways related to the contamination of forests are evaluated through calculations. A major pathway is, as expected, generally found to be the external radiation from a contaminated forest floor. Also other pathways may in some cases be highly significant. Generally, it is found that the dose contributions to people spending time in the contaminated forest or consuming forest products are highest, whereas for instance doses received from domestic use of fire-wood are found to be negligible. Recommendations for storage of waste from combustion plants fired with radioactive forest material are also given, together with an estimate of the specific activity of the waste to be disposed of

  17. Uranium and radium content in the soil solutions of the south-western part of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Vojnikova, E.V.; Popenya, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    The contents of uranium and radium in the pore soil solutions, which are the main chain in the geochemical and biological migration of the chemical elements, has been determined for the first time in Belarus. The control sites have been located outside the zone of Chernobyl fallout radionuclide contamination, that allowed evaluating the current background level of uranium and radium content in the soil solutions. The data on accumulation of the radioactive elements in the pore solutions give the opportunity to estimate the reserve of the radioactive elements in the migratory active forms in the soils. In the majority of soils studied, uranium content in the pore solution is higher than radium content, that points to the higher migratory ability of uranium. The direct correlation between content of fulvic acids' components in the soil solutions and accumulation of uranium in such solutions has been established. (authors)

  18. Potassium effect on cesium 137 behaviour in natural waters of contaminated regions (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudel'skij, A.V.; Pashkevich, V.I.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Petrovich, A.A.; Smit, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Very close relationships between cesium 137 activity of water objects (soil solutions, bog and lake water) and their stable potassium contents have been revealed in the contaminated area in south-eastern Belarus. It was revealed the increase of cesium 137 activity in soil solutions and bog ecosystems proportionally with the increase of potassium content. The exponential dependence of cesium 137 activity of fish production was similar to reverse. The coefficient of cesium 137 accumulation in plants was estimated to be reverse connected with the potassium content in soils. So an universal character of these relations and their specificity are of interest when elaborating countermeasures for reducing population dose loads due to cesium 137 water migration

  19. Actions undertaken by Electricite de France in Belarus: a community of interests for electricity producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the spread-out of an important contamination both Ukraine and Belarus (12 million inhabitants), as well as Russia (Bryansk district). This contamination is correlated with the disposal of radioactive iodines and cesiums. The importance of this contamination is not only correlated with the distance to Chernobyl. A very long and thorough study, issued by AIEA specialists at the end of 1990, i.e. three and half years after the accident specified the precise geography of the contamination called 'leopard spots'. Since people discovered this contamination level as late as 1990, they did not apply the countermeasures and, as a consequence, the population, especially the Belorussian were severely irradiated. Children, whose thyroid is especially radiosensitive, received the highest doses. (author)

  20. BRCA mutations in women from Belarus exposed to radiation from Chernobyl compared to controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnov, S.B.; Nadyrov, E.; Modugno, F.; Foley, T.; Murphy, P.; Putyrski, L.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are several reports of studies that suggest a causal association between exposure to ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, there has been a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after radiation exposure, especially among those who were exposed as young children and living in the areas with the greatest contamination. One early report found that women exposed to radiation from Chernobyl had a slight, but significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer. No other data are reported about additional risks for the development of breast cancer in this population. With funding from a NIH R03 grant application and the Child Health International Foundation, we are investigating the molecular epidemiology of breast cancer in Belarusian women exposed at ages < 40 years to high radiation doses from the Chernobyl accident compared to controls for the common Eastern European BRCA 1/2 mutations. As occurred 20+ years after exposure of Japanese women exposed to radiation fallout from atomic bombs in 1945, we expect to find a sustained increase in breast cancer for the coming decade and longer. We accomplished nearly all of the following objectives in the evaluation of Belarusian women with breast cancer and controls who were exposed to sustained high doses of ionizing radiation in 1986. When our US collaborators visited the Republic of Belarus, they (a) met with Belarusian consultants, co-investigators, other health care professionals and administrators and developed a formal collaboration to study breast cancer, BRCA mutations and radiation exposure; (b) recruited Belarusian cancer epidemiologists, Chernobyl radiation dosimetrists, and cancer registry/database management personnel; (c) began a collaboration with the Director of Breast Cancer Surgery for the Republic of Belarus and met several breast cancer specialists in surgery and oncology under his direction; and (d) met medical directors

  1. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina S.; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Chekan, Grigoriy S.; Melnik, Viktor I.

    2014-09-01

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers.

  2. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  3. Development of infrastructure for epidemiological studies in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, H.H.; Winkelmann, R.A.; Okeanov, A.E.; Yakimovitch, G.; Prisyazhniuk, A.E.; Ivanov, V.K.; Gulak, L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 raised worldwide concern about the health effects of the radiation fallout. International collaborations were established between scientist; to investigate the long-term consequences of the accident. However, lack of knowledge abut the mechanisms of data collection and the quality of basic epidemiological tools, such as mortality and cancer incidence, has been recognized as a major limitation for the conduct of epidemiological investigations according to international standards in the Newly Independent States (NIS). In the framework of a collaboration which aims to develop and implement epidemiological infrastructure in Belarus, the Russian Federation and he Ukraine, a survey on cancer registration techniques was conducted. A system of compulsory reporting of all new cases of cancer was introduced in 1953 throughout hie former Soviet Union for health planning purposes. This cancer registration system, however, was developed entirely independent from similar activities in other parts of hie World. In each of the countries surveyed, a nationwide network of regional dispensary-based cancer registries exists. Cancer registration in the NIS relies on passive reporting from hospital and laboratory sources. Death certificates are searched actively. Whereas: in Belarus and the Ukraine computerized cancer registration has been developed in recent years, cancer registration in most areas of the Russian Federation is still a manual operation. Although computerization was identified as the major objective in all tree countries, further efforts are required to assess the completeness and the quality of the information collected. The introduction of internationally recognized classifications wold considerably improve the comparability with registries in other parts of the World. In addition to preparing annual statistics for health planning purposes, cancer registries should consider reporting cancer incidence for research purposes following

  4. On the long-term evaluation of post-Chernobyl dose burdens in Korma county (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dederichs, H.; Hill, P.; Lennartz, R.; Hille, R.; Konoplya, E.

    2002-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 the development of environmental contamination and population doses was investigated by several national and international institutions. In 1991 a German three-year measuring campaign was started. The results concerning the ingestion dose by in-vivo monitoring had shown that the international annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a had only been exceeded in less than 2% of all 317,000 measured cases. In following years the expected downward trend of mean annual doses did not occur and internal doses did not continue to decrease or even increased. Therefore, several small follow-up studies were initiated in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. One of these studies is the Korma Project in Belarus, where two municipalities in Korma county were selected for further investigations: Vornovka, a purely agricultural municipality with the villages of Vornovka and Vissokoe, and Volincy, an agricultural and forestal municipality with the inhabited villages of Volincy, Kljapin and Kljapinskaja-Buda. The ground contamination of these two areas was between 300 kBq/m 2 and 630 kBq/m 2 in 1991. In contrast to Vornovka the municipality of Volincy is surrounded by a contaminated forest area and isolated from the main part of Korma county by a highly contaminated evacuation zone along the river Sosch. First results were envisaged in May 2000. The study was finished last year and the results of these measurements are presented here. They are representative for smaller villages where people provide their families with locally produced food, which is in these higher contaminated districts more common than elsewhere. Today prevention measures including food restrictions installed shortly after the accident are increasingly ignored due to the poor economic situation

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  6. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  7. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  8. Neutron activation and radiometric investigation of Kazakhstan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Popov, J.V.; Shishkov, I.A.; Poznyak, V.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Great diversity of radio-ecological problems requires measurement of materials with vastly differing chemical composition and density, and varying volume. In case of gamma spectrometry such variation in composition, density and volume changes the response of a measuring system quite drastically. A necessary correction is usually achieved by applying one of the four correction methods. The first one is applying a standard with composition as close to the measured sample as possible. The second method needs some previous knowledge about the chemical composition of the sample and a subsequent calculation of the mass absorption coefficient. The third method, an intensity ratio of two gamma lines, can only be applied when an isotope in the investigated sample has two measurable gamma lines. The fourth method consists in an additional gamma transmission measurement, using an isotopic source. Application of the first two methods to samples collected in Kazakhstan is evaluated and the results achieved are described. Instrumental neutron activation analysis by either long, or short irradiation was applied to three groups of samples. The first 15 samples were from the Semipalatinsk area, the next 15 from the area north for the Kara-Tau range. The third group of 5 samples was from the Syr-Darya valley. The Kara-Tau and Syr-Darya samples originate from the area adjacent to an uranium mining site. Only two samples are collected at cultivated soil, all the other are collected at the steppe or semi-desert areas, In the additional group measured there were ten sub-samples of the environmental soil standard, prepared at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Activation analysis was applied as well to Soil-6 and Soil IAEA-375, two reference materials distributed by IAEA. Determination of concentration of about 40 elements in very sample enabled computation of mass absorption coefficients for all the investigated samples. Results of calculation and experimental testing prove

  9. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Azizov, E.; Filatov, O.; Chernov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li 2 TiO 3 (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the techniques for

  10. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…

  11. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  12. Information Security in the Countries of Central Asia: the Case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarifa Allahveran Asadova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the creation and development of the overall concept of information security, the current state of the information security, as well as the appropriate legal and regulatory framework in the countries of Central Asia on the example of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Introductory part of the article analyzes and provides a brief overview of the development of information and communication technologies. Particular attention is given to information security concepts in the framework of international valuation standards. The author investigates and lists the main sources of global information security threats, as well as explaining the history of the creation of a geopolitical term - Central Asia. In the main part of the article on the example of Kazakhstan one of the leading Central Asian countries, highlights issues of formation and development of the concept of information security, provides a brief overview of the history of development of information and communication technologies in the country. In this part the author conducts a detailed analysis of the legislation and the concept of the state with respect to the issue of information security, in the investigation highlights the major key issues of information security in the Republic of Kazakhstan. It also analyzes the development strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030 (the "Kazakhstan-2030" Strategy, provides a brief overview of the state of laws and programs in the field of information security in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion that today Kazakhstan is just beginning to form their own information security protection mechanisms and leads appropriate recommendations to achieve the objectives of the state.

  13. Preventive impact on corruption in the Republic of Kazakhstan: review of the commentary to the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «on combating corruption»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Danilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective evaluation of the Commentary to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan quotOn combating corruptionquot prepared by a group of authors under the scientific editorship of Doctor of Law N. N. Turetskiy and the assessment of preventative impact on corrupt behaviour in that state based on the the Commentary. Methods universal dialectical method of scientific cognition of social phenomena and processes with application of general scientific methods analysis synthesis comparison used in the modern law. Results the paper gives a positive assessment of the Commentary to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan quotOn combating corruptionquot prepared by a group of authors under the scientific editorship of Doctor of Law N. N. Turetskiy. The tools and mechanisms of preventive impact on corrupt behaviour in the Republic of Kazakhstan are examined and some measures on the improvement of tools and mechanisms for combating corruption in the Russian Federation are suggested with the account of experience accumulated by Kazakhstan specialists.

  14. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide

  15. Conversion problems at the enterprises of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurodze, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the republic Georgia and other countries of former Soviet Union, various scientific research and experimental construction work for the production of special military techniques was conducted for Military Institutions. Much of the conversion work has been done and the brightest example was performed by Georgian aviation industry. Intensive research was conducted on improving the quality of the existing power systems as well as on search for new power sources and means of power savings. A number of significant projects were developed, the implementation of which will considerably improve the crisis situation in the sphere of power supply. A number of laboratories and research centres have submitted proposals for conversion programs

  16. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  17. Report of a Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer in Georgia (Atlanta, Georgia, July 24-25, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Mark C., Ed.

    A summary of the deliberations of the Georgia planning conference of the Solar Technology Transfer Program is presented in this report. Topic areas include background information on the Georgia conference and a summary of the discussions and recommendations dealing with solar information transfer within state systems and the need for greater…

  18. Social enterprise in the UK homelessness sector: Lessons for Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan S. Tanekenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan’s homelessness social enterprise (SE practitioners tend to argue that core to the SE concept is the idea that this is first and foremost a business whose income generation function enables it to sustain the viability of social projects. A range of important potential lessons for Kazakhstan emerged from work-based SEs in homelessness sector in the UK with respect to SEs’ financial capacity: (a ideally, a SE might make enough trading income to entirely sustain its own activities and cross-subsidise a charitable arm/organisation; (b some SEs might make enough financial resources via trading income to entirely sustain their own activities, but only just enough to “break even” so there was no surplus “profit” to invest in charitable programmes; (c SEs might make some trading income, but this was only enough to cover part of their operational costs, and so the SEs needed some subsidy to invest in social programmes (the cost transfer model; (d some emerging SEs make no trading income (so required all costs to be met via cost transfer. This means that it is unrealistic to expect employment-based SEs at least to be able to reconcile commercial and social goals in any absolute sense (Teasdale, 2012a. Kazakh authorities should, therefore, avoid shifting the entire financial responsibility for the social support component of employment-based SEs in the homelessness field themselves.

  19. Contemporary radioecological situation on the Republic of Kazakhstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malgazhdarov, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Common radioecological situation related with nuclear tests and radioactive waste disposal in Kazakhstan is considered. It is noted, that area of three tests sites are contaminated by products of nuclear tests. In the result of atmospheric tests on Semipalatinsk test site (STS) the strontium-90 and cesium-137 with activity 0.62·10 17 and 1·10 17 Bq, relatively have being formed. Because of radioactive gases release into atmosphere after underground explosions on STS the cesium-137 with activity 1.1-1.5·10 15 Ci has been discharged. Total activity of nuclear explosions wastes make up 4.77·10 18 Bq. In the modern conditions after termination of all kinds of test the main source of environment contamination are wastes of uranium mining industry, with total mass - 217.7 million tones and sum activity 8.8·10 18 Bq. Global contamination of environment by products of nuclear decay results to widespread increase of natural radiation background, which varying from 10 to 10,000 μR/h. However, high values of exposure doses capacity are keeping only on the places where open nuclear tests are conducted (200-10,000 μR/h) and places of nuclear wastes disposal (2,800-50,000 μR/h)

  20. RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saparkhojayev, N

    2015-01-01

    RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) will allow complete hands-free access control, monitoring the whereabouts of employee and record the attendance of the employee as well. Moreover, with a help of this system, it is possible to have a nice report at the end of the month and based on the total number of worked hours, the salary will be allocated to each personnel. The access tag can be read up to 10 centimeters from the RFID reader. The proposed system is based on UHF RFID readers, supported with antennas at gate and transaction sections, and employee identification cards containing RFID-transponders which are able to electronically store information that can be read / written even without the physical contact with the help of radio medium. This system is an innovative system, which describes the benefits of applying RFID- technology in the Education System process of Republic of Kazakhstan. This paper presents the experiments conducted to set up RFID based SCS. (paper)

  1. Wild Apple Growth and Climate Change in Southeast Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Panyushkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand the potential of a changing climate to influence apple radial growth. Ring-width chronologies spanning 48 to 129 years were developed from 12 plots in the Trans-Ili Alatau and Jungar Alatau ranges of Tian Shan Mountains, southeastern Kazakhstan. Cluster analysis of the plot-level chronologies suggests different temporal patterns of growth variability over the last century in the two mountain ranges studied. Changes in the periodicity of annual ring-width variability occurred ca. 1970 at both mountain ranges, with decadal-scale variability supplanted by quasi-biennial variation. Seascorr correlation analysis of primary and secondary weather variables identified negative growth associations with spring precipitation and positive associations with cooler fall-winter temperatures, but the relative importance of these relationships varied spatially and temporally, with a shift in the relative importance of spring precipitation ca. 1970 at Trans-Ili Alatau. Altered apple tree radial growth patterns correspond to altered climatology in the Lake Balkhash Basin driven by unprecedented intensified Arctic Oscillations after the late 1970s.

  2. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinkov, A.; Semioshkina, N.; Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of 90 Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. 90 Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of 90 Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between 90 Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m 2 kg -1 x 10 -3 over all measurements. The transfer of 90 Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews

  3. Low-enriched uranium holdup measurements in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Ceo, R.; Smith, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Quantification of the residual nuclear material remaining in process equipment has long been a challenge to those who work with nuclear material accounting systems. Fortunately, nuclear material has spontaneous radiation emissions that can be measured. If gamma-ray measurements can be made, it is easy to determine what isotope a deposit contains. Unfortunately, it can be quite difficult to relate this measured signal to an estimate of the mass of the nuclear deposit. Typically, the measurement expert must work with incomplete or inadequate information to determine a quantitative result. Simplified analysis models, the distribution of the nuclear material, any intervening attenuation, background(s), and the source-to-detector distance(s) can have significant impacts on the quantitative result. This presentation discusses the application of a generalized-geometry holdup model to the low-enriched uranium fuel pellet fabrication plant in Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan. Preliminary results will be presented. Software tools have been developed to assist the facility operators in performing and documenting the measurements. Operator feedback has been used to improve the user interfaces

  4. Kazakhstan In situ BioTransformation of Mercury ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our final international work on the biological decontamination of the mercury contamination of soils in the Northern outskirts of Pavlodar as a result of activity at the former PO “Khimprom” chemical plant is reported here. The plant produced chlorine and alkali from the 1970s into the 1990s using the electrolytic amalgam method entailing the use of massive amounts of mercury. Ground water became contaminated with Hg resulting in a plume 470 m wide, 1.9 km long, estimated to contain 2 million cubic meters of water. This plume could reach the River Irtysh, a source of drinking water for large cities in Kazakhstan and Russia. Significant amounts of mercuric compounds are deposited in the sediments of Lake Balkyldak, 1.5 km north of the factory. This lake occasionally received wastewater from the factory. Phase I of the PO “Kimprom” clean-up that isolated the major sources of mercury at the site was completed in 2004. However, significant amounts of mercury remain underground including groundwater contaminated with Hg in the form of HgCl2 with little to no elemental or methyl mercury (MeHg). Develop biotechnology strategies to mitigate mercury contamination in groundwater

  5. Radiostrontium uptake by plants from different soil types in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinkov, A. [Scientific Research Agricultural Institute of the National Biotechnology Center, Ministry for Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (SRAI), 480544, Gvardeiski (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: Chebotar@srai.kz; Semioshkina, N. [GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Ingolstaedter Land str.1, D-85764, Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: semi@gsf.de; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Voigt, G. [Agency' s Laboratories - Seibersdorf, IAEA, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.voigt@iaea.org

    2007-02-01

    The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to a range of different plant species grown on a range of different soil types in Kazakhstan, including three from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), has been measured in a lysimeter experiment. {sup 90}Sr uptake by Stipa spp was significantly higher than for other vegetation species. The uptake of {sup 90}Sr from chernozem was significantly lower than that from the other soil types which is consistent with other literature. There was a significant negative relationship between {sup 90}Sr uptake and calcium, humus and CEC concentration in the soil for Agropyrum spp, Artemisia spp but not for Stipa spp or Bromus spp. The transfer to vegetation from soil has been quantified using the aggregated transfer coefficients for each species. Tag values range from 0.6 to 11.9 m{sup 2} kg {sup -1}x 10{sup -3} over all measurements. The transfer of {sup 90}Sr to plants from the Kazakh soils was low compared to previously reported data and to that given from literature reviews.

  6. Dynamic Modeling of Cost-effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira; Latipov, Renat; Kuatbaeva, Ajnagul; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2014-01-01

    The government of Kazakhstan, a middle-income country in Central Asia, is considering the introduction of rotavirus vaccination into its national immunization program. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination spanning 20 years by using a synthesis of dynamic transmission models accounting for herd protection. We found that a vaccination program with 90% coverage would prevent ≈880 rotavirus deaths and save an average of 54,784 life-years for children <5 years of age. Indirect protection accounted for 40% and 60% reduction in severe and mild rotavirus gastroenteritis, respectively. Cost per life year gained was US $18,044 from a societal perspective and US $23,892 from a health care perspective. Comparing the 2 key parameters of cost-effectiveness, mortality rates and vaccine cost at

  7. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of supplement use in recreationally active Kazakhstan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Romanova, Zhanna; Dushpanova, Anar; Absatarova, Karashash; Utepbergenova, Zhazira

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc.) and eating habits, and adjusted regression models were used to verify predictors of supplements use. Of the entire sample of 889 students (70% females), 526 (59%) were practicing recreational physical activity (RPA), and walking, jogging and track and field was the most popular activity type (38%). N  = 151 (29%) students reported the use of any supplement (31% in men and 27% in women), whereas the most popular supplement type were vitamins. Supplement use was most prevalent in swimmers (55%). Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.19 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.37), use of fitness tracker (OR 6.26 (95% CI 3.90-10.03)) and low-fat diet (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.23-3.10)), but not income predicted supplements use in adjusted models. With more than half of students exercising regularly, only less than one-third use supplements with a very strong association with fitness tracker use.

  9. Receiver Functions of the Mangystau Region, Western Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, L. B.; Mackey, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    The Mangystau Region, in southwestern Kazakhstan contains many geographic features such as basins, plateaus, and mountain ranges. However, little has been published in English or Russian, and the region has never been instrumented with broadband seismometers before. From August through September 2016, a seismic noise survey took place where 10 broadband seismic stations were deployed throughout the region for 20 days each by MSU. The sensors recorded various teleseismic events and the data were used to infer crustal thickness. The goal of this study is to determine if reliable receiver functions can be created with 20 days of data recorded, and test what is the best way to use the data to find the thickness of the crust. Since a limited amount of data is available, teleseismic events of magnitude > 5 and that occurred from 30 to 90 degrees from the station were used. To have a better solution, a local calibration event was used to solve the seismic velocity and match the results of a previously done study (5.6 - 6.5 km/s) by a Kazak group, which was then used for H-k stacking. While the work is still in progress, it will add to the knowledge of the area, thus give an insight to the crustal thickness of the overall region. This study can also be used to provide information of the crustal thickness of the northern Caspian basin, near the Caucasus, where another major effort is being conducted.

  10. Nuclear threat initiative - Kazakhstan project on elimination of high-enriched uranium. 8 October 2005, Ust Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 2001, NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative) has made important contributions towards securing weapon-usable nuclear material and reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism. Shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 2001, NTI pledged $1.15 million to the Agency?s Nuclear Security Fund, which has been used to achieve tangible nuclear security improvements: upgrades to physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear and radioactive material; urgently needed training in nuclear security for national officials; enhanced detection capabilities at border crossings; and improved national and international readiness for responding to terrorist acts. NTI has consistently sought to target its contributions to address areas of high priority. A primary point of focus has been to secure (and, where possible, eliminate) material that could be diverted for weapons purposes. In P roject Vinca , NTI committed $5 million in 2002 to help remove high enriched uranium fuel from a research reactor near Belgrade, for return to Russia. With support from Russia, the United States and NTI, seven transfers of fresh fuel back to Russia have been made since 2002 - a total of 112 kilograms of HEU. Current plans foresee further shipments of fresh HEU from another three countries in the next 15 months. The IAEA is also continuing to work on arrangements for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel of Russian origin. In 2001, Sam Nunn and NTI president Charles Curtis approached the Kazakh Government to offer support for the safe transportation of the unused nuclear fuel from the shutdown BN-350 reactor - nearly 3000 kilograms - to the Ulba Metallurgical Plant JSC (UMP), where it could be dismantled and down-blended into LEU (NTI-Kazakhstan project). By the end of this year, 2897 kilograms of HEU - enough to produce dozens of nuclear bombs - will have been down-blended to LEU and placed in safe storage. Throughout the project, the IAEA has been implementing

  11. Assessment of Soybean Flowering and Seed Maturation Time in Different Latitude Regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugalieva, Saule; Didorenko, Svetlana; Anuarbek, Shynar; Volkova, Lubov; Gerasimova, Yelena; Sidorik, Ivan; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits. In this study 120 soybean accessions from different parts of the World, including 18 accessions from Kazakhstan, were field tested in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of the country. These studies revealed positive correlation of yield with flowering time in Northern Kazakhstan, with seed maturity time in Eastern Kazakhstan, and with both these growth stages in South-eastern Kazakhstan. It was determined that in South-eastern, Eastern and Northern regions of Kazakhstan the majority of productive genotypes were in maturity groups MGI, MG0, and MG00, respectively. The accessions were genotyped for four major maturity genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) in order to assess the relationship between E loci and agronomic traits. The allele composition of the majority of accessions was e1-as/e2/E3/E4 (specific frequencies 57.5%, 91.6%, 65.0%, and 63.3%, respectively). Accessions with dominant alleles in either E3 or E4 genes showed higher yield in all three regions, although the specific genotype associated with greatest productivity was different for each site. Genotype-environment interaction studies based on yield performances suggest that South-east and East regions formed one mega-environment, which was well separated from North Kazakhstan where significantly earlier time to maturation is required. The results provide important insights into the relationship between genetic and

  12. Role of the old and new institutional framework in combating the resource curse in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibadildin, N.

    2011-07-01

    Social, political, and economic risks caused by a natural resource abundance has been dubbed as the resource curse. Many developing countries have experienced it in the oil boom of 1970s and following the oil-glut in the 1980s when financial inflows from oil were so large and so fast that institutional development was not catching up with it. Methodologically, this research is based upon statistical and content analysis of various materials. Qualitative analysis is provided by structured interviews with the representatives of the parties concerned, including business leaders, government officials and politicians, local academic researchers, and NGO leaders. This research will analyze the risk of the resource curse for Kazakhstan in its existing institutional framework. Out of all post-Soviet Central Asian countries, Kazakhstan has been the most promising country in terms of overall institutional development. Current oil prices have made real financial windfalls to the economy of the country. It can facilitate structural changes in the economy but also can bring macroeconomic shocks and different negative political consequences that are stipulated by weak and nascent institutions. Kazakhstan is still a blank spot in political and economic research, especially under the prospective of the resource curse concept. Researchers argue at various levels of optimism or pessimism on Kazakhstan's future in the context of natural resource endowments. I will update the contemporary situation with resource curse signs in Kazakhstan and institutions promoting or curbing it in political, economic, and social realms. (orig.)

  13. PECULIAR FEATURES OF CRITERIA PERTAINING TO SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS AND THEIR DIFFERENCE IN BELARUS, RUSSIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Kozel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are definite criteria that help to classify individual entrepreneurs and organizations as small and medium business categories. Definition of an economic management subject as a small enterprise and an individual entrepreneur provides possibilities to obtain tax privileges and other preferences in some countries.The paper considers peculiar features of criteria that allow to define an economic management subject as a small and medium business in Belarus, Russia and Poland. Comparison has been carried out according to such criteria as average manpower, type of economic activity, annual turnover, purpose of the activity and founder staff.The comparative analysis has made it possible to reveal similar features and significant differences between criteria used for definition of small entrepreneurship in the above-mentioned countries. Corresponding conclusions in respect of Belarus are made in the paper. The paper also contains evaluation of application of some criteria in our country.

  14. Several aspects of descriptive epidemiology of hematological malignancies in adult population of Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation after Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guslitser, N; Zavelevich, M P; Koval, S V; Gluzman, D F

    2016-12-01

    Chornobyl impact on the health of adult population in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation was a subject of several studies. However, the studies of the effects of Chornobyl on leukemia in adult populations in post-Soviet countries are scarce and the results are contradictory up to present. The results of the epidemiological studies of the oncohematological consequences of Chornobyl accident are briefly reviewed with particular focus on pre-Chornobyl and post-Chornobyl trends in leukemia incidence in Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation as well as in small territories of these countries with various levels of radionuclide contamination. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  15. Biotechnology in Georgia for Various Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosulishvili, L.; Tsibakhashvili, N.; Kirkesali, E.; Tsertsvadze, L.; Frontasyeva, M.; Pavlov, S.

    2008-01-01

    The results of collaborative work carried out in the field of biotechnology at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) (Dubna, Russia) jointly with scientists from Georgia are presented. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA), significant results were ontained in the following directions - medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology. In the biomedical experiments a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis biomass has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such vitally important trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into Spirulina platensis biocomplexes retaining its protain composition and natural beneficial properties has been proved. The adsorption of such toxic metal as mercury by Spirulina platensis biomass in dynamics of growth has been studied also. NAA has been successfully applied to investigate the biotechnology of toxic Cr(VI) transformation into less toxic Cr(III) complexes by Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts in Georgia. This method was used to track accumulation of chromium in the bacterial cells. To monitor and identify Cr(III) complexes in these bacteria, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was employed. For the first time, the elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria has been studied using epithermal NAA. The natural organic mass of vegetal origin - peat - was applied as a source of microorganisms to study the bacterial leaching of some metals from lean ores, rocks and industrial wastes. (author)

  16. Georgia fishery study: implications for dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fish consumption will contribute a major portion of the estimated individual and population doses from L-Reactor liquid releases and Cs-137 remobilization in Steel Creek. It is therefore important that the values for fish consumption used in dose calculations be as realistic as possible. Since publication of the L-Reactor Environmental Information Document (EID), data have become available on sport fishing in the Savannah River. These data provide SRP with site-specific sport fish harvest and consumption values for use in dose calculations. The Georgia fishery data support the total population fish consumption and calculated dose reported in the EID. The data indicate, however, that both the EID average and maximum individual fish consumption have been underestimated, although each to a different degree. The average fish consumption value used in the EID is approximately 3% below the lower limit of the fish consumption range calculated using the Georgia data. A fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr should be used to recalculate dose to the average individual from L-Reactor restart. Maximum fish consumption in the EID has been underestimated by approximately 60%, and doses to the maximum individual should also be recalculated. Future dose calculations should utilize an average fish consumption value of 11.3 kg/yr, and a maximum fish consumption value of 34 kg/yr

  17. Organization of support to children from dysfunctional families in school within the framework of inclusion in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Shestunova, Tatsiana

    2017-01-01

    Shestunova Tatsiana, 2017. Organization of Support to Children from Dysfunctional Families in School within the Framework of Inclusion in Belarus. Master's Thesis in Education. University of Jyväskylä. Department of Education. Inclusion has been seen in many communities as a useful strategy in addressing learners’ diversity. Children from dysfunctional background usually have various needs and problems. The theoretical framework of inclusion was use...

  18. The dynamics of Cs-137 and Sr-90 pollution of surface water systems of Belarus of Chernobyl origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskevich, P.O.; Dolgov, V.M.; Golikov, Yu.N.; Zemskov, V.N.; Komissarov, F.D.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Belarus water ecosystems have been the object of investigation concerning currents and reservoirs affected by the Chernobyl APS catastrophe. The radio monitoring of samples of water systems components was implemented with the use of modern methods of radiochemistry and ionizing radiations registration. The factual material of water ecosystems sites observation presented its analysis is done and the regularities, tendencies and anomalies are revealed in the Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution, transport and accumulation for water components.

  19. Societal Culture and the Changing Role of School Principals in the Post-Soviet Era: The Case of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakavets, Natallia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of societal and cultural factors on the practices and perceptions of school principals in Kazakhstan. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical data collected in Kazakhstan over two years in the course of an international, collaborative, multi-stranded project. Findings:…

  20. Developing a national strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of peatlands in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kozulin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During most of the 20th century, peatlands in Belarus were regarded primarily as a strategic resource for agriculture and energy. In 1991, the Council of Ministers approved a “Scheme of Sustainable Use and Conservation of Peat Resources until 2010” (the “Scheme until 2010” which allocated a considerable fraction of the country’s mires to nature conservation. Expiry of that Scheme has prompted its replacement with the “National Strategy for the Conservation and Wise (Sustainable Use of Peatlands in the Republic of Belarus” (the “Strategy” supported by a new “Scheme until 2030”. The aim is to meet the requirements for both sustainable development of natural resources within Belarus and international conventions. This article describes the development of the Strategy, which was achieved in conjunction with a detailed appraisal of the current state of peatlands in Belarus. The outcome is that the “Scheme until 2030” allocates almost all of the mires that have so far been confirmed still to be in natural (pristine condition (684,200 ha or 29 % of the total peatland area to nature conservation, 19,600 ha (1 % as a reserve of ‘especially valuable’ peat, 99,100 ha (4 % for commercial peat extraction, and 1,592,600 ha (66 % for agriculture and forestry.

  1. Introduction and use of video-assisted endoscopic thyroidectomy for patients in Belarus affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Takehito; Shimizu, Kazuo; Yakubouski, Siarhei; Akasu, Haruki; Okamura, Ritsuko; Sugitani, Iwao; Jikuzono, Tomoo; Danilova, Larisa

    2013-11-01

    We developed video-assisted neck surgery (VANS) - a feasible, simple, and safe endoscopic thyroid procedure with cosmetic benefits - in 1998. To date, we have performed this procedure 633 times. We have also introduced the VANS method in Belarus, a country that was left contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. From a mass screening, nine Belarusian patients, including two with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, were selected to undergo an operation using the VANS method, performed by a single surgeon (author Shimizu). We compared indicating factors for minimally invasive surgery, specifically the operating time and blood loss, between the Belarusian cases and the 33 most recent cases performed at our institute in Tokyo. The procedures in Belarus were performed under very different working conditions than in Japan. However, operating time and blood loss improved for the Belarusian cases as the surgeon gained experience in this environment; all the cosmetic outcomes were excellent. Subsequently, over a 2-year period, surgeons in Belarus performed the VANS method, with modification, for 29 cases of thyroid tumor. The VANS method is easily learned by inexperienced surgeons without major technical problems. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. What Job will Bring Satisfaction? An Analysis based on Responses of Students Studying Business in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Frolova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds a light on an under-researched topic of job satisfaction in Kazakhstan. Young people, who today are pursuing their bachelor degree, but tomorrow will start working, were chosen as a sample. This article should be especially interesting to employers because it reveals which factors – among those that potentially contribute to job satisfaction – will bring the expected effect in Kazakhstan and thus are worthy of investments. The study is based on the survey conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM in the years 2005- 2012 among U.S. employees. The results of the study suggest that rating list of factors that mostly contribute to job satisfaction, which was compiled on the basis of the answers provided by the respondents from Kazakhstan, is quite different from the rating lists of factors mostly contributing to job satisfaction of U.S. employees.

  3. Foreign Students’ Professional Training in Kazakhstan Higher Educational Institutions: Ethno-cultural Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmambek Ramashov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of ethno-cultural education, regulatory documents of Kazakhstan Republic in the sphere of education and define the ethno-cultural aspect of foreign students’ professional training in Kazakhstan higher educational institutions. The analysis of foreign students’ training in Kazakhstan higher educational institutions trends allowed to determine the following requirements: expansion of educational institutions chain and the types, inclusion of ethno-cultural component of youth ideological training in their programs and curricula; review and expansion of curricula and programs, providing the basis for a basic plan, state standards, enhancement and increase of humanitarian and cultural components in accordance with the training profile; introduction of ethnos history and its culture as the regional educational component and addition to the core subjects and courses. The idea of ethnic and cultural enrichment of the entire system of professional education in the country will make it humanized.

  4. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E. F.; Mironov, V. P.; Drugachenok, M. A.; Kudryashov, V.P; Grushevich, L.E; Adamovich, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m 2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of a centralized accounting system for service personnel by an example of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.Normative for financial personnel strength of the supposed unified financial centre which is involved in accounting recordings on salary and other payments has been calculated on the basis of inter-branch standards. While taking as an example a conventional organization “B” with staff strength which is equal to the strength of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus the possible efficiency in introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel has been determined in the paper. According to represented calculations reduction of financial personnel dealing with accounting recordings on salary and other payments in the whole organization “B” can constitute up to 60 persons with more than 200 branches which are carrying out independent payment accounting for personnel concerned.Dependence of strength normative on number of financial bodies, percentage of personnel receiving payments through a unified financial centre and concentration of financial and economic document circulation has been determined in the paper. It has been pointed out that it is not sufficient to determine quantitative indices in order to ensure an objective reflection of the efficiency of possible introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel in the Armed Forces. In order to obtain complete information it is

  6. From Core Values to Customer Satisfaction: Ericsson in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Mandic, Dejan; Aitpayeva, Dalila

    2009-01-01

    Date                                    2009-09-07 Program                            MIMA – Master of International Marketing Course Name                    EFO705 Master Thesis Title                                    From Core Values to Customer Satisfaction: Ericsson in Kazakhstan Authors                              Dalila Aitpayeva (Västerås), Dejan Mandic (Göteborg) Supervisor                         Joakim Netz  Problem                            How can a company deploy its core valu...

  7. Urban Heat Island phenomenon in extreme continental climate (Astana, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Akhmetova, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is well known in scientific literature since first half of the 19th century [1]. By now a wide number of world capitals is described from climatological point of view, especially in mid-latitudes. In beginning of XXI century new studies focus on heat island of tropical cities. However dynamics UHI in extreme continental climates is insufficiently investigated, due to the fact that there isn't large cities in Europe and Northern America within that climate type. In this paper we investigate seasonal and diurnal dynamics UHI intensity for Astana, capital city of Kazakhstan (population larger than 835 000 within the city) including UHI intensity changes on different time scales. Now (since 1998) Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia [3] For this study we use the UHI investigation technology, described in [2]. According to this paper, we selected three stations: one located into city in high and midrise buildings area (including extensive lowrise and high-energy industrial - LCZ classification) and two others located in rural site (sparsely built or open-set and lightweight lowrise according LCZ classification). Also these stations must be close by distance (less than 100 km) and altitude. Therefore, first for Astana city were obtained numerical evaluations for UHI climate dynamics, UHI dependence of synoptic situations and total UHI climatology on monthly and daily averages. References: 1.Howard, L. (1833) The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations. Volume 2, London. 2.Kukanova E.A., Konstantinov P.I. An urban heat islands climatology in Russia and linkages to the climate change In Geophysical Research Abstracts, volume 16 of EGU General Assembly, pages EGU2014-10833-1, Germany, 2014. Germany. 3.www.pogoda.ru.net

  8. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ziegler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the complex issues involved in teaching students how to find, interpret and use information in emerging electronic technologies against the backdrop of one of America’s loveliest cities.

  9. Communicating Georgia : Georgia's information campaign in the 2008 war with Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Jugaste, Artur

    2011-01-01

    During the 2008 South Ossetia war, Georgia and Russia fought what the English-language media called "a public relations war“. This was an interesting example of modern information warfare where governments allied with public relations agencies battled for symbolic power on the media field. This study investigates the information campaign that the Georgian government launched to promote their framing of the conflict in the English-language media. First-hand information about the campaign strat...

  10. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarn, D.W.; Iakoushev, A.; Grebenkov, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km 2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus

  11. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE CUSTOMS UNION ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KAZAKHSTAN. BASIC PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rahmatulina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the Kazakhstan economy functioning results for the first year of the Customs Union existence proves that along with elimination of some barriers in the trade between the alliance participating countries, difficulties arose owing to disaccord in the tariff policy (particularlyrelated to railway transportation of goods, necessity to prepare new documents, etc., that negatively influence activities of Kazakhstan companies. In order to remove these difficulties, intensive mutual efforts should be taken by governmental authorities of all TC participatingcountries, opinion of respective business communities having to be compulsorily taken into account.

  13. Initial experience for EPR application in Kazakhstan and further development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Pivovarov, S.P.; Rukhin, A.B.; Seredavina, T.A.; Nadirov, B.N.

    2003-01-01

    During ESR examinations of patients with the severe cranio-cerebral traumas the correlation between blood free radicals and organism status have been revealed. The studies of a number objects of biological samples (vein blood, erythrocytes, crystalline lens, saliva, liver) are conducted. The interesting results evidencing about perceptiveness of this method are obtained. Further development of ESR studies in Kazakhstan may be realized within the implementation of the Center of Nuclear Research by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  14. Modern priorities of energy policy of Kazakhstan in the Сaspiаn region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Parkhomchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deepening negative tendencies in the economy of Kazakhstan causes the necessity to develop comprehensive measures for both maintaining and intensifying the development of the oil and gas extracting industry, which is still a backbone industry of the national economy. For that reason, the most important thing for further economic growth is updating the strategy of the Caspian regions of Kazakhstan as the most oil and gas reached areas of the state. Therefore, the article examines the key issues of the Kazakhstani energy sector development in the contemporary geo-economic realities.

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE CUSTOMS UNION ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KAZAKHSTAN. BASIC PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rahmatulina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the Kazakhstan economy functioning results for the first year of the Customs Union existence proves that along with eliminationof some barriers in the trade between the alliance participating countries, difficulties arose owing to disaccord in the tariff policy (particularly related to railway transportation of goods, necessity to prepare new documents, etc., that negatively infl uence activities of Kazakhstan companies. In order to remove these difficulties, intensive mutual efforts should be taken by governmental authorities of all TC participating countries, opinion of respective business communities having to be compulsorily taken into account.

  16. Groundwater conditions in Georgia, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 186 wells during calendar year 2010 and at 181 wells during calendar year 2011. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 168 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 70 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 14 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 8 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally declined during the 2010 through 2011 calendar-year period, with water levels declining in 158 wells and rising in 10. Water levels declined over the period of record at 106 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 6 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during May–June 2010, and in the following areas in Georgia: the Brunswick area during August 2010 and August 2011, in the Albany–Dougherty County area during November 2010 and November 2011, and in the Augusta–Richmond County area during October 2010 and August 2011. In general, water levels in these areas were lower during 2011 than during 2010; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the

  17. Measuring Innovative Capacities of the Georgia Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union (EU experience reveal that the composite indicators are probably the most useful instruments for measuring the innovative capacities at the regional (sub-national level. However, some gap exists in the current literature with respect to the elaboration of composite indicators for regional innovation systems (RISs of developing countries. This article introduces the composite indicators GRIS and GCLS for measuring the regional innovative capacities (for GNUTS1 and GNUTS2 territorial classification levels, respectively. Georgia is a useful case-subject because its smallscale developing economy presents special challenges for elaborating the composite indicators for RISs. This article also includes a brief analysis using these composite indicators and indicates the significant heterogeneity among the innovative capacities of the Georgian regions.

  18. The radiological accidents in Tbilisi, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramidze, S.; Katamadze, N.; Cruz Suares, R.; Bilbao Alfonso, A.

    1998-01-01

    On october 1997, a facsimile message was received by the IAEA from the Georgian Minister of Health stating that servicemen of the Lilo Training Detachment of Frontier Troops had developed local radiation-induced skin diseases on various parts of their body. Details were sent of the medical diagnoses of the mine victims , as well as information on the radiation sources and dose rates that had caused the exposures. The Georgian Minister of Health requested the IAEAs assistance in the examination and treatment of the patients. An Investigation had revealed that several Cs 137, Co-60 radiation sources and some beta emitters had been found, and that in some places high dose rates had been detected. The Government of Georgia requested the IAEA to send an emergency team to evaluate the radiological conditions at the Lilo Training Centre. The present paper summarizes the findings and lessons learned

  19. Analysis of the methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, A.; Krivoruchko, K.; Gribov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the method of reconstructing the iodine-131 fallout based on the systematic exposure measurements. The measurements used were taken with standard DP-5 dosimeters at the monitoring sites of the State Hydrometeorological Service network. These data have been collected since the Chernobyl NPP accident. A short-living exponent has been deduced from the exposure dose dying away. Maps of the iodine-131 release in the period of May 1 - 31, 1996 have been constructed in the attempt to estimate the doses for the initial period of the accident. The paper also dwells on the intricacy of the problem and the refinements to be made for the dose commitments with allowance for a continuing release and meteorological changes that are comparable in time with the half-life events of iodine 131 decay. A comparative analysis has been made of various methods of the dose reconstruction. The results obtained are compared with the maps of the increased incidence of the thyroid gland cancer in adults and children in Belarus. (authors) 14 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Depth migration of Chernobyl originated 137Cs and 90Sr in soils of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, L.M.; Kadatsky, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    Depth migration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was studied in soils of reference sites that have different environmental characteristics and are situated in all four radiochemical regions of Belarus. The parameters as used were: the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 2 cm; the fraction of the nuclide inventory below a depth of 5 cm; and the thickness of the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory. Despite the apparent differences in the nuclide migration at various sites, some common tendencies were observed. During the first 3-5 years after the accident, the 90 Sr depth migration at several watershed and terrace sites did not exceed that of 137 Cs. About 5-15% of the nuclide inventories are below the depth of 5 cm, and 90% are contained in the top 3-7 cm soil layer. However, at the floodplain reference sites, a pronounced tendency for a higher migration rate of 90 Sr was revealed. Less than 5% of the 137 Cs inventory but about 5-30% of the 90 Sr inventory are below 5 cm, and the top soil layer containing 90% of the nuclide inventory is 1-2 cm thicker for 90 Sr. (Author)