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Sample records for behaviourally mediated phenotypic

  1. The Behavioural Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsler, K.; Oliver, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to examine the notion of a behavioural phenotype for Angelman syndrome and identify methodological and conceptual influences on the accepted presentation. Methods: Studies examining the behavioural characteristics associated with Angelman syndrome are reviewed and methodology is described. Results:…

  2. The Down Syndrome Behavioural Phenotype: Taking a Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah; Most, David; Philofsky, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome are predisposed to show a specific behavioural phenotype, or a pattern of strengths and challenges in functioning across different domains of development. It is argued that a developmental approach to researching the Down syndrome behavioural phenotype, including an examination of the dynamic process of the unfolding…

  3. Misleading behavioural phenotype with adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitiaux, Cyril; Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Marie, Sandrine; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Rio, Marlène; Verrieres, Séverine; Benoist, Jean François; Vincent, Marie Françoise; Desguerre, Isabelle; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a rare autosomal disorder of de novo purine synthesis, which results in the accumulation of succinylpurines in body fluids. Patients with adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency show a variable combination of mental retardation, epilepsy and autistic features and are usually discovered during screens for unexplained encephalopathy using the Bratton-Marshall assay that reveals the excretion of the succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside (SAICAr). Here, we report on two sisters aged 11 and 12 years presented with global developmental delay, motor apraxia, severe speech deficits, seizures and behavioural features, which combined excessive laughter, a very happy disposition, hyperactivity, a short attention span, the mouthing of objects, tantrums and stereotyped movements that gave a behavioural profile mimicking Angelman syndrome. Both patients had an increased succinyladenosine/SAICAr ratio of 1.6, and exhibited a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.674T>C; p.Met225Thr) in the exon 6 of the ADSL gene. We suggest that these clinical features might be a new presentation of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency. On the basis of this observation, although adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is a rare disorder, this diagnosis should be considered in patients with mental retardation and a behavioural profile suggestive of Angelman syndrome.

  4. Not in their genes: Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-03-11

    Mar 11, 2005 ... Behavioural transmission; bonnet macaque; cultural evolution; Macaca radiata; phenotypic flexibility; social traditions ... National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore 560 012, India; Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A-2B Raja S C Mullick Road, ...

  5. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a moderated mediation model of innovative work behaviour enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, Jol M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Notelaers, Guy L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate a moderated mediation model of innovative work behaviour enhancement. Perceived firm (organizational and market) performance was assumed to moderate the relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational citizenship behaviour

  7. Does education mediate the relationship between IQ and age of first birth? A behavioural genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Michelle; Rowe, David C; Rodgers, Joseph L

    2002-04-01

    This study presents a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis of the relationship between education, intelligence and age of first birth. Analyses investigated the mediational role of education in explaining the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth at both the phenotypic and behavioural genetic level. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a nationally representative survey that included genetically informative full- and half-sibling pairs (n = 1423 pairs). Respondents were aged 14 to 22 when contacted in 1979. Heritability estimates were 0.32, 0.50 and 0.06 for IQ, education and age of first birth, respectively. Shared environment estimates were 0.35, 0.23 and 0.20 respectively. Common genetic and shared environmental factors were substantial in explaining the relationship between intelligence and education, and also education and age of first birth. Education partially mediated the relationship between intelligence and age of first birth only in the phenotypic analyses. After considering the genetic and shared environmental factors that influence all three variables, evidence for mediation was less convincing. This pattern of results suggests that the apparent mediational role of education at the phenotypic level is in fact the result of underlying genetic and shared environmental influences that affect education, IQ and age of first birth in common.

  8. The Behavioural Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L.; Oliver, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems and a preference for adult contact are reported to be prominent in the phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this study we examined the relationship between social interactions and self-injurious and aggressive/disruptive behaviour in Smith-Magenis syndrome to explore potential operant reinforcement of problem…

  9. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Microorganism-mediated behaviour of malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busula, Annette O.

    2017-01-01

    Host-seeking is an important component of mosquito vectorial capacity on which the success of the other behavioural determinants depends. Blood-seeking mosquitoes are mainly guided by chemical cues released by their blood hosts. This thesis describes results of a study that determined the effect

  11. Behavioural phenotype in Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, C. F.; van Dijk, F.; Stolker, J. J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLs) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterised by unusual facial features, abnormal fat distribution and intellectual disability. As many genetically determined disorders are characterised not only by physical features but also by specific behaviour, we

  12. Developmental phonagnosia: Linking neural mechanisms with the behavioural phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Schelinski, Stefanie; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-07-15

    Human voice recognition is critical for many aspects of social communication. Recently, a rare disorder, developmental phonagnosia, which describes the inability to recognise a speaker's voice, has been discovered. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to investigate brain function in two behaviourally well characterised phonagnosia cases, both 32 years old: AS has apperceptive and SP associative phonagnosia. We found distinct malfunctioned brain mechanisms in AS and SP matching their behavioural profiles. In apperceptive phonagnosia, right-hemispheric auditory voice-sensitive regions (i.e., Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, superior temporal gyrus) showed lower responses than in matched controls (n AS =16) for vocal versus non-vocal sounds and for speaker versus speech recognition. In associative phonagnosia, the connectivity between voice-sensitive (i.e. right posterior middle/inferior temporal gyrus) and supramodal (i.e. amygdala) regions was reduced in comparison to matched controls (n SP =16) during speaker versus speech recognition. Additionally, both cases recruited distinct potential compensatory mechanisms. Our results support a central assumption of current two-system models of voice-identity processing: They provide the first evidence that dysfunction of voice-sensitive regions and impaired connectivity between voice-sensitive and supramodal person recognition regions can selectively contribute to deficits in person recognition by voice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male

  14. Behavioural phenotypes and special educational needs: is aetiology important in the classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C

    2012-10-01

    A number of genetic conditions with associated intellectual disability and/or special educational needs have increasingly well-defined behavioural phenotypes. Thus, the concept of 'behavioural phenotype' and aetiology of intellectual disability may be important with regard to school-based interventions. The evidence for distinctive cognitive and behavioural aspects of five of the most common genetic syndromes (Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome) associated with special educational needs is reviewed with respect to key studies and findings. The possible utility of aetiology-related interventions in education is discussed with reference to arguments for and against such approaches with respect to published guidelines and published research. Behavioural phenotypes are probabilistic and many children with a specific genetic syndrome will share commonalities with other children with other genetic syndromes and within syndrome variability is not uncommon. There is evidence that teachers and parents have limited knowledge of aspects of the proposed cognitive and behaviour profiles associated with the reviewed syndromes. While there are published guidelines in the area of learning and behaviour for each of the five reviewed syndromes there is a limited amount of evidence of the efficacy of such approaches in school settings. It is likely that knowing the aetiology of a child's special educational needs will be helpful for staff who work in school settings in relation to cognitive and behavioural implications. However, how such knowledge might inform teaching practice or behavioural interventions has not been studied. A model is proposed that might help inform educators about the possible role of aetiology in the classroom. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Thoughts on the behavioural phenotypes in Prader-Willi syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Egger, J.I.M.; Tuinier, S.

    2007-01-01

    In both Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and 22q11 deletion syndrome [velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)], an increased risk for psychotic disorders is reported, which are as a rule not included in the behavioural phenotype of these two syndromes. For the description of a behavioural phenotype, the

  16. Motor phenotypes, medication and mood: further associations with impulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Catherine S; Alkufri, Fadi; Brown, Richard G; Burn, David J; Hindle, John V; Landau, Sabine; Wilson, Kenneth C; Samuel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs are the primary risk factor for Impulse Control Behaviours (ICB) in Parkinson's disease (PD), others being early-onset disease and gender. This report further explores ICB symptom relationships with motor and mood phenotypes, the complex relationship with dopaminergic medications, and hypothesizes a model with potential clinical implications. Data from 500 PD patients were analyzed. Hypersexuality, gambling and shopping behaviour were assessed using selected questions from the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview questionnaire. Local questions assessed hobbyism. Motor characteristics considered were akinetic-rigid/gait disturbance (PIGD) and 'non-PIGD' phenotypes, motor severity, motor progression, and presence/absence of motor fluctuations. Other variables included anxiety, depression, current levodopa and agonist use, age, gender and cognition. Overall, ICB symptom frequency was 17.8%. There was no relationship between PIGD/non-PIGD motor phenotypes and ICB symptoms. Those with ICB symptoms had higher total combined levodopa/agonist equivalent intake, but not current agonist-only equivalent intake. ICB symptoms were reported by 23.1% of those taking combined levodopa and agonist compared to 19.2% on agonist monotherapy and 11.6% levodopa monotherapy. Compared with non-ICB patients, patients with ICB symptoms were more likely to show an anxious mood phenotype, reported more motor fluctuations, and were younger. Both PIGD and non-PIGD phenotypes are equally affected. Dose-related risk applies to total anti-parkinsonian medication and not just current agonist-only. Anxious mood phenotypes may carry increased risk. A role of anxiety, either as a marker of risk, indirect causal factor, or maintaining factor is incorporated into a preliminary model. We discuss implications for clinical management.

  17. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

    2013-09-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body.

  18. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Shantz, A.D.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to our understanding of the mediating and moderating processes through which human resource management (HRM) practices are linked with behavioural outcomes. We developed and tested a moderated mediation model linking perceived HRM practices to organisational citizenship

  19. The mediating role of aggressive behaviour, emotional and behavioural instability on the association between ADHD symptoms and best friend conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucchetti, G.; Ortega, E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Rabaglietti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the direct association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms (i.e. inattention and hyperactivity symptoms) and children’s experience of best friend conflicts, and the mediating role of aggression, emotional and behavioural instability, exploring

  20. Children's Aggressive Behaviour and Teacher-Child Conflict in Kindergarten: Is Teacher Perceived Control over Child Behaviour a Mediating Variable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumen, Sarah; Verschueren, Karine; Buyse, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research repeatedly showed young children's aggressive behaviour to predict relationship difficulties with the teacher. Aims: To examine a possible mediating variable in this process and in the stability of relationship difficulties across the school year, namely teacher perceived control over child behaviour. Sample: The sample…

  1. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus. A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively. In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence.

  2. Disentangling the relation between intentions, planning, and behaviour : A moderated mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedemann, Amelie U.; Schüz, Benjamin; Sniehotta, Falco; Scholz, Urte; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Action planning is assumed to mediate between intentions and health behaviours. Moreover, intentions are assumed to moderate the planning-behaviour relation, because people with high intentions are more likely to enact their plans. The present studies extend these suppositions by integrating both assumptions to a novel and parsimonious model of moderated mediation: the mediation effect is hypothesised to be stronger in individuals who report higher intention levels. In two longitudinal studie...

  3. Extracellular vesicle-mediated phenotype switching in malignant and non-malignant colon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, Hillary E.; Chang, Audrey; Adler, Jason; Del Tatto, Michael; Perez, Kimberly; Quesenberry, Peter J.; Chatterjee, Devasis

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from many cells, carrying cargoes including proteins and nucleic acids. Research has shown that EVs play a role in a variety of biological processes including immunity, bone formation and recently they have been implicated in promotion of a metastatic phenotype. EVs were isolated from HCT116 colon cancer cells, 1459 non-malignant colon fibroblast cells, and tumor and normal colon tissue from a patient sample. Co-cultures were performed with 1459 cells and malignant vesicles, as well as HCT116 cells and non-malignant vesicles. Malignant phenotype was measured using soft agar colony formation assay. Co-cultures were also analyzed for protein levels using mass spectrometry. The importance of 14-3-3 zeta/delta in transfer of malignant phenotype was explored using siRNA. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay was used to measure the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. This study demonstrates the ability of EVs derived from malignant colon cancer cell line and malignant patient tissue to induce the malignant phenotype in non-malignant colon cells. Similarly, EVs derived from non-malignant colon cell lines and normal patient tissue reversed the malignant phenotype of HCT116 cells. Cells expressing an EV-induced malignant phenotype showed increased transcriptional activity of NF-κB which was inhibited by the NF--κB inhibitor, BAY117082. We also demonstrate that knock down of 14-3-3 zeta/delta reduced anchorage-independent growth of HCT116 cells and 1459 cells co-cultured with HCT derived EVs. Evidence of EV-mediated induction of malignant phenotype, and reversal of malignant phenotype, provides rational basis for further study of the role of EVs in tumorigenesis. Identification of 14-3-3 zeta/delta as up-regulated in malignancy suggests its potential as a putative drug target for the treatment of colorectal cancer

  4. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  5. Behavioural responses to human skin extracts and antennal phenotypes of sylvatic first filial generation and long rearing laboratory colony Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Iván Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1 and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.

  6. Alterations of HIV-1 envelope phenotype and antibody-mediated neutralization by signal peptide mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Chitra; Feyznezhad, Roya; Yang, Weiming; Zhang, Hui; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Hioe, Catarina E.

    2018-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates virus attachment and entry into the host cells. Like other membrane-bound and secreted proteins, HIV-1 Env contains at its N terminus a signal peptide (SP) that directs the nascent Env to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where Env synthesis and post-translational modifications take place. SP is cleaved during Env biosynthesis but potentially influences the phenotypic traits of the Env protein. The Env SP sequences of HIV-1 isolates display high sequenc...

  7. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tomato Elicits Unexpected Flower Phenotypes with Similar Gene Expression Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Campbell, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to cause unexpected phenotypes. Mutations of a specific set of homeotic genes can result in altered floral structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously we identified two genes (LeTGA1 and SOLly GLB1) induced by nutrient availability in tomato. To further elucidate their function, we sought to knock out the genes using antisense RNAi. When antisense constructs for the two different tomato genes were each...

  8. Excessive nest building is a unique behavioural phenotype in the deer mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous condition characterised by time-consuming intrusive thoughts and/or compulsions. Irrespective of the symptom type diagnosed, the severity of OCD is characterised by heterogeneity in symptom presentation that complicates diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneity of symptoms would be invaluable in an animal model. Nest building behaviour forms part of the normal behavioural repertoire of rodents and demonstrates profound between-species differences. However, it has been proposed that within-species differences in nest building behaviour (i.e. aberrant vs. normal nest building) may resemble obsessive-compulsive-like symptoms. In an attempt to investigate whether other obsessive-compulsive-like behaviours are present in an animal model of OCD, or if aberrant nest building behaviour may represent a unique obsessive-compulsive phenotype in such a model, the current study assessed nest building behaviour in high (H, viz obsessive-compulsive) and non (N, viz normal) stereotypical deer mice. Subsequently, 12 N and H animals, respectively, were provided with an excess of cotton wool daily for one week prior to and following four weeks of high-dose oral escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day). Data from the current investigation demonstrate daily nesting activity to be highly variable in deer mice, with stereotypy and nest building being independent behaviours. However, we identified unique aberrant large nest building behaviour in 30% of animals from both cohorts that was attenuated by escitalopram to pre-treatment nesting scores of the larger group. In summary, behavioural and drug-treatment evidence confirms that deer mouse behaviour does indeed resemble symptom heterogeneity related to OCD, and as such expands its face and predictive validity for the disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  10. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy....... Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... worry) outcomes were assessed by means of questionnaires at referral, baseline, end of treatment, and 10 and 16 months after randomisation. Multiple mediation analysis determined whether (1) changes in specific illness perceptions during treatment mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy...

  11. A genome-wide analysis of promoter-mediated phenotypic noise in Escherichia coli.

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    Olin K Silander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is subject to random perturbations that lead to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. As a consequence, for any given protein, genetically identical organisms living in a constant environment will contain different amounts of that particular protein, resulting in different phenotypes. This phenomenon is known as "phenotypic noise." In bacterial systems, previous studies have shown that, for specific genes, both transcriptional and translational processes affect phenotypic noise. Here, we focus on how the promoter regions of genes affect noise and ask whether levels of promoter-mediated noise are correlated with genes' functional attributes, using data for over 60% of all promoters in Escherichia coli. We find that essential genes and genes with a high degree of evolutionary conservation have promoters that confer low levels of noise. We also find that the level of noise cannot be attributed to the evolutionary time that different genes have spent in the genome of E. coli. In contrast to previous results in eukaryotes, we find no association between promoter-mediated noise and gene expression plasticity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in bacteria, natural selection can act to reduce gene expression noise and that some of this noise is controlled through the sequence of the promoter region alone.

  12. Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and fruit consumption: exploring mediator and moderator effects in the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Brug, J.; van Lenthe, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with the five-factor model (FFM) of personality may provide insight into the cognitive and motivational mechanisms linking personality with health behaviour, but this issue has received very little attention regarding fruit consumption. Mediator

  13. Evaluation of social and physical enrichment in modulation of behavioural phenotype in C57BL/6J female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kulesskaya

    Full Text Available Housing conditions represent an important environmental variable playing a critical role in the assessment of mouse behaviour. In the present study the effects of isolation and nesting material on the behaviour of female C57BL/6J mice were evaluated. The mice were subjected to different rearing conditions from weaning (at the age of 3 weeks. The study groups were group- and single-housed mice, divided further into groups with or without nesting material (species-specific enrichment. After 8 weeks spent in respective conditions the behavioural testing began. Both factors (social conditions and nesting material appeared to have a significant impact on the behavioural phenotype. However, it is important to stress that the interaction between the factors was virtually absent. We established that isolation increased locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behaviour in several tests of exploration. In contrast, absence of nesting material increased anxiety-like behaviour. Neither factor affected rota-rod performance, nociception and prepulse inhibition. Contextual fear memory was significantly reduced in single-housed mice, and interestingly, in mice with nesting material. Cued fear memory was reduced by single-housing, but not affected by enrichment. Mice from enriched cages displayed faster and better learning and spatial search strategy in the water maze. In contrast, isolation caused significant impairment in the water maze. In conclusion, both isolation and species-specific enrichment have profound effects on mouse behaviour and should be considered in design of the experiments and in assessment of animal welfare issues.

  14. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ameijden Erik JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health or mortality. This study examined: 1 whether the presence of stressors and the absence of resources can be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occur among those with lower education, 2 whether stressors and resources mediated the relation between education and health behaviours, and 3 addressed the question whether an aggregate measure of stressors and resources has an added effect over the use of individual measures. Methods Questionnaire data on sociodemographic variables, stressors, resources, and health behaviours were collected cross-sectionally among inhabitants (n = 3050 of a medium-sized Dutch city (Utrecht. Descriptive statistics and bootstrap analyses for multiple-mediator effects were used to examine the role of stressors and resources in mediating educational associations with health behaviours. Results Higher levels of stressors and lower levels of resources could be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occurred among those with lower educational levels. Stressors and resources partially mediated the relationship between education and four health- behaviours (exercise, breakfast frequency, vegetable consumption and smoking. Financial stress and poor perceived health status were mediating stressors, and social support a strong mediating resource. An aggregate measure of the stressors and resources showed similar associations with health behaviours compared to the summed individual measures. Conclusions Lower educated groups are simultaneously affected by the presence of various stressors and absence of multiple resources, which partially explain socioeconomic differences in health

  15. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, F.; de Almeida Sarmento, R.; Pallini, A.; Rosa Dias, C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the

  16. Divergent pheromone-mediated insect behaviour under global atmospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward B. Mondor; Michelle N. Tremblay; Caroline S. Awmack; Richard L. Lindroth

    2004-01-01

    While the effects of global atmospheric changes on vegetation and resulting insect populations('bottom-up interactions') are being increasingly studied, how these gases modify interactions among insects and their natural enemies ('top-down interactions') is less clear. As natural enemy efficacy is governed largely by behavioural mechanisms, altered...

  17. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Marin, A.; Stephens, G.J.; Brown, A.E.X.

    2016-01-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data

  18. Sedentary behaviour and social anxiety in obese individuals: the mediating role of body esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Given that the prevalence of social anxiety in obese individuals is high, it is necessary that we increase our knowledge about the related factors that cause social anxiety in obese individuals. The present study sought to examine the role of body esteem as a mediator between sedentary behaviour and social anxiety. The participants were 207 overweight and obese individuals who completed the self-report measures. The structural equation modelling displayed that obese individuals with sedentary behaviour and poor body esteem were more likely to show social anxiety. Body esteem partially mediated between sedentary behaviour and social anxiety. Our results highlight the role of sedentary behaviour and body esteem as promising avenues for reducing social anxiety in obese individuals.

  19. Phenotypic integration mediated by hormones: associations among digit ratios, body size and testosterone during tadpole development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofeu, Leandro; Brandt, Renata; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2017-08-02

    Developmental associations often explain phenotypic integration. The intersected hormonal regulation of ontogenetic processes fosters predictions of steroid-mediated phenotypic integration among sexually dimorphic traits, a statement defied by associations between classical dimorphism predictors (e.g. body size) and traits that apparently lack sex-specific functions (e.g. ratios between the lengths of Digits II and IV - 2D:4D). Developmental bases of female-biased 2D:4D have been identified, but these remain unclear for taxa presenting male-biased 2D:4D (e.g. anura). Here we propose two alternative hypotheses to investigate evolution of male-biased 2D:4D associated with sexually dimorphic body size using Leptodactylus frogs: I)'hypothesis of sex-specific digit responses' - Digit IV would be reactive to testosterone but exhibit responses in the opposite direction of those observed in female-biased 2D:4D lineages, so that Digit IV turns shorter in males; II) 'hypothesis of identity of the dimorphic digit'- Digit II would be the dimorphic digit. We compiled the following databases using Leptodactylus frogs: 1) adults of two species from natural populations and 2) testosterone-treated L. fuscus at post-metamorphic stage. Studied traits seem monomorphic in L. fuscus; L. podicipinus exhibits male-biased 2D:4D. When present, 2D:4D dimorphism was male-biased and associated with dimorphic body size; sex differences resided on Digit II instead of IV, corroborating our 'hypothesis of identity of the dimorphic digit'. Developmental steroid roles were validated: testosterone-treated L. fuscus frogs were smaller and exhibited masculinized 2D:4D, and Digit II was the digit that responded to testosterone. We propose a model where evolution of sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D first originates from the advent, in a given digit, of increased tissue sensitivity to steroids. Phenotypic integration with other sexually dimorphic traits would then occur through multi-trait hormonal effects

  20. Effects of acidification on olfactory-mediated behaviour in freshwater and marine ecosystems: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Antoine O. H. C.; Munday, Philip L.; Brown, Grant E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    For many aquatic organisms, olfactory-mediated behaviour is essential to the maintenance of numerous fitness-enhancing activities, including foraging, reproduction and predator avoidance. Studies in both freshwater and marine ecosystems have demonstrated significant impacts of anthropogenic acidification on olfactory abilities of fish and macroinvertebrates, leading to impaired behavioural responses, with potentially far-reaching consequences to population dynamics and community structure. Whereas the ecological impacts of impaired olfactory-mediated behaviour may be similar between freshwater and marine ecosystems, the underlying mechanisms are quite distinct. In acidified freshwater, molecular change to chemical cues along with reduced olfaction sensitivity appear to be the primary causes of olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment. By contrast, experiments simulating future ocean acidification suggest that interference of high CO2 with brain neurotransmitter function is the primary cause for olfactory-mediated behavioural impairment in fish. Different physico-chemical characteristics between marine and freshwater systems are probably responsible for these distinct mechanisms of impairment, which, under globally rising CO2 levels, may lead to strikingly different consequences to olfaction. While fluctuations in pH may occur in both freshwater and marine ecosystems, marine habitat will remain alkaline despite future ocean acidification caused by globally rising CO2 levels. In this synthesis, we argue that ecosystem-specific mechanisms affecting olfaction need to be considered for effective management and conservation practices. PMID:23980246

  1. Identification, RNAi knockdown, and functional analysis of an ejaculate protein that mediates a postmating, prezygotic phenotype in a cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L Marshall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes, especially those that underlie reproductive isolation between closely related species, have been a central focus of evolutionary biologists over the past two decades. Such phenotypes are thought to evolve rapidly and be nearly ubiquitous among sexually reproducing eukaryotes where females mate with multiple partners. Because these phenotypes represent interplay between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract, they are fertile ground for reproductive senescence--as ejaculate composition and female physiology typically change over an individual's life span. Although these phenotypes and their resulting dynamics are important, we have little understanding of the proteins that mediate these phenotypes, particularly for species groups where postmating, prezygotic traits are the primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we utilize proteomics, RNAi, mating experiments, and the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, whose members are primarily isolated from one another by postmating, prezygotic phenotypes (including the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs, to demonstrate that one of the most abundant ejaculate proteins (a male accessory gland-biased protein similar to a trypsin-like serine protease decreases in abundance over a male's reproductive lifetime and mediates the induction of egg-laying in females. These findings represent one of the first studies to identify a protein that plays a role in mediating both a postmating, prezygotic isolation pathway and reproductive senescence.

  2. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells maintain TGF-beta-mediated chondrogenic phenotype in alginate bead culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Schmal, H; Kaiser, S

    2006-01-01

    of any chondrogenic growth factor or in the presence of osteogenic signals. MSCs encapsulated in alginate beads were treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 3 for 3, 6, or 14 days and then cultured in absence of TGF-beta for the remainder of the 2-week culture period. Additionally, cells were...... cultured in osteogenic medium after TGF-beta-mediated chondroinduction. Gene expression of col2a1, aggrecan, COMP, alkaline phosphatase (AP), and correlating protein synthesis was analyzed. After short-term stimulation with TGF-beta, MSCs maintained a chondrogenic phenotype. Chondrogenic gene expression...... and protein synthesis directly correlated with the extent of stimulation time and the concentration of TGF-beta. Pretreatment with TGF-beta could prevent AP mRNA expression of encapsulated MSCs. TGF- beta stimulation within the first 3 days of culture seems to be crucial for the expression of a chondrogenic...

  4. Host Genetic Control of the Microbiota Mediates the Drosophila Nutritional Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, John M.; Dobson, Adam J.; Newell, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has demonstrated that resident microorganisms (microbiota) influence the pattern of nutrient allocation to animal protein and energy stores, but it is unclear how the effects of the microbiota interact with other determinants of animal nutrition, including animal genetic factors and diet. Here, we demonstrate that members of the gut microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster mediate the effect of certain animal genetic determinants on an important nutritional trait, triglyceride (lipid) content. Parallel analysis of the taxonomic composition of the associated bacterial community and host nutritional indices (glucose, glycogen, triglyceride, and protein contents) in multiple Drosophila genotypes revealed significant associations between the abundance of certain microbial taxa, especially Acetobacteraceae and Xanthamonadaceae, and host nutritional phenotype. By a genome-wide association study of Drosophila lines colonized with a defined microbiota, multiple host genes were statistically associated with the abundance of one bacterium, Acetobacter tropicalis. Experiments using mutant Drosophila validated the genetic association evidence and reveal that host genetic control of microbiota abundance affects the nutritional status of the flies. These data indicate that the abundance of the resident microbiota is influenced by host genotype, with consequent effects on nutrient allocation patterns, demonstrating that host genetic control of the microbiome contributes to the genotype-phenotype relationship of the animal host. PMID:26567306

  5. Snail-mediated cancer stem cell-like phenotype in human CNE2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shan; Wu, Cheng; Sun, Wei; Liu, Dongbo; Luo, Min; Su, Beibei; Zhang, Linli; Mei, Qi; Hu, Guoqing

    2018-03-01

    Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype, which has been proven to play a critical role in invasion and metastasis of many kinds of cancers, has also been reported to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, was found to have a function to regulate the aforementioned processes. In the current study, expression of putative CSCs biomarkers and the ratio of CSC-like CNE2 (cancer cell line) in total CNE2 were measured, and CSC-like characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and colony-forming assays. Migration and invasion properties were determined by using transwell and wound healing assays. Xenograft tumor assays in vivo were done to evaluate the function of Snail and radiation in the tumor forming ability. In human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, overexpression of Snail mediates a CSC-like phenotype, which enhances the initiation, invasion, and migration ability of cancer cells. Thus, Snail is a potential therapeutic target in NPC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato elicits unexpected flower phenotypes with similar gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Campbell, Michael A

    2008-08-13

    Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to cause unexpected phenotypes. Mutations of a specific set of homeotic genes can result in altered floral structure. Previously we identified two genes (LeTGA1 and SOLly GLB1) induced by nutrient availability in tomato. To further elucidate their function, we sought to knock out the genes using antisense RNAi. When antisense constructs for the two different tomato genes were each transformed into Micro-Tina tomato plants, one primary transformant with similar mutant flower phenotypes was identified from transformation of each construct. Microarray analysis shows that a similar set of genes were up- or downregulated in both mutants. Sequencing of insertion sites indicates that each is inserted into a repetitive region which could impact expression of affected genes but direct alteration of floral homeotic gene sequences was not detected. This is the first report that dominant flower mutations could be caused by genetic transformation designed to knock out two nutrient stress related genes.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato elicits unexpected flower phenotypes with similar gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to cause unexpected phenotypes. Mutations of a specific set of homeotic genes can result in altered floral structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously we identified two genes (LeTGA1 and SOLly GLB1 induced by nutrient availability in tomato. To further elucidate their function, we sought to knock out the genes using antisense RNAi. When antisense constructs for the two different tomato genes were each transformed into Micro-Tina tomato plants, one primary transformant with similar mutant flower phenotypes was identified from transformation of each construct. Microarray analysis shows that a similar set of genes were up- or downregulated in both mutants. Sequencing of insertion sites indicates that each is inserted into a repetitive region which could impact expression of affected genes but direct alteration of floral homeotic gene sequences was not detected. CONCLUSION: This is the first report that dominant flower mutations could be caused by genetic transformation designed to knock out two nutrient stress related genes.

  8. Lipid mediator metabolic profiling demonstrates differences in eicosanoid patterns in two phenotypically distinct mast cell populations[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L.; Saluja, Rohit; Adner, Mikael; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells are inflammatory cells that play key roles in health and disease. They are distributed in all tissues and appear in two main phenotypes, connective tissue and mucosal mast cells, with differing capacities to release inflammatory mediators. A metabolic profiling approach was used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the ability of mast cell phenotypes to produce eicosanoids and other lipid mediators. A total of 90 lipid mediators (oxylipins) were characterized using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. In vitro-derived murine mucosal-like mast cells (MLMC) and connective tissue-like mast cells (CTLMC) exhibited distinct mRNA expression patterns of enzymes involved in oxylipin biosynthesis. Oxylipins produced by 5-LO and COX pathways were the predominant species in both phenotypes, with 5-LO products constituting 90 ± 2% of the CTLMCs compared with 58 ± 8% in the MLMCs. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that CTLMCs and MLMCs secrete differing oxylipin profiles at baseline and following calcium ionophore stimulation, evidencing specificity in both a time- and biosynthetic pathway-dependent manner. In addition to the COX-regulated prostaglandin PGD2 and 5-LO-regulated cysteinyl-leukotrienes (e.g., LTC4), several other mediators evidenced phenotype-specificity, which may have biological implications in mast cell-mediated regulation of inflammatory responses. PMID:23034214

  9. The Behavioural Phenotype of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: A Study of 56 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Emanuele; Villa, L.; Selicorni, A.; Molteni, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated functional and behavioural variables of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) in a large sample of individuals. The aim of this study is to provide greater insight into the clinical, behavioural and cognitive characteristics that are associated with CdLS. Methods: In total, 56 individuals with CdLS…

  10. Association between Parental Emotional Symptoms and Child Antisocial Behaviour: What Is Specific and Is It Mediated by Parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, Christopher; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Plück, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Parental anxiety and depression are associated with antisocial behaviour of children. Several mechanisms may mediate this association. The aim of this study was to test whether parenting is a mediator of the association of parental anxiety and depression with the antisocial social behaviour of preschool children. The analysis was based on…

  11. Development of metabolic and inflammatory mediator biomarker phenotyping for early diagnosis and triage of pediatric sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Beata; Thompson, Graham C; Blackwood, Jaime; Jenne, Craig N; Winston, Brent W; Vogel, Hans J; Joffe, Ari R

    2015-09-09

    The first steps in goal-directed therapy for sepsis are early diagnosis followed by appropriate triage. These steps are usually left to the physician's judgment, as there is no accepted biomarker available. We aimed to determine biomarker phenotypes that differentiate children with sepsis who require intensive care from those who do not. We conducted a prospective, observational nested cohort study at two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and one pediatric emergency department (ED). Children ages 2-17 years presenting to the PICU or ED with sepsis or presenting for procedural sedation to the ED were enrolled. We used the judgment of regional pediatric ED and PICU attending physicians as the standard to determine triage location (PICU or ED). We performed metabolic and inflammatory protein mediator profiling with serum and plasma samples, respectively, collected upon presentation, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Ninety-four PICU sepsis, 81 ED sepsis, and 63 ED control patients were included. Metabolomic profiling revealed clear separation of groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.89, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.96 (standard deviation [SD] 0.01), and predictive ability (Q(2)) of 0.60. Protein mediator profiling also showed clear separation of the groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.78 and AUROC of 0.88 (SD 0.03). Combining metabolomic and protein mediator profiling improved the model (Q(2) =0.62), differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.87 and AUROC of 0.95 (SD 0.01). Separation of PICU sepsis or ED sepsis from ED controls was even more accurate. Prespecified age subgroups (2-5 years old and 6-17 years old) improved model accuracy minimally. Seventeen metabolites or protein mediators accounted for separation of PICU sepsis and ED sepsis with 95% confidence. In children ages 2-17 years, combining metabolomic and

  12. Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Duka, Theodora

    2006-03-01

    Two seemingly contrary theories describe the learning mechanisms that mediate human addictive behaviour. According to the classical incentive theories of addiction, addictive behaviour is motivated by a Pavlovian conditioned appetitive emotional response elicited by drug-paired stimuli. Expectancy theory, on the other hand, argues that addictive behaviour is mediated by an expectancy of the drug imparted by cognitive knowledge of the Pavlovian (predictive) contingency between stimuli (S+) and the drug and of the instrumental (causal) contingency between instrumental behaviour and the drug. The present paper reviewed human-nicotine-conditioning studies to assess the role of appetitive emotional conditioning and explicit contingency knowledge in mediating addictive behaviour. The studies reviewed here provided evidence for both the emotional conditioning and the expectancy accounts. The first source of evidence is that nicotine-paired S+ elicit an appetitive emotional conditioned response (CR), albeit only in participants who expect nicotine. Furthermore, the magnitude of this emotional state is modulated by nicotine deprivation/satiation. However, the causal status of the emotional response in driving other forms of conditioned behaviour remains undemonstrated. The second source of evidence is that other nicotine CRs, including physiological responses, self-administration, attentional bias and subjective craving, are also dependent on participants possessing explicit knowledge of the Pavlovian contingencies arranged in the experiment. In addition, several of the nicotine CRs can be brought about or modified by instructed contingency knowledge, demonstrating the causal status of this knowledge. Collectively, these data suggest that human nicotine conditioned effects are mediated by an explicit expectancy of the drug coupled with an appetitive emotional response that reflects the positive biological value of the drug. The implication of this conclusion is that

  13. Shame mediates the relationship between depression and addictive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilevicius, Elena; Single, Alanna; Bristow, Lindsay A; Foot, Melody; Ellery, Michael; Keough, Matthew T; Johnson, Edward A

    2018-02-19

    Alcohol and gambling problems are common in young adults. Self-medication theory states that young adults with depression drink and/or gamble to escape negative emotions. Research shows that depression is a risk factor for drinking/gambling problems, but more work is needed to examine mediators underlying these associations. One potential mediator is shame. Shame is a self-directed emotion that follows a negative life event and is characterized by intense feelings of inferiority, worthlessness, and embarrassment. Depressed individuals are especially susceptible to shame (and associated emotions). Shame has also been implicated in risk for addiction. Accordingly, we predicted that elevated shame would explain why depression is associated with both alcohol and gambling problems. A longitudinal design was used to examine this hypothesis. Undergraduates (N = 210) completed self-reports of depression at baseline (Time 1) and then completed self-reports of shame, alcohol misuse, gambling problems one month later (Time 2). Results showed that individuals with elevated depression at Time 1 endorsed high levels of shame at Time 2, which in turn predicted more gambling (β = .038, 95% CI [.010, .087]) and alcohol problems (β = .249, 95% CI [.123, .435]) at Time 2. We found that increased levels of shame explained the effects of depression on problem drinking and gambling. Study findings improve our understanding of the depressive pathway to addiction by providing evidence for shame as a potential mechanism of this pathway. Reducing shame can be a target of clinical interventions for young adults with depression and alcohol/gambling problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioural Phenotyping of APPswe/PS1δE9 Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Louise Ørum; Bouzinova, Elena V; Severino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    of cognitive symptoms both in humans with early and late onset AD. The behavioural profile promoted by the AD pathology is believed to associate with degeneration of the serotonergic system. Using the APPswe/PS1δE9 model of AD-like pathology starting with 9 months old mice, we characterised long term non......-cognitive behavioural changes measured at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months of age and applied principal component analysis on data obtained from open field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Long-term treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine was applied to assess the role of 5......-HT on the behavioural profile; duration of treatment was 9 months, initiated when mice were 9 months of age. Treatment with paroxetine delays the decline in locomotion, in exploration and risk assessment behaviour, found in the APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice also exhibit low social activity and less...

  15. Social cognition and the behavioural phenotype of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, J.I.M.; Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Dijkman, M.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Koolen, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome was described with characteristic features including developmental delay, moderate intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, and anomalies of the brain and multiple organ systems. With respect to behaviour, scarce data from clinical

  16. The Mediating and Moderating Role of Job Satisfaction in the Leadership Behaviour and Work Engagement Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinlawon O. AMOO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of the relationship between leadership behaviour and trainee work engagement. The study was conducted in an artisan training academy located inthe East of Johannesburg. Data was collected from the entire population of 150 employed trainees in the academy using: (i a self-designed demographical data questionnaire; (iithe Harris and Ogbonna (2001 13-item leadership behaviour questionnaire (iii the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES developed by Schaufeli et al. (2002, and (iv the single global rating for job satisfaction developed in 1990 by Allen and Meyer. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted in a census study of 150 trainees. Results showed that work engagement is significantly affected by leadership behaviour, and job satisfaction mediated and moderated the leadership behaviour – work engagement relationship.

  17. Paranoia and maladaptive behaviours in homelessness: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kathryn; Maguire, Nick

    2017-12-22

    Current research has implicated a role for cognitive and emotional processes in the pathways to becoming homeless. Evidence implicates three risk factors, which are often associated with an increased incidence of homelessness: paranoid thinking, emotion regulation, and engaging in maladaptive behaviours. Maladaptive behaviours include deliberate self-harm, substance misuse, and high-risk sexual practices. Currently, no studies have investigated the specific psychological mechanisms, such as difficulty regulating emotions, which underpin the association between paranoia and maladaptive behaviours. A mediational design was employed in a group of homeless individuals. Participants (N = 40), who were homeless at the time of the study, completed a single-session assessment of paranoia, emotion regulation, and maladaptive behaviours. Mediation analyses indicated that individuals scoring high on paranoia were more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviours, particularly substance misuse and aggression, when they had difficulty regulating their emotions. These results demonstrate a novel finding relating to the effect of emotion regulation in maintaining psychopathology and behaviours in vulnerable individuals, which may in turn sustain periods of homelessness. Emotion regulation may therefore be one particular psychological mechanism through which severe mental illness affects engagement in self-destructive behaviours in homelessness. These findings have valuable clinical implications for targeted therapeutic interventions, in this often difficult to treat homeless population. Psychosis is over-represented in the homeless population; the cycle of homelessness may be attenuated by addressing psychotic symptomology. Homeless individuals engage in drug abuse, self-harm, aggression, and high-risk sexual practices due to an inability to regulate distressing emotions effectively. Therapeutic interventions, such as MBT and DBT, which target emotion regulation difficulties, may

  18. Self-concept in institutionalized children with disturbed attachment: The mediating role of exploratory behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacaru, V S; Sterkenburg, P S; Schuengel, C

    2018-05-01

    Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of the effects of disturbed attachment on self-concept in institutionalized children. Thus, the current study examined associations between disturbed attachment behaviours in institutionalized children and self-concept, testing limited exploration as an explanatory factor. Thirty-three institutionalized children, aged 4-12, participated in a multimethod and multi-informant assessment of disturbed attachment behaviours (i.e., Disturbances of Attachment Interview and Behavioral Signs of Disturbed Attachment in Young Children), self-concept (i.e., Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children), and exploratory behaviours (i.e., Student Exploratory Behaviours Observation Scale). Analyses were conducted using bootstrapping techniques. Global self-concept converged with teacher-rated children's self-concept, except for physical competence domain. Disturbed attachment behaviours were identified in 62.5% of the children, and this was associated with lower levels of exploration and lower scores on self-concept, compared with children without disturbed attachment behaviours. Furthermore, exploratory behaviours mediated the effects of disturbed attachment behaviours on self-concept. Institution-reared children with disturbed attachment behaviours were likely to have a negative perception of self and one's own competences. Limited exploratory behaviours explained this linkage. Targeting disordered attachment in children reared in institutions and their caregivers should become a high priority as a means for preventing socioemotional development issues. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and eating behaviours in preadolescents: the mediating role of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75 years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mastery Motivation in Children with Intellectual Disability: Is There Evidence for a Down Syndrome Behavioural Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Linda; Cuskelly, Monica; Browning, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to provide empirical evidence to support or refute assumptions of phenotypic deficits in motivation for children with Down syndrome (DS). Children with moderate intellectual disability (MID) associated with etiologies other than DS were recruited in an extension of a previous study that involved children…

  1. The 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome: clinical and behavioural phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, B.W.M. van; Koolen, D.A.; Brueton, L.; McMullan, D.; Lichtenbelt, K.D.; Ades, L.C.; Peters, G.; Gibson, K.; Moloney, S.; Novara, F.; Pramparo, T.; Bernardina, B. Dalla; Zoccante, L.; Balottin, U.; Piazza, F.; Pecile, V.; Gasparini, P.; Guerci, V.; Kets, M.; Pfundt, R.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Veltman, J.A.; Leeuw, N. de; Wilson, M.; Antony, J.; Reitano, S.; Luciano, D.; Fichera, M.; Romano, C; Brunner, H.G.; Zuffardi, O.; Vries, L.B.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Six submicroscopic deletions comprising chromosome band 2q23.1 in patients with severe mental retardation (MR), short stature, microcephaly and epilepsy have been reported, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in the 2q23.1 region might be responsible for the common phenotypic

  2. Alterations of HIV-1 envelope phenotype and antibody-mediated neutralization by signal peptide mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Upadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env mediates virus attachment and entry into the host cells. Like other membrane-bound and secreted proteins, HIV-1 Env contains at its N terminus a signal peptide (SP that directs the nascent Env to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER where Env synthesis and post-translational modifications take place. SP is cleaved during Env biosynthesis but potentially influences the phenotypic traits of the Env protein. The Env SP sequences of HIV-1 isolates display high sequence variability, and the significance of such variability is unclear. We postulate that changes in the Env SP influence Env transport through the ER-Golgi secretory pathway and Env folding and/or glycosylation that impact on Env incorporation into virions, receptor binding and antibody recognition. We first evaluated the consequences of mutating the charged residues in the Env SP in the context of infectious molecular clone HIV-1 REJO.c/2864. Results show that three different mutations affecting histidine at position 12 affected Env incorporation into virions that correlated with reduction of virus infectivity and DC-SIGN-mediated virus capture and transmission. Mutations at positions 8, 12, and 15 also rendered the virus more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against the Env V1V2 region. These mutations affected the oligosaccharide composition of N-glycans as shown by changes in Env reactivity with specific lectins and by mass spectrometry. Increased neutralization resistance and N-glycan composition changes were also observed when analogous mutations were introduced to another HIV-1 strain, JRFL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that certain residues in the HIV-1 Env SP can affect virus neutralization sensitivity by modulating oligosaccharide moieties on the Env N-glycans. The HIV-1 Env SP sequences thus may be under selective pressure to balance virus infectiousness with virus resistance to the host antibody

  3. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Chatterjee

    Full Text Available X-linked ichthyosis (XLI is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS. Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all.Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58 and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24 males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale.Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits.These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and with previous work suggesting high rates of

  4. Behavioural and Psychiatric Phenotypes in Men and Boys with X-Linked Ichthyosis: Evidence from a Worldwide Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sohini; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2016-01-01

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data. The survey comprised demographic and background information (including any prior clinical diagnoses) and validated questionnaires assaying phenotypes of particular interest (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale-11, adult and adolescent Autism Quotient, Kessler Psychological Distress Scales, and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder Rating Scale). Individuals with XLI generally exhibited normal sensory function. Boys with XLI were at increased risk of developmental disorder, whilst adults with the condition were at increased risk of both developmental and mood disorders. Both adult and younger XLI groups scored significantly more highly than male general population norms on measures of inattention, impulsivity, autism-related traits, psychological distress and disruptive behavioural traits. These findings indicate that both adult and younger males with XLI exhibit personality profiles that are distinct from those of males within the general population, and suggest that individuals with XLI may be at heightened risk of psychopathology. The data are consistent with the notion that STS is important in neurodevelopment and ongoing brain function, and with previous work suggesting high rates of

  5. Assessing mediators between discrimination, health behaviours and physical health outcomes: a representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin Carl

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination is a social determinant of health; however, the pathways linking discrimination to ill-health are under-researched. This study investigated the mediators through which discrimination affects health behaviours and physical health outcomes, as well as assessed whether sex moderated these mechanisms. Data from a representative survey (n = 1023) of undergraduate students enrolled in a Brazilian university in 2012 were used. Structural equation models were applied to assess the following mediation mechanisms--(1) discrimination influences self-rated health and body mass index via anxiety/depression; (2) discrimination affects behaviours (alcohol consumption, problem drinking, smoking, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity) through discomfort associated with discriminatory experiences. The potential of sex to act as an effect-modifying variable was also explored in each of the postulated pathways. The effect of discrimination on self-rated poor health was totally (100.0%) mediated by anxiety/depression, while body mass index was not correlated with discrimination. Self-reported discrimination was associated with some behaviours via discomfort. Particularly, discomfort partially mediated the positive association between discrimination, leisure time physical activity (43.3%), and fruit/vegetable consumption (52.2%). Sex modified the association between discrimination, discomfort and physical activity in that such mechanism (more discrimination → more discomfort → more physical activity) was statistically significant in the entire sample and among females, but not among males. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes and behaviours via distinct pathways. Future investigations should further explicate the mediational pathways between discrimination and key health outcomes.

  6. Predatory feeding behaviour in Pristionchus nematodes is dependent on phenotypic plasticity and induced by serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilecki, Martin; Lightfoot, James W; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2015-05-01

    Behavioural innovation and morphological adaptation are intrinsically linked but their relationship is often poorly understood. In nematodes, a huge diversity of feeding morphologies and behaviours can be observed to meet their distinctive dietary and environmental demands. Pristionchus and their relatives show varied feeding activities, both consuming bacteria and also predating other nematodes. In addition, Pristionchus nematodes display dimorphic mouth structures triggered by an irreversible developmental switch, which generates a narrower mouthed form with a single tooth and a wider mouthed form with an additional tooth. However, little is known about the specific predatory adaptations of these mouth forms or the associated mechanisms and behaviours. Through a mechanistic analysis of predation behaviours, in particular in the model organism Pristionchus pacificus, we reveal multifaceted feeding modes characterised by dynamic rhythmic switching and tooth stimulation. This complex feeding mode switch is regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin in a previously uncharacterised role, a process that appears conserved across several predatory nematode species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of starvation, prey size and prey preference on P. pacificus predatory feeding kinetics, revealing predation to be a fundamental component of the P. pacificus feeding repertoire, thus providing an additional rich source of nutrition in addition to bacteria. Finally, we found that mouth form morphology also has a striking impact on predation, suppressing predatory behaviour in the narrow mouthed form. Our results therefore hint at the regulatory networks involved in controlling predatory feeding and underscore P. pacificus as a model for understanding the evolution of complex behaviours. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Emotional Intelligence – Sales Performance Relationship: A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisker Zazli Lily

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of emotional intelligence on sales performance. We posited that the impact of emotional intelligence (EI on sales performance was mediated by adaptive selling behaviour (ASB. Data were collected from 281 sales people in the financial industries in Malaysia via the WLEIS emotional intelligence scale and ADAPTS adaptive selling behaviour scale, and were quantitatively analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM. Results were in keeping with the model. Three domains of EI were not found to impact sales performance directly but through ASB. Theoretical implications and managerial ramifications were also discussed.

  8. 14q32-encoded microRNAs mediate an oligometastatic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Abhineet; Wightman, Sean C; Mallon, Stephen; Oshima, Go; Pitroda, Sean P; Zhang, Qingbei; Huang, Xiaona; Darga, Thomas E; Huang, Lei; Andrade, Jorge; Liu, Huiping; Ferguson, Mark K; Greene, Geoffrey L; Posner, Mitchell C; Hellman, Samuel; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2015-02-28

    Oligometastasis is a clinically distinct subset of metastasis characterized by a limited number of metastases potentially curable with localized therapies. We analyzed pathways targeted by microRNAs over-expressed in clinical oligometastasis samples and identified suppression of cellular adhesion, invasion, and motility pathways in association with the oligometastatic phenotype. We identified miR-127-5p, miR-544a, and miR-655-3p encoded in the 14q32 microRNA cluster as co-regulators of multiple metastatic pathways through repression of shared target genes. These microRNAs suppressed cellular adhesion and invasion and inhibited metastasis development in an animal model of breast cancer lung colonization. Target genes, including TGFBR2 and ROCK2, were key mediators of these effects. Understanding the role of microRNAs expressed in oligometastases may lead to improved identification of and interventions for patients with curable metastatic disease, as well as an improved understanding of the molecular basis of this unique clinical entity.

  9. Shear Stress Induces Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-Mediated Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqian; Zhao, Manman; Liu, Aihua; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Wu, Zhongxue

    2018-03-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is involved in the pathophysiological processes of the intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Although shear stress has been implicated in the proliferation, migration, and phenotypic conversion of VSMCs, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated whether shear stress(SS)-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation was mediated by autophagy involved in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) pathway. The results show that shear stress could inhibit the expression of key VSMC contractile genes and induce pro-inflammatory/matrix-remodeling genes levels, contributing to VSMCs phenotypic switching from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. More importantly, Shear stress also markedly increased the levels of the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3II), Beclin-1, and p62 degradation. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly blocked shear-induced phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. To further explore the molecular mechanism involved in shear-induced autophagy, we found that shear stress could activate AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway in VSMCs. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, significantly reduced the levels of p-AMPK and p-ULK, enhanced p-mTOR level, and finally decreased LC3II and Beclin-1 level, which suggested that activated AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling was related to shear-mediated autophagy. These results indicate that shear stress promotes VSMC phenotypic modulation through the induction of autophagy involved in activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.

  10. Is Spiritual Well-Being Among Adolescents Associated with a Lower Level of Bullying Behaviour? The Mediating Effect of Perceived Bullying Behaviour of Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkova, Katarina; Holubcikova, Jana; Kravcova, Michaela; Babincak, Peter; Tavel, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between spiritual well-being and bullying among Slovak adolescents, and whether perceived bullying behaviour of peers mediated this relationship. Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study conducted in 2014 in Slovakia were used. Data were obtained from 9250 adolescents with a mean age of 13.48 years. The final sample consisted of 762 adolescents aged 15 years old (52.2% boys). We used logistic regression models and the Sobel test. Adolescents who reported a higher level of spiritual well-being were at lower risk of reporting that some or more schoolmates bully others or that they themselves bully others. These relationships were partially mediated by perceived norms about the bullying behaviour of schoolmates. Spiritual well-being was found to be negatively associated with bullying; in addition, a mediating role of perceived bullying behaviour of peers in this relationship was confirmed.

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models...

  12. Do dysfunctional coping modes mediate the relationship between perceived parenting style and disordered eating behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessica M; Selth, Stephanie; Stretton, Alexander; Simpson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that both childhood experiences and coping behaviours may be linked to eating disorder symptoms. In this study maladaptive schema coping modes were investigated as mediators in the relationship between perceived negative parenting and disordered eating. A total of 174 adults with eating and/or body image concerns completed questionnaires measuring parenting experiences, schema modes, and disordered eating behaviours. Perfectionistic Overcontroller, Self-Aggrandiser, Compliant Surrenderer, Detached Protector and Detached Self-Soother coping modes partially explained the variance in the relationships between perceived negative parenting experiences and the behaviours of restricting and compensation (purging and overexercising). Our findings suggest that Overcompensatory, Avoidant and Surrender coping mechanisms all appear to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorder symptoms, and that there are multiple complex relationships between these and Early Maladaptive Schemas that warrant further investigation.

  13. Leader Empowering Behaviours and Work Engagement: The Mediating Role of Structural Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziraki, Karen; Laschinger, Heather

    2015-09-01

    Reports of poor working conditions persist amid ongoing healthcare restructuring. Simultaneously, nursing shortage threats continue as the nursing population ages. Leadership strategies that create empowering working conditions are likely to retain nurses who are eligible to retire, and attract future nurses to the profession. Several studies have focused on leader behaviours and structural empowerment in recent years and how these impact the work environment and staff engagement. Correlations among leader empowering behaviours, structural empowerment and work engagement have been demonstrated (Laschinger et al. 1999; Peachey 2002); however, there is a gap in the empirical literature as to how leader empowering behaviours influence nurses' work engagement by creating structurally empowering work environments. Kanter's (1977, 1993) structural empowerment theory was used to test this proposition using data from a cross-sectional study of 322 Ontario staff nurses. Mediation analysis revealed that structural empowerment partially mediated the influence of leader empowering behaviours on work engagement. The implications for healthcare managers and leaders are discussed with a view to the recruitment and retention of nursing staff, by fostering greater work engagement. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. Cross-sectional surveillance study to phenotype lorry drivers' sedentary behaviours, physical activity and cardio-metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; O'Shea, Orlagh; King, James A; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacy A

    2017-06-21

    Elevated risk factors for a number of chronic diseases have been identified in lorry drivers. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as a lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (sitting) likely contribute to this elevated risk. This study behaviourally phenotyped UK lorry drivers' sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours during workdays and non-workdays and examined markers of drivers cardio-metabolic health. A transport company from the East Midlands, UK. A sample of 159 male heavy goods vehicle drivers (91% white European; (median (range)) age: 50 (24, 67) years) completed the health assessments. 87 (age: 50.0 (25.0, 65.0); body mass index (BMI): 27.7 (19.6, 43.4) kg/m 2 ) provided objective information on sedentary and non-sedentary time. Participants self-reported their sociodemographic information. Primary outcomes: sedentary behaviour and PA, assessed over 7 days using an activPAL3 inclinometer. Cardio-metabolic markers included: blood pressure (BP), heart rate, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, body composition and fasted capillary blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipopreotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) levels. These cardio-metabolic markers were treated as secondary outcomes. Lorry drivers presented an unhealthy cardio-metabolic health profile (median (IQR) systolic BP: 129 (108.5, 164) mm Hg; diastolic BP: 81 (63, 104) mm Hg; BMI: 29 (20, 47) kg/m 2 ; WC: 102 (77.5, 146.5) cm; LDL-C: 3 (1, 6) mmol/L; TC: 4.9 (3, 7.5) mmol/L). 84% were overweight or obese, 43% had type 2 diabetes or prediabetes and 34% had the metabolic syndrome. The subsample of lorry drivers with objective postural data (n=87) accumulated 13 hours/day and 8 hours/day of sedentary behaviour on workdays and non-workdays (pcardio-metabolic profile and are highly sedentary and physically inactive. Interventions to reduce sitting and increase MVPA during breaks and leisure time to

  15. Retroviral-mediated gene therapy for the differentiation of primary cells into a mineralizing osteoblastic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2008-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for the repair of critical-sized skeletal fractures. However, the clinical application of this approach has been limited by the availability of a robust mineralizing cell source. Non-osteogenic cells, such as skin fibroblasts, are an attractive cell-source alternative because they are easy to harvest from autologous donor skin biopsies and display a high capacity for in vitro expansion. We have recently demonstrated that retroviral gene delivery of the osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1 promotes osteogenic differentiation in primary dermal fibroblasts cultured in monolayer. Notably, sustained expression of Runx2 was not sufficient to promote functional osteogenesis in these cells, and co-treatment with the steroid hormone dexamethasone was required to induce deposition of biologically-equivalent matrix mineralization. On the basis of these results, we then investigated the osteogenic capacity of these genetically engineered fibroblasts when seeded on polymeric scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. These experiments demonstrated that Runx2-expressing fibroblasts seeded on collagen scaffolds produce significant levels of matrix mineralization after 28 days in vivo implantation in a subcutaneous, heterotopic site. Overall, these results offer evidence that transcription factor-based gene therapy may be a powerful strategy for the conversion of a non-osteogenic cellular phenotype into a mineralizing cell source for bone repair applications. This concept may also be applied to control functional differentiation in a broad range of cell types and tissue engineering applications. The chapter below outlines detailed methods for the isolation and ex vivo genetic modification of primary dermal fibroblasts using retroviral-mediated delivery of the Runx2 transgene in both monolayer culture and three-dimensional scaffolds.

  16. Redox-Dependent Calcium-Mediated Signaling Networks that Control the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Akshaya

    Cellular senescence has evolved as a protective mechanism to arrest growth of cells with oncogenic potential. While senescent cells have lost the ability to divide, they remain metabolically active and adapt a deleterious senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) central to the progression of several age-associated disease pathologies. The SASP is mechanistically regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) whose expression and activity is responsive to the senescence associated (SA) oxidant production and the accompanying disruption of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Using primary IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts as a model of replicative senescence, we explored the molecular underpinnings driving Ca2+ dysregulation in senescent cells. We establish that the redox-responsive Transient Receptor Potential TRPC6 channel is compromised due to desensitization owing to SA increases in steady state hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. SA dysregulation of Ca2+ is also accompanied by loss of response to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx that can be rescued with catalase pre-treatments. Senescent cells are also insensitive to Ca2+ entry induced by hyperforin, a specific activator of TRPC6, that can be restored by catalase pre-treatments, further suggesting redox regulation of TRPC6 in senescence. Inhibition of TRPC6 channel activity restores the ability of senescent cells to respond to peroxide-induced Ca2+ in addition to suppressing SASP gene expression. Furthermore, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling regulates SASP by means of modulating TRPC6 channel expression. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence that redox and mTOR-mediated regulation of TRPC6 channel modulate SASP gene expression. Further, the gain-of-function mutation of TRPC6 has pathological implications in several chronic pathologies and renders it a viable target in age-associated diseases.

  17. Comorbid psychopathology and stress mediate the relationship between autistic traits and repetitive behaviours in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D; Rojahn, J

    2015-02-01

    Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. A battery of questionnaires including measures of autistic traits, repetitive behaviours, stress, executive dysfunctions and comorbid psychopathology were administered to a sample of adults with autism and intellectual disabilities (n = 43). We found that when taken as set dimensions of comorbidity, dysexecutive functioning and stress mediated or explained the effects of autistic symptoms on repetitive behaviour. The total model explained 60% of the variation in repetitive behaviours (R = 0.60; F = 13.64, P autism, while executive functioning did not contribute to that relationship. © 2013 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nature vs. nurture: can enrichment rescue the behavioural phenotype of BDNF heterozygous mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Brandwein, Christiane; Vogt, Miriam A; Dormann, Christof; Hellweg, Rainer; Gass, Peter

    2008-10-10

    In earlier experiments we have demonstrated that group-housing in a rather impoverished "standard" environment can be a crucial stress factor in male C57Bl/6 mice. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of combining a probable genetic vulnerability--postulated by the "Neurotrophin Hypothesis of Depression"--with the potentially modulating influence of a stressful environment such as "impoverished" standard housing conditions. For that purpose mice with a partial deletion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were group-housed under standard and enriched housing conditions and analysed in a well-established test battery for emotional behaviours. Standard group-housing affected emotional behaviour in male and female BDNF heterozygous mice, causing an increase in anxiety, changes in exploration as well as nociception. Providing the animals' cages with supplementary enrichment, however, led to a rescue of emotional alterations, which emphasises the significance of external factors and their relevance for a valid investigation of genetic aspects in these mutants as well as others, which may be examined in terms of stress-responsiveness or emotionality.

  19. The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome: differences in adaptive behaviour versus Down syndrome alone and autistic disorder alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.

  20. Brain and behaviour phenotyping of a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type-1: an MRI/DTI study on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, L I; Cai, Y; Sereno, J V; Gonçalves, S I; Silva, A J; Castelo-Branco, M

    2016-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder and an important cause of intellectual disability. Brain-behaviour associations can be examined in vivo using morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study brain structure. Here, we studied structural and behavioural phenotypes in heterozygous Nf1 mice (Nf1(+/-) ) using T2-weighted imaging MRI and DTI, with a focus on social recognition deficits. We found that Nf1(+/-) mice have larger volumes than wild-type (WT) mice in regions of interest involved in social cognition, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the caudate-putamen (CPu). Higher diffusivity was found across a distributed network of cortical and subcortical brain regions, within and beyond these regions. Significant differences were observed for the social recognition test. Most importantly, significant structure-function correlations were identified concerning social recognition performance and PFC volumes in Nf1(+/-) mice. Analyses of spatial learning corroborated the previously known deficits in the mutant mice, as corroborated by platform crossings, training quadrant time and average proximity measures. Moreover, linear discriminant analysis of spatial performance identified 2 separate sub-groups in Nf1(+/-) mice. A significant correlation between quadrant time and CPu volumes was found specifically for the sub-group of Nf1(+/-) mice with lower spatial learning performance, suggesting additional evidence for reorganization of this region. We found strong evidence that social and spatial cognition deficits can be associated with PFC/CPu structural changes and reorganization in NF1. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. How Do Personality Traits Shape Information-Sharing Behaviour in Social Media? Exploring the Mediating Effect of Generalized Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Lin, Yanqing; Liu, Yong; Chen, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongxiu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Personality and trust have been found to be important precursors of information-sharing behaviour, but little is known about how these factors interact with each other in shaping information-sharing behaviour. By integrating both trust and user personality into a unified research framework, this study examines how trust mediates the…

  2. The mediating effect of daily nervousness and irritability on the relationship between soft drink consumption and aggressive behaviour among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    This study investigated whether soft drink consumption is related to fighting and bullying behaviour among school-aged children and whether nervousness and irritation mediated this relationship. The data on 7583 adolescents aged 11-15 years from the Slovak part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged

  3. Behavioural phenotypes in mice after prenatal and early postnatal exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kajal; Koivisto, Hennariikka; Capstick, Myles; Naarala, Jonne; Viluksela, Matti; Tanila, Heikki; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2018-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7.5kHz MFs at 12 and 120μT, from mating until weaning of pups. Sham exposed pregnant mice were used as a control group. A behavioural teratology study was conducted on the male offspring at two months of age to detect possible effects on the developing nervous system. Body weight development did not differ between the exposure groups. The exposure did not alter spontaneous motor activity when exploring a novel cage or anxiety in novelty-suppressed feeding or marble burying tests. Improved performance in the Rotarod task was observed in the 12µT group, while the 120μT exposure group swam more slowly than the sham exposed group in the Morris swim navigation task. However, indices of learning and memory (path length and escape latency during task acquisition and search bias during the probe test) did not differ between the exposure groups. Furthermore, the passive avoidance task did not indicate any impairment of long-term memory over a 48h interval in the exposed groups. In a post-mortem histopathological analysis, there was no evidence for an effect of IF MF exposure on astroglial reactivity or hippocampal neurogenesis. The results suggest that the IF MF used did not have detrimental effects on spatial learning and memory or histological markers of tissue reaction. The two statistically significant findings that were observed (improved performance in the Rotarod task in the 12µT group and decreased swimming speed in the 120

  4. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S-HODE, 13(S-HODE, 5(S-HETE, 12(S-HETE, 15(S-HETE, 5(S-oxoETE, 16(R-HETE, 16(S-HETE and 5(S, 6(R-lipoxin A4, 5(S, 6(R, 15(R-lipoxin A4 were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant (p<0.01 increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  5. Comorbid Psychopathology and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Autistic Traits and Repetitive Behaviours in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, D.; Rojahn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comorbid psychopathology and stress were considered possible mediators that may explain the relationship between some autistic traits and repetitive behaviours. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of comorbid psychopathology, executive dysfunctions and stress in the relationship between some autistic traits and…

  6. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczuko, Małgorzata; Zapałowska-Chwyć, Marta; Maciejewska, Dominika; Drozd, Arleta; Starczewski, Andrzej; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE) were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens) and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9( S )-HODE, 13( S )-HODE, 5( S )-HETE, 12( S )-HETE, 15( S )-HETE, 5( S )-oxoETE, 16( R )-HETE, 16( S )-HETE and 5( S ), 6( R )-lipoxin A 4 , 5( S ), 6( R ), 15( R )-lipoxin A 4 ) were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant ( p PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  7. Progressive neurodegenerative and behavioural changes induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of α-synuclein in midbrain dopamine neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decressac, M; Mattsson, Bente; Lundblad, M

    2012-01-01

    have failed to show a consistent behavioural phenotype and pronounced dopamine neurodegeneration. Using a more efficient adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector construct, which includes a WPRE enhancer element and uses the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter to drive the expression of human wild-type α...

  8. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  9. Behavioural activation as predictor of substance use: mediating and moderating role of attitudes and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennadij G

    2004-09-06

    Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were investigated in 4,501 Russian youths aged 14-25 years. The participants also filled out the short forms of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire along with questions about attitudes and social relationships. Behavioural Activation (BAS) was the best personality predictor of substance use. Its influence was mediated by disobedience to adults, affiliation with peers (Outings) and tolerant attitude toward illegal activity. BAS was negatively associated with subjective well-being and educational aspiration (Learn). Extraversion was the second strongest predictor of substance use with its influence being mostly mediated by Outings. Besides, Extraversion was positively associated with some protective factors such as subjective well-being, Learn and good relationship with parents. Effects of Neuroticism and Behavioural Inhibition (BIS) on substance use were weak and gender-specific. In females BIS provided a degree of protection while in males it increased the risk of substance use. The personality factors interacted so that BAS and Extraversion tended to mutually increase the impact of each other, while BIS diminished the effect of BAS. Among attitude variables, Outings acted as the most potent predictor of substance use. Relationship with parents was a protective factor, which acted most strongly in adolescents with higher Psychoticism and Extraversion.

  10. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  11. ROLES OF HUMAN AND VECTOR DERIVED PHENOTYPES OF DENV IN CAUSING HUMAN DISEASE- CAN MOSQUITO MEDIATION BE BYPASSED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Joseph Payyappilly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Plasma membrane of midgut epithelial cells of the mosquito differs from that of human dendritic cells in composition with respect to protein and lipid content and posttranslational modifications, viz. glycosylation. Virus acquires its envelope from the host cell membrane. Expectedly therefore, such differences are reflected in the construction of its envelope, which may influence virulence. Lipid composition and glycosylation pattern of envelope protein E1 (with important roles in viral entry are different in the virus grown in insect cell lines and mammalian cells. As consequence, they have 'different modes' of cell entry each with role at different stages in disease course. Virions that initiate primary infection are mosquito derived; but then on, it is a phenotype of human cell origin that multiplies and spreads in the host. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a hospital-based yearlong prospective study conducted at our institute, we have tried to highlight (indirectly albeit, all important role of antibody mediated cell infection by DENV in the human host and how it modified disease process. RESULTS Mediation of the biological vector thus is required essential in ‘initiation’ of primary infection (emphasising the role of vector control as numero uno strategy for disease control; in the human tissues, thereafter, antibody mediated cell infection seems to take the lead role. CONCLUSION Mediation of the biological vector mosquito is required in natural cycle of transmission of DNV from man to man. Unique features of the envelope of 'mosquito derived' virions enabling them to enter human cells nonpermissive to human derived phenotype maybe capitalised and such mechanisms be targeted in designing vaccine or drugs against dengue and besides this emphasises the relative importance of vector control in dengue control.

  12. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Li, Yuanyuan; Pei, Gang

    2017-03-24

    Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to regulate the immune system. Nevertheless, the role of GLP in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has not been sufficiently elucidated. Further, GLP effect on microglial behavioural modulations in correlation with the inflammatory responses remains to be unravelled. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the contributions of GLP on microglia. The BV2 microglia and primary mouse microglia were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and amyloid beta 42 (Aβ 42 ) oligomer, respectively. Investigation on the effect of GLP was carried by quantitative determination of the microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions and behavioural modulations including migration, morphology and phagocytosis. Analysis of microglial morphology and phagocytosis modulations was confirmed in the zebrafish brain. Quantitative results revealed that GLP down-regulates LPS- or Aβ-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions in BV-2 and primary microglia. In addition, GLP attenuates inflammation-related microglial migration, morphological alterations and phagocytosis probabilities. We also showed that modulations of microglial behavioural responses were associated with MCP-1 and C1q expressions. Overall, our study provides an insight into the GLP regulation of LPS- and Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and serves an implication that the neuroprotective function of GLP might be achieved through modulation of microglial inflammatory and behavioural responses.

  13. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system.

  14. Ursolic acid-mediated changes in glycolytic pathway promote cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis in phenotypically different breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk-Grochala, Jagoda; Kwasniewicz, Ewa; Deregowska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER + , PR +/- , HER2 - ), MDA-MB-231 (ER - , PR - , HER2 - ) and SK-BR-3 (ER - , PR - , HER2 + ). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response. Triterpenotids (5-10 µM) caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, an increase in p21 levels and SA-beta-galactosidase staining that was accompanied by oxidative stress and DNA damage. UA (20 µM) also diminished AKT signaling that affected glycolysis as judged by decreased levels of HK2, PKM2, ATP and lactate. UA-induced energy stress activated AMPK that resulted in cytotoxic autophagy and apoptosis. UA-mediated elevation in nitric oxide levels and ATM activation may also account for AMPK activation-mediated cytotoxic response. Moreover, UA-promoted apoptosis was associated with decreased pERK1/2 signals and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, we have shown for the first time that UA at low micromolar range may promote its anticancer action by targeting glycolysis in phenotypically distinct breast cancer cells.

  15. Feasibility of parent-mediated behavioural intervention for behavioural problems in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nigeria: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat; Ani, Cornelius; Lagunju, Ike; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a disabling and lifelong neuro-developmental disorder. Challenging behaviours such as aggression and self injury are common maladaptive behaviours in ASD which adversely affect the mental health of both the affected children and their caregivers. Although there is evidence-base for parent-delivered behavioural intervention for children with ASD and challenging behaviours, there is no published research on the feasibility of such an intervention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of parent-mediated behavioural intervention for challenging behaviour in children with ASD in Nigeria. This was a pre-post intervention pilot study involving 20 mothers of children with DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD recruited from a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service out-patient Unit. All the mothers completed five sessions of weekly manualised group-based intervention from March to April, 2015. The intervention included Functional Behavioural Analysis for each child followed by an individualised behaviour management plan. The primary outcome measure was the Aggression and Self Injury Questionnaire, which assessed both Aggression towards a Person and Property (APP) and Self Injurious Behaviour (SIB). The mothers' knowledge of the intervention content was the secondary outcome. All outcome measures were completed at baseline and after the intervention. The mothers' level of satisfaction with the programme was also assessed. Treatment effect was evaluated with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests of baseline and post-intervention scores on outcome measures. The children were aged 3-17 years (mean = 10.7 years, SD 4.6 years), while their mothers' ages ranged from 32 to 52 years (mean 42.8 years, SD 6.4 years). The post intervention scores in all four domains of the APP and SIB were significantly reduced compared with pre-intervention scores. The mothers' knowledge of the intervention content significantly increased post

  16. Prospective study of autism phenomenology and the behavioural phenotype of Phelan-McDermid syndrome: comparison to fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome and idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Caroline; Powis, Laurie; Moss, Jo; Stinton, Christopher; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Christopher

    2017-11-10

    The limited behavioural phenotype literature on Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) indicates atypically high levels of activity, impulsivity and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviours. Divergent profiles of ASD in PMS are also reported, with some studies demonstrating similarities to idiopathic ASD and others indicating an uneven profile of social and communication impairments and repetitive behaviours. An evaluation of the behavioural phenotype of PMS and the prevalence and phenomenology of ASD is warranted, particularly given the causal involvement of the SHANK3 gene in the aetiology of PMS. Carers of individuals with PMS (N = 30; mean age = 10.55, SD = 7.08) completed questionnaires relating to impulsivity, overactivity, mood, interest and pleasure, repetitive behaviour and ASD phenomenology. These data were compared to data from matched samples of individuals with fragile X and Down syndromes and idiopathic ASD. In order to evaluate the profile of ASD phenomenology in PMS, two comparisons were made: first, including the total sample with PMS, and second, including only those who met the threshold indicative of autism on an ASD screening measure. The results revealed lower mood in individuals with PMS, but no differences in impulsivity and overactivity. Compulsive and routine-driven repetitive behaviours were less common in the total sample with PMS; however, motor-based stereotyped behaviours were more common. ASD phenomenology was highly prevalent, with 87% of the sample meeting the cutoff score for ASD and 57% meeting the cutoff for autism. The profile of ASD phenomenology in the total sample with PMS differed from those with idiopathic ASD across impairments in communication and social interaction and repetitive behaviour. However, the profile of those who met the threshold for autism was commensurate to those with idiopathic ASD. ASD phenomenology is common within PMS. Whilst the total sample may display an atypical profile of ASD behaviour, the profile

  17. Counterproductive work behaviours in response to emotional exhaustion: a moderated mediational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, LaMarcus R; Harvey, Richard D; Grawitch, Matthew J; Barber, Larissa K

    2012-08-01

    Drawing from the conservation of resources framework and self-control principles, we proposed a moderated mediational model through which emotional exhaustion may be linked to counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs). Analyses conducted with 175 Midwestern government workers revealed that both depersonalization (i.e. detachment from one's work, customers or co-workers) and organizational disidentification (i.e. cognitive opposition to an organization) were viable predictors of deviancy. Further, depersonalization and disidentification mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and CWBs, although disidentification drove these findings. Lastly, trait self-control moderated most variations of this relationship, in that this mediational model only applied to individuals with low and moderate self-control but not high self-control. Consistent with the conservation of resources framework, this study suggests that in a state of depleted emotional resources, heightened depersonalization and disidentification together provide the necessary levels of psychological/emotional withdrawal and justification for CWBs to emerge. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Phenotypic changes in Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian introduced by sperm-mediated transgenesis of rearranged homologous DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheming; Ding, Weidong; Ren, Hongtao

    2013-09-01

    Common carp, specifically the Jian variety (Cyprinus carpiovar var. Jian), is an important Chinese and global aquatic stock for commercial foodstuff. Homologous recombination of carp gene sequences has been widely used in population genetics to broadly screen for beneficial phenotypical variations, thus optimizing artificially engineered carp stocks with Jian variety and native stock varieties. Random rearrangement of homologous DNA fragments from parent specimens of C. carpiovar var. Jian were attained by digestion of genomic DNA with MspI followed by religation and redigestion with EcoR I to specifically rearrange homologous DNA fragments of myostatin and microsatellite genes. Based on known characteristics of myostatin gene function, growth pattern changes in resultant carp mutant varieties was expected. DNA fragments were introduced into metaphase-II oocytes, resulting in one to several dozen insertions of homologous fragments into the host genome by sperm-mediated transgenesis. Introduction of rearranged homologous DNA fragments often resulted in phenotypic changes in C. carpiovar var. Jian, including significant phenotypic changes linked to growth rate at 4 months.

  19. Body size phenotypes are heritable and mediate fecundity but not fitness in the lepidopteran frugivore Cydia pomonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Landolt, Peter J.

    2012-06-01

    The inheritance and functional roles of quantitative traits are central concerns of evolutionary ecology. We report two sets of experiments that investigated the heritability and reproductive consequences of body size phenotypes in a globally distributed lepidopteran frugivore, Cydia pomonella (L.). In our first set of experiments, we tested the hypotheses that (1) body size is heritable and (2) parental body size mediates egg production and offspring survival. Midparent-offspring regression analyses revealed that body mass is highly heritable for females and moderately heritable for males. The contribution of fathers to estimates of additive genetic variance was slightly greater than for mothers. Egg production increased with mean parental size, but offspring survival rates were equivalent. Based on this result, we tested two additional hypotheses in a second set of experiments: (3) male size moderates female egg production and egg fertility and (4) egg production, egg fertility, and offspring survival rate are influenced by female mating opportunities. Females paired with large males produced more eggs and a higher proportion of fertile eggs than females paired with small males. Females with multiple mating opportunities produced more fertile eggs than females paired with a single male. However, egg production and offspring survival rates were unaffected by the number of mating opportunities. Our experiments demonstrate that body mass is heritable in C. pomonella and that size phenotypes may mediate fecundity but not fitness. We conclude that male size can influence egg production and fertility, but female mate choice also plays a role in determining egg fertility.

  20. Mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits in the effects of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour among mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, K I; Rosenström, T; Baryshnikov, I; Karpov, B; Melartin, T; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Joffe, G; Isometsä, E

    2017-07-01

    Substantial evidence supports an association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behaviour. However, few studies have examined factors mediating this relationship among patients with unipolar or bipolar mood disorders. Depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (ICD-10-DCR) patients (n=287) from the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study were surveyed on self-reported childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms, borderline personality disorder traits, and lifetime suicidal behaviour. Psychiatric records served to complement the information on suicide attempts. We examined by formal mediation analyses whether (1) the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour is mediated through borderline personality disorder traits and (2) the mediation effect differs between lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. The impact of childhood maltreatment in multivariate models on either lifetime suicidal ideation or lifetime suicide attempts showed comparable total effects. In formal mediation analyses, borderline personality disorder traits mediated all of the total effect of childhood maltreatment on lifetime suicide attempts, but only one fifth of the total effect on lifetime suicidal ideation. The mediation effect was stronger for lifetime suicide attempts than for lifetime suicidal ideation (P=0.002) and independent of current depressive symptoms. The mechanisms of the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation versus suicide attempts may diverge among psychiatric patients with mood disorders. Borderline personality disorder traits may contribute to these mechanisms, although the influence appears considerably stronger for suicide attempts than for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying niche-mediated regulatory factors of stem cell phenotypic state: a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Srikanth; Del Sol, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how the cellular niche controls the stem cell phenotype is often hampered due to the complexity of variegated niche composition, its dynamics, and nonlinear stem cell-niche interactions. Here, we propose a systems biology view that considers stem cell-niche interactions as a many-body problem amenable to simplification by the concept of mean field approximation. This enables approximation of the niche effect on stem cells as a constant field that induces sustained activation/inhibition of specific stem cell signaling pathways in all stem cells within heterogeneous populations exhibiting the same phenotype (niche determinants). This view offers a new basis for the development of single cell-based computational approaches for identifying niche determinants, which has potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation-Mediated Alteration of Microglial/Macrophage Phenotypes after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Grill, Raymond J; Dunn, Tiffany J; Bedi, Supinder; Labastida, Javier Allende; Hetz, Robert A; Xue, Hasen; Thonhoff, Jason R; DeWitt, Douglas S; Prough, Donald S; Cox, Charles S; Wu, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) promote recovery from brain trauma, but neuronal replacement is unlikely the sole underlying mechanism. We hypothesize that grafted NSCs enhance neural repair at least partially through modulating the host immune response after traumatic brain injury (TBI). C57BL/6 mice were intracerebrally injected with primed human NSCs (hNSCs) or vehicle 24 h after a severe controlled cortical impact injury. Six days after transplantation, brain tissues were collected for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Observations included indicators of microglia/macrophage activation, M1 and M2 phenotypes, axonal injury detected by amyloid precursor protein (APP), lesion size, and the fate of grafted hNSCs. Animals receiving hNSC transplantation did not show significant decreases of brain lesion volumes compared to transplantation procedures with vehicle alone, but did show significantly reduced injury-dependent accumulation of APP. Furthermore, intracerebral transplantation of hNSCs reduced microglial activation as shown by a diminished intensity of Iba1 immunostaining and a transition of microglia/macrophages toward the M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype. The latter was represented by an increase in the brain M2/M1 ratio and increases of M2 microglial proteins. These phenotypic switches were accompanied by the increased expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 receptor α and decreased proinflammatory interferon-γ receptor β. Finally, grafted hNSCs mainly differentiated into neurons and were phagocytized by either M1 or M2 microglia/macrophages. Thus, intracerebral transplantation of primed hNSCs efficiently leads host microglia/macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype that presumably contributes to stem cell-mediated neuroprotective effects after severe TBI in mice.

  3. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  4. Peer-Mediated Interventions with Elementary and Secondary School Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Blake, John; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) have been shown to be effective for increasing adaptive social and academic behaviours of children and youth. Although PMI efficacy is generally well supported, there have been relatively few published intervention studies that focus on elementary, middle and high school students with emotional and behavioural…

  5. Revisiting the phenotypic and genetic profiling of anergic T cells mediating long-term transplant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sylvaine; Chatenoud, Lucienne

    2018-02-01

    Herein our focus will be to revisit peripheral tolerance mechanisms and in particular 'active' or 'dominant' tolerance as originally defined and mediated by regulatory CD4FoxP3 T lymphocytes (Treg) and also T-cell anergy that appears as a major mainstay to support long-term allograft survival. It is at the same time interesting and rewarding that the tool that recently guided our efforts along this path is the in-vivo use of CD3 antibody, the first monoclonal introduced in the clinic (Orthoclone OKT3) about 35 years ago to treat and prevent rejection of renal allografts. Beyond their immunosuppressive activity, whenever administered judiciously, CD3 antibodies promote robust allograft tolerance through selective purging of alloreactive effectors, resetting Treg-mediated active tolerance and promoting a unique subset of anergic CD8 T cells. The new findings discussed open up new perspectives from both a fundamental and a clinical point of view. In basic research, concrete molecular signaling paths are now spotted to finely dissect the conditions that lead to the establishment and maintenance of robust T-lymphocyte anergy mediating allograft tolerance. In the clinic, this may rapidly translate into novel biomarkers to be used in parallel to the ones already available, to better adapt posttransplant immunotherapy and monitor for long-term allograft acceptance.

  6. RNA-Mediated cis Regulation in Acinetobacter baumannii Modulates Stress-Induced Phenotypic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Carly; Gozzi, Kevin; Heinemann, Björn; Chai, Yunrong; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-06-01

    In the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii , RecA-dependent mutagenesis, which causes antibiotic resistance acquisition, is linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). Notably, unlike the Escherichia coli paradigm, recA and DDR gene expression in A. baumannii is bimodal. Namely, there is phenotypic variation upon DNA damage, which may provide a bet-hedging strategy for survival. Thus, understanding recA gene regulation is key to elucidate the yet unknown DDR regulation in A. baumannii Here, we identify a structured 5' untranslated region (UTR) in the recA transcript which serves as a cis -regulatory element. We show that a predicted stem-loop structure in this 5' UTR affects mRNA half-life and underlies bimodal gene expression and thus phenotypic variation in response to ciprofloxacin treatment. We furthermore show that the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR influences intracellular RecA protein levels and, in vivo , impairing the formation of the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR lowers cell survival of UV treatment and decreases rifampin resistance acquisition from DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. We hypothesize that the 5' UTR allows for stable recA transcripts during stress, including antibiotic treatment, enabling cells to maintain suitable RecA levels for survival. This innovative strategy to regulate the DDR in A. baumannii may contribute to its success as a pathogen. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen quickly gaining antibiotic resistances. Mutagenesis and antibiotic resistance acquisition are linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). However, how the DDR is regulated in A. baumannii remains unknown, since unlike most bacteria, A. baumannii does not follow the regulation of the Escherichia coli paradigm. In this study, we have started to uncover the mechanisms regulating the novel A. baumannii DDR. We have found that a cis -acting 5' UTR regulates recA transcript stability, RecA protein levels, and DNA

  7. Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudal, D; Alvarsson, A; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and by the presence of aggregates containing α-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Viral vector-induced overexpression of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons represents a model of PD which recapitulates disease progression better than commonly used neurotoxin models. Previous studies using this model have reported motor and cognitive impairments, whereas depression, mood and anxiety phenotypes are less described. To investigate these psychiatric phenotypes, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human α-synuclein or GFP into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Behavior was assessed at two timepoints: 3 and 8 weeks post-injection. We report that nigral α-synuclein overexpression led to a pronounced nigral dopaminergic cell loss accompanied by a smaller cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, and to a decreased striatal density of dopaminergic fibers. The AAV-α-synuclein group exhibited modest, but significant motor impairments 8 weeks after vector administration. The AAV-α-synuclein group displayed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test after 3 weeks, and reduced sucrose preference at week 8. At both timepoints, overexpression of α-synuclein was linked to a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of corticosterone. The depressive-like phenotype was also correlated with decreased nigral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spinophilin levels, and with decreased striatal levels of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. This study demonstrates that AAV-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons is not only useful to model motor impairments of PD, but also depression. This study also provides evidence that depression in experimental Parkinsonism is correlated to dysregulation of the HPA axis and to

  8. Detailed phenotypic and molecular analyses of genetically modified mice generated by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijal A Parikh

    Full Text Available The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool. While several recent reports have indicated that successful genome editing of mice can be achieved, detailed phenotypic and molecular analyses of the mutant animals are limited. Following pronuclear micro-injection of fertilized eggs with either wild-type Cas9 or the nickase mutant (D10A and single or paired guide RNA (sgRNA for targeting of the tyrosinase (Tyr gene, we assessed genome editing in mice using rapid phenotypic readouts (eye and coat color. Mutant mice with insertions or deletions (indels in Tyr were efficiently generated without detectable off-target cleavage events. Gene correction of a single nucleotide by homologous recombination (HR could only occur when the sgRNA recognition sites in the donor DNA were modified. Gene repair did not occur if the donor DNA was not modified because Cas9 catalytic activity was completely inhibited. Our results indicate that allelic mosaicism can occur following -Cas9-mediated editing in mice and appears to correlate with sgRNA cleavage efficiency at the single-cell stage. We also show that larger than expected deletions may be overlooked based on the screening strategy employed. An unbiased analysis of all the deleted nucleotides in our experiments revealed that the highest frequencies of nucleotide deletions were clustered around the predicted Cas9 cleavage sites, with slightly broader distributions than expected. Finally, additional analysis of founder mice and their offspring indicate that their general health, fertility, and the transmission of genetic changes were not compromised. These results provide the foundation to interpret and predict the diverse outcomes following CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing experiments in mice.

  9. An RGS4-mediated phenotypic switch of bronchial smooth muscle cells promotes fixed airway obstruction in asthma.

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    Gautam Damera

    Full Text Available In severe asthma, bronchodilator- and steroid-insensitive airflow obstruction develops through unknown mechanisms characterized by increased lung airway smooth muscle (ASM mass and stiffness. We explored the role of a Regulator of G-protein Signaling protein (RGS4 in the ASM hyperplasia and reduced contractile capacity characteristic of advanced asthma. Using immunocytochemical staining, ASM expression of RGS4 was determined in endobronchial biopsies from healthy subjects and those from subjects with mild, moderate and severe asthma. Cell proliferation assays, agonist-induced calcium mobilization and bronchoconstriction were determined in cultured human ASM cells and in human precision cut lung slices. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches, the precise role of RGS proteins was determined in stimulating human ASM proliferation and inhibiting bronchoconstriction. RGS4 expression was restricted to a subpopulation of ASM and was specifically upregulated by mitogens, which induced a hyperproliferative and hypocontractile ASM phenotype similar to that observed in recalcitrant asthma. RGS4 expression was markedly increased in bronchial smooth muscle of patients with severe asthma, and expression correlated significantly with reduced pulmonary function. Whereas RGS4 inhibited G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR-mediated bronchoconstriction, unexpectedly RGS4 was required for PDGF-induced proliferation and sustained activation of PI3K, a mitogenic signaling molecule that regulates ASM proliferation. These studies indicate that increased RGS4 expression promotes a phenotypic switch of ASM, evoking irreversible airway obstruction in subjects with severe asthma.

  10. Staurosporine and extracellular matrix proteins mediate the conversion of small cell lung carcinoma cells into a neuron-like phenotype.

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    Tamara Murmann

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs represent highly aggressive tumors with an overall five-year survival rate in the range of 5 to 10%. Here, we show that four out of five SCLC cell lines reversibly develop a neuron-like phenotype on extracellular matrix constituents such as fibronectin, laminin or thrombospondin upon staurosporine treatment in an RGD/integrin-mediated manner. Neurite-like processes extend rapidly with an average speed of 10 µm per hour. Depending on the cell line, staurosporine treatment affects either cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase or induction of polyploidy. Neuron-like conversion, although not accompanied by alterations in the expression pattern of a panel of neuroendocrine genes, leads to changes in protein expression as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. It is likely that SCLC cells already harbour the complete molecular repertoire to convert into a neuron-like phenotype. More extensive studies are needed to evaluate whether the conversion potential of SCLC cells is suitable for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Lnk Deficiency Leads to TPO-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis and Increased Bone Mass Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos, David J; Alvarez, Marta; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, Richard Adam; Ciovacco, Wendy A; Bethel, Monique; McGough, Haley; Yim, Christopher; Chitteti, Brahmananda R; Eleniste, Pierre P; Horowitz, Mark C; Srour, Edward F; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Fuchs, Robyn K; Kacena, Melissa A

    2017-08-01

    The Lnk adapter protein negatively regulates the signaling of thrombopoietin (TPO), the main megakaryocyte (MK) growth factor. Lnk-deficient (-/-) mice have increased TPO signaling and increased MK number. Interestingly, several mouse models exist in which increased MK number leads to a high bone mass phenotype. Here we report the bone phenotype of these mice. MicroCT and static histomorphometric analyses at 20 weeks showed the distal femur of Lnk -/- mice to have significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular number compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Notably, despite a significant increase in the number of osteoclasts (OC), and decreased bone formation rate in Lnk -/- mice compared to WT mice, Lnk -/- mice demonstrated a 2.5-fold greater BV/TV suggesting impaired OC function in vivo. Additionally, Lnk -/- mouse femurs exhibited non-significant increases in mid-shaft cross-sectional area, yet increased periosteal BFR compared to WT femurs was observed. Lnk -/- femurs also had non-significant increases in polar moment of inertia and decreased cortical bone area and thickness, resulting in reduced bone stiffness, modulus, and strength compared to WT femurs. Of note, Lnk is expressed by OC lineage cells and when Lnk -/- OC progenitors are cultured in the presence of TPO, significantly more OC are observed than in WT cultures. Lnk is also expressed in osteoblast (OB) cells and in vitro reduced alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in Lnk -/- cultures. These data suggest that both direct effects on OB and OC as well as indirect effects of MK in regulating OB contributes to the observed high bone mass. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2231-2240, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of the behavioural phenotype, physical factors, and parenting stress in people with Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffaert, J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, I.; Kroonenberg, P.; Scholte, E.; Bhuiyan, Z.; Hennekam, R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies into the phenotype of rare genetic syndromes largely rely on bivariate analysis. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) in depth by examining a large number of variables with varying measurement levels. Virtually the only suitable

  13. Simultaneous Analysis of the Behavioural Phenotype, Physical Factors, and Parenting Stress in People with Cornelia De Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, I.; Kroonenberg, P.; Scholte, E.; Bhuiyan, Z.; Hennekam, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies into the phenotype of rare genetic syndromes largely rely on bivariate analysis. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) in depth by examining a large number of variables with varying measurement levels. Virtually the only suitable multivariate technique for this is categorical…

  14. HvCKX2 gene silencing by biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in barley leads to different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Wojciech; Orczyk, Wacław; Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-11-07

    CKX genes encode cytokinin dehydrogenase enzymes (CKX), which metabolize cytokinins in plants and influence developmental processes. The genes are expressed in different tissues and organs during development; however, their exact role in barley is poorly understood. It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of HvCKX1 decreased the CKX level, especially in those organs which showed the highest expression, i.e. developing kernels and roots, leading to higher plant productivity and higher mass of the roots [1]. The same type of RNAi construct was applied to silence HvCKX2 and analyze the function of the gene. Two cultivars of barley were transformed with the same silencing and selection cassettes by two different methods: biolistic and via Agrobacterium. The mean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of Golden Promise was 3.47% (±2.82). The transcript level of HvCKX2 in segregating progeny of T(1) lines was decreased to 34%. The reduction of the transcript in Agrobacterium-derived plants resulted in decreased CKX activity in the developing and developed leaves as well as in 7 DAP (days after pollination) spikes. The final phenotypic effect was increased productivity of T(0) plants and T(1) lines. Higher productivity was the result of the higher number of seeds and higher grain yield. It was also correlated with the higher 1000 grain weight, increased (by 7.5%) height of the plants and higher (from 0.5 to 2) numbers of spikes. The transformation efficiency of Golden Promise after biolistic transformation was more than twice as low compared to Agrobacterium. The transcript level in segregating progeny of T(1) lines was decreased to 24%. Otherwise, the enzyme activity found in the leaves of the lines after biolistic transformation, especially in cv. Golden Promise, was very high, exceeding the relative level of the control lines. These unbalanced ratios of the transcript level and the activity of the CKX enzyme negatively

  15. Human Cerberus prevents nodal-receptor binding, inhibits nodal signaling, and suppresses nodal-mediated phenotypes.

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    Senem Aykul

    Full Text Available The Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGFß family ligand Nodal is an essential embryonic morphogen that is associated with progression of breast and other cancers. It has therefore been suggested that Nodal inhibitors could be used to treat breast cancers where Nodal plays a defined role. As secreted antagonists, such as Cerberus, tightly regulate Nodal signaling during embryonic development, we undertook to produce human Cerberus, characterize its biochemical activities, and determine its effect on human breast cancer cells. Using quantitative methods, we investigated the mechanism of Nodal signaling, we evaluated binding of human Cerberus to Nodal and other TGFß family ligands, and we characterized the mechanism of Nodal inhibition by Cerberus. Using cancer cell assays, we examined the ability of Cerberus to suppress aggressive breast cancer cell phenotypes. We found that human Cerberus binds Nodal with high affinity and specificity, blocks binding of Nodal to its signaling partners, and inhibits Nodal signaling. Moreover, we showed that Cerberus profoundly suppresses migration, invasion, and colony forming ability of Nodal expressing and Nodal supplemented breast cancer cells. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into Nodal signaling and Nodal inhibition with Cerberus and highlight the potential value of Cerberus as anti-Nodal therapeutic.

  16. Identification of circadian brain photoreceptors mediating photic entrainment of behavioural rhythms in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Massimo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Ori, Michela; Innocenti, Augusto; Magnone, Maria C; De Grip, Willem J; Nardi, Irma; Foà, Augusto

    2003-07-01

    We have shown previously that in ruin lizards (Podarcis sicula) the ablation of all known photoreceptive structures (lateral eyes, pineal and parietal eye) in the same individual animal does not prevent entrainment of their circadian locomotor rhythms to light. The present study was aimed at identifying the circadian brain photoreceptors mediating entrainment. For this purpose, we looked for opsin expression in the brain by means of immunocytochemistry. Using anti-cone-opsin antiserum CERN 874 we have localized photoreceptors in the periventricular area of hypothalamus, near the third cerebral ventricle. We also cloned a brain opsin cDNA that, on the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence, appears to belong to the RH2 class of cone-opsins. We named the cloned cone-opsin Ps-RH2. To examine whether brain cone-opsins mediate photic entrainment of circadian locomotor rhythms, we performed post-transcriptional inactivation experiments by injecting an expression eukaryotic vector transcribing the antisense cone-opsin Ps-RH2 mRNA in the third cerebral ventricle of pinealectomized-retinectomized lizards previously entrained to a light-dark (LD) cycle. Injections of the antisense construct abolished photic entrainment of circadian locomotor rhythms of pinealectomized-retinectomized lizards to the LD cycle for 6-9 days. CERN 874 completely failed to label cells within the periventricular area of hypothalamus of brains injected with antisense construct. Thus, abolishment of photic entrainment is due to inactivation of endogenous brain cone-opsins mRNA. The present results demonstrate for the first time in a vertebrate that brain cone-opsins are part of a true circadian brain photoreceptor participating in photic entrainment of behavioural rhythms.

  17. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  18. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

  19. The Influence of Economic Literacyon Consumption Behaviour Mediated by Local Cultural Values and Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldila Septiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of economics literacy on the students’ consumption behavior through local cultural values and promotions. The mediation used is based on the theories, the empirical studies and the previous studies.Quantitative approach was used in this study. The population was the Pamekasan Senior High Schools students (Class XI IPS, academic year 2012/2013. Proportional random sampling was conducted to take the samples in the population. The data was collected by using the questionnaire and test. Path analysis was used to analyze the data.The findings showe that the economic literacy level influences directly and significantly on the local cultural values, while affected negatively significant on the promotion. Also the economic literacy level influences directly and negatively significant on the consumption behavior. Contrary, the local cultural values influence directly, positively and significantly on the consumption behavior similar to the promotion. Moreover, the economic literacy level influences indirectly and significantly on the consumption behavior through the local cultural values. Similar to the local cultural values, the promotion aspect had the same influence direction. Therefore, this research provided evidence that the economic literacy affected consumption behaviour which are moderated through the value of local culture and promotion aspects

  20. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  1. Interpersonal Engagement Mediates the Relation between Maternal Affect and Externalising Behaviour in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children’s capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  2. Activation of amylin receptors attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviours in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafateli, Aimilia Lydia; Vallöf, Daniel; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2018-02-06

    Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol. Therefore, the present experiments were designed to investigate the effect of salmon calcitonin (sCT), an amylin receptor agonist and analogue of endogenous amylin, on various alcohol-related behaviours in rodents. We showed that acute sCT administration attenuated the established effects of alcohol on the mesolimbic dopamine system, particularly alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation and accumbal dopamine release. Using the conditioned place preference model, we demonstrated that repeated sCT administration prevented the expression of alcohol's rewarding properties and that acute sCT administration blocked the reward-dependent memory consolidation. In addition, sCT pre-treatment attenuated alcohol intake in low alcohol-consuming rats, with a more evident decrease in high alcohol consumers in the intermittent alcohol access model. Lastly, sCT did not alter peanut butter intake, blood alcohol concentration and plasma corticosterone levels in mice. Taken together, the present data support that amylin signalling is involved in the expression of alcohol reinforcement and that amylin receptor agonists could be considered for the treatment of alcohol use disorder in humans. © 2018 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  4. Post-intervention effects on screen behaviours and mediating effect of parental regulation: the HEalth In Adolescents study - a multi-component school-based randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, I.H.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bjelland, M.; Grydeland, M.; Lien, N.; Klepp, K.I.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ommundsen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To improve effectiveness of future screen behaviour interventions, one needs to know whether an intervention works via the proposed mediating mechanisms and whether the intervention is equally effective among subgroups. Parental regulation is identified as a consistent correlate of

  5. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity: A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers’ responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  6. The role of pain behaviour and family caregiver responses in the link between pain catastrophising and pain intensity : A moderated mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the mediating role of pain behaviours in the association between pain catastrophising and pain intensity and explored the moderating role of family caregivers' responses to pain in the link between pain behaviours and pain intensity. Methods: The sample consisted

  7. Unravelling the Influence of Cognitive Style on Chinese Students' Classroom Behaviours: The Mediating Effects of the Structure-Oriented/Depth-Oriented Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-Yu; Guan, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate how cognitive style affects Chinese students' learning behaviours in the classroom. A concept labelled as the structure-oriented vs. depth-oriented learning approach was constructed, and its mediating effects in the link between cognitive style and learning behaviour were proposed and examined in this study.…

  8. Social support as a mediator between problem behaviour and gambling: a cross-sectional study among 14-16-year-old Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tiina; Lintonen, Tomi; Tolvanen, Asko; Konu, Anne

    2016-12-22

    During the adolescent period, risk-taking behaviour increases. These behaviours can compromise the successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine social support as a mediator of the relation between problem behaviour and gambling frequency among Finnish adolescents. Data were obtained from the national School Health Promotion Study (SHPS) from the years 2010 and 2011 (N=102 545). Adolescents were classified in the most homogeneous groups based on their problem behaviour via latent class analysis. Path analysis indicated that social support was negatively associated with problem behaviour, and problem behaviour and social support were negatively related (except for social support from friends among boys) to gambling. Social support from parents and school mediated, albeit weakly, the relations between problem behaviour and gambling among girls and boys. Problem behaviour may affect gambling through social support from school and parents. Thus prevention and intervention strategies should focus on strengthening adolescents' social support. In addition, because of the clustering of different problem behaviours instead of concentrating on a single form of problem behaviour multiple-behaviour interventions may have a much greater impact on public health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Dissection of the complex phenotype in cuticular mutants of Arabidopsis reveals a role of SERRATE as a mediator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derry Voisin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in LACERATA (LCR, FIDDLEHEAD (FDH, and BODYGUARD (BDG cause a complex developmental syndrome that is consistent with an important role for these Arabidopsis genes in cuticle biogenesis. The genesis of their pleiotropic phenotypes is, however, poorly understood. We provide evidence that neither distorted depositions of cutin, nor deficiencies in the chemical composition of cuticular lipids, account for these features, instead suggesting that the mutants alleviate the functional disorder of the cuticle by reinforcing their defenses. To better understand how plants adapt to these mutations, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. We found that apparent compensatory transcriptional responses in these mutants involve the induction of wax, cutin, cell wall, and defense genes. To gain greater insight into the mechanism by which cuticular mutations trigger this response in the plants, we performed an overlap meta-analysis, which is termed MASTA (MicroArray overlap Search Tool and Analysis, of differentially expressed genes. This suggested that different cell integrity pathways are recruited in cesA cellulose synthase and cuticular mutants. Using MASTA for an in silico suppressor/enhancer screen, we identified SERRATE (SE, which encodes a protein of RNA-processing multi-protein complexes, as a likely enhancer. In confirmation of this notion, the se lcr and se bdg double mutants eradicate severe leaf deformations as well as the organ fusions that are typical of lcr and bdg and other cuticular mutants. Also, lcr does not confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in a se mutant background. We propose that there is a role for SERRATE-mediated RNA signaling in the cuticle integrity pathway.

  10. Shh mediates PDGF-induced contractile-to-synthetic phenotypic modulation in vascular smooth muscle cells through regulation of KLF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiu [Department of Vascular Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wei, Bin [Department of Dermatology, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhao, Yu; Wang, Xuehu; Fu, Qining; Liu, Hong [Department of Vascular Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Fenghe, E-mail: lfh_cmu@126.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to induce phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from contractile to a pathological synthetic state, which played an essential role in proliferation of VSMCs. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) contributes to the proliferation of VSMCs when induced by PDGF. Here, we investigated the probable role of Shh in PDGF-induced VSMC dedifferentiation and its underlying mechanisms. We found that PDGF stimulated Shh expression in VSMCs, which was mediated by activation of PDGFRβ/ERK1/2 cell signaling pathway. Further, we found PDGF-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation was accompanied by up-regulation of Shh/Gli family zinc finger 2 (Gli2) signaling and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). When inhibited Shh in the presence of PDGF, the expressions of KLF4 and VSMC dedifferentiation markers were down-regulated and the effect of PDGF in inducing VSMC dedifferentiation was blocked. In the absence of PDGF, Shh signaling activation increased the expression of KLF4 and promoted VSMC dedifferentiation. The results indicate Shh participated in the regulation of PDGF-induced VSMC dedifferentiation. Finally, we found that KLF4 was closely involved in this process. On inhibition of KLF4, PDGF induced VSMC dedifferentiation was abrogated, even in the presence of Shh. Taken together, the results provide critical insights into the newly discovered role of Shh in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs which depends on KLF4. - Highlights: • Shh as a downstream effector of PDGF participates in PDGF-induced VSMC phenotypic modulation. • Shh can promote VSMC phenotypic switching from contractile to synthetic state. • Shh mediates VSMC phenotypic modulation through regulation of KLF4.

  11. Metabolic and Behavioural Phenotypes in Nestin-Cre Mice Are Caused by Hypothalamic Expression of Human Growth Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Declercq

    Full Text Available The Nestin-Cre driver mouse line has mild hypopituitarism, reduced body weight, a metabolic phenotype and reduced anxiety. Although several causes have been suggested, a comprehensive explanation is still lacking. In this study we examined the molecular mechanisms leading to this compound phenotype. Upon generation of the Nestin-Cre mice, the human growth hormone (hGH minigene was inserted downstream of the Cre recombinase to ensure efficient transgene expression. As a result, hGH is expressed in the hypothalamus. This results in the auto/paracrine activation of the GH receptor as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5 and reduced expression of growth hormone releasing hormone (Ghrh. Low Ghrh levels cause hypopituitarism consistent with the observed mouse growth hormone (mGH deficiency. mGH deficiency caused reduced activation of the GH receptor and hence reduced phosphorylation of STAT5 in the liver. This led to decreased levels of hepatic Igf-1 mRNA and consequently postnatal growth retardation. Furthermore, genes involved in lipid uptake and synthesis, such as CD36 and very low-density lipoprotein receptor were upregulated, resulting in liver steatosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the unexpected expression of hGH in the hypothalamus of Nestin-Cre mice which is able to activate both the GH receptor and the prolactin receptor. Increased hypothalamic GH receptor signaling explains the observed hypopituitarism, reduced growth and metabolic phenotype of Nestin-Cre mice. Activation of either receptor is consistent with reduced anxiety.

  12. Silibinin prevents prostate cancer cell-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype by targeting TGF β2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Harold J; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Romero, Lina M; Cramer, Scott D; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Tumor microenvironment (TM) is an essential element in prostate cancer (PCA), offering unique opportunities for its prevention. TM includes naïve fibroblasts that are recruited by nascent neoplastic lesion and altered into 'cancer-associated fibroblasts' (CAFs) that promote PCA. A better understanding and targeting of interaction between PCA cells and fibroblasts and inhibiting CAF phenotype through non-toxic agents are novel approaches to prevent PCA progression. One well-studied cancer chemopreventive agent is silibinin, and thus, we examined its efficacy against PCA cells-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into a myofibroblastic-phenotype similar to that found in CAFs. Silibinin's direct inhibitory effect on the phenotype of CAFs derived directly from PCA patients was also assessed. Human prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) exposed to control conditioned media (CCM) from human PCA PC3 cells showed more invasiveness, with increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression, and differentiation into a phenotype we identified in CAFs. Importantly, silibinin (at physiologically achievable concentrations) inhibited α-SMA expression and invasiveness in differentiated fibroblasts and prostate CAFs directly, as well as indirectly by targeting PCA cells. The observed increase in α-SMA and CAF-like phenotype was transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 dependent, which was strongly inhibited by silibinin. Furthermore, induction of α-SMA and CAF phenotype by CCM were also strongly inhibited by a TGFβ2-neutralizing antibody. The inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGFβ2 expression and CAF-like biomarkers was also observed in PC3 tumors. Together, these findings highlight the potential usefulness of silibinin in PCA prevention through targeting the CAF phenotype in the prostate TM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sleep mediates the link between resiliency and behavioural problems in children at high and low risk for alcoholism.

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    Hairston, Ilana S; Conroy, Deirdre A; Heitzeg, Mary M; Akbar, Nasreen Z; Brower, Kirk J; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk for developing substance use problems. Having a parent with any mental illness increases the risk for sleep disorders in children. Using actigraphy, this study characterized sleep in children of alcoholics and community controls over a period of 1 week. This study further examined whether sleep characteristics of the children mediated the relationship between self-regulation indices (i.e. undercontrol and resiliency) and outcome measures of function (e.g. problem behaviours and perceived conflict at home). Eighty-two children (53 boys, 29 girls, 7.2-13.0 years old) were recruited from the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study. Seventeen participants had no parental history of alcohol abuse or dependence family history negative (FH-), 43 had at least one parent who was a recovered alcoholic, and 22 had at least one parent who met diagnostic criteria within the past 3 years. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 1 week, and combined with secondary analysis of data collected for the longitudinal study. FH- children had more objectively measured total sleep time. More total sleep time was associated with greater resiliency and behavioural control, fewer teacher-reported behavioural problems, and less child-reported conflict at home. Further, total sleep time partially mediated the relationship between resiliency and perceived conflict, and between resiliency and externalizing problems. These findings suggest that in high-risk homes, the opportunity to obtain sufficient sleep is reduced, and that insufficient sleep further exacerbates the effects of impaired dispositional self-regulatory capacity on behavioural and emotional regulation. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviour among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: Mediating effects of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia

    2017-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in urban areas of Beijing, China, we examined the mediating effects of social support (i.e. teacher support and classmate support) in the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and antisocial behaviour (ASB) among Chinese migrant adolescents. Participants were 897 adolescents (459 boys and 438 girls, mean age = 13.34 years) from four migrant schools (68.8%) and four public schools (31.2%). Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning PD, ASB, teacher support and classmate support. Results indicated that Chinese migrant adolescents who perceived more discrimination were more likely to engage in ASB. Teacher support partially mediated the relationship between PD and ASB. Gender moderated this mediational relationship, such that teacher support exerted a mediating role among girls, but not boys. The findings suggest that reductions in teacher support may partially account for the effect of PD on ASB among Chinese migrant adolescents girls. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. The Work-Family Interface as a Mediator between Job Demands and Employee Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jade S; Heneghan, Camille J; Bailey, Sarah F; Barber, Larissa K

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, we draw from the job demands-resource model and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between job demands, the work-family interface and worker behaviours. Data collected from an online survey of workers revealed that hindrance demands indirectly increase interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family and family interference with work. Challenge demands indirectly predict interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family. Finally, hindrance demands indirectly decreased individual-directed organizational citizenship behaviours through work-to-family enrichment. Taken together, these results stress the relevance of job demand management and resource drain/acquisition to counterproductive and extra-role behaviours. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated mutagenesis and phenotype rescue by piggyBac transgenesis in a nonmodel Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, R; Murakami, H; Ote, M; Yamamoto, D

    2016-08-01

    How behavioural diversity emerged in evolution is an unexplored subject in biology. To tackle this problem, genes and circuits for a behaviour need to be determined in different species for phylogenetic comparisons. The recently developed clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system made such a challenge possible by providing the means to induce mutations in a gene of interest in any organism. Aiming at elucidating diversification in genetic and neural networks for courtship behaviour, we attempted to generate a genetic tool kit in Drosophila subobscura, a nonmodel species distantly related to the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report the generation of yellow (y) and white mutations with the aid of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and the rescue of the y mutant phenotype by germline transformation of the newly established y mutant fly line with a y(+) -marked piggyBac vector. This successful mutagenesis and transformation in D. subobscura open up an avenue for comprehensive genetic analyses of higher functions in this and other nonmodel Drosophila species, representing a key step toward systematic comparisons of genes and circuitries underlying behaviour amongst species. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Does self-efficacy mediate the relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and healthcare workers' sleep quality? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to investigate the longitudinal relationship between transformational leadership behaviours and employees' sleep quality, and the mediating effects of self-efficacy. Although there is evidence for the influential role of transformational leadership on health outcomes, researchers have used either attitude outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction) or softer health measures, such as general well-being. Specific measures of well-being such as sleep quality have not been used, despite its association with working conditions. A longitudinal design was used to collect data from Danish healthcare workers at time 1 in 2005 (n = 447) and 18 months later at time 2 in 2007 (n = 274). Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relationships between transformational leadership, self-efficacy and sleep quality at both time points independently (cross-sectionally) and longitudinally. For all constructs, time 2 measures were influenced by the baseline level. Direct relationships between transformational leadership and sleep quality were found. This relationship was negative cross-sectionally at both time points, but positive between baseline and follow-up. The relationship between leadership and employees' sleep quality was not mediated by employees' self-efficacy. Our results indicate that training managers in transformational leadership behaviours may have a positive impact on healthcare workers' health over time. However, more research is needed to examine the mechanisms by which transformational leadership brings about improved sleep quality; self-efficacy was not found to be the explanation.

  18. Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.

  19. Smad mediated regulation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and its role in phenotypic maintenance of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

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    Mangalakumar Veerasamy

    Full Text Available The basic-Helix-Loop-Helix family (bHLH of transcriptional factors plays a major role in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and phenotype maintenance. The downregulation of one of the members of bHLH family protein, inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2 has been shown to induce de-differentiation of epithelial cells. Opposing regulators of epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC, TGFβ1 and BMP7 also have counter-regulatory effects in models of renal fibrosis. We investigated the regulation of Id2 by these growth factors in human PTECs and its implication in the expression of markers of epithelial versus myofibroblastic phenotype. Cellular Id2 levels were reduced by TGFβ1 treatment; this was prevented by co-incubation with BMP7. BMP7 alone increased cellular levels of Id2. TGFβ1 and BMP7 regulated Id2 through Smad2/3 and Smad1/5 dependent mechanisms respectively. TGFβ1 mediated Id2 suppression was essential for α-SMA induction in PTECs. Although Id2 over-expression prevented α-SMA induction, it did not prevent E-cadherin loss under the influence of TGFβ1. This suggests that the loss of gate keeper function of E-cadherin alone may not necessarily result in complete EMT and further transcriptional re-programming is essential to attain mesenchymal phenotype. Although BMP7 abolished TGFβ1 mediated α-SMA expression by restoring Id2 levels, the loss of Id2 was not sufficient to induce α-SMA expression even in the context of reduced E-cadherin expression. Hence, a reduction in Id2 is critical for TGFβ1-induced α-SMA expression in this model of human PTECs but is not sufficient in it self to induce α-SMA even in the context of reduced E-cadherin.

  20. Immediate Supervisors’ Leadership Behaviour and Employees’ Organizational Commitment: Do Pay and Promotion Mediate the Nexus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Yaw Ampofo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mediating effect of motivational factors of pay and promotion on transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship in Unilever Ghana using a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional and analytical survey design study. The results of the study revealed significant positive relationship between transformational leadership style and affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. However, the results of the study revealed no significant mediation of pay in the relationship between transformational leadership style and affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Additionally, no significant mediation of promotion was found in the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment, transformational leadership and continuance commitment, and transformational leadership and normative commitment. Managers’ adoption of transformational leadership behavior as a key strategy to get employees committed to the organizations will be of great significance because motivational factors such as pay and promotion do not mediate the transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship. This is a maiden empirical research in Ghana where motivational factors are used as mediators in transformational leadership and organizational commitment relationship.

  1. Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Treatment Outcome Following Manualised Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Brennan, Leah

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review synthesised the literature on predictors, moderators, and mediators of outcome following Fairburn's CBT for eating disorders. Sixty-five articles were included. The relationship between individual variables and outcome was synthesised separately across diagnoses and treatment format. Early change was found to be a consistent mediator of better outcomes across all eating disorders. Moderators were mostly tested in binge eating disorder, and most moderators did not affect cognitive-behavioural treatment outcome relative to other treatments. No consistent predictors emerged. Findings suggest that it is unclear how and for whom this treatment works. More research testing mediators and moderators is needed, and variables selected for analyses need to be empirically and theoretically driven. Future recommendations include the need for authors to (i) interpret the clinical and statistical significance of findings; (ii) use a consistent definition of outcome so that studies can be directly compared; and (iii) report null and statistically significant findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  3. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  4. Combined effects of aging and inflammation on renin-angiotensin system mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and phenotypic changes in cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Tyesha N; Marx, Ruth; Powell, Laura; Rucker, Jasma; Bedja, Djahida; Heacock, Elisa; Smith, Barbara J; Foster, D Brian; Kass, David; O'Rourke, Brian; Walston, Jeremy D; Abadir, Peter M

    2015-05-20

    Although the effects of aging and inflammation on the health of the cardiac muscle are well documented, the combined effects of aging and chronic inflammation on cardiac muscle are largely unknown. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked independently to both aging and inflammation, but is understudied in the context of their collective effect. Thus, we investigated localized cardiac angiotensin II type I and type II receptors (AT(1)R, AT(2)R), downstream effectors, and phenotypic outcomes using mouse models of the combination of aging and inflammation and compared it to a model of aging and a model of inflammation. We show molecular distinction in the combined effect of aging and inflammation as compared to each independently. The combination maintained an increased AT(1)R:AT(2)R and expression of Nox2 and exhibited the lowest activity of antioxidants. Despite signaling pathway differences, the combined effect shared phenotypic similarities with aging including oxidative damage, fibrosis, and hypertrophy. These phenotypic similarities have dubbed inflammatory conditions as premature aging, but they are, in fact, molecularly distinct. Moreover, treatment with an AT(1)R blocker, losartan, selectively reversed the signaling changes and ameliorated adverse phenotypic effects in the combination of aging and inflammation as well as each independently.

  5. Changes in illness-related cognitions rather than distress mediate improvements in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and disability following a brief cognitive behavioural therapy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2013-10-01

    A previous randomised controlled trial demonstrated that a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) self-management intervention significantly improved irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and disability compared to treatment as usual (TAU). The current study analysed additional data to establish whether; 1) cognitive, behavioural and emotional factors hypothesized to perpetuate IBS symptoms and disability changed following CBT and, 2) ascertain if changes in these factors over the intervention period mediated treatment effects 6-months later. IBS patients (CBT = 31, TAU = 33) completed measures pre-and-post intervention including: Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale and Cognitive and Behavioural Responses to Symptoms Questionnaire. Path models were evaluated to determine whether changes in cognitive and behavioural factors over the treatment period mediated treatment effects. Compared to TAU, CBT patients showed significant positive changes on several cognitive variables but not anxiety and depression following intervention. Positive change in illness perceptions following intervention mediated the treatment effect on improved IBS symptom severity and social adjustment six months later. Changes in damaging beliefs mediated the effect on social adjustment. Change in cognition rather than mood mediated treatment related improvements. Changing negative perceptions of IBS appears to be a particularly important treatment mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures—A tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, T.; Lauren, J.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Airaksinen, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light–dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. PMID:23089646

  7. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures--a tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voikar, V; Kulesskaya, N; Laakso, T; Lauren, J; Strittmatter, S M; Airaksinen, M S

    2013-02-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light-dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of medi...

  9. The mediating role of cultural coping behaviours on the relationships between academic stress and positive psychosocial well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H; Soucie, Kendall M; Huang, Siqi; Laith, Refa

    2017-03-10

    While culture's effect on the coping process has long been acknowledged in the stress-coping literature conceptually, empirical evidence and attempts to discern the specific relationship between culture and coping remain very scarce. Against this backdrop, the present study applied the Cultural Transactional Theory (Chun, Moos, & Cronkite, 2006) to examine the mediating role of cultural coping behaviours (Collective, Engagement and Avoidance Coping) on the relationship between academic stress (AS) and two positive psychosocial well-being outcome measures: Collective Self-esteem (CSE) and Subjective Well-being (SWB). Responses from a sample of undergraduate students in Canada (N = 328) were analysed to test a theory-driven, hypothesised model of coping using structural equation modelling (SEM). As hypothesised, the SEM results showed that: (a) the proposed cultural coping model fit the data well; (b) Engagement Coping and Collective Coping partially mediated the association between AS and the outcomes and (c) the path relationships among the constructs were in the hypothesised directions. A set of preliminary exploratory analyses indicated that Collective Coping was most strongly endorsed by the African/Black and the Middle Eastern cultural groups as compared to other ethnic groups. Implications of the study's findings for future research and practice concerning culture, stress, and coping are discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. [Pain and depression: cognitive and behavioural mediators of a frequent association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F; Koleck, M

    2011-06-01

    The comorbidity between chronic pain and depression is high: in the general population setting, the odds ratio for suffering from one of these disorders when suffering from the other is estimated around 2.5. For chronic pain patients consulting in pain clinics, the comorbidity rate reaches one third to half of the patients. For the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), pain consists in an emotional as well as a sensory dimension, both of them have to be assessed systematically. Likewise, affective disorders must be systematically depicted in chronic pain patients. The reasons for such comorbidity are complex and result from the conjunction of common risk factors (environmental and genetic vulnerability factors) and of a bidirectional causality. THE TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF STRESS AND COPING OF LAZARUS ET FOLKMAN: The appraisal stress model (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) offers an opportunity to understand how chronic pain can cause depression. Pain is conceptualized as a chronic stress. Its appraisal in terms of loss, injustice, incomprehensibility or changes (primary appraisal), and in terms of control (secondary evaluation) determine how the subject will cope with pain. Several personality traits as optimism, hardiness or internal locus of control play a protective role on these evaluations, whereas others (neuroticism, negative affectivity or external locus of control) are risk factors for depression. Low perceived social support is also related to depression. On the contrary, self-efficiency is linked with low levels of depression. Self-management therapies focus on increase of perceived control of pain by the patient in order to improve his/her motivation to change, and to let the patient become active in the management of his/her pain. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), coping strategies are the constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing on or

  11. Is the association between socioeconomic status and nonreplaced extracted teeth mediated by dental care behaviours in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zahra; Peres, Karen G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and number of nonreplaced extracted teeth (NRET) is mediated by dental care behaviours (DCBs) in adults. A random sample of adults, who participated in the 2010 dental telephone survey (n = 1100) in Tehran, Iran, was investigated. The outcome was self-reported NRET due to dental caries or periodontal diseases. The main exposures were wealth index and education; and the potential mediators were the frequency of tooth brushing and flossing, and dental visiting in the previous year of the study. Multivariable regression analysis was applied to test mediation using the count ratios (CR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The response rate was 73%. The mean age was 38.99 (SD=13.83), and 50.8% were female. The mean NRET were 1.28 (95% CI 1.14; 1.41). NRET were greater among participants who had less than 12 years of schooling [CR = 4.26 (95% CI 3.52; 5.52)] and those in the poorest quintile [CR = 1.89 (95% CI 1.36; 2.61)] compared with those in the most educated and wealthiest groups, respectively. People who brushed their teeth less than twice a day [CR = 1.38 (95% CI 1.17; 1.62)] and did not use dental floss daily [CR = 1.47 (95% CI 1.24; 1.75)] were more likely to present NRET. After controlling for DCBs, a slight decrease in the CRs was observed for both the poorest (13.3%) and the less than 12 years of schooling (7.6%) groups compared to the reference groups. Although DCBs were associated with both SES and NRET, they could only be partially accountable for the observed socioeconomic inequalities in NRET. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Increased skills usage statistically mediates symptom reduction in self-guided internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Gandy, Milena; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Titov, Nickolai

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for clinical and subclinical symptoms of depression and general anxiety, and increases life satisfaction. Patients' usage of CBT skills is a core aspect of treatment but there is insufficient empirical evidence suggesting that skills usage behaviours are a mechanism of clinical change. This study investigated if an internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) intervention increased the frequency of CBT skills usage behaviours and if this statistically mediated reductions in symptoms and increased life satisfaction. A two-group randomised controlled trial was conducted comparing internet-delivered CBT (n = 65) with a waitlist control group (n = 75). Participants were individuals experiencing clinically significant symptoms of depression or general anxiety. Mixed-linear models analyses revealed that the treatment group reported a significantly higher frequency of skills usage, lower symptoms, and higher life satisfaction by the end of treatment compared with the control group. Results from bootstrapping mediation analyses revealed that the increased skills usage behaviours statistically mediated symptom reductions and increased life satisfaction. Although skills usage and symptom outcomes were assessed concurrently, these findings support the notion that iCBT increases the frequency of skills usage behaviours and suggest that this may be an important mechanism of change.

  13. Mediating Effects of Coping, Personal Belief, and Social Support on the Relationship among Stress, Depression, and Smoking Behaviour in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…

  14. The Relationships among Interparental Conflict, Peer, Media Effects and the Violence Behaviour of Adolescents: The Mediator Role of Attitudes towards Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songül Sonay

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate interparental conflict, peer and media effects and its direct relationship with the violence behaviour of adolescents and the mediator role of attitudes towards violence. 2120 students, 964 girls and 1156 boys chosen from 7th and 8th grades of one private and eleven public elementary schools in Adana have…

  15. The Mediating Roles of Internal Context Variables in the Relationship between Distributed Leadership Perceptions and Continuous Change Behaviours of Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, Yasar; Zayim, Merve; Beycioglu, Kadir; Sincar, Mehmet; Ugurlu, Celal T

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at building a theoretical base for continuous change in education and using this base to test the mediating roles of two key contextual variables, knowledge sharing and trust, in the relationship between the distributed leadership perceptions and continuous change behaviours of teachers. Data were collected from 687 public school…

  16. RAC1 GTP-ase signals Wnt-beta-catenin pathway mediated integrin-directed metastasis-associated tumor cell phenotypes in triple negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer H; Jepperson, Tyler; Willis, Scooter; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2017-01-10

    The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015). High expression of RAC1 was associated with poor outcome for RFS with HR=1.48 [CI: 1.15-1.9] p=0.0019 in the Hungarian ER-veBC cohort. Here we examined how WP signals are transduced via RAC1 in the context of ID-MA phenotypes in TNBC. Using pharmacological agents (sulindac sulfide), genetic tools (beta-catenin siRNA), WP modulators (Wnt-C59, XAV939), RAC1 inhibitors (NSC23766, W56) and WP stimulations (LWnt3ACM, Wnt3A recombinant) in a panel of 6-7 TNBC cell lines, we studied fibronectin-directed (1) migration, (2) matrigel invasion, (3) RAC1 and Cdc42 activation, (4) actin dynamics (confocal microscopy) and (5) podia-parameters. An attenuation of WP, which (a) decreased cellular levels of beta-catenin, as well as its nuclear active-form, (b) decreased fibronectin-induced migration, (c) decreased invasion, (d) altered actin dynamics and (e) decreased podia-parameters was successful in blocking fibronectin-mediated RAC1/Cdc42 activity. Both Wnt-antagonists and RAC1 inhibitors blocked fibronectin-induced RAC1 activation and inhibited the fibronectin-induced ID-MA phenotypes following specific WP stimulation by LWnt3ACM as well as Wnt3A recombinant protein. To test a direct involvement of RAC1-activation in WP-mediated ID-MA phenotypes, we stimulated brain-metastasis specific MDA-MB231BR cells with LWnt3ACM. LWnt3ACM-stimulated fibronectin-directed migration was blocked by

  17. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  18. Female behaviour and the interaction of male and female genital traits mediate sperm transfer during mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, C R; Uhrig, E J; Mason, R T; Brennan, P L R

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection and post-copulatory sexual selection, including sexual conflict, contribute to genital diversification. Fundamental first steps in understanding how these processes shape the evolution of specific genital traits are to determine their function experimentally and to understand the interactions between female and male genitalia during copulation. Our experimental manipulations of male and female genitalia in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) reveal that copulation duration and copulatory plug deposition, as well as total and oviductal/vaginal sperm counts, are influenced by the interaction between male and female genital traits and female behaviour during copulation. By mating females with anesthetized cloacae to males with spine-ablated hemipenes using a fully factorial design, we identified significant female-male copulatory trait interactions and found that females prevent sperm from entering their oviducts by contracting their vaginal pouch. Furthermore, these muscular contractions limit copulatory plug size, whereas the basal spine of the male hemipene aids in sperm and plug transfer. Our results are consistent with a role of sexual conflict in mating interactions and highlight the evolutionary importance of female resistance to reproductive outcomes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Dialectic Antidotes to Critics of the Technology Acceptance Model: Conceptual, Methodological, and Replication Treatments for Behavioural Modelling in Technology-Mediated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Marc Lim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM is a prominent and parsimonious conceptual lens that is often applied for behavioural modelling in technology-mediated environments. However, TAM has received a great deal of criticism in recent years. This article aims to address some of the most pertinent issues confronting TAM through a rejoinder that offers dialectic antidotes—in the form of conceptual, methodological, and replication treatments—to support the continued use of TAM to understand the peculiarities of user interactions with technology in technology-mediated environments. In doing so, this article offers a useful response to a common but often inadequately answered question about how TAM can continue to be relevant for behavioural modelling in contemporary technology-mediated environments.

  20. DNMT3A and DNMT3B mediate autocrine hGH repression of plakoglobin gene transcription and consequent phenotypic conversion of mammary carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, F; Rahnama, F; Pawella, L; Mitchell, M D; Gluckman, P D; Lobie, P E

    2008-04-17

    Directed by microarray analyses, we report that autocrine human growth hormone (hGH) increased the mRNA and protein expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNMT3A and DNMT3B in mammary carcinoma cells. Autocrine hGH stimulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B expression was mediated by JAK2 and Src kinases, and treatment of mammary carcinoma cells with the DNMT inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA), abrogated autocrine hGH-stimulated cellular proliferation, apoptosis and anchorage-independent growth. AZA reversed the epitheliomesenchymal transition of mammary carcinoma cells induced by autocrine hGH, to an epithelioid morphology and abrogated cell migration stimulated by autocrine hGH. Autocrine hGH-stimulated hypermethylation of the first exon of the PLAKOGLOBIN gene and AZA abrogated the ability of autocrine hGH to repress plakoglobin gene transcription. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of the individual DNMT molecules did not release autocrine hGH repression of PLAKOGLOBIN promoter activity nor did individual DNMT depletion affect autocrine hGH-stimulated migration. However, concomitant siRNA-mediated depletion of both DNMT3A and DNMT3B abrogated hypermethylation of the PLAKOGLOBIN gene stimulated by autocrine hGH and subsequent repression of plakoglobin gene transcription and increased cell migration. Thus, the autocrine hGH-stimulated increases in DNMT3A and DNMT3B expression mediate repression of plakoglobin gene transcription by direct hypermethylation of its promoter and consequent phenotypic conversion of mammary carcinoma cells. Autocrine hGH, therefore, utilizes DNA methylation as a mechanism to exert its oncogenic effects in mammary carcinoma cells.

  1. UVA-mediated down-regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP coincides with impaired angiogenic phenotype of human dermal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchard, Jean-Hubert; Robinet, Arnaud; Poitevin, Stephane; Bobichon, Helene; Maziere, Jean-Claude; Bellon, Georges; Hornebeck, William

    2006-01-01

    UVA irradiation, dose-dependently (5-20 J/cm 2 ), was shown to impair the morphogenic differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) on Matrigel. Parallely, UVA down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. On the contrary, the production of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 by HMECs increased following UVA treatment. The inhibitory effect of UVA on MMP expression and pseudotubes formation was mediated by UVA-generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). The contribution of MT1-MMP, but not TIMP-1, to the regulation of HMECs' angiogenic phenotype following UVA irradiation was suggested using elastin-derived peptides and TIMP-1 blocking antibody, respectively

  2. Protective phenotypes of club cells and alveolar macrophages are favored as part of endotoxin-mediated prevention of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Luciana N; Leimgruber, Carolina; Uribe Echevarría, Elisa M; Acosta, Patricio L; Brahamian, Jorge M; Polack, Fernando P; Miró, María S; Quintar, Amado A; Sotomayor, Claudia E

    2014-01-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic allergic disease that involves T-helper type 2 (Th2)-inflammation and airway remodeling. Bronchiolar club cells (CC) and alveolar macrophages (AM) are sentinel cells of airway barrier against inhaled injuries, where allergy induces mucous metaplasia of CC and the alternative activation of AM, which compromise host defense mechanisms and amplify Th2-inflammation. As there is evidence that high levels of environmental endotoxin modulates asthma, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the activation of local host defenses by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) previous to allergy development can contribute to preserving CC and AM protective phenotypes. Endotoxin stimulus before allergen exposition reduced hallmarks of allergic inflammation including eosinophil influx, Interleukin-4 and airway hyperreactivity, while the T-helper type 1 related cytokines IL-12 and Interferon-γ were enhanced. This response was accompanied by the preservation of the normal CC phenotype and the anti-allergic proteins Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP) and Surfactant-D, thereby leading to lower levels of CC metaplasia and preventing the increase of the pro-Th2 cytokine Thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In addition, classically activated alveolar macrophages expressing nitric oxide were promoted over the alternatively activated ones that expressed arginase-1. We verified that LPS induced a long-term overexpression of CCSP and the innate immune markers Toll-like receptor 4, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, changes that were preserved in spite of the allergen challenge. These results demonstrate that LPS pre-exposition modifies the local bronchioalveolar microenvironment by inducing natural anti-allergic mechanisms while reducing local factors that drive Th2 type responses, thus modulating allergic inflammation. PMID:25504013

  3. Phenotyping of VIGS-mediated gene silencing in rice using a vector derived from a DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2017-07-01

    Target genes in rice can be optimally silenced if inserted in antisense or hairpin orientation in the RTBV-derived VIGS vector and plants grown at 28 °C and 80% humidity after inoculation. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method used to transiently silence genes in dicot as well as monocot plants. For the important monocot species rice, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)-derived VIGS system (RTBV-VIGS), which uses agroinoculation to initiate silencing, has not been standardized for optimal use. Here, using RTBV-VIGS, three sets of conditions were tested to achieve optimal silencing of the rice marker gene phytoene desaturase (pds). The effect of orientation of the insert in the RTBV-VIGS plasmid (sense, antisense and hairpin) on the silencing of the target gene was then evaluated using rice magnesium chelatase subunit H (chlH). Finally, the rice Xa21 gene, conferring resistance against bacterial leaf blight disease (BLB) was silenced using RTBV-VIGS system. In each case, real-time PCR-based assessment indicated approximately 40-80% fall in the accumulation levels of the transcripts of pds, chlH and Xa21. In the case of pds, the appearance of white streaks in the emerging leaves, and for chlH, chlorophyll levels and F v /F m ratio were assessed as phenotypes for silencing. For Xa21, the resistance levels to BLB were assessed by measuring the lesion length and the percent diseased areas of leaves, following challenge inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae. In each case, the RTBV-MVIGS system gave rise to a discernible phenotype indicating the silencing of the respective target gene using condition III (temperature 28 °C, humidity 80% and 1 mM MES and 20 µM acetosyringone in secondary agrobacterium culture), which revealed the robustness of this gene silencing system for rice.

  4. Chronic Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Nonhuman Primate Renal Allografts: Validation of Human Histological and Molecular Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, B A; Smith, R N; Rosales, I A; Matsunami, M; Afzali, B; Oura, T; Cosimi, A B; Kawai, T; Colvin, R B; Mengel, M

    2017-11-01

    Molecular testing represents a promising adjunct for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Here, we apply a novel gene expression platform in sequential formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from nonhuman primate (NHP) renal transplants. We analyzed 34 previously described gene transcripts related to AMR in humans in 197 archival NHP samples, including 102 from recipients that developed chronic AMR, 80 from recipients without AMR, and 15 normal native nephrectomies. Three endothelial genes (VWF, DARC, and CAV1), derived from 10-fold cross-validation receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, demonstrated excellent discrimination between AMR and non-AMR samples (area under the curve = 0.92). This three-gene set correlated with classic features of AMR, including glomerulitis, capillaritis, glomerulopathy, C4d deposition, and DSAs (r = 0.39-0.63, p < 0.001). Principal component analysis confirmed the association between three-gene set expression and AMR and highlighted the ambiguity of v lesions and ptc lesions between AMR and T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR). Elevated three-gene set expression corresponded with the development of immunopathological evidence of rejection and often preceded it. Many recipients demonstrated mixed AMR and TCMR, suggesting that this represents the natural pattern of rejection. These data provide NHP animal model validation of recent updates to the Banff classification including the assessment of molecular markers for diagnosing AMR. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Marrow grafts between phenotypically DLA-identical and haploidentical unrelated dogs: additional antigens controlling engraftment are not detected by cell-mediated lympholysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, H.J. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA); Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Weiden, P.L.; DeRose, S.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow transplants with low marrow cell doses (less than or equal to4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg) from unrelated donors were carried out in 16 dogs conditioned with 9 Gy (900 rad) of total body irradiation. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. Eleven donor-recipient pairs were phenotypically identical (group 1) for the known antigens of the canine major histocompatibility complex (DLA) and in five the donor was homozygous and the recipient heterozygous for DLA (group 2), as determined by serological histocompatibility typing and mixed leukocyte cultures including homozygous cell typing. In addition, lymphocytes from donors and recipients in group 1 were mutually nonreactive in cell-mediated lympholysis; lymphocytes from recipients in group 2 were not cytotoxic against donor cells. Eight dogs rejected their grafts and eight showed sustained engraftment; of these, four died from graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of rejection was higher than in DLA-identical littermates but lower than in DLA-nonidentical unrelated or littermate dogs. These results indicate that antigens different from the recognized alleles at DLA are involved in the control of engraftment. These antigens most likely represent the expression of unrecognized differences within DLA or are coded for by a locus different from but linked to DLA-A, B, C or D; they are not recognized in the cell-mediated lympholysis assay.

  6. Impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet on anthropometrics, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits in obese men displaying a high or a low satiety phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Tremblay, Angelo; Blundell, John E; Després, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Denis; Lamarche, Benoît; Drapeau, Vicky

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype. Both diets were consumed ad libitum. Changes in body weight, BMI, percent fat mass, waist circumference, satiety responsiveness and eating behaviour traits were assessed following the intervention. Dropout rates were higher in the control diet (44·1 %) compared with the satiating diet (8·6 %). Decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference were significant in both groups, yet HSP individuals lost more body weight than LSP individuals (P=0·048). Decreases in % fat mass were greater in the satiating diet (LSP: -2·1 (sd 2·1) %; Pdiet (LSP: -1·1 (sd 2·5) % and HSP: -1·3 (sd 2·6) %) (P=0·034). Satiety responsiveness was markedly improved in the satiating diet, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Changes in dietary restraint (+3·3 (sd 2·9) to +7·2 (sd 5·5)), flexible control (+0·9 (sd 1·4) to +2·3 (sd 2·7)), rigid control (+2·2 (sd 1·5) to +2·5 (sd 2·8)), disinhibition (-2·8 (sd 3·7) to -3·2 (sd 2·6)) and susceptibility to hunger (-2·7 (sd 4·1) to -4·6 (sd 3·9)) were similar between the diets. Compared with the control diet, the satiating diet favoured adherence, decreased % fat mass and improved satiety responsiveness in both HSP and LSP individuals.

  7. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  8. CD8 T cell-mediated killing of orexinergic neurons induces a narcolepsy-like phenotype in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Valnet, Raphaël; Yshii, Lidia; Quériault, Clémence; Nguyen, Xuan-Hung; Arthaud, Sébastien; Rodrigues, Magda; Canivet, Astrid; Morel, Anne-Laure; Matthys, Arthur; Bauer, Jan; Pignolet, Béatrice; Dauvilliers, Yves; Peyron, Christelle; Liblau, Roland S

    2016-09-27

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare and severe sleep disorder caused by the destruction of orexinergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The genetic and environmental factors associated with narcolepsy, together with serologic data, collectively point to an autoimmune origin. The current animal models of narcolepsy, based on either disruption of the orexinergic neurotransmission or neurons, do not allow study of the potential autoimmune etiology. Here, we sought to generate a mouse model that allows deciphering of the immune mechanisms leading to orexin(+) neuron loss and narcolepsy development. We generated mice expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) as a "neo-self-antigen" specifically in hypothalamic orexin(+) neurons (called Orex-HA), which were transferred with effector neo-self-antigen-specific T cells to assess whether an autoimmune process could be at play in narcolepsy. Given the tight association of narcolepsy with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-DQB1*06:02 allele, we first tested the pathogenic contribution of CD4 Th1 cells. Although these T cells readily infiltrated the hypothalamus and triggered local inflammation, they did not elicit the loss of orexin(+) neurons or clinical manifestations of narcolepsy. In contrast, the transfer of cytotoxic CD8 T cells (CTLs) led to both T-cell infiltration and specific destruction of orexin(+) neurons. This phenotype was further aggravated upon repeated injections of CTLs. In situ, CTLs interacted directly with MHC class I-expressing orexin(+) neurons, resulting in cytolytic granule polarization toward neurons. Finally, drastic neuronal loss caused manifestations mimicking human narcolepsy, such as cataplexy and sleep attacks. This work demonstrates the potential role of CTLs as final effectors of the immunopathological process in narcolepsy.

  9. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ilse J E; Jansen, Pauline W; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2012-12-19

    Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5); information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning) and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting) were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1)). When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (Pproblem behaviour (e.g. attenuation in OR by 54.4% (Pparenting factors further attenuated the association (e.g. attenuation in OR by 55.5% (Pproblem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression), poor family functioning, high levels of parenting stress or harsh

  10. A Red Blood Cell Membrane-Camouflaged Nanoparticle Counteracts Streptolysin O-Mediated Virulence Phenotypes of Invasive Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Escajadillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS, an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes. SLO can trigger macrophage and neutrophil cell death and/or the inactivation of immune cell functions, and promotes tissue injury and bacterial survival in animal models of infection. In the present work, we describe how the pharmacological presentation of red blood cell (RBC derived biomimetic nanoparticles (“nanosponges” can sequester SLO and block the ability of GAS to damage host cells, thereby preserving innate immune function and increasing bacterial clearance in vitro and in vivo. Nanosponge administration protected human neutrophils, macrophages, and keratinocytes against SLO-mediated cytotoxicity. This therapeutic intervention prevented SLO-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased neutrophil extracellular trap formation, allowing increased GAS killing by the respective phagocytic cell types. In a murine model of GAS necrotizing skin infection, local administration of the biomimetic nanosponges was associated with decreased lesion size and reduced bacterial colony-forming unit recovery. Utilization of a toxin decoy and capture platform that inactivates the secreted SLO before it contacts the host cell membrane, presents a novel virulence factor targeted strategy that could be a powerful adjunctive therapy in severe GAS infections where morbidity and mortality are high despite antibiotic treatment.

  11. The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) cluster controlled implementation trial: intervention effects and mediators and moderators of adiposity and energy balance-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S; Cerin, Ester; Salmon, Jo; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai Jm

    2014-12-24

    The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) programme is an evidence-based obesity prevention programme tailored to adolescents attending the first two years of prevocational education in the Netherlands. The initial programme showed promising results during an effectiveness trial. The programme was adapted and prepared for nationwide dissemination. To gain more insight into the process of translating evidence-based approaches into 'real world' (i.e., 'natural') conditions, our research aims were to evaluate the impact of the DOiT-implementation programme on adolescents' adiposity and energy balance-related behaviours during natural dissemination and to explore the mediating and moderating factors underlying the DOiT intervention effects. We conducted a cluster-controlled implementation trial with 20 voluntary intervention schools (n=1002 adolescents) and 9 comparable control schools (n = 484 adolescents). We measured adolescents' body height and weight, skinfold thicknesses, and waist circumference. We assessed adolescents' dietary and physical activity behaviours by means of self-report. Data were collected at baseline and at 20-months follow-up. We used multivariable multilevel linear or logistic regression analyses to evaluate the intervention effects and to test the hypothesised behavioural mediating factors. We checked for potential effect modification by gender, ethnicity and education level. We found no significant intervention effects on any of the adiposity measures or behavioural outcomes. Furthermore, we found no mediating effects by any of the hypothesised behavioural mediators. Stratified analyses for gender showed that the intervention was effective in reducing sugar-containing beverage consumption in girls (B = -188.2 ml/day; 95% CI = -344.0; -32.3). In boys, we found a significant positive intervention effect on breakfast frequency (B = 0.29 days/week; 95% CI = 0.01; 0.58). Stratified analyses for education level showed

  12. The mediating role of energy intake on the relationship between screen time behaviour and body mass index in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Maras, Danijela; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Borghese, Michael M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Alberga, Angela S; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents spend up to 6-8 h/day in sedentary screen behaviour and screen time is an independent risk factor for obesity. However, the mechanisms by which screen time confers obesity risk remain unclear. Via community level recruitment this study examined whether the relationship between screen time behaviours and body mass index (BMI: kg/m 2 ) was mediated by total energy intake or macronutrient consumption. In a cross-sectional study of post-pubertal adolescents (N = 283: 86M, 197F) with overweight or obesity at baseline of an intervention for weight control, we examined self-reported total energy intake (mean Calories from 3 day food diary), macronutrient intake (grams/day of carbohydrate, fat, protein) and total screen time (aggregate of hours/day watching TV, playing seated video games, and recreational computer use). BMI was objectively measured and converted to standardized scores (z-BMI). Simple and multiple mediation analyses were conducted using the bootstrapping approach described by Preacher and Hayes. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, Tanner stage, and self-reported physical activity. The relationship between screen time and z-BMI was significantly mediated by energy intake. Higher levels of carbohydrate intake, but not fat or protein intake, significantly mediated the relationship between screen time and z-BMI (95% bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval [0.0004, 0.0074]). Higher carbohydrate intake mediated the relationship between TV viewing and z-BMI, and video gaming and z-BMI. In conclusion, the relationship between screen time and BMI appears to be mediated by increased energy intake, primarily in the form of higher carbohydrate intake. It is possible that reducing time spent watching TV and playing video games may reduce food intake and help promote dietary adherence needed for weight management in obese adolescents. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00195858. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Policy-relevant behaviours predict heavier drinking and mediate the relationship with age, gender and education status: Analysis from the International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Parry, Charles D H; Viet Cuong, Pham; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Piazza, Marina

    2018-02-21

    To investigate behaviours related to four alcohol policy variables (policy-relevant behaviours) and demographic variables in relation to typical quantities of alcohol consumed on-premise in six International Alcohol Control study countries. General population surveys with drinkers using a comparable survey instrument and data analysed using path analysis in an overall model and for each country. typical quantities per occasion consumed on-premise; gender, age; years of education, prices paid, time of purchase, time to access alcohol and liking for alcohol advertisements. In the overall model younger people, males and those with fewer years of education consumed larger typical quantities. Overall lower prices paid, later time of purchase and liking for alcohol ads predicted consuming larger typical quantities; this was found in the high-income countries, less consistently in the high-middle-income countries and not in the low middle-income country. Three policy-relevant behaviours (prices paid, time of purchase, liking for alcohol ads) mediated the relationships between age, gender, education and consumption in high-income countries. International Alcohol Control survey data showed a relationship between policy-relevant behaviours and typical quantities consumed and support the likely effect of policy change (trading hours, price and restrictions on marketing) on heavier drinking. The path analysis also revealed policy-relevant behaviours were significant mediating variables between the effect of age, gender and educational status on consumption. However, this relationship is clearest in high-income countries. Further research is required to understand better how circumstances in low-middle-income countries impact effects of policies. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flink Ilse JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5; information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1. When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression, poor

  15. A theory-informed approach to developing visually mediated interventions to change behaviour using an asthma and physical activity intervention exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jennifer; Williams, Brian; Hoskins, Gaylor; Skar, Silje; McGhee, John; Treweek, Shaun; Sniehotta, Falko F; Sheikh, Aziz; Brown, Gordon; Hagen, Suzanne; Cameron, Linda; Jones, Claire; Gauld, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Visualisation techniques are used in a range of healthcare interventions. However, these frequently lack a coherent rationale or clear theoretical basis. This lack of definition and explicit targeting of the underlying mechanisms may impede the success of and evaluation of the intervention. We describe the theoretical development, deployment, and pilot evaluation, of a complex visually mediated behavioural intervention. The exemplar intervention focused on increasing physical activity among young people with asthma. We employed an explicit five-stage development model, which was actively supported by a consultative user group. The developmental stages involved establishing the theoretical basis, establishing a narrative structure, visual rendering, checking interpretation, and pilot testing. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups during early development and checking, followed by an online experiment for pilot testing. A total of 91 individuals, including young people with asthma, parents, teachers, and health professionals, were involved in development and testing. Our final intervention consisted of two components: (1) an interactive 3D computer animation to create intentions and (2) an action plan and volitional help sheet to promote the translation of intentions to behaviour. Theory was mediated throughout by visual and audio forms. The intervention was regarded as highly acceptable, engaging, and meaningful by all stakeholders. The perceived impact on asthma understanding and intentions was reported positively, with most individuals saying that the 3D computer animation had either clarified a range of issues or made them more real. Our five-stage model underpinned by extensive consultation worked well and is presented as a framework to support explicit decision-making for others developing theory informed visually mediated interventions. We have demonstrated the ability to develop theory-based visually mediated behavioural interventions. However

  16. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    ) Offspring can learn foraging skills from their mothers (matrilineal social learning). (6) Food abundance is limited, such that average individual energy reserves are low Additionally, the following factors increase the likelihood of alternative specializations co-occurring in a predator population: (1) The predator exerts effective top-down control of prey abundance, resulting in frequency-dependent dynamics. (2) There is stochastic Variation in prey population dynamics, but this Variation is neither too extreme in magnitude nor too 'slow' with respect to the time required for an individual forager to learn new foraging skills. For a given predator population, we deduce that the degree of specialization will be highest for those prey types requiring complex capture or handling skills, while prey species that are both profitable and easy to capture and handle will be included in the diet of all individuals. Frequency-dependent benefits of selecting alternative prey types, combined with the ability of foragers to improve their foraging skills by learning, and transmit learned skills to offspring, can result in behaviourally mediated foraging specialization, and also lead to the co-existence of alternative specializations. The extent of such specialization is predicted to be a variable trait, increasing in locations or years when intra-specific competition is high relative to inter-specific competition. ?? 2009 M. Tim Tinker.

  17. Toosendanin suppresses oncogenic phenotypes of human gastric carcinoma SGC‑7901 cells partly via miR‑200a‑mediated downregulation of β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Huang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Rui; Hou, Li-Dan; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Jin-Shui; Zhang, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling due to low expression of miR‑200a is found in gastric carcinoma (GC) tissues promoting GC evolution. Toosendanin (TSN) has exhibited antitumor effects on various human cancer cells, but its influence on GC is largely unidentified. The potential roles of TSN on GC cells were examined and it was found that TSN inhibited growth, migration, invasion and TGF‑β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SGC‑7901 cells which were most sensitive to TSN among various GC cell lines. TSN also inactivated β-catenin pathway in SGC‑7901 cells and the above effects were reversed following induction of β-catenin overexpression. Moreover, TSN facilitated the level of miR‑200a which targets β-catenin and miR‑200a silencing attenuated the antitumor effects of TSN on SGC‑7901 cells. Nonetheless, knockdown of miR‑200a did not relieve the suppressive effects of TSN on p‑AKT, p‑ERK and p‑GSK3β which were upstream regulators of β-catenin. In addition, TSN administration inhibited growth and liver metastasis of orthotopically implanted SGC‑7901 tumors in vivo through miR‑200a‑mediated β-catenin pathway. Our data suggest that TSN may suppress oncogenic phenotypes of human GC cells partly via miR‑200a/β-catenin axis. Hence, TSN may have a promising chemotherapeutic activity for GC therapy.

  18. Does job strain mediate the effect of socioeconomic group on smoking behaviour? The impact of different health policies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Rasmussen, Niels Kr; Ostergren, P O

    2008-01-01

    . The association between SEG, current smoking, quitting, and influence at work, job demand and jobstrain, respectively, was tested by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: The contextual determinants defined by country had a different effect on smoking prevalence among men and women and among age groups. Low......, but in relative terms were higher in Sweden. The mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was lacking. The determinants of smoking behaviours must be found somewhere else in the social and cultural context.......AIMS: The aim was to compare the impact of socioeconomic groups (SEG) on the risk of being a daily smoker or quitter, and to investigate whether the potentially mediating effect of psychosocial working conditions was similar in the Danish and the Swedish populations. METHODS: The study populations...

  19. Behavioural Phenotypes in the Classroom: A Qualitative Study of Parental and Teacher Knowledge of Classroom Guidelines and Teacher Views on Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Murtagh, Lelia; Senior, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic syndromes associated with intellectual disability often have specific cognitive and behavioural profiles. It has been suggested that educational approaches need to reflect these profiles. Parents (n = 381) and teachers (n = 204) of children with one of four syndromes, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome,…

  20. Psychological mediators related to clinical outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for coronary heart disease: A sub-analysis from the SUPRIM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlund, Fredrika; Olsson, Erik Mg; Pingel, Ronnie; Held, Claes; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Gulliksson, Mats; Burell, Gunilla

    2017-06-01

    Background The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) was a randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy stress management programme for patients with coronary heart disease. The project was successful in reducing the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on self-rated stress, somatic anxiety, vital exhaustion and depression and to study the associations of these factors with the reduction in cardiovascular events. Methods A total of 362 patients were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care groups. The psychological outcomes were assessed five times during 24 months and analysed using linear mixed models. The mediating roles of the outcomes were analysed using joint modelling of the longitudinal and time to event data. Results The intervention had a positive effect on somatic anxiety ( p < 0.05), reflecting a beneficial development over time compared with the controls. Stress, vital exhaustion and depression did not differ between the groups over time. Mediator analysis suggested that somatic anxiety may have mediated the effect of treatment on cardiovascular events. Conclusions The intervention had a small positive effect on somatic anxiety, but did not affect stress, vital exhaustion or depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Somatic anxiety was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and might act as a partial mediator in the treatment effect on cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms between the intervention and the protective cardiovascular outcome remain to be identified.

  1. Circulating endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles mediate the acute phase response and sickness behaviour associated with CNS inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Akbar, Naveed; Roodselaar, Jay; Evans, Matthew C; Gardiner, Chris; Sargent, Ian; Romero, Ignacio A; Bristow, Adrian; Buchan, Alastair M; Haughey, Norman; Anthony, Daniel C

    2017-08-29

    Brain injury elicits a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is responsible for co-ordinating the peripheral immunological response to injury. To date, the mechanisms responsible for signalling the presence of injury or disease to selectively activate responses in distant organs were unclear. Circulating endogenous extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increased after brain injury and have the potential to carry targeted injury signals around the body. Here, we examined the potential of EVs, isolated from rats after focal inflammatory brain lesions using IL-1β, to activate a systemic APR in recipient naïve rats, as well as the behavioural consequences of EV transfer. Focal brain lesions increased EV release, and, following isolation and transfer, the EVs were sequestered by the liver where they initiated an APR. Transfer of blood-borne EVs from brain-injured animals was also enough to suppress exploratory behaviours in recipient naïve animals. EVs derived from brain endothelial cell cultures treated with IL-1β also activated an APR and altered behaviour in recipient animals. These experiments reveal that inflammation-induced circulating EVs derived from endothelial cells are able to initiate the APR to brain injury and are sufficient to generate the associated sickness behaviours, and are the first demonstration that EVs are capable of modifying behavioural responses.

  2. Body size mediates social and environmental effects on nest building behaviour in a fish with paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Lindström, Kai; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-07-01

    Body size, social setting, and the physical environment can all influence reproductive behaviours, but their interactions are not well understood. Here, we investigated how male body size, male-male competition, and water turbidity influence nest-building behaviour in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a marine fish with exclusive paternal care. We found that environmental and social factors affected the nest characteristics of small and large males differently. In particular, association between male size and the level of nest elaboration (i.e. the amount of sand piled on top of the nest) was positive only under clear water conditions. Similarly, male size and nest entrance size were positively associated only in the absence of competition. Such interactions may, in turn, help to explain the persistence of variation in reproductive behaviours, which-due to their importance in offspring survival-are otherwise expected to be under strong balancing selection.

  3. recA mediated spontaneous deletions of the icaADBC operon of clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates : a new mechanism of phenotypic variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Kuijer, Roel; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis involving the slime related ica operon results in heterogeneity in surface characteristics of individual bacteria in axenic cultures. Five clinical S. epidermidis isolates demonstrated phenotypic variation, i.e. both black and red colonies on Congo

  4. Mediated Pathways from Maternal Depression and Early Parenting to Children's Executive Function and Externalizing Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire; Kuhn, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation models were used to examine pathways from maternal depression and early parenting to children's executive function (EF) and externalizing behaviours in the first nationally representative study to obtain direct assessments of children's kindergarten EF skills (i.e., the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of…

  5. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  6. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  7. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ARID1B-mediated disorders and identification of altered cell-cycle dynamics due to ARID1B haploinsufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sim, J. C. H.; White, S. M.; Fitzpatrick, E.

    2014-01-01

    as the predominant cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome and have also been shown to be a frequent cause of nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of a patient with an overlapping but distinctive phenotype of intellectual disability, plantar fat pads and facial dysmorphism. Methods...... or nonsense mutations in all of them. Conclusions: This study broadens the spectrum of ARID1B associated phenotypes by describing a distinctive phenotype including plantar fat pads but lacking the hypertrichosis or fifth nail hypoplasia associated with Coffin-Siris syndrome. We present the first direct...

  8. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, J Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y Adejoke; Akanmu, A Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (subdivided into 6 groups of 10 each, based on sex), and administered vehicle or graded oral doses of caffeine (10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. On day 14, a main group was subjected to 6 h of total sleep-deprivation by 'gentle-handling'. Open-field behaviours were then assessed in both groups, after which animals were euthanized, and levels of corticosterone, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase assayed. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly, compared to control, with sleep-deprived (SD) mice showing stronger caffeine-driven responses at higher doses; and SD female mice showing sustained response to caffeine, compared to respective males. Plasma corticosterone increased with increasing doses of caffeine in both non sleep-deprived (NSD) and SD mice; although SD mice had higher corticosterone levels. Sleep-deprivation and/or higher doses of caffeine were associated with derangements in brain antioxidant levels. Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  9. Family caregivers' attributions about care-recipient behaviour: does caregiver relationship satisfaction mediate the attribution-distress relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Elliott, Timothy R; Martin, Roy; Uswatte, Gitendra

    2011-09-01

    The relations of caregiver attributions about care-recipient's problem behaviour to caregiving relationship satisfaction and caregiver distress were examined. This is a cross sectional study. Seventy-five family caregivers of individuals diagnosed with various disabling health conditions were recruited and interviewed. Caregiver attributions (internality, intentionality, responsibility, and controllability), caregiving relationship satisfaction, and caregiver distress variables were measured. Structural equation techniques tested an a priori model of the latent constructs of caregiver attributions and caregiver relationship satisfaction to caregiver distress. Maladaptive caregiver attributions (i.e., more trait, higher intentionality, higher responsibility, and higher controllability) about care-recipients' problem behaviours predicted lower caregiving relationship satisfaction, which in turn was predictive of higher caregiver distress. Unexpectedly, caregiver attributions were not directly related to caregiver distress. However, attributions had an indirect effect on distress through relationship satisfaction. Younger caregivers experienced higher caregiver distress. Caregivers' explanations about care-recipient's problem behaviour are indicative of their satisfaction in the relationship with the care recipient, and poor caregiving relationship satisfaction is predictive of caregiver distress. Caregiver attributions and relationship quality may be considered in interventions with family caregivers. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Education and risk of coronary heart disease: Assessment of mediation by behavioural risk factors using the additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, H; Rod, NH; Frederiksen, BL

    2013-01-01

    Educational-related gradients in coronary heart disease (CHD) and mediation by behavioral risk factors are plausible given previous research; however this has not been comprehensively addressed in absolute measures. Questionnaire data on health behavior of 69,513 participants, 52 % women, from se...

  11. Interoception, emotion and brain: new insights link internal physiology to social behaviour. Commentary on:: "Anterior insular cortex mediates bodily sensibility and social anxiety" by Terasawa et al. (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2013-03-01

    In this issue, Terasawa and colleagues used functional neuroimaging to test for common neural substrates supporting conscious appraisal of subjective bodily and emotional states and explored how the relationship might account for personality and experience of anxiety symptoms. Their study highlights a role for the same region of anterior insula cortex in appraisal of emotions and bodily physiology. The reactivity of this region also mediated the relationship between 'bodily sensibility' and social fear, translating a cognitive representation of subjective physical state into an individual personality trait that influences social interaction. The task used by Terasawa and colleagues taps into conscious aspects to the expression of this dynamic. These findings add to increasing evidence for the role of anterior insula as the interface between physiologically driven internal motivational states, emotional awareness and interpersonal behaviour.

  12. THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE ON THE EFFECTS OF LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZINSHIP BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol TEKİN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the mediating effect of organizational justice on the effect of leadermember exchange on organizational citizenship behavior. Within the scope of this purpose, a questionnaire study has been carried out on 250 banking employee. The obtained data has been analyzed with factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Analyzes has been performed with SPSS 20.0 analysis software. According to the results, it has been found that leader-member exchange affects organizational citizenship behavior positively and meaningfully. Similarly, it has been found that organizational justice affects organizational citizenship behavior positively and meaningfully. It has also been found that organizational justice citizenship behavior has a partial mediation effect on the relation between leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior.

  13. Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated suppression of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV activity in the nucleus accumbens modulates emotional behaviour in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV controls activity-dependent gene transcription by regulating the activity of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB. This signaling pathway is involved in gating emotional responses in the CNS but previous studies did not address the potential roles of CaMKIV in discrete brain regions. In the present study, we aimed at specifically dissecting the role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens of adult mice. Results We used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated gene transfer of a dominant-negative CaMKIV variant (rAAV-dnCaMKIV to inhibit endogenous CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. rAAV-dnCaMKIV treated animals were subjected to a battery of tests including, prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, open field, social interaction and anxiety-related behaviour. We found that basal locomotor activity in the open field, and prepulse inhibition or startle performance were unaltered in mice infected with rAAV-dnCaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. However, anxiogenic effects were revealed in social interaction testing and the light/dark emergence test. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modulatory role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens in anxiety-like behaviour but not sensorimotor gating.

  14. miR-181a Induces Macrophage Polarized to M2 Phenotype and Promotes M2 Macrophage-mediated Tumor Cell Metastasis by Targeting KLF6 and C/EBPα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages can acquire a variety of polarization status and functions: classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages; alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages. However, the molecular basis of the process is still unclear. Here, this study addresses that microRNA-181a (miR-181a is a key molecule controlling macrophage polarization. We found that miR-181a is overexpressed in M2 macrophages than in M1 macrophages. miR-181a expression was decreased when M2 phenotype converted to M1, whereas it increased when M1 phenotype converted to M2. Overexpression of miR-181a in M1 macrophages diminished M1 phenotype expression while promoting polarization to the M2 phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of miR-181a in M2 macrophages promoted M1 polarization and diminished M2 phenotype expression. Mechanistically, Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα is a potential target of miR-181a and luciferase assay confirmed that KLF6 and C/EBPα translation is suppressed by miR-181a through interaction with the 3′UTR of KLF6 and C/EBPα mRNA. Further analysis showed that induction of miR-181a suppressed KLF6 and C/EBPα protein expression. Importantly, miR-181a also diminishes M2 macrophages-mediated migration and invasion capacity of tumor cells. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-181a plays a significant role in regulating macrophage polarization through directly target KLF6 and C/EBPα.

  15. Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality--possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, Britt; Almquist, Ylva; Beijer, Ulla; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2011-10-02

    Family psychosocial characteristics in childhood have been associated with children's development into criminal behaviour and mortality. This study explored these possible relationships and examined alcohol and/or drug use and mental problems as possible mediating factors, highlighting gender-specific patterns. Data from Swedish subjects born in 1953 (n = 14,294) from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were examined. Several indicators of adverse family factors and individual problems were included in the present study. The information was derived from various data sources, covering different periods. Gender-specific associations with incidence of criminality (1966-1980) and mortality (1981-2009) were analysed using logistic regression. Furthermore, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for all variables in the fully adjusted models which were positively related to the outcome. Overall incidence of criminality and mortality was (m/f 32.3/6.6) and (m/f 6.1/3.5), respectively. The results showed that all aspects of family psychosocial and individual problems studied were associated with criminality for both genders. Among males, individual problems seemed to partly mediate these relations, but the associations remained statistically significant. Interestingly, the PAF analysis revealed a reduction in criminality of 17.5% when individual problems with alcohol and/or drug use were considered. Among females, a significant impact of alcohol and/or drug use on the association between family psychosocial characteristics and subsequent criminality was obtained. Inclusion of father's occupational class only somewhat reduced the estimates for the genders. Concerning male mortality, father's alcohol abuse was significantly related to an increased risk. When individual criminality was accounted for, the association was substantially reduced but remained statistically significant. Among females, when adjusting for family psychosocial factors, only the

  16. Building intentions with the Theory of Planned Behaviour: the mediating role of knowledge and expectations in implementing new pharmaceutical services in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan CL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy value added services (PVAS was introduced as a matter of public health policy by Malaysia’s Ministry of Health to improve health outcomes through public healthcare services. For example, drive through pharmacy services is a major policy implementation of the Ministry. However, adoption rates are low and therefore hampering the achievement of national health policy goals. Objective: Our objective is to explore the key determinants and mediators of successful implementation of new public pharmaceutical services by investigating the cognitive perspectives of patients’ intentions to adopt with the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical framework. Methods: A two phase mixed methodology involving first a qualitative exploration and the second a quantitative phase was conducted in public health facilities in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Multiple regression and mediation analysis were performed. Results: Subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, knowledge and expectations are found to be significant predictors of intentions to adopt PVAS. Knowledge and expectations are found to exert significant indirect effects on intentions. Conclusion: Overall, we suggest that patient knowledge be enhanced through appropriate channels and expectations of service quality be met to increase intentions.

  17. Building intentions with the Theory of Planned Behaviour: the mediating role of knowledge and expectations in implementing new pharmaceutical services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine L; Gan, Vincent B; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacy value added services (PVAS) was introduced as a matter of public health policy by Malaysia's Ministry of Health to improve health outcomes through public healthcare services. For example, drive through pharmacy services is a major policy implementation of the Ministry. However, adoption rates are low and therefore hampering the achievement of national health policy goals. Our objective is to explore the key determinants and mediators of successful implementation of new public pharmaceutical services by investigating the cognitive perspectives of patients' intentions to adopt with the Theory of Planned Behavior as the theoretical framework. A two phase mixed methodology involving first a qualitative exploration and the second a quantitative phase was conducted in public health facilities in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Multiple regression and mediation analysis were performed. Subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, knowledge and expectations are found to be significant predictors of intentions to adopt PVAS. Knowledge and expectations are found to exert significant indirect effects on intentions. Overall, we suggest that patient knowledge be enhanced through appropriate channels and expectations of service quality be met to increase intentions.

  18. Demographic and Phenotypic Effects of Human Mediated Trophic Subsidy on a Large Australian Lizard (Varanus varius): Meal Ticket or Last Supper?

    OpenAIRE

    Jessop, Tim S.; Smissen, Peter; Scheelings, Franciscus; Dempster, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Humans are increasingly subsidizing and altering natural food webs via changes to nutrient cycling and productivity. Where human trophic subsidies are concentrated and persistent within natural environments, their consumption could have complex consequences for wild animals through altering habitat preferences, phenotypes and fitness attributes that influence population dynamics. Human trophic subsidies conceptually create both costs and benefits for animals that receive increased calorific a...

  19. Mediating effects of motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour on the associations of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Lintu, Niina; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Venäläinen, Taisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Ahonen, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with academic achievement and whether motor performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour mediated these associations. Altogether 175 children 6-8 years-of-age participated in the study. We assessed body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, leptin, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Reading fluency, reading comprehension, and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests. Speed/agility, balance, and manual dexterity test results were used to calculate motor performance score and physical activity was assessed by combined heart rate and movement sensor and cardiorespiratory fitness by maximal cycle ergometer test. In boys, BF% was inversely associated with reading fluency (β = -0.262, P = 0.007) and reading comprehension (β = -0.216, P = 0.025). Motor performance mediated these associations. Leptin was inversely related to reading fluency (β = -0.272, P = 0.006) and reading comprehension (β = -0.287, P = 0.003). The inverse association of leptin with reading fluency was mediated by motor performance. In girls, GGT was inversely associated with reading fluency independent of confounders (β = -0.325, P = 0.007). The inverse association of BF% with academic achievement among boys was largely explained by motor performance. Leptin in boys and GGT in girls were inversely associated with academic achievement independent of confounding factors.

  20. Reducing employees’ turnover intention through Hr-induced organizational citizenship behaviour: Leader-member exchange as the mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU GHEE WEE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possibility of inducing organizational citizenship behavior (OCB through human resource (HR philosophy and high involvement HR practices administered at the workplace. Leader-member exchange (LMX, a basis of relational infrastructure, is posited to be a potential mediator. Data was collected from hotel frontline employees, tested and analyzed through structural equation modeling. Findings show that HR philosophy drives the formulation of the bundles of high involvement human resource practices and such philosophy contribute to employees’ willingness in exhibiting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB directed at individuals (OCBI as well as organizations (OCBO as a whole. High involvement HR practices, however, do not elicit OCB but these practices are significantly related to LMX, a new theoretical insight which should invite future research. Although exchanges between supervisors and subordinates are shown to have influences on employees’ willingness in performing OCB, LMX does not, however, mediate the relationship between high involvement HR practices and OCB. Overall, hotel frontline employees participated in this study exhibit more OCBO, rather than OCBI; and such behavior reduce their intention to leave. Both theoretical and practical implications as well as avenues for future research are discussed.

  1. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mediates the Protective Effect of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor on Renal Fibrosis via Reducing the Phenotypic Conversion of Renal Microvascular Cells in Monocrotaline-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney diseases are characterized by renal fibrosis with excessive matrix deposition, leading to a progressive loss of functional renal parenchyma and, eventually, renal failure. Renal microcirculation lesions, including the phenotypic conversion of vascular cells, contribute to renal fibrosis. Here, renal microcirculation lesions were established with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg. Sitagliptin (40 mg/kg/d, a classical dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, attenuated the renal microcirculation lesions by inhibiting glomerular tuft hypertrophy, glomerular mesangial expansion, and microvascular thrombosis. These effects of sitagliptin were mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, since they were blocked by the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-3 (Ex-3, 40 ug/kg/d. The GLP-1R agonist liraglutide showed a similar renal protective effect in a dose-independent manner. In addition, sitagliptin, as well as liraglutide, alleviated the MCT-induced apoptosis of renal cells by increasing the expression of survival factor glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, which was abolished by the GLP-1R antagonist Ex-3. Sitagliptin and liraglutide also effectively ameliorated the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs from a synthetic phenotype to contractile phenotype. Moreover, sitagliptin and liraglutide inhibited endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT via downregulating transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Collectively, these findings suggest that DPP-4 inhibition can reduce microcirculation lesion-induced renal fibrosis in a GLP-1-dependent manner.

  2. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ARID1B-mediated disorders and identification of altered cell-cycle dynamics due to ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joe C H; White, Susan M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gabrielle R; Gillies, Greta; Pope, Kate; Mountford, Hayley S; Torring, Pernille M; McKee, Shane; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-03-27

    Mutations in genes encoding components of the Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have recently been shown to contribute to multiple syndromes characterised by developmental delay and intellectual disability. ARID1B mutations have been identified as the predominant cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome and have also been shown to be a frequent cause of nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of a patient with an overlapping but distinctive phenotype of intellectual disability, plantar fat pads and facial dysmorphism. High density microarray analysis of the patient demonstrated a heterozygous deletion at 6q25.3, which resulted in the loss of four genes including AT Rich Interactive Domain 1B (ARID1B). Subsequent quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ARID1B haploinsufficiency in the patient. Analysis of both patient-derived and ARID1B knockdown fibroblasts after serum starvation demonstrated delayed cell cycle re-entry associated with reduced cell number in the S1 phase. Based on the patient's distinctive phenotype, we ascertained four additional patients and identified heterozygous de novo ARID1B frameshift or nonsense mutations in all of them. This study broadens the spectrum of ARID1B associated phenotypes by describing a distinctive phenotype including plantar fat pads but lacking the hypertrichosis or fifth nail hypoplasia associated with Coffin-Siris syndrome. We present the first direct evidence in patient-derived cells that alterations in cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

  3. Mediation of the relationship of behavioural treatment type and changes in psychological predictors of healthy eating by body satisfaction changes in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    Psychological correlates of both short- and long-term weight loss are poorly understood. Changes in satisfaction with one's body might serve to motivate healthier eating by mediating treatments' effect on psychological factors previously suggested to be associated with weight loss. Women with obesity (age 48.6±7.1 years; BMI 35.4±3.3kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to social cognitive theory-based weight-management treatments that were either group sessions emphasizing physical activity-derived self-regulation (experimental; n=53) or review of a written manual and phone support (comparison; n=54). Changes in weight, physical activity, body satisfaction, negative mood, and self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating were assessed over 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The experimental treatment was associated with significantly more favourable changes across variables. Over 6, 12, and 24 months, body satisfaction change mediated relationships between treatment type and changes in each of the psychological predictors of healthier eating (mood, self-efficacy, self-regulation). Reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships between changes in body satisfaction and those psychological predictors were also found. Increased physical activity was associated with improved body satisfaction, even after controlling for weight changes. Findings increased understandings of the role of body satisfaction in improving psychological predictors of healthier eating over both the short- and longer-term. Results also suggested that body satisfaction could be improved through increased physical activity, irrespective of change in weight. Although results were limited to women with class 1 and 2 obesity, findings on interactions of psychological factors associated with eating changes have implications for the architecture of improved behavioural treatments. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Demographic and phenotypic effects of human mediated trophic subsidy on a large Australian lizard (Varanus varius): meal ticket or last supper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Tim S; Smissen, Peter; Scheelings, Franciscus; Dempster, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Humans are increasingly subsidizing and altering natural food webs via changes to nutrient cycling and productivity. Where human trophic subsidies are concentrated and persistent within natural environments, their consumption could have complex consequences for wild animals through altering habitat preferences, phenotypes and fitness attributes that influence population dynamics. Human trophic subsidies conceptually create both costs and benefits for animals that receive increased calorific and altered nutritional inputs. Here, we evaluated the effects of a common terrestrial human trophic subsidies, human food refuse, on population and phenotypic (comprising morphological and physiological health indices) parameters of a large predatory lizard (∼2 m length), the lace monitor (Varanus varius), in southern Australia by comparison with individuals not receiving human trophic subsidies. At human trophic subsidies sites, lizards were significantly more abundant and their sex ratio highly male biased compared to control sites in natural forest. Human trophic subsidies recipient lizards were significantly longer, heavier and in much greater body condition. Blood parasites were significantly lower in human trophic subsidies lizards. Collectively, our results imply that human trophic subsidized sites were especially attractive to adult male lace monitors and had large phenotypic effects. However, we cannot rule out that the male-biased aggregations of large monitors at human trophic subsidized sites could lead to reductions in reproductive fitness, through mate competition and offspring survival, and through greater exposure of eggs and juveniles to predation. These possibilities could have negative population consequences. Aggregations of these large predators may also have flow on effects to surrounding food web dynamics through elevated predation levels. Given that flux of energy and nutrients into food webs is central to the regulation of populations and their

  5. Genetic transfer of non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in somatic cell fusion: dissection of a compound MDR phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijdems, E. W.; Borst, P.; Jongsma, A. P.; de Jong, S.; de Vries, E. G.; van Groenigen, M.; Versantvoort, C. H.; Nieuwint, A. W.; Baas, F.

    1992-01-01

    A non-P-glycoprotein-mediated mechanism of multidrug resistance (non-Pgp MDR) has been identified in doxorubicin-selected sublines of the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line SW-1573. These sublines are cross-resistant to daunorubicin, VP16-213, Vinca alkaloids, colchicine, gramicidin D,

  6. Genetic transfer of non-P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in somatic cell fusion : Dissection of a compound MDR phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EIJDEMS, EWHM; BORST, P; JONGSMA, APM; de Jong, Steven; DEVRIES, EGE; VANGROENIGEN, M; VERSANTVOORT, CHM; NIEUWINT, AWM; BAAS, F

    1992-01-01

    A non-P-glycoprotein-mediated mechanism of multidrug resistance (non-Pgp MDR) bas been identified in doxorubicin-selected sublines of the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines SW-1573. These sublines are cross-resistant to daunorubicin, VP16-213, Vinca alkaloids, colchicine, gramicidin D,

  7. Phenotype analysis of male transgenic mice overexpressing mutant IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif: Reduced expression of synaptic markers and myelin basic protein in the brain and a lower degree of anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, N; Mayer, J; Saenger, S; Gimsa, U; Walz, C; Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Wirthgen, E; Tuchscherer, A; Russo, V C; Frank, M; Kirschstein, T; Metzger, F; Hoeflich, A

    2017-04-01

    Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence. H1d-hBP2 transgenic mice have the genetic background of FVB mice and are characterized by severe deficits in brain growth throughout their lifetime (pmice, protein levels of the GTPase dynamin-I were significantly reduced (pmice in the cerebellum but not in the hippocampus. At 80weeks of age, weight reductions were similarly present in the cerebellum (-28%; pmice were challenged in the elevated plus maze, aged but not younger H1d-hBP2 mice displayed significantly less anxiety-like behaviour, which was also observed in a second transgenic mouse model overexpressing mouse IGFBP-2 lacking HBD1 (H1d-mBP2). These in vivo studies provide, for the first time, evidence for a specific role of IGFBP-2 in brain functions associated with anxiety and risk behaviour. These activities of IGFBP-2 could be mediated by the Cardin-Weintraub/HBD1 sequence and are altered in mice expressing IGFBP-2 lacking the HBD1. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. miR-380-5p-mediated repression of TEP1 and TSPYL5 interferes with telomerase activity and favours the emergence of an “ALT-like” phenotype in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Cimino-Reale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM, a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA, which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease. Here, the capability of miR-380-5p, a microRNA negligibly expressed in telomerase-positive DMPM clinical specimens, to interfere with telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance and, hence, with cancer cell growth was assessed on preclinical models of DMPM. Methods DMPM cells were transfected with a miR-380-5p synthetic precursor, and the effects of miRNA replacement were evaluated in terms of growing capability, induction of apoptosis and interference with TA. Reiterated weekly transfections were also performed in order to analyse the phenotype arising upon prolonged miR-380-5p reconstitution in DMPM cells. Results The ectopic expression of miR-380-5p elicited a remarkable inhibition of TA and resulted in DMPM cell growth impairment and apoptosis induction. In particular, we demonstrated for the first time that these effects were the result of a molecular circuitry converging on telomerase associated protein 1 (TEP1, where the miRNA was able to target the gene both directly in unconventional targeting modality and indirectly via p53 accumulation consequent to miRNA-mediated downregulation of testis-specific protein, Y-encoded-like 5 gene. Moreover, miR-380-5p did not cause telomere attrition and cell growth arrest in long-term DMPM transfectants, which in turn showed slightly elongated telomeres and molecular

  9. Reversal of Phenotypic Abnormalities by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Correction in Huntington Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Tay, Yilin; Sim, Bernice; Yoon, Su-In; Huang, Yihui; Ooi, Jolene; Utami, Kagistia Hana; Ziaei, Amin; Ng, Bryan; Radulescu, Carola; Low, Donovan; Ng, Alvin Yu Jin; Loh, Marie; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Ginhoux, Florent; Augustine, George J; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2017-03-14

    Huntington disease (HD) is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls. Importantly, using genome-wide expression analysis, we show that a number of apparent gene expression differences detected between HD and non-related healthy control lines are absent between HD and corrected lines, suggesting that these differences are likely related to genetic background rather than HD-specific effects. Our study demonstrates correction of HD hiPSCs and associated phenotypic abnormalities, and the importance of isogenic controls for disease modeling using hiPSCs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reversal of Phenotypic Abnormalities by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Correction in Huntington Disease Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in HTT. Here we report correction of HD human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs using a CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac transposon-based approach. We show that both HD and corrected isogenic hiPSCs can be differentiated into excitable, synaptically active forebrain neurons. We further demonstrate that phenotypic abnormalities in HD hiPSC-derived neural cells, including impaired neural rosette formation, increased susceptibility to growth factor withdrawal, and deficits in mitochondrial respiration, are rescued in isogenic controls. Importantly, using genome-wide expression analysis, we show that a number of apparent gene expression differences detected between HD and non-related healthy control lines are absent between HD and corrected lines, suggesting that these differences are likely related to genetic background rather than HD-specific effects. Our study demonstrates correction of HD hiPSCs and associated phenotypic abnormalities, and the importance of isogenic controls for disease modeling using hiPSCs.

  11. PERAN SIKAP DALAM MEMEDIASI PENGARUH PENGETAHUAN TERHADAP PERILAKU MINIMISASI SAMPAH PADA MASYARAKAT TERBAN, YOGYAKARTA (The Role of Attitude to Mediate The Effect of Knowledge on People’s Waste Minimization Behaviour in Terban, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    behaviour. Attitude toward behaviour plays a significant role in behavioural change. This research will focus on one kind of pro-environmental behaviour namely waste minimisastion behaviour. The purpose of this research is to find out the relationship between waste minimization knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. This research was conducted in Kelurahan Terban, RW 02 and RW 11, Yogyakarta in January until February 2014. Total of the subjects are 105. Data were collected using three scales that is: waste minimization behaviour scale, waste minimization attitude scale, and waste minimization knowledge scale. Data were analysed using regression analysis with path analysis model. Sobel Test was used to estimate the mediation effect. Indirect effect analysis showed the indirect effect coeficient was 0,742 with z=3,42 and p <0,01. It is showed that there was an indirect effect of waste minimization knowledge to waste minimization behaviour through waste minimization attitude. Thus, we can conclude that waste minimization attitude mediates the relationship between waste minimization knowledge and waste minimization behaviour.

  12. Initial infection of roots and leaves reveals different resistance phenotypes associated with coat protein gene-mediated resistance to Potato mop-top virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germundsson, Anna; Sandgren, Maria; Barker, Hugh; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2002-05-01

    Resistance to the pomovirus Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) was studied in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Saturna) and Nicotiana benthamiana transformed with the coat protein (CP) gene of PMTV. The incidence of PMTV infections was reduced in tubers of the CP-transgenic potatoes grown in the field in soil infested with the viruliferous vector, Spongospora subterranea. However, in those tubers that were infected, all three virus RNAs were detected and virus titres were high. The CP-transgenic N. benthamiana plants were inoculated with PMTV using two methods. Following mechanical inoculation of leaves, no RNA 3 (the CP-encoding RNA homologous to the transgene) was detected in leaves, but in some plants low amounts of RNA 3 were detected in roots; RNA 2 was readily detected in leaves and roots of several plants. Inoculation of roots using viruliferous S. subterranea resulted in infection of roots in all plants and the three PMTV RNAs were detected. However, no systemic movement of PMTV from roots to the above-ground parts was observed, indicating a novel expression of resistance. These data indicate that the CP gene-mediated resistance to PMTV specifically restricts accumulation of PMTV RNA 3, and is more effective in leaves than roots. Furthermore, expression of resistance is different depending on whether leaves or roots are inoculated. Data do not exclude the possibility that both a protein-mediated and an RNA-mediated resistance mechanism are involved.

  13. CD18-mediated adhesion is required for the induction of a proinflammatory phenotype in lung epithelial cells by mononuclear cell-derived extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Tommaso; Scalise, Valentina; Passalacqua, Ilaria; Giusti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Stefania; Balia, Cristina; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Berrettini, Stefano; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Dolo, Vincenza; Celi, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles are submicron vesicles that upregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators by lung epithelial cells. We investigated whether these structures adhere to lung epithelial cells, and whether adhesion is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Extracellular vesicles were generated by stimulation of normal human mononuclear cells with the calcium ionophore A23187, and labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Adhesion of vesicles to monolayers of immortalized bronchial epithelial (16HBE) and alveolar (A549) cells was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. The role of candidate adhesion receptors was evaluated with inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and soluble peptides. The synthesis of proinflammatory mediators was assessed by ELISA. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the generation of closed vesicles with an approximate size range between 50 and 600 nm. Adhesion of extracellular vesicles to epithelial cells was upregulated upon stimulation of the latter with tumor necrosis factor-α. Adhesion was blocked by an anti-CD18 antibody, by peptides containing the sequence RGD and, to a lesser extent, by an antibody to ICAM-1. The same molecules also blocked the upregulation of the synthesis of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced by extracellular vesicles. CD18-mediated adhesion of extracellular vesicles is a prerequisite for their proinflammatory activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The EAR motif controls the early flowering and senescence phenotype mediated by over-expression of SlERF36 and is partly responsible for changes in stomatal density and photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Upadhyay

    Full Text Available The EAR motif is a small seven amino acid motif associated with active repression of several target genes. We had previously identified SlERF36 as an EAR motif containing gene from tomato and shown that its over-expression results in early flowering and senescence and a 25-35% reduction of stomatal density, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in transgenic tobacco. In order to understand the role of the EAR motif in governing the phenotypes, we have expressed the full-length SlERF36 and a truncated form, lacking the EAR motif under the CaMV35S promoter, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plants over-expressing the full-length SlERF36 show prominent early flowering under long day as well as short day conditions. The early flowering leads to an earlier onset of senescence in these transgenic plants which in turn reduces vegetative growth, affecting rosette, flower and silique sizes. Stomatal number is reduced by 38-39% while photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decrease by about 30-40%. Transgenic plants over-expressing the truncated version of SlERF36 (lacking the C-terminal EAR motif, show phenotypes largely matching the control with normal flowering and senescence indicating that the early flowering and senescence is governed by the EAR motif. On the other hand, photosynthetic rates and stomatal number were also reduced in plants expressing SlERF36ΔEAR although to a lesser degree compared to the full- length version indicating that these are partly controlled by the EAR motif. These studies show that the major phenotypic changes in plant growth caused by over-expression of SlERF36 are actually mediated by the EAR motif.

  15. Phenotype spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Frédéric; Seal, Gavin J

    2010-02-01

    The topological viewpoint on spaces of phenotypes presented in Stadler et al. (J Theor Biol 213:241-274, 2001) is revisited, and a quantified version is proposed. While necessary probabilistic information can be encoded in a topological- like fashion, it turns out that it is not reflected adequately by the concept of continuity. We propose alternative models, but the behavior of maps make these models non-topological in fundamental ways.

  16. Phenotype overlap in Xylella fastidiosa is controlled by the cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase Eal in response to antibiotic exposure and diffusible signal factor-mediated cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alessandra A; Ionescu, Michael; Baccari, Clelia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-06-01

    Eal is an EAL domain protein in Xylella fastidiosa homologous to one involved in resistance to tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EAL and HD-GYP domain proteins are implicated in the hydrolysis of the secondary messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric GMP (cyclic di-GMP). Cell density-dependent communication mediated by a Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) also modulates cyclic di-GMP levels in X. fastidiosa, thereby controlling the expression of virulence genes and genes involved in insect transmission. The possible linkage of Eal to both extrinsic factors such as antibiotics and intrinsic factors such as quorum sensing, and whether both affect virulence, was thus addressed. Expression of eal was induced by subinhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, and an eal deletion mutant was more susceptible to this antibiotic than the wild-type strain and exhibited phenotypes similar to those of an rpfF deletion mutant blocked in DSF production, such as hypermotility, reduced biofilm formation, and hypervirulence to grape. Consistent with that, the rpfF mutant was more susceptible than the wild-type strain to tobramycin. Therefore, we propose that cell-cell communication and antibiotic stress can apparently lead to similar modulations of cyclic di-GMP in X. fastidiosa, resulting in similar phenotypes. However, the effect of cell density is dominant compared to that of antibiotic stress, since eal is suppressed by RpfF, which may prevent inappropriate behavioral changes in response to antibiotic stress when DSF accumulates.

  17. HIV-1-Mediated BAFF Secretion in Macrophages Does Not Require Endosomal TLRs, Type-I IFN, and Nef, but Depends on the Cellular Phenotype Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alejandro M; Ouellet, Michel; Deshiere, Alexandre; Breton, Yann; Tremblay, Michel J

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by persistent viral replication, chronic immune activation, and CD4(+) T cell depletion. Moreover, several immune dysfunctions are observed in cells that are not targeted by the virus, such as B cells. Some B cell abnormalities include hypergammaglobulinemia, nonspecific B cell activation, class switching, increased cell turnover, breakage of tolerance, and a loss of the capacity to generate and maintain memory. Several cytokines and growth factors that are increased in the serum of HIV-1-infected individuals have been suggested to directly or indirectly trigger B cell activation, and one of these is BAFF. In this study, we investigate the ability of fully competent (R5-tropic) HIV-1 to induce BAFF production by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). We demonstrate here that HIV-1 drives BAFF production in MDMs in a type-I IFN- and TLR-independent manner. Moreover, we determine that HIV-1 Nef accessory protein is dispensable in BAFF upregulation as a nef-deleted HIV-1 strain is still able to increase BAFF at levels similar to the wild type strain. Finally, we show that the macrophage phenotype status affects HIV-1 replication and BAFF induction, as both were abrogated in MDMs displaying a M1 phenotype. This study provides new useful information about the increased levels of BAFF observed during HIV-1 infection and highlights the importance of macrophages as a source of BAFF, a phenomenon that might contribute to B cell dysfunctions at inflammatory tissue sites in infected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Novel plasmids and resistance phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: unique plasmid inventory of strain Java 9 mediates high levels of arsenic resistance.

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    Mark Eppinger

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.

  19. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase 1 reverse the immune evasion phenotype to enhance T-cell mediated lysis of prostate and breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Sofia R; Malamas, Anthony S; Tsang, Kwong Y; Ferrone, Soldano; Hodge, James W

    2016-02-16

    The clinical promise of cancer immunotherapy relies on the premise that the immune system can recognize and eliminate tumor cells identified as non-self. However, tumors can evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of genes involved in antigen processing and immune recognition. Hence, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic strategies that can restore tumor immune recognition when combined with immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint blockade and therapeutic cancer vaccines. We sought to examine the potential of clinically relevant exposure of prostate and breast human carcinoma cells to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to reverse tumor immune escape to T-cell mediated lysis. Here we demonstrate that prostate (LNCAP) and breast (MDA-MB-231) carcinoma cells are more sensitive to T-cell mediated lysis in vitro after clinically relevant exposure to epigenetic therapy with either the pan-HDAC inhibitor vorinostat or the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat. This pattern of immunogenic modulation was observed against a broad range of tumor-associated antigens, such as CEA, MUC1, PSA, and brachyury, and associated with augmented expression of multiple proteins involved in antigen processing and tumor immune recognition. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition studies identified HDAC1 as a key determinant in the reversal of carcinoma immune escape. Further, our findings suggest that the observed reversal of tumor immune evasion is driven by a response to cellular stress through activation of the unfolded protein response. This offers the rationale for combining HDAC inhibitors with immunotherapy, including therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  20. Plant phenomics and the need for physiological phenotyping across scales to narrow the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grosskinsky, D. K.; Svensgaard, J.; Christensen, S.; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 18 (2015), s. 5429-5440 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : External phenotype * genome–environment–management interaction * genome–phenome map * internal phenotype * phenomics * physiological traits * physiology * plant phenotyping * predictors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  1. Insight into Genotype-Phenotype Associations through eQTL Mapping in Multiple Cell Types in Health and Immune-Mediated Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Peters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have transformed our understanding of the genetics of complex traits such as autoimmune diseases, but how risk variants contribute to pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Identifying genetic variants that affect gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, or eQTLs is crucial to addressing this. eQTLs vary between tissues and following in vitro cellular activation, but have not been examined in the context of human inflammatory diseases. We performed eQTL mapping in five primary immune cell types from patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (n = 91, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (n = 46 and healthy controls (n = 43, revealing eQTLs present only in the context of active inflammatory disease. Moreover, we show that following treatment a proportion of these eQTLs disappear. Through joint analysis of expression data from multiple cell types, we reveal that previous estimates of eQTL immune cell-type specificity are likely to have been exaggerated. Finally, by analysing gene expression data from multiple cell types, we find eQTLs not previously identified by database mining at 34 inflammatory bowel disease-associated loci. In summary, this parallel eQTL analysis in multiple leucocyte subsets from patients with active disease provides new insights into the genetic basis of immune-mediated diseases.

  2. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  3. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonist ameliorates phenotypes and corrects microRNA-mediated IGF1 deficits in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellios, Nikolaos; Woodson, Jonathan; Garcia, Rodrigo I.; Crawford, Benjamin; Sharma, Jitendra; Sheridan, Steven D.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Sur, Mriganka

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in methyl-CpG–binding protein 2 (MECP2), with known disturbances in catecholamine synthesis. Here, we show that treatment with the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol increases survival, rescues abnormalities in respiratory function and social recognition, and improves motor coordination in young male Mecp2-null (Mecp2−/y) mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that short-term treatment with clenbuterol in older symptomatic female heterozygous (Mecp2−/+) mice rescues respiratory, cognitive, and motor coordination deficits, and induces an anxiolytic effect. In addition, we reveal abnormalities in a microRNA-mediated pathway, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor that affects insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression in Mecp2−/y mice, and show that treatment with clenbuterol restores the observed molecular alterations. Finally, cotreatment with clenbuterol and recombinant human IGF1 results in additional increases in survival in male null mice. Collectively, our data support a role for IGF1 and other growth factor deficits as an underlying mechanism of Rett syndrome and introduce β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of the disorder. PMID:24958851

  4. Modulation of phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes mediated by cAMP elevating agents

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    Antonella Riccomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that Cholera Toxin (CT and other cyclic AMP (cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T regulatory (Treg cells that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of CTLA-4 in CD4+CD25- and further enhance its expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells. We observed an increase of two isoforms of mRNA coding for the membrane and the soluble CTLA-4 molecules, suggesting that the regulation of CTLA-4 expression by cAMP is at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25+ T cells converts the CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, whereas the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25- T cells did not up-regulate Foxp3 in the absence of activation stimuli. To investigate the function of these cells, we performed an in vitro suppression assay by culturing CD4+CD25+ T cells untreated or pre-treated with CT with anti-CD3 mAbs-stimulated autologous PBMC. We found that CT enhances the inhibitory function of CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production are strongly inhibited by CD4+CD25+ T cells pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents induce the up-regulation of CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells (DCs in the absence of antigenic stimulation, however without leading to full DC maturation. These data show that the increase of intracellular cAMP modulates the phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T cells.

  5. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K; Smith, Jane R; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2) = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.

  6. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affendi Isa

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour.We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963. Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours.To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.

  7. Mediational Effects of Self-Efficacy Dimensions in the Relationship between Knowledge of Dengue and Dengue Preventive Behaviour with Respect to Control of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model of a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K.; Smith, Jane R.; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. Methods and Findings We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Conclusions To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy. PMID:24086777

  8. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  9. Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    A life-course perspective was used to examine whether a parent's adolescent antisocial behaviour increases the chances of his or her child being involved in antisocial behaviour and, if so, the extent to which different aspects of parenting mediate this relationship. It was hypothesised that there will be significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behaviour when parents have ongoing contact with the child, and that stress from parenting and ineffective parenting styles will mediate this relationship. Longitudinal data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study were used to test these issues in structural equation models for fathers and for mothers. Parental antisocial behaviour is significantly related to child antisocial behaviour for mothers and for fathers who have frequent contact with the child, but not for fathers with infrequent contact. For mothers, the impact of adolescent antisocial behaviour on the child's antisocial behaviour is primarily mediated through parenting stress and effective parenting. For high-contact fathers there are multiple mediating pathways that help explain the impact of their adolescent antisocial behaviour on their child's behaviour. The roots of antisocial behaviour extend back at least to the parent's adolescence, and parenting interventions need to consider these long-term processes.

  10. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  11. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO- treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations.

  12. Transgenerational epigenetic effects on animal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade a shift in paradigm has occurred with respect to the interaction between environment and genes. It is now clear that animal genomes are regulated to a large extent as a result of input from environmental events and experiences, which cause short- and long-term modifications in epigenetic markings of DNA and histones. In this review, the evidence that such epigenetic modifications can affect the behaviour of animals is explored, and whether such acquired behaviour alterations can transfer across generation borders. First, the mechanisms by which experiences cause epigenetic modifications are examined. This includes, for example, methylation of cytosine in CpG positions and acetylation of histones, and studies showing that this can be modified by early experiences. Secondly, the evidence that specific modifications in the epigenome can be the cause of behaviour variation is reviewed. Thirdly, the extent to which this phenotypically active epigenetic variants can be inherited either through the germline or through reoccurring environmental conditions is examined. A particularly interesting observation is that epigenetic modifications are often linked to stress, and may possibly be mediated by steroid effects. Finally, the idea that transgenerationally stable epigenetic variants may serve as substrates for natural selection is explored, and it is speculated that they may even predispose for directed, non-random mutations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiencia de libre albedrío en la conducta pro-social determinada por la alegría (The experience of free will in pro-social behaviour mediated by happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Coma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isen and Levin (1972 suggested that pro-social behaviour was mediated by happiness. This study replicated the experiment conducted by Isen and Levin in a sample of 127 people, introducing some changes to adapt it to the current settings. The experience of freedom of the participants was recorded and the results related to Gazzaniga’s construction of belief. The hypothesis provided by Isen and Levin was upheld in the current setting and the experience of free will in the participants.

  14. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Raat (Hein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem

  15. Cognitive Phenotype of Velocardiofacial Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Frederick; Biswas, Asit B.; Gumber, Rohit; Singh, Niraj

    2011-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, includes developmental disabilities, frequently including intellectual disability (ID) and high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. VCFS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of…

  16. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a

  17. Targeting change in physical activity and screen time behaviours within the HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) intervention study: A mediating framework approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Ingunn Holden

    2013-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2013 During the 1990’s and early 2000’s there has been an increase in prevalence of overweight (including obesity) in European children and adolescents. This is a public health challenge as overweight and obesity are associated with adverse psychosocial and physiological health effects, both in youth and adulthood. School-based interventions to promote physical activity, improve dietary and reduce sedentary behaviours have been ...

  18. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  19. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two odorant-binding proteins mediate the behavioural response of aphids to the alarm pheromone (E-ß-farnesene and structural analogues.

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    Yu Feng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

  1. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour.

  2. Differential effects of diazepam and MPEP on habituation and neuro-behavioural processes in inbred mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated a profound lack of habituation in 129P3 mice compared to the habituating, but initially more anxious, BALB/c mice. The present study investigated whether this non-adaptive phenotype of 129P3 mice is primarily based on anxiety-related characteristics. Methods To test this hypothesis and extend our knowledge on the behavioural profile of 129P3 mice, the effects of the anxiolyticdiazepam (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) and the putative anxiolytic metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5R) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) treatment on within-trial (intrasession) habituation, object recognition (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) and on the central-nervous expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) were investigated. Results Behavioural findings validated the initially high, but habituating phenotype of BALB/c mice, while 129P3 mice were characterized by impaired intrasession habituation. Diazepam had an anxiolytic effect in BALB/c mice, while in higher doses caused behavioural inactivity in 129P3 mice. MPEP revealed almost no anxiolytic effects on behaviour in both strains, but reduced stress-induced corticosterone responses only in 129P3 mice. These results were complemented by reduced expression of c-Fos after MPEP treatment in brain areas related to emotional processes, and increased c-Fos expression in higher integrating brain areas such as the prelimbic cortex compared to vehicle-treated 129P3 mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the strain differences observed in (non)adaptive anxiety behaviour are at least in part mediated by differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid- A and mGluR5 mediated transmission. PMID:22686184

  3. Non-neural androgen receptors affect sexual differentiation of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, D A; Swift-Gallant, A

    2018-02-01

    Although gonadal testosterone is the principal endocrine factor that promotes masculine traits in mammals, the development of a male phenotype requires local production of both androgenic and oestrogenic signals within target tissues. Much of our knowledge concerning androgenic components of testosterone signalling in sexual differentiation comes from studies of androgen receptor (Ar) loss of function mutants. Here, we review these studies of loss of Ar function and of AR overexpression either globally or selectively in the nervous system of mice. Global and neural mutations affect socio-sexual behaviour and the neuroanatomy of these mice in a sexually differentiated manner. Some masculine traits are affected by both global and neural mutation, indicative of neural mediation, whereas other masculine traits are affected only by global mutation, indicative of an obligatory non-neural androgen target. These results support a model in which multiple sites of androgen action coordinate to produce masculine phenotypes. Furthermore, AR overexpression does not always have a phenotype opposite to that of loss of Ar function mutants, indicative of a nonlinear relationship between androgen dose and masculine phenotype in some cases. Potential mechanisms of Ar gene function in non-neural targets in producing masculine phenotypes are discussed. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. Possible use of the BG Sentinel (BGS trap to sample Anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. The efficiency of this trap was compared with that of the Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X trap, when baited with foot odour alone or combinations of foot odour with carbon dioxide (CO2 or lemongrass as behaviour-modifying cues. Methods Female An. gambiae s.s. were released in an experimental flight arena that was placed in a semi-field system and left overnight. Catch rates for the MM-X and BGS traps were recorded. Data were analysed by fitting a generalized linear model to the (n+1 transformed catches. Results Both types of traps successfully captured mosquitoes with all odour cues used. When the BGS trap was tested against the MM-X trap in a choice assay with foot odour as bait, the BGS trap caught about three times as many mosquitoes as the MM-X trap (P = 0.002. Adding CO2 (500 ml/min to foot odour increased the number of mosquitoes caught by 268% for the MM-X (P Conclusion The BGS trap shows high potential for field trials due to its simple construction and high catch rate when baited with human foot odour only. However, for rapid screening of different baits in a contained semi-field system, the superior discriminatory power of the MM-X trap is advantageous.

  5. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Wolfgang H; Takken, Willem; Killeen, Gerry F; Knols, Bart G J; Smallegange, Renate C

    2008-11-03

    Evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. Possible use of the BG Sentinel (BGS) trap to sample Anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. The efficiency of this trap was compared with that of the Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X) trap, when baited with foot odour alone or combinations of foot odour with carbon dioxide (CO2) or lemongrass as behaviour-modifying cues. Female An. gambiae s.s. were released in an experimental flight arena that was placed in a semi-field system and left overnight. Catch rates for the MM-X and BGS traps were recorded. Data were analysed by fitting a generalized linear model to the (n+1) transformed catches. Both types of traps successfully captured mosquitoes with all odour cues used. When the BGS trap was tested against the MM-X trap in a choice assay with foot odour as bait, the BGS trap caught about three times as many mosquitoes as the MM-X trap (P = 0.002). Adding CO2 (500 ml/min) to foot odour increased the number of mosquitoes caught by 268% for the MM-X (P BGS trap, compared to foot odour alone. When lemongrass leaves were added to foot odour, mosquito catches were reduced by 39% (BGS, P BGS trap shows high potential for field trials due to its simple construction and high catch rate when baited with human foot odour only. However, for rapid screening of different baits in a contained semi-field system, the superior discriminatory power of the MM-X trap is advantageous.

  6. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  7. Genotype to phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malcolm, Sue; Goodship, Timothy H. J

    2001-01-01

    ... Disorders Molecular Genetics of Hypertension Human Gene EvolutionAnalysis of Multifactorial Disease Transcription Factors Molecular Genetics of Cancer, Second edition Genotype to Phenotype, second e...

  8. Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New Bacterial Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie E; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-07-01

    Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed 'exploration' - so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  10. Assessing the value of post-processed state-of-the-art long-term weather forecast ensembles for agricultural water management mediated by farmers' behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in modelling of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics significantly improved skills of long-term climate forecast from global circulation models (GCMs). These more accurate weather predictions are supposed to be a valuable support to farmers in optimizing farming operations (e.g. crop choice, cropping and watering time) and for more effectively coping with the adverse impacts of climate variability. Yet, assessing how actually valuable this information can be to a farmer is not straightforward and farmers' response must be taken into consideration. Indeed, in the context of agricultural systems potentially useful forecast information should alter stakeholders' expectation, modify their decisions, and ultimately produce an impact on their performance. Nevertheless, long-term forecast are mostly evaluated in terms of accuracy (i.e., forecast quality) by comparing hindcast and observed values and only few studies investigated the operational value of forecast looking at the gain of utility within the decision-making context, e.g. by considering the derivative of forecast information, such as simulated crop yields or simulated soil moisture, which are essential to farmers' decision-making process. In this study, we contribute a step further in the assessment of the operational value of long-term weather forecasts products by embedding these latter into farmers' behavioral models. This allows a more critical assessment of the forecast value mediated by the end-users' perspective, including farmers' risk attitudes and behavioral patterns. Specifically, we evaluate the operational value of thirteen state-of-the-art long-range forecast products against climatology forecast and empirical prediction (i.e. past year climate and historical average) within an integrated agronomic modeling framework embedding an implicit model of the farmers' decision-making process. Raw ensemble datasets are bias-corrected and downscaled using a stochastic weather generator, in

  11. Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2012-04-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype.

  12. The missing link between values and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen

    For a long time human values have been perceived as abstrat cognitions representing desired goals or end-states which motivate humnan behaviour. A number of studies have tried to explore the link between values and behaviour, but often different constructs are included as intermediate links between...... values and specific behaviour, since values may be too abstract to influence behaviour directly. We propose the concept of lifestyle as a mediator between values and behaviour, and present our approach to lifestyle based on principles from cognitive psychology, where we distinguish between values...... and lifestyle and behaviour. Based on this appraoch we collected data covering values, lifestyle and behaviour, and estimated the cogntiive hierarchy from values to lifestyle to behaviour by structural equation models....

  13. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  14. How Malaysian Managers Persuade Employees' Innovative Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farid, Hadi; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2017-01-01

    The intention of this paper was to examine the impact of six selected leaders' behaviours on employees' innovative behaviour through the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). A total number of 155 pairs of employees and their immediate managers participated in this study. Employees rated...... their managers' behaviours and managers evaluated their subordinates' innovative behaviour. Both managers and employees answered to LMX measurement. Then, the agreements of employees' and managers' LMX rating were applied based on the results of within and between analysis (WABA). The obtained data were analysed...... through structural equation modelling-partial least square (SEM-PLS). The findings revealed the significance of mediating role of LMX in relationship between behaviour of recognising, taking risks for change and paternalistic with employees' innovative behaviour. Thus, this study has contributed...

  15. How Malaysian managers persuade employees' innovative behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farid, Hadi; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2017-01-01

    The intention of this paper was to examine the impact of six selected leaders' behaviours on employees' innovative behaviour through the mediating role of leader-member exchange (LMX). A total number of 155 pairs of employees and their immediate managers participated in this study. Employees rated...... their managers' behaviours and managers evaluated their subordinates' innovative behaviour. Both managers and employees answered to LMX measurement. Then, the agreements of employees' and managers' LMX rating were applied based on the results of within and between analysis (WABA). The obtained data were analysed...... through structural equation modelling-partial least square (SEM-PLS). The findings revealed the significance of mediating role of LMX in relationship between behaviour of recognising, taking risks for change and paternalistic with employees' innovative behaviour. Thus, this study has contributed...

  16. One gene, many phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available "Phenotype" is the visible or quantifiable effect of the expression of a gene, whereas the specific genetic constitution responsible for a phenotype is called "genotype". It was hoped that phenotype could be accurately predicted if the genotype could be characterized. But, the relationship between the genotype and phenotype is not straightforward. Similar genetic lesions can have entirely different phenotypes. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in the understanding of the genetic basis of diseases. The extent to which it will be possible to relate findings at the DNA level to the clinical phenotype is difficult to delineate on many occasions. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying genotype-phenotype discrepancies is important as it will influence the use of DNA-based tests in the diagnosis, therapy and counseling of individuals affected with genetic disorders. This issue is pertinent to almost every aspect of medical practice and research in this post-genome era. In this article, we have tried to summarize those factors which are responsible for varied manifestations of lesion(s in a single gene.

  17. Relationship between endophenotype and phenotype in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitelaar Jan K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors relate to psychiatric disorders through the effect of intermediating, vulnerability traits called endophenotypes. The study had a threefold aim: to examine the predictive validity of an endophenotypic construct for the ADHD diagnosis, to test whether the magnitude of group differences at the endophenotypic and phenotypic level is comparable, and to investigate whether four factors (gender, age, IQ, rater bias have an effect (moderation or mediation on the relation between endophenotype and phenotype. Methods Ten neurocognitive tasks were administered to 143 children with ADHD, 68 non-affected siblings, and 120 control children (first-borns and 132 children with ADHD, 78 non-affected siblings, and 113 controls (second-borns (5 – 19 years. The task measures have been investigated previously for their endophenotypic viability and were combined to one component which was labeled 'the endophenotypic construct': one measure representative of endophenotypic functioning across several domains of functioning. Results The endophenotypic construct classified children with moderate accuracy (about 50% for each of the three groups. Non-affected children differed as much from controls at the endophenotypic as at the phenotypic level, but affected children displayed a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Although a potentially moderating effect (age and several mediating effects (gender, age, IQ were found affecting the relation between endophenotypic construct and phenotype, none of the effects studied could account for the finding that affected children had a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Conclusion Endophenotypic functioning is moderately predictive of the ADHD diagnosis, though findings suggest substantial overlap exists between endophenotypic functioning in the groups of affected children, non-affected siblings, and controls. Results suggest other

  18. Physiological mechanisms underlying animal social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Frank; Krause, Jens

    2017-08-19

    Many species of animal live in groups, and the group represents the organizational level within which ecological and evolutionary processes occur. Understanding these processes, therefore, relies on knowledge of the mechanisms that permit or constrain group formation. We suggest that physiological capacities and differences in physiology between individuals modify fission-fusion dynamics. Differences between individuals in locomotor capacity and metabolism may lead to fission of groups and sorting of individuals into groups with similar physiological phenotypes. Environmental impacts such as hypoxia can influence maximum group sizes and structure in fish schools by altering access to oxygenated water. The nutritional environment determines group cohesion, and the increase in information collected by the group means that individuals should rely more on social information and form more cohesive groups in uncertain environments. Changing environmental contexts require rapid responses by individuals to maintain group coordination, which are mediated by neuroendocrine signalling systems such as nonapeptides and steroid hormones. Brain processing capacity may constrain social complexity by limiting information processing. Failure to evaluate socially relevant information correctly limits social interactions, which is seen, for example, in autism. Hence, functioning of a group relies to a large extent on the perception and appropriate processing of signals from conspecifics. Many if not all physiological systems are mechanistically linked, and therefore have synergistic effects on social behaviour. A challenge for the future lies in understanding these interactive effects, which will improve understanding of group dynamics, particularly in changing environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Phenotypic plasticity and diversity in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczek, Armin P

    2010-02-27

    Phenotypic plasticity in general and polyphenic development in particular are thought to play important roles in organismal diversification and evolutionary innovation. Focusing on the evolutionary developmental biology of insects, and specifically that of horned beetles, I explore the avenues by which phenotypic plasticity and polyphenic development have mediated the origins of novelty and diversity. Specifically, I argue that phenotypic plasticity generates novel targets for evolutionary processes to act on, as well as brings about trade-offs during development and evolution, thereby diversifying evolutionary trajectories available to natural populations. Lastly, I examine the notion that in those cases in which phenotypic plasticity is underlain by modularity in gene expression, it results in a fundamental trade-off between degree of plasticity and mutation accumulation. On one hand, this trade-off limits the extent of plasticity that can be accommodated by modularity of gene expression. On the other hand, it causes genes whose expression is specific to rare environments to accumulate greater variation within species, providing the opportunity for faster divergence and diversification between species, compared with genes expressed across environments. Phenotypic plasticity therefore contributes to organismal diversification on a variety of levels of biological organization, thereby facilitating the evolution of novel traits, new species and complex life cycles.

  20. Development of a Mobile Multispectral Imaging Platform for Precise Field Phenotyping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svensgaard, J.; Roitsch, Thomas; Christensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2014), s. 322-336 ISSN 2073-4395 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : field phenotyping * multispectral imaging * supervised classification * canonical discriminant analysis * vegetation coverage * NDVI Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  2. Behaviour Questionnaire

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symptoms signifying a hostile-aggressive dimension, factor 2 an anxious-fearful dimension, and factor 3 emerged as a ... Objective. This paper examines the factor structure of the. Yoruba translation of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire .... Twitches/mannerisms/tics. Sucks thumb/finger. Bites nails. Often disobedient.

  3. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....

  4. A holistic model of behavioural branding: The role of employee behaviours and internal branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures.......Understanding employee behaviours is a growing concern in all kinds of companies and across disciplines because such behaviours are critical determinants of organizational success. This paper elaborates on the concept of behavioural branding, which refers to employee behaviours that convey brand...... consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive...

  5. Genetic Regulation of Phenotypic Plasticity and Canalisation in Yeast Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Yadav

    Full Text Available The ability of a genotype to show diverse phenotypes in different environments is called phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic plasticity helps populations to evade extinctions in novel environments, facilitates adaptation and fuels evolution. However, most studies focus on understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic regulation in specific environments. As a result, while it's evolutionary relevance is well established, genetic mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity and their overlap with the environment specific regulators is not well understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly sensitive to the environment, which acts as not just external stimulus but also as signalling cue for this unicellular, sessile organism. We used a previously published dataset of a biparental yeast population grown in 34 diverse environments and mapped genetic loci regulating variation in phenotypic plasticity, plasticity QTL, and compared them with environment-specific QTL. Plasticity QTL is one whose one allele exhibits high plasticity whereas the other shows a relatively canalised behaviour. We mapped phenotypic plasticity using two parameters-environmental variance, an environmental order-independent parameter and reaction norm (slope, an environmental order-dependent parameter. Our results show a partial overlap between pleiotropic QTL and plasticity QTL such that while some plasticity QTL are also pleiotropic, others have a significant effect on phenotypic plasticity without being significant in any environment independently. Furthermore, while some plasticity QTL are revealed only in specific environmental orders, we identify large effect plasticity QTL, which are order-independent such that whatever the order of the environments, one allele is always plastic and the other is canalised. Finally, we show that the environments can be divided into two categories based on the phenotypic diversity of the population within them and the two categories have

  6. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sidi; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2013-09-01

    During the course of evolution, genomes acquire novel genetic elements as sources of functional and phenotypic diversity, including new genes that originated in recent evolution. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the evolution and phenotypic effects of new genes. In particular, an emerging picture is that new genes, despite being present in the genomes of only a subset of species, can rapidly evolve indispensable roles in fundamental biological processes, including development, reproduction, brain function and behaviour. The molecular underpinnings of how new genes can develop these roles are starting to be characterized. These recent discoveries yield fresh insights into our broad understanding of biological diversity at refined resolution.

  7. New genes as drivers of phenotypic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sidi; Krinsky, Benjamin H.; Long, Manyuan

    2014-01-01

    During the course of evolution, genomes acquire novel genetic elements as sources of functional and phenotypic diversity, including new genes that originated in recent evolution. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the evolution and phenotypic effects of new genes. In particular, an emerging picture is that new genes, despite being present in the genomes of only a subset of species, can rapidly evolve indispensable roles in fundamental biological processes, including development, reproduction, brain function and behaviour. The molecular underpinnings of how new genes can develop these roles are starting to be characterized. These recent discoveries yield fresh insights into our broad understanding of biological diversity at refined resolution. PMID:23949544

  8. Assessment of owner-directed aggressive behavioural tendencies of dogs in situations of possession and manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, Anna; Rieger, Gabriella; Miklósi, Ádám; Pongrácz, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Excessive aggression is a common behaviour problem in dogs that can have various destructive effects on the affected people and the implicated dog. Aggressive behaviour directed towards the owner or other family members is one of the most frequently occurring aggressive phenotypes. Here, we examine the reliability of a short questionnaire assessing aggressive behaviours by two, contextually different behavioural tests: ‘take away bone’ and ‘roll over’. Based on dogs' behaviour in the tests, w...

  9. Not in their genes: Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Moreover, both the skewing of infant sex ra- tios and the adoption of variable social strategies must involve, in addition, the evaluation and recognition by each female of her own unique rank in the dominance hierarchy – a cognitive ability that has now clearly been demonstrated in bonnet macaques (Sinha 1998, 2003) but.

  10. Phenotypic flexibility, behavioural traditions and cultural evolution in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    social organization in which small troops are formed by a single adult male with a few adult females and their off- .... to have evolved several times during the history of life – and these have facilitated the inheritance of ...... ever, lies outside the scope of this paper (but see. Waddington 1957; Hardy 1965; Nanjundiah 2003; ...

  11. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  12. Developmental and behavioural characteristics of cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K M; Pigram, J

    1996-01-01

    Developmental and behavioural characteristics were assessed in 27 children with cri du chat syndrome using the Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes questionnaire, which gave information on prenatal and perinatal conditions, neurological problems, and developmental and behavioural difficulties. The findings suggest that the behavioural profile of children with cri du chat syndrome incorporates self injurious behaviour, repetitive movements, hypersensitivity to sound, clumsiness, and obsessive attachments to objects. In terms of a developmental profile, children with cri du chat syndrome were able to communicate their needs, socially interact with others, and have some degree of mobility. PMID:8957962

  13. The DFNA10 phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, E. de; Huygen, P.L.M.; Wayne, S.; Smith, R.J.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the DFNA10 phenotype based on data from 25 hearing-impaired persons coming from a large American pedigree segregating for deafness at the DFNA10 locus (chromosome 6q22.3-23.2). Cross-sectional analysis of air conduction threshold-on-age data from all available

  14. Down Syndrome: Cognitive Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent cause of intellectual impairment associated with a genetic anomaly, in this case, trisomy of chromosome 21. It affects both physical and cognitive development and produces a characteristic phenotype, although affected individuals vary considerably with respect to severity of specific impairments. Studies…

  15. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  16. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  17. Oral intake of zirconia nanoparticle alters neuronal development and behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monalisa; Sabat, Debabrat; Ekka, Basanti; Sahu, Swetapadma; P, Unnikannan; Dash, Priyabrat

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) have been extensively used in teeth and bone implants and thus get a chance to interact with the physiological system. The current study investigated the oral administration of various concentrations of ZrO2 NPs synthesized by the hydrothermal method (0.25 to 5.0 mg L-1) on Drosophila physiology and behaviour. The size of the currently studied nanoparticle varies from 10 to 12 nm. ZrO2 NPs accumulated within the gut in a concentration-dependent manner and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) only at 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1 concentrations. ROS was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20370560 (H2DCF) staining. The ROS toxicity alters the larval gut structure as revealed by DAPI staining. The NP stress of larvae affects the Drosophila development by distressing pupa count and varying the phenotypic changes in sensory organs (eye, thorax bristle, wings). Besides phenotypic changes, flawed climbing behaviour against gravity was seen in ZrO2 NP-treated flies. All together, for the first time, we have reported that a ROS-mediated ZrO2 NP toxicity alters neuronal development and functioning using Drosophila as a model organism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Ameloginins promote an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almqvist, S; Werthen, M; Lyngstadas, SP

    2011-01-01

    Amelogenins are extracellular matrix proteins used for the topical treatment of chronically inflamed tissues. The influence of amelogenins on human monocyte-derived macrophages was studied by measuring the concentrations of cytokines in culture supernatants. The interactions of cells and protein...... increased the macrophage release of key cell mediators involved in tissue repair. The effect was independent of phagocytosis, implying a receptor-mediated signal. The markedly increased levels of AMAC-1 suggest that amelogenins promote a reparative macrophage phenotype....

  19. Plant phenotyping: a perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Kumud; Mishra, Anamika; Klem, Karel; Govindjee, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2016), s. 514-527 ISSN 0019-5502 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-28093S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) * Cold acclimation (CA) * Drought acclimation (DA) * Hyperspectral imaging * Infrared thermal imaging Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Self-Injurious Behaviour in Cornelia De Lange Syndrome: 1. Prevalence and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C.; Sloneem, J.; Hall, S.; Arron, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour is frequently identified as part of the behavioural phenotype of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). We conducted a case-control study of the prevalence and phenomenology of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in CdLS. Methods: A total of 54 participants with CdLS were compared with 46 individuals who were comparable…

  1. Peer acceptance and the development of emotional and behavioural problems: Results from a preventive intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, B.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in

  2. Teachers as mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorf, Hans; Kelly, Peter; Hohmann, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of lower secondary English teaching in South West England, this study identifies in broad terms the competing goals between which English teachers mediate and the explicit and hidden tensions that result. To understand the interactions of competing goals, teachers’ goal...... and cultural influences on practice. Yet the teachers observed moved smoothly between goal-oriented behaviours in a continuous and comfortable style, easily and without reflecting any tensions between them. Thus, this article elaborates an account of situated English teaching....

  3. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  4. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Fragile X Syndrome: Behavioral Phenotype and Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia GRAU RUBIO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the behavioral phenotype of individuals with Fragile X Syndrome and its impact in the educational scope. This syndrome is characterized by difficulties in sensory integration, cognitive deficits (verbal reasoning, abstract/ visual and cuantitative skills, short term memory, sequential processing, attention and executive processes, language disorders (phonetic-phonologicals, semanticals, morphosyntacticals and pragmaticals and communication disorders, social anxiety, general hyperarousal, autism, non autistic social difficulties, attention deficit and hyperactivity, and learning disabilities. The behavioral phenotype is highly variable and depends on sex, age, and mutation status (full mutation or premutation. The behavioural phenotype has important repercussions in education, as it enables us to understand the learning disabilities and to develop specific intervention strategies.

  6. The Influence Of School Type In Modifying Sexual Behaviour Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a quasi-experimental research aimed at modifying sexual behaviour of secondary school adolescents. The effect which the mediating variable of school type has on the sexual behaviour of secondary school adolescents was also assessed. The study made use of a sample of one hundred and seventy three ...

  7. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  8. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2017-06-19

    Phenotypic plasticity, if adaptive, may allow species to counter the detrimental effects of extreme conditions, but the infrequent occurrence of extreme environments and/or their restriction to low-quality habitats within a species range means that they exert little direct selection on reaction norms. Plasticity could, therefore, be maladaptive under extreme environments, unless genetic correlations are strong between extreme and non-extreme environmental states, and the optimum phenotype changes smoothly with the environment. Empirical evidence suggests that populations and species from more variable environments show higher levels of plasticity that might preadapt them to extremes, but genetic variance for plastic responses can also be low, and genetic variation may not be expressed for some classes of traits under extreme conditions. Much of the empirical literature on plastic responses to extremes has not yet been linked to ecologically relevant conditions, such as asymmetrical fluctuations in the case of temperature extremes. Nevertheless, evolved plastic responses are likely to be important for natural and agricultural species increasingly exposed to climate extremes, and there is an urgent need to collect empirical information and link this to model predictions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  10. Effects of activated fibroblasts on phenotype modulation, EGFR signalling and cell cycle regulation in OSCC cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.berndt@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Büttner, Robert, E-mail: Robert-Buettner@gmx.net [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gühne, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie_guehne@gmx.net [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Gleinig, Anna, E-mail: annagleinig@yahoo.com [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Richter, Petra, E-mail: P.Richter@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Chen, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Chen@med.uni-jena.de [Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Pathology, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Franz, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Franz@med.uni-jena.de [Clinic of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena (Germany); Liebmann, Claus, E-mail: Claus.Liebmann@uni-jena.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07740 Jena (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Crosstalk between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells is suggested to mediate phenotype transition of cancer cells as a prerequisite for tumour progression, to predict patients’ outcome, and to influence the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor therapies. Here we investigate the influence of activated fibroblasts as a model for CAFs on phenotype and EGFR signalling in OSCC cells in vitro. For this, immortalised hTERT-BJ1 fibroblasts were activated with TGFβ1 and PDGFAB to generate a myofibroblast or proliferative phenotype, respectively. Conditioned media (FCM{sub TGF}, FCM{sub PDGF}) were used to stimulate PE/CA-PJ15 OSCC cells. Results were compared to the effect of conditioned media of non-stimulated fibroblasts (FCM{sub B}). FCM{sub TGF} stimulation leads to an up-regulation of vimentin in the OSCC cells and an enhancement of invasive behaviour, indicating EMT-like effects. Similarly, FCM{sub TGF}≫FCM{sub PDGF} induced up-regulation of EGFR, but not of ErbB2/ErbB3. In addition, we detected an increase in basal activities of ERK, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 (FCM{sub TGF}>FCM{sub PDGF}) accompanied by protein interaction of vimentin with pERK. These effects are correlated with an increased proliferation. In summary, our results suggest that the activated myofibroblast phenotype provides soluble factors which are able to induce EMT-like phenomena and to increase EGFR signalling as well as cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Our results indicate a possible influence of activated myofibroblasts on EGFR-inhibitor therapy. Therefore, CAFs may serve as promising novel targets for combined therapy strategies. - Highlights: • A cell culture model for cancer associated fibroblasts is described. • The mutual interaction with OSCC cells leads to up-regulation of EGFR in tumour cells. • mCAF induces EGFR downstream signalling with increased proliferation in OSCC. • Erk activation is associated with protein interaction with vimentin

  11. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  12. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  13. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  14. Anatomical correlates of reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0–3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987

  15. Human glia can both induce and rescue aspects of disease phenotype in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benraiss, Abdellatif; Wang, Su; Herrlinger, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    chimeras are hyperexcitable. Conversely, normal glia can ameliorate disease phenotype in transgenic HD mice, as striatal transplantation of normal glia rescues aspects of electrophysiological and behavioural phenotype, restores interstitial potassium homeostasis, slows disease progression and extends...... survival in R6/2 HD mice. These observations suggest a causal role for glia in HD, and further suggest a cell-based strategy for disease amelioration in this disorder....

  16. Attenuated behaviour in Cornelia de Lange and fragile X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Oliver, C; Wittkowski, A; Moss, J; Hare, D

    2018-03-13

    Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour. The Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire was completed by parents/carers of 33 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and 69 with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Information collected from the same informants 4 years previously was utilised to examine ASD and repetitive behaviour as predictors of later attenuated behaviour, controlling for age, gender and ability. Catatonia-like attenuated behaviour was reported for individuals with CdLS (30.3%) and FXS (11.6%). Slowed movement was more prevalent in people with CdLS. No other phenotypic differences were observed. Across the two groups, repetitive behaviour predicted the presence of attenuated behaviour 4 years later, after controlling for age, gender and ability. Attenuated behaviour can be identified in individuals with CdLS and FXS and may have an effect on both adaptive behaviour and quality of life. Repetitive behaviours predicted subsequent risk within both groups and should be assessed by services as part of a pro-active strategy of support. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity, costs of phenotypes, and costs of plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Hilary S; Maughan, Heather; Steiner, Uli

    2008-01-01

    Why are some traits constitutive and others inducible? The term costs often appears in work addressing this issue but may be ambiguously defined. This review distinguishes two conceptually distinct types of costs: phenotypic costs and plasticity costs. Phenotypic costs are assessed from patterns...... of covariation, typically between a focal trait and a separate trait relevant to fitness. Plasticity costs, separable from phenotypic costs, are gauged by comparing the fitness of genotypes with equivalent phenotypes within two environments but differing in plasticity and fitness. Subtleties associated with both...... types of costs are illustrated by a body of work addressing predator-induced plasticity. Such subtleties, and potential interplay between the two types of costs, have also been addressed, often in studies involving genetic model organisms. In some instances, investigators have pinpointed the mechanistic...

  18. Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits,Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, L M; Firth, J A; Farine, D R; Voelkl, B; Crates, R A; Culina, A; Garroway, C J; Hinde, C A; Kidd, L R; Psorakis, I; Milligan, N D; Radersma, R; Verhelst, B L; Sheldon, B C

    2015-10-01

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

  19. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  20. [Mediation in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this article the guiding questions concern the objectives and effectiveness of introducing mediation into an existing school culture of dominance, competition and selection. In addition the necessity will be shown of combining conflict resolution with organisational development and the introduction of a consensual ethics and behaviour code to attain sustainable results in creating a constructive and healthy school environment. Given scarce resources and little time the decisive role of artistic methods will be looked at in providing young people with flexible methods of expressing and negotiating their interests in a changing environment of values and power structures. Some aspects of the development of nonviolent communication, conflict resolution and mediation methods in schools in Germany will be focused on with special emphasis on the type of intervention used and its long term sustainable effects.

  1. Using insights from animal behaviour and behavioural ecology to inform marine conservation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rohan M; Feeney, William E; White, James R; Manassa, Rachel P; Johansen, Jacob L; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of human activities on the natural world are becoming increasingly apparent, with rapid development and exploitation occurring at the expense of habitat quality and biodiversity. Declines are especially concerning in the oceans, which hold intrinsic value due to their biological uniqueness as well as their substantial sociological and economic importance. Here, we review the literature and investigate whether incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may improve the effectiveness of conservation initiatives in marine systems. In particular, we consider (1) how knowledge of larval behaviour and ecology may be used to inform the design of marine protected areas, (2) how protecting species that hold specific ecological niches may be of particular importance for maximizing the preservation of biodiversity, (3) how current harvesting techniques may be inadvertently skewing the behavioural phenotypes of stock populations and whether changes to current practices may lessen this skew and reinforce population persistence, and (4) how understanding the behavioural and physiological responses of species to a changing environment may provide essential insights into areas of particular vulnerability for prioritized conservation attention. The complex nature of conservation programmes inherently results in interdisciplinary responses, and the incorporation of knowledge from the fields of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology may increase our ability to stem the loss of biodiversity in marine environments.

  2. Angioedema Phenotypes: Disease Expression and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Maddalena Alessandra; Perego, Francesca; Zanichelli, Andrea; Cicardi, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Due to marked heterogeneity of clinical presentations, comprehensive knowledge of angioedema phenotypes is crucial for correct diagnosis and choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach. One of the ways to a meaningful clinical distinction can be made between forms of angioedema occurring "with or without wheals." Angioedema with wheals (rash) is a hallmark of urticaria, either acute or chronic, spontaneous or inducible. Angioedema without wheals may still be manifested in about 10 % of patients with urticaria, but it may also occur as a separate entity. Several classifications of angioedema as part of urticaria were published over time, while a latest one, released in 2014 (HAWK group consensus, see below), provided a classification of all forms of "angioedema without wheals" distinct from urticaria, which will be the focus of the present review. At this time, the HAWK consensus classification is the best in terms of covering the pathophysiology, mediators involved, angioedema triggers, and clinical expression. According to this classification, three types of hereditary angioedema (genetic C1-INH deficiency, normal C1-INH with factor XII mutations, and unknown origin) and four types of acquired angioedema (C1-INH deficiency, related to ACE inhibitors intake, idiopathic histaminergic, and idiopathic non-histaminergic) are presented. We will review the distinctive clinical features of each phenotype in details.

  3. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang

    2012-01-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated...... the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis....

  4. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Roider, Tobias; Katzfu?, Michael; Matos, Carina; Singer, Katrin; Renner, Kathrin; Oefner, Peter J.; Dettmer-Wilde, Katja; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst; Kreutz, Marina; Peter, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon®) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediat...

  5. Association between perinatal methylation of the neuronal differentiation regulator HES1 and later childhood neurocognitive function and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillycrop, Karen A; Costello, Paula M; Teh, Ai Ling; Murray, Robert J; Clarke-Harris, Rebecca; Barton, Sheila J; Garratt, Emma S; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan M; Wong, Johnny; Dogra, Shaillay; Burdge, Graham C; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M; Gale, Catharine R; Gluckman, Peter D; Harvey, Nicholas C; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Holbrook, Joanna D; Godfrey, Keith M

    2015-08-01

    Early life environments induce long-term changes in neurocognitive development and behaviour. In animal models, early environmental cues affect neuropsychological phenotypes via epigenetic processes but, as yet, there is little direct evidence for such mechanisms in humans. We examined the relation between DNA methylation at birth and child neuropsychological outcomes in two culturally diverse populations using a genome-wide methylation analysis and validation by pyrosequencing. Within the UK Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) we first identified 41 differentially methylated regions of interest (DMROI) at birth associated with child's full-scale IQ at age 4 years. Associations between HES1 DMROI methylation and later cognitive function were confirmed by pyrosequencing in 175 SWS children. Consistent with these findings, higher HES1 methylation was associated with higher executive memory function in a second independent group of 200 SWS 7-year-olds. Finally, we examined a pathway for this relationship within a Singaporean cohort (n = 108). Here, HES1 DMROI methylation predicted differences in early infant behaviour, known to be associated with academic success. In vitro, methylation of HES1 inhibited ETS transcription factor binding, suggesting a functional role of this site. Thus, our findings suggest that perinatal epigenetic processes mark later neurocognitive function and behaviour, providing support for a role of epigenetic processes in mediating the long-term consequences of early life environment on cognitive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Mediatized Humanitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts to legiti......The article investigates the implications of mediatization for the legitimation strategies of humanitarian organizations. Based on a (full population) corpus of ~400 pages of brochure material from 1970 to 2007, the micro-textual processes involved in humanitarian organizations' efforts...... legitimation by accountancy, legitimation by institutionalization, and legitimation by compensation. The analysis relates these changes to a problem of trust associated with mediatization through processes of mediation....

  7. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  8. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  9. The digital revolution in phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support 'bench to bedside' efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....

  11. Impact of temporal variation on design and analysis of mouse knockout phenotyping studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Karp

    Full Text Available A significant challenge facing high-throughput phenotyping of in-vivo knockout mice is ensuring phenotype calls are robust and reliable. Central to this problem is selecting an appropriate statistical analysis that models both the experimental design (the workflow and the way control mice are selected for comparison with knockout animals and the sources of variation. Recently we proposed a mixed model suitable for small batch-oriented studies, where controls are not phenotyped concurrently with mutants. Here we evaluate this method both for its sensitivity to detect phenotypic effects and to control false positives, across a range of workflows used at mouse phenotyping centers. We found the sensitivity and control of false positives depend on the workflow. We show that the phenotypes in control mice fluctuate unexpectedly between batches and this can cause the false positive rate of phenotype calls to be inflated when only a small number of batches are tested, when the effect of knockout becomes confounded with temporal fluctuations in control mice. This effect was observed in both behavioural and physiological assays. Based on this analysis, we recommend two approaches (workflow and accompanying control strategy and associated analyses, which would be robust, for use in high-throughput phenotyping pipelines. Our results show the importance in modelling all sources of variability in high-throughput phenotyping studies.

  12. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand...... as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation...... that have helped to enrich our understanding of mediated work and the design of computer mediation for such work....

  13. Genetic predisposition to obesity affects behavioural traits including food reward and anxiety-like behaviour in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Heike; Kraemer, Maria; Rabasa, Cristina; Askevik, Kaisa; Adan, Roger A.H.; Dickson, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of

  14. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  15. You are what you eat: diet shapes body composition, personality and behavioural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chang S.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Behavioural phenotypes vary within and among individuals. While early-life experiences have repeatedly been proposed to underpin interactions between these two hierarchical levels, the environmental factors causing such effects remain under-studied. We tested whether an individual?s diet affected both its body composition, average behaviour (thereby causing among-individual variation or ?personality?) and within-individual variability in behaviour and body weight (thereby causing a...

  16. Metabolically healthy obesity: what is the role of sedentary behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joshua A; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G David; Hamer, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The role of sedentary behaviour in metabolically healthy obesity is unknown. We examined cross-sectional differences in television viewing time across metabolic and obesity phenotypes, hypothesizing that healthy obese individuals spend less time viewing television than their unhealthy counterparts. A nationally representative sample of 4931 older adults in England (mean age 65.1; SD=8.9 years) was drawn from the 2008/9 wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Average weekly television viewing time was derived from two questions about weekday and weekend viewing. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), and metabolically healthy as having obese, healthy obese, and unhealthy obese groups respectively, compared to the healthy non-obese group (p for heterogeneity behaviour varies across metabolic and obesity phenotypes. However, healthy obesity is not explained through differences in leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Liu, Shanshi; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Hongchun

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on investigating whether organisational identification mediates the effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour and how these mediation mechanisms differ according to gender. Through analysing 212 supervisor-subordinate dyads from a Chinese air transportation group, the research indicated that organisational identification partially mediated the effect of job security on in-role behaviour and fully mediated the effect of job security on extra-role behaviour. A multi-group analysis also showed that there were significant differences between male and female employees in these relationships. In addition, moderated mediation analyses showed that gender moderated the indirect effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour through organisational identification. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Complex Mediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    This article has its starting point in a large number of empirical findings regarding computer-mediated work. These empirical findings have challenged our understanding of the role of mediation in such work; on the one hand as an aspect of communication and cooperation at work and on the other hand...... as an aspect of human engagement with instruments of work. On the basis of previous work in activity-theoretical and semiotic human—computer interaction, we propose a model to encompass both of these aspects. In a dialogue with our empirical findings we move on to propose a number of types of mediation...

  19. Phenotypic plasticity is a negative, though weak, predictor of the commonness of 105 grassland species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Petr; Fischer, M.; Prati, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), s. 464-474 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09119S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : niche breadth * temperate grasslands * phenotypic plastic ity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.045, year: 2016

  20. CARD15 in inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn's disease phenotypes : An association study and pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, L. E.; Nolte, I. M.; Oosterom, E.; van der Steege, G.; Meerman, G. J. te; van Dullemen, H. M.; Drenth, J. P. H.; de Jong, D. J.; van der Linde, K.; Jansen, P. L. M.; Kleibeuker, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Three major polymorphisms of the Caspase-Activation Recruitment Domain containing protein 15 gene have been described to be associated with Crohn's disease. Genotype-phenotype studies reported in literature provide conflicting data on disease localisation and behaviour. We investigated

  1. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  2. Environmental Attitude as a Mediator of the Relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Attitude as a Mediator of the Relationship between Self-concept, Environmental Self-Efficacy and Responsible Environmental Behaviour among Residents of High Density Areas in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria.

  3. A Specific Pathway Can Be Identified between Genetic Characteristics and Behaviour Profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome via Cognitive, Environmental and Physiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavioural phenotypes associated with genetic syndromes have been extensively investigated in order to generate rich descriptions of phenomenology, determine the degree of specificity of behaviours for a particular syndrome, and examine potential interactions between genetic predispositions for behaviour and environmental influences.…

  4. Behavioural differences: a link between biodiversity and pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizney, Laurie; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity often serves to reduce zoonotic pathogens, such that prevalence is lower in communities of greater diversity. This phenomenon is termed the dilution effect, and although it has been reported for several pathogens (e.g. Sin Nombre virus, SNV), the mechanism is largely unknown. We investigated a putative mechanism, by testing the hypothesis that higher biodiversity alters behaviours important in pathogen transmission. Using deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) and SNV as our host-pathogen system, and a novel surveillance system, we compared host behaviours between high- and low-diversity communities. Behaviours were observed on foraging trays equipped with infrared cameras and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag readers. Deer mice inhabiting the more diverse site spent less time in behaviours related to SNV transmission compared to deer mice from the less diverse site. The differences were attributed to the composition of behavioural phenotypes ('bold' versus 'shy') on the sites. Bold deer mice were 4.6 times more numerous on the less diverse site and three times more likely to be infected with SNV than shy deer mice. Our findings suggest that biodiversity affects pathogen transmission by altering the presence of different behavioural phenotypes. These findings have implications for human health and conservation.

  5. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  6. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  7. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  8. Forensic DNA phenotyping : Regulatory issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few

  9. Genetic predisposition to obesity affects behavioural traits including food reward and anxiety-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Kraemer, Maria; Rabasa, Cristina; Askevik, Kaisa; Adan, Roger A H; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2017-06-15

    Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks. We found a similar phenotype in the obesity susceptible models, Obese Prone and Zucker rats, with a lower locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and higher level of anxiety-like behaviour in comparison to the leaner Obese Resistant strain. We did not find evidence that rat strains with a genetic predisposition to obesity differed in their ability to experience reward from chocolate (in a condition place preference task). However, Zucker rats show higher motivated behaviour for sucrose compared to Obese Resistant rats when the effort required to obtain palatable food is relatively low. Together our data demonstrate that rat strains that differ in their genetic predisposition to develop obesity also differ in their performance in behavioural tests linked to anxiety, exploration, and reward and that these differences are independent of body weight. We conclude that genetic variations which determine body weight and the aforementioned behaviours co-exist but that future studies are required to identify whether (and which) common genes are involved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  11. Role of vaspin in human eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

  12. Mediation Analysis of an Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2014-01-01

    Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…

  13. Behavioural Hybrid Process Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in

  14. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  15. Risk Sexual Behaviour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...

  16. Mediatized play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts....... In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....

  17. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  18. Phenotypic plasticity as an adaptive response to predictable and unpredictable environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso

    such as anti-predator behaviours or the activation of mechanisms to prevent thermal stress injuries suggest that plasticity is an adaptive response, favoured by natural selection. At the same time, organisms do show limited plastic responses, indicating that this ability is not for free. Costs and benefits...... to be an adaptive response. Despite almost a century of studies on phenotypic plasticity, the relation between plasticity and evolution is still not clear and theoretical prediction are often not met by empirical data. In my PhD I have investigated if and when plasticity can evolve. I selected Drosophila simulans......Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to modify its phenotype in response to environmental changes as a consequence of an interaction between genes and environment (Bradshaw, 1965). Plasticity contributes to the vast phenotypic variation observed in natural populations. Many examples...

  19. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  20. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  3. Phenotypic deconstruction of gene circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-06-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire of complex nonlinear gene circuits. In this paper, we describe a method for deconstructing complex systems into nonlinear sub-systems, based on mathematically defined phenotypes, which are then represented within a system design space that allows the repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes of the complex system to be identified, enumerated, and analyzed. This method efficiently characterizes large regions of system design space and quickly generates alternative hypotheses for experimental testing. We describe the motivation and strategy in general terms, illustrate its use with a detailed example involving a two-gene circuit with a rich repertoire of dynamic behavior, and discuss experimental means of navigating the system design space.

  4. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  5. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions

    OpenAIRE

    James, Richard J.E.; Tunney, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual ...

  6. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  7. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  8. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  9. Animal models of RLS phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Donelson, Nathan C; Jones, Byron C; Li, Yuqing; Manconi, Mauro; Rye, David B; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a complex disorder that involves sensory and motor systems. The major pathophysiology of RLS is low iron concentration in the substantia nigra containing the cell bodies of dopamine neurons that project to the striatum, an area that is crucial for modulating movement. People who have RLS often present with normal iron values outside the brain; recent studies implicate several genes are involved in the syndrome. Like most complex diseases, animal models usually do not faithfully capture the full phenotypic spectrum of "disease," which is a uniquely human construct. Nonetheless, animal models have proven useful in helping to unravel the complex pathophysiology of diseases such as RLS and suggesting novel treatment paradigms. For example, hypothesis-independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes as increasing the risk for RLS, including BTBD9. Independently, the murine homolog Btbd9 was identified as a candidate gene for iron regulation in the midbrain in mice. The relevance of the phenotype of another of the GWAS identified genes, MEIS1, has also been explored. The role of Btbd9 in iron regulation and RLS-like behaviors has been further evaluated in mice carrying a null mutation of the gene and in fruit flies when the BTBD9 protein is degraded. The BTBD9 and MEIS1 stories originate from human GWAS research, supported by work in a genetic reference population of mice (forward genetics) and further verified in mice, fish flies, and worms. Finally, the role of genetics is further supported by an inbred mouse strain that displays many of the phenotypic characteristics of RLS. The role of animal models of RLS phenotypes is also extended to include periodic limb movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak. (paper)

  11. Drivers of the Warburg phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rob A

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect was first described by Otto Warburg in the 1920s and describes the preferential conversion of glucose to lactate as opposed to its metabolism through the citric acid cycle to fuel oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, even in the presence of oxygen. This phenotype is a common feature of malignant cells and is also observed in some highly proliferative normal tissues. The selective advantage provided by this phenotype is not entirely clear. Adopting this metabolic state may allow tumor cells to balance their need for ATP, biosynthetic precursor molecules, and reducing power in order to respond to growth and proliferation signals and may provide a selective advantage in the hypoxic and acidic microenvironments that are often a feature of solid tumors. Oncogenic signaling pathways and responses to the local microenvironment combine to produce this metabolic phenotype via a number of molecular mechanisms. A better understanding of these mechanisms in both tumor and normal tissues and a more complete understanding of how the Warburg effect interacts with the rest of the tumor metabolic network should provide opportunities for novel clinical intervention.

  12. Staphylococcal phenotypes induced by naturally occurring and synthetic membrane-interactive polyphenolic β-lactam resistance modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Palacios

    Full Text Available Galloyl catechins, in particular (--epicatechin gallate (ECg, have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (--epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation.

  13. Staphylococcal Phenotypes Induced by Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Membrane-Interactive Polyphenolic β-Lactam Resistance Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Lucia; Rosado, Helena; Micol, Vicente; Rosato, Adriana E.; Bernal, Patricia; Arroyo, Raquel; Grounds, Helen; Anderson, James C.; Stabler, Richard A.; Taylor, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Galloyl catechins, in particular (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), have the capacity to abrogate β-lactam resistance in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); they also prevent biofilm formation, reduce the secretion of a large proportion of the exoproteome and induce profound changes to cell morphology. Current evidence suggests that these reversible phenotypic traits result from their intercalation into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. We have endeavoured to potentiate the capacity of ECg to modify the MRSA phenotype by stepwise removal of hydroxyl groups from the B-ring pharmacophore and the A:C fused ring system of the naturally occurring molecule. ECg binds rapidly to the membrane, inducing up-regulation of genes responsible for protection against cell wall stress and maintenance of membrane integrity and function. Studies with artificial membranes modelled on the lipid composition of the staphylococcal bilayer indicated that ECg adopts a position deep within the lipid palisade, eliciting major alterations in the thermotropic behaviour of the bilayer. The non-galloylated homolog (-)-epicatechin enhanced ECg-mediated effects by facilitating entry of ECg molecules into the membrane. ECg analogs with unnatural B-ring hydroxylation patterns induced higher levels of gene expression and more profound changes to MRSA membrane fluidity than ECg but adopted a more superficial location within the bilayer. ECg possessed a high affinity for the positively charged staphylococcal membrane and induced changes to the biophysical properties of the bilayer that are likely to account for its capacity to disperse the cell wall biosynthetic machinery responsible for β-lactam resistance. The ability to enhance these properties by chemical modification of ECg raises the possibility that more potent analogs could be developed for clinical evaluation. PMID:24699700

  14. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  15. Cancer predisposition in children: genetics, phenotypes & screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, S.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetic, phenotypic and screening aspects of tumor predisposition syndromes in childhood cancer patients. In tumor predisposition syndromes, the same constitutional molecular defects that lead to the clinical phenotype predispose the patient to develop specific cancers.

  16. Perceived parental rejection mediates the effects of previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study found that perceived maternal rejection partially mediated the association between abuse and internalising behaviours in the male cohort, whereas perceived father's rejection partially mediated this association in the female cohort. However, mental illness had no moderating effect on these relationships.

  17. Dissecting the phenotypes of Dravet syndrome by gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Moran; Han, Sung; Tai, Chao; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Hunker, Avery; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2015-08-01

    Neurological and psychiatric syndromes often have multiple disease traits, yet it is unknown how such multi-faceted deficits arise from single mutations. Haploinsufficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1 causes Dravet syndrome, an intractable childhood-onset epilepsy with hyperactivity, cognitive deficit, autistic-like behaviours, and premature death. Deletion of Nav1.1 channels selectively impairs excitability of GABAergic interneurons. We studied mice having selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons. In brain slices, these deletions cause increased threshold for action potential generation, impaired action potential firing in trains, and reduced amplification of postsynaptic potentials in those interneurons. Selective deletion of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons increases susceptibility to thermally-induced seizures, which are strikingly prolonged when Nav1.1 is deleted in both interneuron types. Mice with global haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 display autistic-like behaviours, hyperactivity and cognitive impairment. Haploinsufficiency of Nav1.1 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons causes autistic-like behaviours, but not hyperactivity, whereas haploinsufficiency in somatostatin-expressing interneurons causes hyperactivity without autistic-like behaviours. Heterozygous deletion in both interneuron types is required to impair long-term spatial memory in context-dependent fear conditioning, without affecting short-term spatial learning or memory. Thus, the multi-faceted phenotypes of Dravet syndrome can be genetically dissected, revealing synergy in causing epilepsy, premature death and deficits in long-term spatial memory, but interneuron-specific effects on hyperactivity and autistic-like behaviours. These results show that multiple disease traits can arise from similar functional deficits in specific interneuron types. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on

  18. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...

  19. Adding 'epi-' to behaviour genetics: implications for animal domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    In this review, it is argued that greatly improved understanding of domestication may be gained from extending the field of behaviour genetics to also include epigenetics. Domestication offers an interesting framework of rapid evolutionary changes caused by well-defined selection pressures. Behaviour is an important phenotype in this context, as it represents the primary means of response to environmental challenges. An overview is provided of the evidence for genetic involvement in behavioural control and the presently used methods for finding so-called behaviour genes. This shows that evolutionary changes in behaviour are to a large extent correlated to changes in patterns of gene expression, which brings epigenetics into the focus. This area is concerned with the mechanisms controlling the timing and extent of gene expression, and a lot of focus has been placed on methylation of cytosine in promoter regions, usually associated with genetic downregulation. The review considers the available evidence that environmental input, for example stress, can modify methylation and other epigenetic marks and subsequently affect behaviour. Furthermore, several studies are reviewed, demonstrating that acquired epigenetic modifications can be inherited and cause trans-generational behaviour changes. In conclusion, epigenetics may signify a new paradigm in this respect, as it shows that genomic modifications can be caused by environmental signals, and random mutations in DNA sequence are therefore not the only sources of heritable genetic variation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.

  1. The ecological consequences of environmentally induced phenotypic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Jean P; Allen, Rachel L; Hruska, Ron J; DeLong, John P

    2017-08-01

    Population dynamics and species persistence are often mediated by species traits. Yet many important traits, like body size, can be set by resource availability and predation risk. Environmentally induced changes in resource levels or predation risk may thus have downstream ecological consequences. Here, we assess whether quantity and type of resources affect the phenotype, the population dynamics, and the susceptibility to predation of a mixotrophic protist through experiments and a model. We show that cell shape, but not size, changes with resource levels and type, and is linked to carrying capacity, thus affecting population dynamics. Also, these changes lead to differential susceptibility to predation, with direct consequences for predator-prey dynamics. We describe important links between environmental changes, traits, population dynamics and ecological interactions, that underscore the need to further understand how trait-mediated interactions may respond to environmental shifts in resource levels in an increasingly changing world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Variation in phenotype, parasite load and male competitive ability across a cryptic hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Stuart-Fox

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular genetic studies are revealing an increasing number of cryptic lineages or species, which are highly genetically divergent but apparently cannot be distinguished morphologically. This observation gives rise to three important questions: 1 have these cryptic lineages diverged in phenotypic traits that may not be obvious to humans; 2 when cryptic lineages come into secondary contact, what are the evolutionary consequences: stable co-existence, replacement, admixture or differentiation and 3 what processes influence the evolutionary dynamics of these secondary contact zones?To address these questions, we first tested whether males of the Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi from two highly genetically divergent, yet morphologically cryptic lineages on either side of an east-west secondary contact could be differentiated based on detailed analysis of morphology, coloration and parasite load. Next, we tested whether these differences could be driven by pre-copulatory intra-sexual selection (male-male competition. Compared to eastern males, western males had fewer parasites, were in better body condition and were more intensely coloured. Although subtle environmental variation across the hybrid zone could explain the differences in parasite load and body condition, these were uncorrelated with colour expression, suggesting that the differences in coloration reflect heritable divergence. The lineages did not differ in their aggressive behaviour or competitive ability. However, body size, which predicted male aggressiveness, was positively correlated with the colour traits that differed between genetic backgrounds.Our study confirms that these cryptic lineages differ in several aspects that are likely to influence fitness. Although there were no clear differences in male competitive ability, our results suggest a potential indirect role for intra-sexual selection. Specifically, if lizards use the colour traits that differ between genetic

  3. Knowledge-based analysis of phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoendorf, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Phenotypes are the observable characteristics of an organism, and they are widely recorded in biology and medicine. To facilitate data integration, ontologies that formally describe phenotypes are being developed in several domains. I will describe a formal framework to describe phenotypes. A formalized theory of phenotypes is not only useful for domain analysis, but can also be applied to assist in the diagnosis of rare genetic diseases, and I will show how our results on the ontology of phenotypes is now applied in biomedical research.

  4. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. Electrochemical behaviour of Aloe secundiflora on carbon steel corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under ...

  6. Everyday behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Eken Asp, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...

  7. The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Sebastian; Vasilevsky, Nicole A.; Engelstad, Mark; Foster, Erin; McMurry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Deep phenotyping has been defined as the precise and comprehensive analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in which the individual components of the phenotype are observed and described. The three components of the Human PhenotypeOntology (HPO; www.human-phenotype-ontology.org) project are the phenotype vocabulary, disease-phenotype annotations and the algorithms that operate on these. These components are being used for computational deep phenotyping and precision medicine as well as integration of clinical data into translational research. The HPO is being increasingly adopted as a standard for phenotypic abnormalities by diverse groups such as international rare disease organizations, registries, clinical labs, biomedical resources, and clinical software tools and will thereby contribute toward nascent efforts at global data exchange for identifying disease etiologies. This update article reviews the progress of the HPO project since the debut Nucleic Acids Research database article in 2014, including specific areas of expansion such as common (complex) disease, new algorithms for phenotype driven genomic discovery and diagnostics, integration of cross-species mapping efforts with the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, an improved quality control pipeline, and the addition of patient-friendly terminology.

  8. Delineating SPTAN1 associated phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrbe, Steffen; Harms, Frederike L; Parrini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1...... contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/βII aggregates and α...

  9. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaag, A A; Grunnet, L G; Arora, G P

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Hales and Barker along with their co-workers published some of their pioneering papers proposing the 'thrifty phenotype hypothesis' in Diabetologia (4;35:595-601 and 3;36:62-67). Their postulate that fetal programming could represent an important player in the origin of type 2...... of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Type 2 diabetes is a multiple-organ disease, and developmental programming, with its idea of organ plasticity, is a plausible hypothesis for a common basis for the widespread organ dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Only two among the 45 known type 2...

  10. Acetaldehyde as the first hit of addictive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cavallaro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy alcohol use is common in the Western society, which puts risk of health consequences, causing multiple behavioural injuries. Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, as the mediator of the several behavioural actions of alcohol, including its rewarding and motivational effects. In particular, acetaldehyde induces dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug seeking, and relapse behaviour. Recent behavioural studies point at acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse since its oral self-administration is induced and maintained in an operant/conflict paradigm. These findings provide further evidence on the role played by the acetaldehyde as a mediator of the effects of alcohol and focus attention on this molecule to arrange a more effective strategy, aimed at the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize latest results on the role of acetaldehyde as the mediator of ethanol-central effects focusing on its capacity to induce an addictive behaviour.

  11. Training Comprehensiveness: Construct Development and Relation with Role Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anugamini Priya; Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop the scale for perception of training comprehensiveness and attempts to examine the influence of perception of training comprehensiveness on role behaviour: teachers' efficacy as a mediator and job autonomy as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach: Through the steps for a generation, refinement, purification…

  12. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  13. Chemical ecology of the behaviour of the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.

    1999-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is an important vector of urban bancroftian filariasis in the tropical world. Despite its public health importance, much of its olfactory mediated behaviour is poorly understood. Studies on resource-location behaviour, in particular the role of

  14. Quality of Care at Home and in Daycare and Social Behaviour in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuper Engelhard, Einat; Klein, Pnina S.; Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in the present study to identify mothers' and caregivers' teaching (mediation) behaviour in relation to toddlers' social behaviour. Participants were 103 toddlers, two- to four-year olds, their mothers, and 28 caregivers at 16 public daycare centres in Israel. Two observations were carried out, one in toddlers' homes and the…

  15. A Path Model of Smoking Behaviour among Senior High School Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Hsieh, Hsin-Chin; Huang, Chih-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which social smoking expectations mediate the relationship between adolescent smoking behaviour and the smoking behaviour of family and peers. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Setting: Taiwan, Republic of China. Method: The participants were 921 senior high school students…

  16. Phenotypic variability in Patau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Lavinia; Rusu, Cristina; Butnariu, Lacramioara; Panzaru, Monica; Braha, Elena; Volosciuc, M; Popescu, Roxana; Gramescu, Mihaela; Bujoran, C; Martiniuc, Violeta; Covic, M; Gorduza, E V

    2013-01-01

    Patau syndrome has an incidence of 1/10.000-20.000, the clinical diagnosis being suggested by the triad cleft lip and palate, microphthalmia/anophthalmia and postaxial polydactyly. Most frequent cytogenetic abnormality is free and homogeneous trisomy 13 (80.0%), rarely being detected trisomy mosaics or Robertsonian translocations. The objective of the study was to identify phenotypic features of trisomy 13. The retrospective study was conducted on a trial group of 14 cases diagnosed cytogenetically with trisomy 13 between January 2000 and December 2012 at lasi Medical Genetics Centre. Of the 14 cases, 3 were evaluated pathologically (two aborted foetuses and one stillborn), 8 cases were detected in the neonatal period, and 3 in infancy. Clinical diagnosis was supported by the identification of a model of abnormal development, mainly characterized by: maxillary cleft (lip and palate--5 cases; lip--1 case), ocular abnormalities (microphthalmia/anophthalmia--7 cases; cyclopia--1 case), postaxial polydactyly (7 cases), scalp defects (6 cases), congenital heart anomalies (10 cases, 6 patients with atrial septal defect), complete holoprosencephaly (4 cases), ear abnormalities (11 cases), broad nasal root (10 cases). An important issue in confirming the phenotypic variability of Patau syndrome is that the classic clinical triad was identified only in one case. Patau syndrome is a disease with variable expression and is characterized by a pattern of abnormal prenatal development characterized by facial dysmorphia, polydactyly and severe birth defects (heart, brain) that generate an increased in utero and perinatal mortality.

  17. Gender and Behaviour: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural ...

  18. HDACs and the senescent phenotype of WI-38 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan Emily J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal cells possess a limited proliferative life span after which they enter a state of irreversible growth arrest. This process, known as replicative senescence, is accompanied by changes in gene expression that give rise to a variety of senescence-associated phenotypes. It has been suggested that these gene expression changes result in part from alterations in the histone acetylation machinery. Here we examine the influence of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of senescent markers in pre- and post-senescent WI-38 cells. Results Pre- and post-senescent WI-38 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors butyrate or trichostatin A (TSA. Following HDAC inhibitor treatment, pre-senescent cells increased p21WAF1 and β-galactosidase expression, assumed a flattened senescence-associated morphology, and maintained a lower level of proteasome activity. These alterations also occurred during normal replicative senescence of WI-38 cells, but were not accentuated further by HDAC inhibitors. We also found that HDAC1 levels decline during normal replicative senescence. Conclusion Our findings indicate that HDACs impact numerous phenotypic changes associated with cellular senescence. Reduced HDAC1 expression levels in senescent cells may be an important event in mediating the transition to a senescent phenotype.

  19. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Tobias; Katzfuß, Michael; Matos, Carina; Singer, Katrin; Renner, Kathrin; Oefner, Peter J; Dettmer-Wilde, Katja; Herr, Wolfgang; Holler, Ernst; Kreutz, Marina; Peter, Katrin

    2016-12-11

    Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon ® ) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo.

  20. Antithymocyte Globulin Induces a Tolerogenic Phenotype in Human Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Roider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antithymocyte globulin (ATG is used in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is generally accepted that ATG mediates its immunosuppressive effect primarily via depletion of T cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of ATG-Fresenius (now Grafalon® on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. ATG induced a semi-mature phenotype in DC with significantly reduced expression of CD14, increased expression of HLA-DR, and intermediate expression of CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86. ATG-DC showed an increase in IL-10 secretion but no IL-12 production. In line with this tolerogenic phenotype, ATG caused a significant induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression and a concomitant increase in levels of tryptophan metabolites in the supernatants of DC. Further, ATG-DC did not induce the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction but actively suppressed the T cell proliferation induced by mature DC. These data suggest that besides its well-known effect on T cells, ATG modulates the phenotype of DC in a tolerogenic way, which might constitute an essential part of its immunosuppressive action in vivo.

  1. Mediating toxic emotions in the workplace--the impact of abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    This study explores whether abusive supervision can effectively predict employees' counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and the role of toxic emotions at work as a potential mediator of these relationships in nursing settings. Workplace bullying is widespread in nursing. Despite the growing literature on abusive supervision and employees' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour, few studies have examined the relationships between abusive supervision and these work behaviours from the viewpoint of the victimed employee's emotion process. This study adopted a two-stage survey of 212 nurses, all of whom were employed by hospitals in Taiwan. Hypotheses were tested through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with toxic emotions. Moreover, toxic emotions could effectively predict nurses' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Finally, it was found that toxic emotions partially mediated the negative effects of abusive supervision on both work behaviours. Toxic emotions at work are a critical mediating variable between abusive supervision and both counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Hospital administrators can implement policies designed to manage events effectively that can spark toxic emotions in their employees. Work empowerment may be an effective way to reduce counterproductive work behaviour and to enhance organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses when supervisors do not promote a healthy work environment for them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Uremia modulates the phenotype of aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie; Pedersen, Annemarie Aarup; Albinsson, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    the phenotype of aortic SMCs in vivo. METHODS: Moderate uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. Plasma analysis, gene expression, histology, and myography were used to determine uremia-mediated changes in the arterial wall. RESULTS: Induction...... of moderate uremia in ApoE(-/-) mice increased atherosclerosis in the aortic arch en face 1.6 fold (p = 0.04) and induced systemic inflammation. Based on histological analyses of aortic root sections, uremia increased the medial area, while there was no difference in the content of elastic fibers or collagen...... in the aortic media. In the aortic arch, mRNA and miRNA expression patterns were consistent with a uremia-mediated phenotypic modulation of SMCs; e.g. downregulation of myocardin, α-smooth muscle actin, and transgelin; and upregulation of miR146a. Notably, these expression patterns were observed after acute (2...

  3. Psychobiology of partnership behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, D

    1975-11-01

    Animal experiments demonstrate that it is not only the quality of transmitted and received social signals that is important, but also their frequency and the timing of the information transmitted. In order for progress to be made in the investigation of human social behaviour and its disorders, methods must be developed which allow the transmission of verbal and non-verbal information to be measured. Experiments carried out with healthy adults and healthy and disturbed children to investigate human eye contact and distance behaviour are reported, along with experiments on the influence of gaze and body posture on spoken communication. Finally, a report on the use of behaviour therapy for an autistic child is outlined in order to explore the psychobiological correlations between social behaviour and language, which concur with extensive experiments on brain stimulation. It is suggested that there is a cerebral representation for species-specific social behaviour and a vocalization system embedded in these brain structures which is a phylogenetically-patterned prerequisite for the development of human language.

  4. Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1: testing for a role in insect immunity, behaviour and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuß, Robert; Wensing, Kristina U; Woestmann, Luisa; Eggert, Hendrik; Milutinović, Barbara; Sroka, Marlene G U; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O

    2016-04-01

    Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) has wide-reaching and vital neuronal functions although the role it plays in insect and crustacean immunity is less well understood. In this study, we combine different approaches to understand the roles that Dscam1 plays in fitness-related contexts in two model insect species. Contrary to our expectations, we found no short-term modulation of Dscam1 gene expression after haemocoelic or oral bacterial exposure in Tribolium castaneum, or after haemocoelic bacterial exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated Dscam1 knockdown and subsequent bacterial exposure did not reduce T. castaneum survival. However, Dscam1 knockdown in larvae resulted in adult locomotion defects, as well as dramatically reduced fecundity in males and females. We suggest that Dscam1 does not always play a straightforward role in immunity, but strongly influences behaviour and fecundity. This study takes a step towards understanding more about the role of this intriguing gene from different phenotypic perspectives.

  5. Modulating TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Using Synthetic Triterpenoids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyer, Marc L

    2005-01-01

    .... Concomitant treatment with CDDO or CDDO-Im reverses the TRAIL-resistant phenotype, leading to rapid induction of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, while having no adverse effects on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC...

  6. NGF steers microglia toward a neuroprotective phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Caterina; Tiberi, Alexia; Giustizieri, Michela; Marrone, Maria Cristina; Gobbo, Francesco; Carucci, Nicola Maria; Meli, Giovanni; Arisi, Ivan; D'Onofrio, Mara; Marinelli, Silvia; Capsoni, Simona; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2018-02-23

    Microglia are the sentinels of the brain but a clear understanding of the factors that modulate their activation in physiological and pathological conditions is still lacking. Here we demonstrate that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) acts on microglia by steering them toward a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory phenotype. We show that microglial cells express functional NGF receptors in vitro and ex vivo. Our transcriptomic analysis reveals how, in primary microglia, NGF treatment leads to a modulation of motility, phagocytosis and degradation pathways. At the functional level, NGF induces an increase in membrane dynamics and macropinocytosis and, in vivo, it activates an outward rectifying current that appears to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission in nearby neurons. Since microglia are supposed to be a major player in Aβ peptide clearance in the brain, we tested the effects of NGF on its phagocytosis. NGF was shown to promote TrkA-mediated engulfment of Aβ by microglia, and to enhance its degradation. Additionally, the proinflammatory activation induced by Aβ treatment is counteracted by the concomitant administration of NGF. Moreover, by acting specifically on microglia, NGF protects neurons from the Aβ-induced loss of dendritic spines and inhibition of long term potentiation. Finally, in an ex-vivo setup of acute brain slices, we observed a similar increase in Aβ engulfment by microglial cells under the influence of NGF. Our work substantiates a role for NGF in the regulation of microglial homeostatic activities and points toward this neurotrophin as a neuroprotective agent in Aβ accumulation pathologies, via its anti-inflammatory activity on microglia. © 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  8. Evolution of phenotypic plasticity in colonizing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Russell

    2015-05-01

    I elaborate an hypothesis to explain inconsistent empirical findings comparing phenotypic plasticity in colonizing populations or species with plasticity from their native or ancestral range. Quantitative genetic theory on the evolution of plasticity reveals that colonization of a novel environment can cause a transient increase in plasticity: a rapid initial increase in plasticity accelerates evolution of a new optimal phenotype, followed by slow genetic assimilation of the new phenotype and reduction of plasticity. An association of colonization with increased plasticity depends on the difference in the optimal phenotype between ancestral and colonized environments, the difference in mean, variance and predictability of the environment, the cost of plasticity, and the time elapsed since colonization. The relative importance of these parameters depends on whether a phenotypic character develops by one-shot plasticity to a constant adult phenotype or by labile plasticity involving continuous and reversible development throughout adult life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Phenotypic Plasticity and Species Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Ecologists are increasingly interested in predicting how intraspecific variation and changing trait values impact species interactions and community composition. For many traits, much of this variation is caused by phenotypic plasticity, and thus the impact of plasticity on species coexistence deserves robust quantification. Partly due to a lack of sound theoretical expectations, empirical studies make contradictory claims regarding plasticity effects on coexistence. Our critical review of this literature, framed in modern coexistence theory, reveals that plasticity affects species interactions in ways that could impact stabilizing niche differences and competitive asymmetries. However, almost no study integrates these measures to quantify the net effect of plasticity on species coexistence. To address this challenge, we outline novel empirical approaches grounded in modern theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Low back pain (LBP) is the world's most disabling condition. Modic changes (MC) are vertebral bone marrow changes adjacent to the endplates as noted on magnetic resonance imaging. The associations of specific MC types and patterns with prolonged, severe LBP and disability remain speculative. This study assessed the relationship of prolonged, severe LBP and back-related disability, with the presence and morphology of lumbar MC in a large cross-sectional population-based study of Southern Chinese. We addressed the topographical and morphological dimensions of MC along with other magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes (eg, disc degeneration and displacement) on the basis of axial T1 and sagittal T2-weighted imaging of L1-S1. Prolonged severe LBP was defined as LBP lasting ≥30 days during the past year, and a visual analog scale severest pain intensity of at least 6/10. An Oswestry Disability Index score of 15% was regarded as significant disability. We also assessed subject demographics, occupation, and lifestyle factors. In total, 1142 subjects (63% females, mean age 53 years) were assessed. Of these, 282 (24.7%) had MC (7.1% type I, 17.6% type II). MC subjects were older (P = 0.003), had more frequent disc displacements (P disability. The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  11. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...... or inconclusive. Positive studies (+) were those that demonstrated a statistically significant change in the majority of outcomes measured at level of p change in the opposite direction and inconclusive studies...

  12. Testing the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis in the presence and absence of inbreeding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forstmeier, W.; Ihle, M.; Opatová, Pavlína; Martin, K.; Knief, U.; Albrechtová, Jana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2017), s. 968-976 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : display behaviour * mate choice * phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis * precopulatory traits * sexual selection * sperm abnormalities * sperm quality * sperm velocity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  13. Continuity of aggressive antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood: The question of phenotype definition.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Björn; Ossowski, Daniel; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to clarify the adult phenotype of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), the empirical literature on its childhood background among the disruptive behaviour disorders, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), or hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HKCD), was reviewed according to the Robins and Guze criteria for nosological validity. At least half of hyperactive children develop ODD and about a third CD (i.e. AD/H...

  14. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  15. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  16. Fluctuating selection across years and phenotypic variation in food-deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, Giovanni; Juillet, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Nectarless flowers that deceive pollinators offer an opportunity to study asymmetric plant-insect interactions. Orchids are a widely used model for studying these interactions because they encompass several thousand species adopting deceptive pollination systems. High levels of intra-specific phenotypic variation have been reported in deceptive orchids, suggesting a reduced consistency of pollinator-mediated selection on their floral traits. Nevertheless, several studies report on widespread directional selection mediated by pollinators even in these deceptive orchids. In this study we test the hypothesis that the observed selection can fluctuate across years in strength and direction thus likely contributing to the phenotypic variability of this orchid group. We performed a three-year study estimating selection differentials and selection gradients for nine phenotypic traits involved in insect attraction in two Mediterranean orchid species, namely Orchis mascula and O. pauciflora , both relying on a well-described food-deceptive pollination strategy. We found weak directional selection and marginally significant selection gradients in the two investigated species with significant intra-specific differences in selection differentials across years. Our data do not link this variation with a specific environmental cause, but our results suggest that pollinator-mediated selection in food-deceptive orchids can change in strength and in direction over time. In perennial plants, such as orchids, different selection differentials in the same populations in different flowering seasons can contribute to the maintenance of phenotypic variation often reported in deceptive orchids.

  17. The phenotypic variance gradient - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Bundgaard, Jørgen; Loeschcke, Volker; Barker, James Stuart Flinton

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary ecologists commonly use reaction norms, which show the range of phenotypes produced by a set of genotypes exposed to different environments, to quantify the degree of phenotypic variance and the magnitude of plasticity of morphometric and life-history traits. Significant differences among the values of the slopes of the reaction norms are interpreted as significant differences in phenotypic plasticity, whereas significant differences among phenotypic variances (variance or coefficient of variation) are interpreted as differences in the degree of developmental instability or canalization. We highlight some potential problems with this approach to quantifying phenotypic variance and suggest a novel and more informative way to plot reaction norms: namely "a plot of log (variance) on the y-axis versus log (mean) on the x-axis, with a reference line added". This approach gives an immediate impression of how the degree of phenotypic variance varies across an environmental gradient, taking into account the consequences of the scaling effect of the variance with the mean. The evolutionary implications of the variation in the degree of phenotypic variance, which we call a "phenotypic variance gradient", are discussed together with its potential interactions with variation in the degree of phenotypic plasticity and canalization.

  18. Dental flossing and automaticity: a longitudinal moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Orbell, Sheina; Bonham, Mikaela; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the role of normative support, behavioural automaticity, and action control in predicting dental flossing behaviour. Between May and October 2015, 629 Australian young adults completed a questionnaire assessing constructs of normative support and automaticity, and a 2-week follow-up of dental flossing behaviour and action control, resulting in n = 241 persons for longitudinal analysis. Findings supported the hypotheses that the effect of normative support on behaviour would be mediated via automaticity, and the effect of automaticity would be moderated by action control. Current results extend previous research to elucidate the mechanisms that help to understand predictors of oral hygiene behaviours and contribute to the cumulative evidence concerning self-regulatory and automatic components of health behaviour.

  19. No phenotypic plasticity in nest-site selection in response to extreme flooding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Liam D; Ens, Bruno J; Both, Christiaan; Heg, Dik; Oosterbeek, Kees; van de Pol, Martijn

    2017-06-19

    Phenotypic plasticity is a crucial mechanism for responding to changes in climatic means, yet we know little about its role in responding to extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs may lack the reliable cues necessary for phenotypic plasticity to evolve; however, this has not been empirically tested. We investigated whether behavioural plasticity in nest-site selection allows a long-lived shorebird ( Haematopus ostralegus ) to respond to flooding. We collected longitudinal nest elevation data on individuals over two decades, during which time flooding events have become increasingly frequent. We found no evidence that individuals learn from flooding experiences, showing nest elevation change consistent with random nest-site selection. There was also no evidence of phenotypic plasticity in response to potential environmental cues (lunar nodal cycle and water height). A small number of individuals, those nesting near an artificial sea wall, did show an increase in nest elevation over time; however, there is no conclusive evidence this occurred in response to ECEs. Our study population showed no behavioural plasticity in response to changing ECE patterns. More research is needed to determine whether this pattern is consistent across species and types of ECEs. If so, ECEs may pose a major challenge to the resilience of wild populations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Phenotypic plasticity in an ant with strong caste-genotype association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Alexandre; Darras, Hugo; Aron, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Caste determination in social Hymenoptera (whether a female egg develops into a reproductive queen or a sterile worker) is a remarkable example of phenotypic plasticity where females with highly similar genomes exhibit striking differences in morphology and behaviour. This phenotypic dichotomy is typically influenced by environmental factors. However, recent studies have revealed a strong caste-genotype association in hybridogenetic ants: workers are all interlineage hybrids while queens are all purebred, suggesting that female caste fate is genetically determined. Using the hybridogenetic ant Cataglyphis mauritanica , we show that under laboratory conditions, purebred offspring develop into reproductive queens but occasionally give rise to workers. Moreover, while hybrids typically become workers, juvenile hormone treatment can switch their developmental pathway to the reproductive caste. These results indicate that phenotypic plasticity has been retained in an ant with a strong caste-genotype association, despite its lack of expression in natural conditions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  1. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  2. Genetically meaningful phenotypic subgroups in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, O J; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Potter, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with strong evidence for genetic susceptibility. However, the effect sizes for implicated chromosomal loci are small, hard to replicate and current evidence does not explain the majority of the estimated heritability. Phenotypic heterogeneity could be one phenomenon complicating identification of genetic factors. We used data from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, head circumferences, and ages at exams as classifying variables to identify more clinically similar subgroups of individuals with ASD. We identified two distinct subgroups of cases within the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset, primarily defined by the overall severity of evaluated traits. In addition, there was significant familial clustering within subgroups (odds ratio, OR ≈ 1.38-1.42, P definition that should increase power to detect genetic factors influencing risk for ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR AND VOLTAMMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Geshoidin was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in mixtures of citric acid and di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous buffer system over a wide pH range (pH 2-11) using cyclic voltammetry. Chemically irreversible single oxidation and reduction peaks were obtained in the ...

  5. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... It is a form of therapy where the patient is helped to recognise patterns of ... The article briefly discusses the development of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and makes mention of the important contri- butions made by South ..... was the displace- ment of aspects of the Newtonian paradigm of physics by.

  6. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions...

  7. Caring behaviours directly and indirectly affect nursing students' critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Yueh; Chang, Hsing-Chi; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of caring behaviours on critical thinking and to examine whether self-reflection mediates the effect of caring on critical thinking. We also tested whether caring behaviours moderated the relationship between self-reflection and critical thinking. For this descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study, we recruited 293 fifth-year nursing students from a junior college in southern Taiwan. Data were collected in 2014 on critical thinking, caring behaviours and self-reflection with insight using the Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, a Chinese version of the Caring Assessment Report Evaluation Q-sort, and a Chinese version of the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, respectively. Relationships among variables were analysed by structural equation modelling, with the partial least squares method and Sobel test. The results showed that caring behaviours significantly positively affected critical thinking (β = 0.56, t = 12.37, p critical thinking (β = 0.34, t = 6.48, p critical thinking. Caring behaviours did not, however, moderate the relationship between self-reflection (β = 0.001, t = 0.021, p > 0.05) and critical thinking. Caring behaviours directly affect self-reflection with insight and critical thinking. In addition, caring behaviours also indirectly affect critical thinking through self-reflection and insight. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Recent Research on Aetiology, Development and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, F.; Biswas, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Behavioural interventions conceptualise self-injurious behaviour (SIB) as developing from early repetitive behaviours through acquisition of homeostatic functions in regulating stimulation and subsequent shaping into SIB through socially mediated or automatic operant reinforcement. Despite high success rates, such interventions rarely…

  9. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  10. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  11. The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, S.; Doelken, S.C.; Mungall, C.J.; Bauer, S.; Firth, H.V.; Bailleul-Forestier, I.; Black, G.C.M.; Brown, D.L.; Brudno, M.; Campbell, J.; FitzPatrick, D.R.; Eppig, J.T.; Jackson, A.P.; Freson, K.; Girdea, M.; Helbig, I.; Hurst, J.A.; Jahn, J.; Jackson, L.G.; Kelly, A.M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Mansour, S.; Martin, C.L.; Moss, C.; Mumford, A.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Park, S.M.; Riggs, E.R.; Scott, R.H.; Sisodiya, S.; Vooren, S. van der; Wapner, R.J.; Wilkie, A.O.; Wright, C.F.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Leeuw, N. de; Vries, B. de; Washingthon, N.L.; Smith, C.L.; Westerfield, M.; Schofield, P.; Ruef, B.J.; Gkoutos, G.V.; Haendel, M.; Smedley, D.; Lewis, S.E.; Robinson, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) project, available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org, provides a structured, comprehensive and well-defined set of 10,088 classes (terms) describing human phenotypic abnormalities and 13,326 subclass relations between the HPO classes. In addition we have

  12. Dscam-mediated Repulsion Controls Tiling and Self-avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Millard, S. Sean; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered the molecular basis of self-avoidance and tiling, two fundamental principles required for the formation of neural circuits. Both of these wiring strategies are established through homophilic repulsion between Dscam proteins expressed on opposing cell surfaces. In Drosophila, Dscam1 mediates self-avoidance whereas Dscam2 mediates tiling. In contrast, phenotypes in the retina of the DSCAM mutant mouse indicate that DSCAM functions in both self-avoidance and tiling....

  13. Phenotype and genotype differentiation between flathead grey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to study the phenotype and genotype differentiation and to compare the amount of differences in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts with the amount of differences in genotype based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting between two Mugilidae, ...

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE One gene, many phenotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    One gene, many phenotypes. A- Modifier causing less severe (re- duced) phenotype of Beta thalassemia. The severity of anemia in beta thalas- semia reflects the degree of globin chain imbalance. The excess of alpha globin chain precipitates in red cell pre- cursors leading to ineffective erythro- poiesis. This imbalance can ...

  15. Phenotype Development in Adolescents With Tourette Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Camilla; Debes, Nanette Mol; Skov, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by frequent comorbidities and a wide spectrum of phenotype presentations. This study aimed to describe the development of phenotypes in TS and tic-related impairment in a large longitudinal study of 226 children and adolescents...

  16. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  17. Developing and emerging clinical asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to subdivide asthma into different phenotypes based on triggers that cause asthma attacks, the course of the disease, or the prognosis. The first phenotypes that were described included allergic asthma, intrinsic or nonallergic asthma, infectious

  18. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping of at...

  19. Emerging semantics to link phenotype and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Thessen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interplay between environmental conditions and phenotypes is a fundamental goal of biology. Unfortunately, data that include observations on phenotype and environment are highly heterogeneous and thus difficult to find and integrate. One approach that is likely to improve the status quo involves the use of ontologies to standardize and link data about phenotypes and environments. Specifying and linking data through ontologies will allow researchers to increase the scope and flexibility of large-scale analyses aided by modern computing methods. Investments in this area would advance diverse fields such as ecology, phylogenetics, and conservation biology. While several biological ontologies are well-developed, using them to link phenotypes and environments is rare because of gaps in ontological coverage and limits to interoperability among ontologies and disciplines. In this manuscript, we present (1 use cases from diverse disciplines to illustrate questions that could be answered more efficiently using a robust linkage between phenotypes and environments, (2 two proof-of-concept analyses that show the value of linking phenotypes to environments in fishes and amphibians, and (3 two proposed example data models for linking phenotypes and environments using the extensible observation ontology (OBOE and the Biological Collections Ontology (BCO; these provide a starting point for the development of a data model linking phenotypes and environments.

  20. Auditory Phenotype of Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendal, Megan A.; King, Kelly A.; Zalewski, Christopher K.; Finucane, Brenda M.; Introne, Wendy; Brewer, Carmen C.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the auditory phenotype of a large cohort with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a rare disorder including physical anomalies, cognitive deficits, sleep disturbances, and a distinct behavioral phenotype. Method: Hearing-related data were collected for 133 individuals with SMS aged 1-49 years. Audiogram…

  1. The Cognitive Phenotype of Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia A.

    2010-01-01

    A cognitive phenotype is a product of both assets and deficits that specifies what individuals with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) can and cannot do and why they can or cannot do it. In this article, we review the cognitive phenotype of SBM and describe the processing assets and deficits that cut within and across content domains, sensory…

  2. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  3. Physiology modulates social flexibility and collective behaviour in equids and other large ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersick, Andrew S; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2017-08-19

    Though morphologically very similar, equids across the extant species occupy ecological niches that are surprisingly non-overlapping. Occupancy of these distinct niches appears related to subtle physiological and behavioural adaptations which, in turn, correspond to significant differences in the social behaviours and emergent social systems characterizing the different species. Although instances of intraspecific behavioural variation in equids demonstrate that the same body plan can support a range of social structures, each of these morphologically similar species generally shows robust fidelity to its evolved social system. The pattern suggests a subtle relationship between physiological phenotypes and behavioural flexibility. While environmental conditions can vary widely within relatively short temporal or spatial scales, physiological changes and changes to the behaviours that regulate physiological processes, are constrained to longer cycles of adaptation. Physiology is then the limiting variable in the interaction between ecological variation and behavioural and socio-structural flexibility. Behavioural and socio-structural flexibility, in turn, will generate important feedbacks that will govern physiological function, thus creating a coupled web of interactions that can lead to changes in individual and collective behaviour. Longitudinal studies of equid and other large-bodied ungulate populations under environmental stress, such as those discussed here, may offer the best opportunities for researchers to examine, in real time, the interplay between individual behavioural plasticity, socio-structural flexibility, and the physiological and genetic changes that together produce adaptive change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Adjusting phenotypes by noise control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung H Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically identical cells can show phenotypic variability. This is often caused by stochastic events that originate from randomness in biochemical processes involving in gene expression and other extrinsic cellular processes. From an engineering perspective, there have been efforts focused on theory and experiments to control noise levels by perturbing and replacing gene network components. However, systematic methods for noise control are lacking mainly due to the intractable mathematical structure of noise propagation through reaction networks. Here, we provide a numerical analysis method by quantifying the parametric sensitivity of noise characteristics at the level of the linear noise approximation. Our analysis is readily applicable to various types of noise control and to different types of system; for example, we can orthogonally control the mean and noise levels and can control system dynamics such as noisy oscillations. As an illustration we applied our method to HIV and yeast gene expression systems and metabolic networks. The oscillatory signal control was applied to p53 oscillations from DNA damage. Furthermore, we showed that the efficiency of orthogonal control can be enhanced by applying extrinsic noise and feedback. Our noise control analysis can be applied to any stochastic model belonging to continuous time Markovian systems such as biological and chemical reaction systems, and even computer and social networks. We anticipate the proposed analysis to be a useful tool for designing and controlling synthetic gene networks.

  5. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  6. Federated Tensor Factorization for Computational Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yejin; Sun, Jimeng; Yu, Hwanjo; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Tensor factorization models offer an effective approach to convert massive electronic health records into meaningful clinical concepts (phenotypes) for data analysis. These models need a large amount of diverse samples to avoid population bias. An open challenge is how to derive phenotypes jointly across multiple hospitals, in which direct patient-level data sharing is not possible (e.g., due to institutional policies). In this paper, we developed a novel solution to enable federated tensor factorization for computational phenotyping without sharing patient-level data. We developed secure data harmonization and federated computation procedures based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Using this method, the multiple hospitals iteratively update tensors and transfer secure summarized information to a central server, and the server aggregates the information to generate phenotypes. We demonstrated with real medical datasets that our method resembles the centralized training model (based on combined datasets) in terms of accuracy and phenotypes discovery while respecting privacy. PMID:29071165

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of the Drosophila transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhou

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to changing environments. We assessed variation in genome-wide gene expression and four fitness-related phenotypes of an outbred Drosophila melanogaster population under 20 different physiological, social, nutritional, chemical, and physical environments; and we compared the phenotypically plastic transcripts to genetically variable transcripts in a single environment. The environmentally sensitive transcriptome consists of two transcript categories, which comprise ∼15% of expressed transcripts. Class I transcripts are genetically variable and associated with detoxification, metabolism, proteolysis, heat shock proteins, and transcriptional regulation. Class II transcripts have low genetic variance and show sexually dimorphic expression enriched for reproductive functions. Clustering analysis of Class I transcripts reveals a fragmented modular organization and distinct environmentally responsive transcriptional signatures for the four fitness-related traits. Our analysis suggests that a restricted environmentally responsive segment of the transcriptome preserves the balance between phenotypic plasticity and environmental canalization.

  8. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  9. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Birk Møller, Lisbeth; Olesen, Jess Have

    2014-01-01

    Decreased tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was therefore to characterise the phenotype of homozygous hph-1 (hph) mice, a model of BH4 deficiency, in behavioural tests of anxiety and depression as well...... as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail....... This study provides the first evidence that congenital BH4 deficiency regulates anxiety- and depression-like behaviours. The altered responses observed possibly reflect decreased hippocampal serotonin and dopamine found in hph mice compared to wild-type mice, but also reduced nitric oxide formation. We...

  10. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong T.; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I.; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one method by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are therefore a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here, we report how polymeric ‘bacteria sequestrants’, designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and therefore inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterize the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signalling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level.

  11. Assessing moderated mediation in linear models requires fewer confounding assumptions than assessing mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Talloen, Wouter; Goubert, Liesbet; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2016-11-01

    It is well known from the mediation analysis literature that the identification of direct and indirect effects relies on strong no unmeasured confounding assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Even in randomized studies the mediator may still be correlated with unobserved prognostic variables that affect the outcome, in which case the mediator's role in the causal process may not be inferred without bias. In the behavioural and social science literature very little attention has been given so far to the causal assumptions required for moderated mediation analysis. In this paper we focus on the index for moderated mediation, which measures by how much the mediated effect is larger or smaller for varying levels of the moderator. We show that in linear models this index can be estimated without bias in the presence of unmeasured common causes of the moderator, mediator and outcome under certain conditions. Importantly, one can thus use the test for moderated mediation to support evidence for mediation under less stringent confounding conditions. We illustrate our findings with data from a randomized experiment assessing the impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain, and from an observational study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship assessing the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on mental distress 2 years after the break-up. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Self-efficacy, planning, and preparatory behaviours as joint predictors of physical activity: A conditional process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Milena; Lange, Daniela; Parschau, Linda; Lonsdale, Chris; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Planning can bridge the gap between intentions and action, but what bridges the gap between planning and action? This study helps to answer the question by disentangling the interrelationships between self-efficacy, planning and preparatory behaviours in predicting physical activity. Preparatory behaviours are tested as a working mechanism of planning. Moreover, it is tested whether the utility of preparatory behaviours depends on an individual's level of self-efficacy. A survey assessed planning, self-efficacy and preparatory behaviours for physical activity. Adults (N = 166) provided data at two measurement points. In a longitudinal model, preparatory behaviours were specified as a mediator between planning and physical activity. Self-efficacy was specified as a possible moderator at two points in the model. Preparatory behaviours mediated the relationship between planning and physical activity. An interaction between self-efficacy and preparatory behaviours on physical activity was found, indicating that individuals with low self-efficacy beliefs were more active if they engaged more frequently in preparatory behaviours. Planning seems to stimulate preparatory behaviours, which in turn make future physical activity more likely. Furthermore, as performing preparatory behaviours represent a step forward towards the enactment of behavioural goals, preparatory behaviours may be particular beneficial for individuals afflicted by self-doubts regarding physical activity.

  13. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  14. Adaptive Behaviour in Angelman Syndrome: Its Profile and Relationship to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasca, C. Brun; Obiols, J. E.; Bonillo, A.; Artigas, J.; Lorente, I.; Gabau, E.; Guitart, M.; Turk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by an anomaly in the maternally inherited chromosome 15. The main features are severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, ataxia, epilepsy, sleep disorder and a behavioural phenotype that reportedly includes happy disposition, attraction to/fascination with…

  15. Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth Rate in Domestic Pigs Alter Aggressive and Manipulative Biting Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bijma, P.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for

  16. Infant Attentional Behaviours as Prognostic Indicators in Cornelia-de-Lange Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome with poor social relatedness as one of several characteristics of its behavioural phenotype. Methods: Video observations were collected from seven children in their first year of life and again with age 2-4 years. Data were analysed for distribution of object-related and social…

  17. The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of Alzheimer's disease: clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, R.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Perry, D.C.; Cohn-Sheehy, B.I.; Scheltens, N.M.E.; Vogel, J.W.; Kramer, J.H.; van der Vlies, A.E.; La Joie, R.; Rosen, H.J.; van der Flier, W.M.; Grinberg, L.T.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; Huang, E.J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Miller, B.L.; Barkhof, F.; Jagust, W.J.; Scheltens, P.; Seeley, W.W.; Rabinovici, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    A 'frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease' has been described in patients with predominant behavioural or dysexecutive deficits caused by Alzheimer's disease pathology. The description of this rare Alzheimer's disease phenotype has been limited to case reports and small series, and many clinical,

  18. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  19. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  20. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... from different sectors of energy efficiency from the following PLEEC partner countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the UK, the Netherlands, Estonia, Bulgaria and Spain. Each case is presented shortly with key details of budget, target group, and methods as well as a short assessment of main success...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...

  1. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  2. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  3. ACE phenotyping in human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Victoria E; Kost, Olga A; Kryukova, Olga V; Golukhova, Elena Z; Bulaeva, Naida I; Zholbaeva, Aigerim Z; Bokeria, Leo A; Garcia, Joe G N; Danilov, Sergei M

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling, is expressed as a type-1 membrane glycoprotein on the surface of different cells, including endothelial cells of the heart. We hypothesized that the local conformation and, therefore, the properties of heart ACE could differ from lung ACE due to different microenvironment in these organs. We performed ACE phenotyping (ACE levels, conformation and kinetic characteristics) in the human heart and compared it with that in the lung. ACE activity in heart tissues was 10-15 lower than that in lung. Various ACE effectors, LMW endogenous ACE inhibitors and HMW ACE-binding partners, were shown to be present in both heart and lung tissues. "Conformational fingerprint" of heart ACE (i.e., the pattern of 17 mAbs binding to different epitopes on the ACE surface) significantly differed from that of lung ACE, which reflects differences in the local conformations of these ACEs, likely controlled by different ACE glycosylation in these organs. Substrate specificity and pH-optima of the heart and lung ACEs also differed. Moreover, even within heart the apparent ACE activities, the local ACE conformations, and the content of ACE inhibitors differ in atria and ventricles. Significant differences in the local conformations and kinetic properties of heart and lung ACEs demonstrate tissue specificity of ACE and provide a structural base for the development of mAbs able to distinguish heart and lung ACEs as a potential blood test for predicting atrial fibrillation risk.

  4. Increased entropy of signal transduction in the cancer metastasis phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschendorff Andrew E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical study of biological networks has led to important novel biological insights, such as the presence of hubs and hierarchical modularity. There is also a growing interest in studying the statistical properties of networks in the context of cancer genomics. However, relatively little is known as to what network features differ between the cancer and normal cell physiologies, or between different cancer cell phenotypes. Results Based on the observation that frequent genomic alterations underlie a more aggressive cancer phenotype, we asked if such an effect could be detectable as an increase in the randomness of local gene expression patterns. Using a breast cancer gene expression data set and a model network of protein interactions we derive constrained weighted networks defined by a stochastic information flux matrix reflecting expression correlations between interacting proteins. Based on this stochastic matrix we propose and compute an entropy measure that quantifies the degree of randomness in the local pattern of information flux around single genes. By comparing the local entropies in the non-metastatic versus metastatic breast cancer networks, we here show that breast cancers that metastasize are characterised by a small yet significant increase in the degree of randomness of local expression patterns. We validate this result in three additional breast cancer expression data sets and demonstrate that local entropy better characterises the metastatic phenotype than other non-entropy based measures. We show that increases in entropy can be used to identify genes and signalling pathways implicated in breast cancer metastasis and provide examples of de-novo discoveries of gene modules with known roles in apoptosis, immune-mediated tumour suppression, cell-cycle and tumour invasion. Importantly, we also identify a novel gene module within the insulin growth factor signalling pathway, alteration of which may

  5. Social influence, intention to smoke, and adolescent smoking behaviour longitudinal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Salgueiro, M Fátima; Silva, Silvia A; de Vries, Hein

    2011-11-01

    There is a debate on the determinants of smoking behaviour, their relative impact, and how impacts are exerted. This longitudinal study is on the relations among social influence, intention to smoke, and smoking behaviour, controlling for attitude and self-efficacy. A model combining parents and peers with subjective and descriptive norms, resulting in four factors, was used to assess social influence. Data were collected at the beginning of the 7th(-T1), 8th(-T2), and 9th(-T3) school years, concerning 578 students (M(age) = 13.04 at T1). Structural Equation Modelling was used to test longitudinal effects. Variances explained by the model were high: R(2) (intention-T2) = .65, R(2) (behaviour-T2) = .67, and R(2) (behaviour-T3) = .76. Longitudinal analyses confirmed the effects of social influence on intention and behaviour. These effects on behaviour were direct and indirect (peers' and parents' descriptive norms in both cases). Descriptive norms had a stronger effect on behaviour than subjective norms. Peers' effect on behaviour was stronger than parents', but peers' effect was exerted only through descriptive norms while parents' effect was exerted through both norms. The intention effect on behaviour was not as detached as expected and its role of full mediator between other variables' effects on behaviour was not confirmed, since descriptive norms and self-efficacy had also a mediation role. Results show direct and indirect effects of social influence on behaviour. Descriptive norms are an important variable to operationalize social influence. Peers and parents exert influence on adolescents' intention and behaviour through different processes. The impact of intention on behaviour is not as important as expected. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  7. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  8. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  10. Type A behaviour and consumption of an atherogenic diet: no association in the PRIME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M; Woodside, J V; Yarnell, J W G; Arveiler, D; Haas, B; Amouyel, P; Montaye, M; Ferrières, J; Ruidavets, J B; Ducimetière, P; Bingham, A; Evans, A

    2007-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that the association between Type A behaviour and coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated through diet. This analysis investigates associations between Type A behaviour and diet, with particular focus on foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol (cake, cheese, eggs and fried potatoes), foods high in unsaturated fats (fish and nuts), and fruit and vegetables. The analysis was conducted on data collected from 10,602 men from Northern Ireland and France screened for inclusion in the PRIME cohort study. Type A behaviour was measured using the Framingham Type A Behaviour Patterns Questionnaire, diet was measured using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and various demographic details were also assessed. Levels of Type A behaviour and intakes of all food groups were similar to previous studies. Using regression, Type A behaviour was significantly associated with diet, and specifically with a higher consumption of cheese and vegetables in Northern Ireland, and a higher consumption of cake, fish and vegetables in France. These associations are most plausibly explained as a result of lifestyle, although the possibility of independent associations between Type A behaviour and diet remains. The work is limited by the use of questionnaires, but the findings available suggest that Type A behaviour is unlikely to be associated with the consumption of a diet that has previously been linked to CHD. These findings suggest that any association between Type A behaviour and CHD is unlikely to be mediated through diet.

  11. Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Santos Magalhaes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced male aggression towards different phenotypes generating negative frequency-dependent intrasexual selection has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the invasion and maintenance of novel phenotypes in a population. To date, the best empirical evidence for the phenomenon has been provided by laboratory studies on cichlid fish with different colour polymorphisms. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis in a natural population of Lake Malawi cichlid fish, in which males build sand-castles (bowers to attract females during seasonal leks. We predicted that if bower shape plays an important role in male aggressive interactions, aggression among conspecific males should decrease when their bower shape is altered. Accordingly, we allocated randomly chosen bowers in a Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus lek into three treatments: control, manipulated to a different shape, and simulated manipulation. We then measured male behaviours and bower shape before and after these treatments. We found that once bower shape was altered, males were involved in significantly fewer aggressive interactions with conspecific males than before manipulation. Mating success was not affected. Our results support the idea that an extended phenotype, such as bower shape, can be important in maintaining polymorphic populations. Specifically, reduced male conspecific aggression towards males with different extended phenotypes (here, bower shapes may cause negative frequency-dependent selection, allowing the invasion and establishment of a new phenotype (bower builder. This could help our understanding of mechanisms of diversification within populations, and in particular, the overall diversification of bower shapes within Lake Malawi cichlids.

  12. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Sedentary behaviour and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    This article examines sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use and reading) in relation to obesity among Canadian adults aged 20 to 64 years. The analysis is based on 42,612 respondents from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey Cross-tabulations were used to compare the prevalence of obesity by time engaged in sedentary behaviours. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine if associations between sedentary behaviours and obesity were independent of the effects of sociodemographic variables, leisure-time physical activity and diet. Approximately one-quarter of men (25%) and women (24%) who reported watching television 21 or more hours per week were classified as obese. The prevalence of obesity was substantially lower for those who averaged 5 or fewer hours of television per week (14% of men and 11% of women). When examined in multivariate models controlling for leisure-time physical activity and diet, the associations between time spent watching television and obesity persisted for both sexes. Frequent computer users (11 or more hours per week) of both sexes had increased odds of obesity, compared with those who used computers for 5 or fewer hours per week. Time spent reading was not related to obesity.

  14. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes.

  15. Redefining Aging in HIV Infection Using Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoff, David M; Goodkin, Karl; Jeste, Dilip; Marquine, Maria

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i.e., disability, frailty, accelerated aging, successful aging) are also discussed in relation to comorbid aging and cognitive aging. The main findings that emerged from this review are as follows: (1) the phenotypes, comorbid aging and cognitive aging, are distinct from each other, yet overlapping; (2) associative relationships are the rule in HIV for comorbid and cognitive aging phenotypes; and (3) HIV behavioral interventions for both comorbid aging and cognitive aging have been limited. Three paths for research progress are identified for phenotype-defined aging/HIV research (i.e., clinical and behavioral specification, biological mechanisms, intervention targets), and some important research questions are suggested within each of these research paths.

  16. Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes. (paper)

  17. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Define Two Phenotypes of Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Oreiro, Natividad; Pértega, Sonia; Fenández-López, Carlos; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO); a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO2; a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA); human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. Results: MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, the Coll2-1NO2/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII, and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–1.012). For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95% CI = 0.801–0.989). Conclusion: The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are potential complementary candidates for biomarkers of OA; their genotyping in conjunction with the assessment of classical protein molecular markers is recommended. PMID:22593743

  18. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  19. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  20. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase attenuates social behavioural deficits in male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Daniel M; Gilmartin, Aoife; Roche, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction, deficits in communication and repetitive stereotyped behaviours. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in modulating emotionality and social responding, however there have been a paucity of studies investigating this system in autistic animal models. This study investigated the effect of inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH), the anandamide catabolic enzyme, on behavioural responding in the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. Male rats prenatally exposed to VPA exhibit an autistic-like behavioural phenotype exemplified as thermal hypoalgesia, reduced social and exploratory behaviour, and enhanced repetitive behaviour. Systemic administration of the FAAH inhibitor PF3845 (10mg/kg) attenuated the deficit in social behaviour observed in VPA exposed male animals without altering nociceptive, repetitive or exploratory behaviour. In comparison, female VPA exposed rats displayed enhanced repetitive and reduced exploratory behaviour, but no change in social behaviour or thermal nociceptive responding. PF3845 did not alter social, repetitive or thermal nociceptive responding, but reduced exploratory behaviour in a social context in VPA-, but not saline-, exposed females. These data indicate that FAAH inhibition elicits sexual dimorphic effects on behavioural responding in VPA exposed rodents, and support an important role for FAAH in the regulation of social behavioural deficits in autistic males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  2. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana Expressing Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Han Sohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus possesses 2b gene known as a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS. To investigate its function and effect in plant, transgenic Nicotiana benethamiana expressing 2b gene was developed and analyzed in phenotypic characteristics and differential gene expression (DEG comparing with wild-type. Eight lines of transgenic plants (T0 were obtained with difficulty and showed severe deformed phenotypes in leaves, flowers, petioles and etc. Moreover, transgenic plants were hardly able to set seeds, but small amounts of seeds were barely produced in some of transgene-hemizygous plants. DEG analysis showed that transgenic plant ectopically accumulated diverse RNA transcripts at higher levels than wild-type probably due to the disturbance in RNA metabolism, especially of RNA decay, caused by 2b-mediated inhibition of PTGS. These ectopic accumulations of RNAs disrupt protein and RNA homeostasis and then subsequently lead to abnormal phenotypes of transgenic plants.

  3. Inborn errors of human STAT1: allelic heterogeneity governs the diversity of immunological and infectious phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Okada, Satoshi; Cypowyj, Sophie; Puel, Anne; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The genetic dissection of various human infectious diseases has led to the definition of inborn errors of human STAT1 immunity of four types, including (i) autosomal recessive (AR) complete STAT1 deficiency, (ii) AR partial STAT1 deficiency, (iii) autosomal dominant (AD) STAT1 deficiency, and (iv) AD gain of STAT1 activity. The two types of AR STAT1 defect give rise to a broad infectious phenotype with susceptibility to intramacrophagic bacteria (mostly mycobacteria) and viruses (herpes viruses at least), due principally to the impairment of IFN-γ-mediated and IFN-α/β-mediated immunity, respectively. Clinical outcome depends on the extent to which the STAT1 defect decreases responsiveness to these cytokines. AD STAT1 deficiency selectively predisposes individuals to mycobacterial disease, owing to the impairment of IFN-γ-mediated immunity, as IFN-α/β-mediated immunity is maintained. Finally, AD gain of STAT1 activity is associated with autoimmunity, probably owing to an enhancement of IFN-α/β-mediated immunity. More surprisingly, it is also associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, through as yet undetermined mechanisms involving an inhibition of the development of IL-17-producing T cells. Thus, germline mutations in human STAT1 define four distinct clinical disorders. Various combinations of viral, mycobacterial and fungal infections are therefore allelic at the human STAT1 locus. These experiments of Nature neatly highlight the clinical and immunological impact of the human genetic dissection of infectious phenotypes. PMID:22651901

  4. Effects of poor hygiene on cytokine phenotypes in children in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Figueiredo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe immune phenotypes (innate and adaptive cytokines according to environmental exposure using latent class analysis. A total of 310 schoolchildren living in Ecuador were assayed for spontaneous cytokine production as well as mitogen (SEB-stimulated cytokines in whole blood cultures. We collected data on environmental exposures by questionnaire and on intestinal parasites by examination of stool samples. Latent class analysis (LCA was used to group children according to their innate (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α and adaptive (IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokine profile. We also conducted multiple-group LCA and LCA with covariates to evaluate the effect of predictors on profile membership. We identified both hyporesponsive and Th2-modified immune phenotypes produced by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs that were associated with intestinal worms and birth order, providing insights into how poor hygiene mediates immunologic effects on immune-mediated diseases.

  5. Environment determines evolutionary trajectory in a constrained phenotypic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraebel, David T; Mickalide, Harry; Schnitkey, Diane; Merritt, Jason; Kuhlman, Thomas E; Kuehn, Seppe

    2017-03-27

    Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming. In each condition parallel genomic evolution drives adaptation through different mutations. We show that the trade-off is mediated by antagonistic pleiotropy through mutations that affect negative regulation. A model of the evolutionary process shows that the genetic capacity of an organism to vary traits can qualitatively depend on its environment, which in turn alters its evolutionary trajectory.

  6. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    The action of extracellular nucleotides is mediated by ionotropic P2X receptors and G-protein coupled P2Y receptors. The human genome contains 7 P2X and 8 P2Y receptor genes. Knockout mice strains are available for most of them. As their phenotypic analysis is progressing, bone abnormalities have...... been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  7. Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.

  8. Schizotypy and Behavioural Adjustment and the Role of Neuroticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph; Strobach, Tilo; Aichert, Désirée S.; Wöstmann, Nicola; Costa, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Schubert, Torsten; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Objective In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. Methods 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females) took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. Results We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = −.30, ppersonality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality. PMID:22363416

  9. The behavioural consequences of sex reversal in dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Holleley, Clare E.; Elphick, Melanie; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour are caused by sex-linked genes, as well as by circulating sex-steroid levels. Thus, a shift from genotypic to environmental sex determination may create an organism that exhibits a mixture of male-like and female-like traits. We studied a lizard species (Central Bearded Dragon, Pogona vitticeps), in which the high-temperature incubation of eggs transforms genetically male individuals into functional females. Although they are reproductively female, sex-reversed dragons (individuals with ZZ genotype reversed to female phenotype) resemble genetic males rather than females in morphology (relative tail length), general behaviour (boldness and activity level), and thermoregulatory tactics. Indeed, sex-reversed ‘females’ are more male-like in some behavioural traits than are genetic males. This novel phenotype may impose strong selection on the frequency of sex reversal within natural populations, facilitating rapid shifts in sex-determining systems. A single period of high incubation temperatures (generating thermally induced sex reversal) can produce functionally female individuals with male-like (or novel) traits that enhance individual fitness, allowing the new temperature-dependent sex-determining system to rapidly replace the previous genetically based one.

  10. FSHD myotubes with different phenotypes exhibit distinct proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tassin

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a progressive muscle disorder linked to a contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array in the 4q35 subtelomeric region. This deletion induces epigenetic modifications that affect the expression of several genes located in the vicinity. In each D4Z4 element, we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4 gene. DUX4 expresses a transcription factor that plays a major role in the development of FSHD through the initiation of a large gene dysregulation cascade that causes myogenic differentiation defects, atrophy and reduced response to oxidative stress. Because miRNAs variably affect mRNA expression, proteomic approaches are required to define the dysregulated pathways in FSHD. In this study, we optimized a differential isotope protein labeling (ICPL method combined with shotgun proteomic analysis using a gel-free system (2DLC-MS/MS to study FSHD myotubes. Primary CD56(+ FSHD myoblasts were found to fuse into myotubes presenting various proportions of an atrophic or a disorganized phenotype. To better understand the FSHD myogenic defect, our improved proteomic procedure was used to compare predominantly atrophic or disorganized myotubes to the same matching healthy control. FSHD atrophic myotubes presented decreased structural and contractile muscle components. This phenotype suggests the occurrence of atrophy-associated proteolysis that likely results from the DUX4-mediated gene dysregulation cascade. The skeletal muscle myosin isoforms were decreased while non-muscle myosin complexes were more abundant. In FSHD disorganized myotubes, myosin isoforms were not reduced, and increased proteins were mostly involved in microtubule network organization and myofibrillar remodeling. A common feature of both FSHD myotube phenotypes was the disturbance of several caveolar proteins, such as PTRF and MURC. Taken together, our data suggest changes in trafficking and in the membrane microdomains of FSHD myotubes. Finally, the

  11. Neural signature of behavioural inhibition in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skunde, Mandy; Walther, Stephan; Simon, Joe J; Wu, Mudan; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Impaired inhibitory control is considered a behavioural phenotype in patients with bulimia nervosa. However, the underlying neural correlates of impaired general and food-specific behavioural inhibition are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated brain activation during the performance of behavioural inhibition to general and food-related stimuli in adults with bulimia nervosa. Women with bulimia and healthy control women underwent event-related fMRI while performing a general and a food-specific no-go task. We included 28 women with bulimia nervosa and 29 healthy control women in our study. On a neuronal level, we observed significant group differences in response to general no-go stimuli in women with bulimia nervosa with high symptom severity; compared with healthy controls, the patients showed reduced activation in the right sensorimotor area (postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus) and right dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen). The present results are limited to adult women with bulimia nervosa. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether impaired behavioural inhibition in patients with this disorder are a cause or consequence of chronic illness. Our findings suggest that diminished frontostriatal brain activation in patients with bulimia nervosa contribute to the severity of binge eating symptoms. Gaining further insight into the neural mechanisms of behavioural inhibition problems in individuals with this disorder may inform brain-directed treatment approaches and the development of response inhibition training approaches to improve inhibitory control in patients with bulimia nervosa. The present study does not support greater behavioural and neural impairments to food-specific behavioural inhibition in these patients.

  12. The role of extracellular vesicles in phenotypic cancer transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Eva; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Veranic, Peter

    2013-07-30

    Cancer has traditionally been considered as a disease resulting from gene mutations. New findings in biology are challenging gene-centered explanations of cancer progression and redirecting them to the non-genetic origins of tumorigenicity. It has become clear that intercellular communication plays a crucial role in cancer progression. Among the most intriguing ways of intercellular communication is that via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane structures released from various types of cells. After separation from the mother membrane, EVs become mobile and may travel from the extracellular space to blood and other body fluids. Recently it has been shown that tumour cells are particularly prone to vesiculation and that tumour-derived EVs can carry proteins, lipids and nucleic acids causative of cancer progression. The uptake of tumour-derived EVs by noncancerous cells can change their normal phenotype to cancerous. The suppression of vesiculation could slow down tumour growth and the spread of metastases. The purpose of this review is to highlight examples of EV-mediated cancer phenotypic transformation in the light of possible therapeutic applications.

  13. Ascorbic acid promotes a TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast phenotype switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Bram; Wouters, Olaf Y; de Rond, Saskia; Boersema, Miriam; Gjaltema, Rutger A F; Bank, Ruud A

    2017-09-01

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA), generally known as vitamin C, is a crucial cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including prolyl-3-hydroxylase (P3H), prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H), and lysyl hydroxylase (LH)-mediated collagen maturation. Here, we investigated whether AA has additional functions in the regulation of the myofibroblast phenotype, besides its function in collagen biosynthesis. We found that AA positively influences TGF β 1-induced expression of COL1A1 , ACTA2 , and COL4A1 Moreover, we demonstrated that AA promotes α SMA stress fiber formation as well as the synthesis and deposition of collagens type I and IV Additionally, AA amplified the contractile phenotype of the myofibroblasts, as seen by increased contraction of a 3D collagen lattice. Moreover, AA increased the expression of several TGF β 1-induced genes, including DDR1 and CCN2 Finally, we demonstrated that the mechanism of AA action seems independent of Smad2/3 signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from pathology to phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathey, Emily K; Park, Susanna B; Hughes, Richard A C; Pollard, John D; Armati, Patricia J; Barnett, Michael H; Taylor, Bruce V; Dyck, P James B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an inflammatory neuropathy, classically characterised by a slowly progressive onset and symmetrical, sensorimotor involvement. However, there are many phenotypic variants, suggesting that CIDP may not be a discrete disease entity but rather a spectrum of related conditions. While the abiding theory of CIDP pathogenesis is that cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves, the relative contributions of T cell and autoantibody responses remain largely undefined. In animal models of spontaneous inflammatory neuropathy, T cell responses to defined myelin antigens are responsible. In other human inflammatory neuropathies, there is evidence of antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin or nodal antigens. In this review, the roles of the cellular and humoral immune systems in the pathogenesis of CIDP will be discussed. In time, it is anticipated that delineation of clinical phenotypes and the underlying disease mechanisms might help guide diagnostic and individualised treatment strategies for CIDP. PMID:25677463

  15. Manipulation of MKS1 gene expression affects Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Gargul, Joanna Maria; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of alternative methods to chemical treatments for growth retardation and pathogen protection in ornamental plant production has become a major goal in recent breeding programmes. This study evaluates the effect of manipulating MAP kinase 4 nuclear substrate 1 (MKS1) expression in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida. The Arabidopsis thaliana MKS1 gene was overexpressed in both species via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in dwarfed phenotypes and delay...

  16. Animal personality and state-behaviour feedbacks: a review and guide for empiricists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Mathot, Kimberley J; Moirón, María; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wolf, Max; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2015-01-01

    An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of why individuals differ consistently in state. Recent theory emphasizes the role that positive feedbacks between state and behaviour can play in producing consistent among-individual covariance between state and behaviour, hence state-dependent personality. We review the role of feedbacks in recent models of adaptive personalities, and provide guidelines for empirical testing of model assumptions and predictions. We discuss the importance of the mediating effects of ecology on these feedbacks, and provide a roadmap for including state-behaviour feedbacks in behavioural ecology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Examination of the Past Behaviour-Intention Relationship in the Case of Brushing Children's Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Makvandi, Zeinab; Faradmal, Javad; Bashirian, Saeid; Hazavehei, Mohammad M

    The present study sought to apply the expanded theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to the prediction of mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth and examine the mediating role of the variables of the TPB on the relationship between past behaviour and the intention. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 211 mothers with children ages 2 to 5 years. Participants completed measures of the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, perceived control and intention) and past behaviour in relation to brushing. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the predictors of mothers' intention. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes' INDIRECT.SPSS macro. The TPB explained 25% of the variance in brushing intention, with attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control making significant contributions. Past behaviour explained an additional 3% of the variance in intention. Analysis showed that TPB variables only partially mediate the effect of past behaviour on intention. Our findings revealed that mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth is under the control of both past behaviour and psychological factors. Accordingly, interventions to improve children's toothbrushing should focus on the motivational (e.g. attitude) as well as the habitual determinants (e.g. environmental cues). However, given the low explanatory power of our model, it may be necessary to incorporate other psychological and environmental variables into an explanation of the mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth.

  19. Sleep, executive functioning and behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Nicole C; Radovanovic, Branka; Kennedy, J Declan; Couper, Jennifer; Kohler, Mark; Kavanagh, Phillip S; Martin, A James; Lushington, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sleep, neurocognitive and behavioural functioning in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared to controls and to test whether sleep quality mediates the relationship between diabetes and neurocognitive and behavioural deficits. Participants include 49 children and adolescents with T1D (recruited from a hospital clinic) and 36 healthy controls (age range = 6-16 years). Parents completed a survey consisting of the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions, and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2. Diabetic and demographic parameters were collated from medical records. The survey was posted to participants. Children with T1D compared to controls reported a higher frequency of sleep problems, and mild deficits in executive and behavioural functioning. Mediational analyses revealed that sleep quality fully mediated metacognitive functioning, externalised problematic behaviour, and internalised problematic behaviour, but not behavioural regulation. Rather than the direct impact of T1D on daytime functioning, it is the consequent impact of T1D on sleep and the resulting sleep disruption which can explain much of the neurocognitive and behavioural deficits reported in children with T1D. Maintaining good nocturnal glycaemic control may play a much larger role than previously thought in regulating daytime functioning in children with T1D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: New insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Nogales, A.; Nederlof, M.A.J.; Benedito-Palos, L.; Ballester-Lozano, G.F.; Folkedal, O.; Olsen, R.E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and

  1. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Martini, Lene; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    for the fusion constructs was observed. We conclude that the glucagon-like peptide 1 fusion construct mimics the natural interaction of the receptor with (beta)arr2 with respect to binding peptide ligands, G protein-mediated signaling and internalization, and that this distinct molecular phenotype is reminiscent...

  2. Catecholamine metabolomic and secretory phenotypes in phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Pacak, K.; Huynh, T.T.; Qin, N.; Bratslavsky, G.; Linehan, W.M.; Mannelli, M.; Friberg, P.; Grebe, S.K.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Bornstein, S.R.; Lenders, J.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are highly heterogeneous tumours with variable catecholamine biochemical phenotypes and diverse hereditary backgrounds. This analysis of 18 catecholamine-related plasma and urinary biomarkers in 365 patients with PPGLs and 846 subjects without PPGLs

  3. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  4. Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationship between the Bakosi/Baweri and other pig breeds ( Sus scrofa Domesticus ) in the humid forest with monomodal rainfall agro-ecological zone of Cameroon.

  5. Mining skeletal phenotype descriptions from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    Full Text Available Phenotype descriptions are important for our understanding of genetics, as they enable the computation and analysis of a varied range of issues related to the genetic and developmental bases of correlated characters. The literature contains a wealth of such phenotype descriptions, usually reported as free-text entries, similar to typical clinical summaries. In this paper, we focus on creating and making available an annotated corpus of skeletal phenotype descriptions. In addition, we present and evaluate a hybrid Machine Learning approach for mining phenotype descriptions from free text. Our hybrid approach uses an ensemble of four classifiers and experiments with several aggregation techniques. The best scoring technique achieves an F-1 score of 71.52%, which is close to the state-of-the-art in other domains, where training data exists in abundance. Finally, we discuss the influence of the features chosen for the model on the overall performance of the method.

  6. Pathways to Self-Esteem in Late Adolescence: The Role of Parent and Peer Attachment, Empathy, and Social Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo; Roesch, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine both the direct and indirect relations of parent and peer attachment with self-esteem and to examine the potential mediating roles of empathy and social behaviour. 246 college students ("Mage" = 18.6 years, s.d. = 1.61) completed self-report measures of parent and peer attachment, empathy, social behaviour,…

  7. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brümmer, Felix; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the fine-tuning remains modest. In this Letter, we show that such gauge mediation models with “focus point” behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5)×U(3) product group unification

  8. Focus point gauge mediation in product group unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Ibe, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-03-01

    In certain models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with messenger fields in incomplete GUT multiplets, the radiative corrections to the Higgs potential cancel out during renormalization group running. This allows for relatively heavy superpartners and for a 125 GeV Higgs while the ne-tuning remains modest. In this paper, we show that such gauge mediation models with ''focus point'' behaviour can be naturally embedded into a model of SU(5) x U(3) product group unification.

  9. Phenotypic variation in plants: Roles for epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lauss, K.

    2017-01-01

    Besides genetics, also epigenetics can play a role in shaping the characteristics of a plant (phenotype). Epigenetics refers to chemical modifications of DNA and proteins associated with the DNA that can influence gene activity (the ‘epigenome’) and can be passed on through cell divisions and following generations. This thesis aimed to explore relationships between epigenome and phenotype in plants. The focus is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that occurs on cytosine bases in the ...

  10. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  11. Plant phenotypic plasticity in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    Nicotra, Adrienne B.; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonser, Stephen P.; Davidson, Amy M.; Finnegan, Jean; Mathesius, Ulrike; Poot, Pieter; Purugganan, Michael D.; Valladares, Fernando; van Kleunen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is altering the availability of resources and the conditions that are crucial to plant performance. One way plants will respond to these changes is through environmentally induced shifts in phenotype(phenotypic plasticity). Understanding plastic responses is crucial for predicting and managing the effects of climate change on native species as well as cropplants. Here,we provide a toolbox with definitions of key theoretical elements and a synthesis of the current understanding ...

  12. Important discoveries from analysing bacterial phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Bochner, Barry R; Giovannetti, Luciana; Viti, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The ability to test hundreds to thousands of cellular phenotypes in a single experiment has opened up new avenues of investigation and exploration and led to important discoveries in very diverse applications of microbiological research and development. The information provided by global phenotyping is complementary to, and often more easily interpretable than information provided by global molecular analytical methods such as gene chips and proteomics. This report summarizes advances present...

  13. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, Beate; Ulle, Tanja; Kahl, Kai G; Wasem, Jürgen; Aidelsburger, Pamela

    2008-05-29

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two), six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the interventions of media alone as well as through the intervention of

  14. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  15. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  16. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge.Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices.Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  17. Developing Leadership Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    Managers in the public sector act in a political context full of dilemmas. Nevertheless, they must show courage, efficiency, make difficult decisions, prioritize and produce results for the citizens. This seems to demand new and/or better ways of leading the public sector. Leadership development......, education and training are some of the tools, which are often used to renew, rethink and restructure leadership as well as management. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of formal leadership education on developing public leadership behaviour....

  18. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  19. Human Resources and Innovative Behaviour : Improving Nursing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Xerri, Matthew; Reid, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    This study examines, using the social exchange theory, the mediating effect of employees’ perception of wellbeing on the relationship between two human resource (HR) management factors (satisfaction with teamwork and satisfaction with training opportunities) and innovative behaviour of nurses working in Australian public and private hospitals. Current nurse shortages and limited budgets have increased the need for hospitals to improve their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. It is proposed th...

  20. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour in middle...... age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships....