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Sample records for behaviour disorder compared

  1. Comparing cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders integrated with behavioural weight loss therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced alone in overweight or obese people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; Sainsbury, Amanda; da Luz, Felipe; Swinbourne, Jessica; Estella, Nara Mendes; Claudino, Angélica

    2015-12-18

    Around 40 % of individuals with eating disorders of recurrent binge eating, namely bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, are obese. In contrast to binge eating disorder, currently there is no evidence base for weight management or weight loss psychological therapies in the treatment of bulimia nervosa despite their efficacy in binge eating disorder. Thus, a manualised therapy called HAPIFED (Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders) has been developed. HAPIFED integrates the leading evidence-based psychological therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) and behavioural weight loss treatment (BWLT) for binge eating disorder and obesity respectively. The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HAPIFED versus CBT-E for people with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder who are overweight/obese. A single-blind superiority RCT is proposed. One hundred Brazilian participants aged ≥ 18 years, with a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder, BMI > 27 to bulimia nervosa as well as with binge eating disorder. It will have the potential to improve health outcomes for the rapidly increasing number of adults with co-morbid obesity and binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa. US National Institutes of Health clinical trial registration number NCT02464345 , date of registration 1 June 2015.

  2. How does routinely delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for gambling disorder compare to "gold standard" clinical trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Harvey, Peter W; Battersby, Malcolm W

    2018-03-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether treatment outcomes derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for problem gamblers still hold when applied to patients seen in routine practice. Thus, data from an RCT of cognitive therapy versus exposure therapy for problem gambling versus patients of a gambling help service were compared. Assessments of problem gambling severity, psychosocial impairment, and alcohol use were undertaken at baseline and post-treatment and evaluated within a counterfactual framework. Findings showed that the contrast between routine CBT for pokies and horse betting had a significant effect, indicative of a 62% lower gambling urge score if routine CBT recipients had all been horse/track betters opposed to gambling with "pokies." However, the majority of contrasts indicated therapeutic outcomes achieved in routine CBT treatments were of equivalent robustness relative to RCT conditions. The present findings infer routine practice treatment outcomes are as efficacious as those generated in RCT contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmstierna, Tom

    2016-12-06

    Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment. Evidence for pharmacological treatment of repetitive aggressive behaviour is weak. But, bensodiazepines seem to increase the risk of violent behaviour among patients with personality disorders. Antisocial personality traits diminish over time. This spontaneous decrease can be delayed by comorbidity such as other personality disorder, substance use disorder, psychosis and attention deficit disorders. Therefore it is recommended to actively treat these comorbid conditions.

  4. Physical health behaviours and health locus of control in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional comparative study with people with non-psychotic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhagiar, Kurt; Parsonage, Liam; Osborn, David P J

    2011-06-24

    People with mental illness experience high levels of morbidity and mortality from physical disease compared to the general population. Our primary aim was to compare how people with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e. schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder) and non-psychotic mental illness perceive their: (i) global physical health, (ii) barriers to improving physical health, (iii) physical health with respect to important aspects of life and (iv) motivation to change modifiable high-risk behaviours associated with coronary heart disease. A secondary aim was to determine health locus of control in these two groups of participants. People with SMI and non-psychotic mental illness were recruited from an out-patient adult mental health service in London. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups was conducted by means of a self-completed questionnaire. A total of 146 people participated in the study, 52 with SMI and 94 with non-psychotic mental illness. There was no statistical difference between the two groups with respect to the perception of global physical health. However, physical health was considered to be a less important priority in life by people with SMI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p = 0.029). There was no difference between the two groups in their desire to change high risk behaviours. People with SMI are more likely to have a health locus of control determined by powerful others (p locus of control may provide a theoretical focus for clinical intervention in order to promote a much needed behavioural change in this marginalised group of people.

  5. [Symptomatology and psychosocial adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, Jean; Le Corff, Yann; Pauzé, Robert

    2008-01-01

    To describe symptomatology and specific psychological, social, and academic adaptation in adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder, as well as their family situation. Using binomial logistic regressions, this study compares adolescents with depressive disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (n=25) with adolescents with the same behaviour problems but no comorbid depressive disorder (n=99). Sex-specific interaction impacts are examined. While both groups have several similar characteristics, youth with a dual diagnosis have more oppositional symptoms and poorer self-esteem. Analyses show no interaction impact from sex variable. Adolescents in both groups would benefit from similar interventions regarding disruptive behaviour disorders and some related problems, such as using psychoactive drugs, socializing with delinquent peers, and difficulty functioning in school. Adolescents with a comorbid depressive disorder need special attention, given the more significant oppositional symptomatology and the poorer self-esteem.

  6. Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosomatic disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    bined psychological and medical .... which contributed to his sense of defeat and ... Based on the cognitive model of emotional disorders. • Depends ... training, graded exposure, role play, behavioural experiments ... Emotion. Physical. Behaviour. Fatigue. Effort will make. Depression ..... Positive outcomes include reduced.

  7. Obsessive compulsive disorder and psychopathic behaviour in Babylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Edward H; Kinnier Wilson, James V

    2012-02-01

    The history of obsessive compulsive, phobic and psychopathic behaviour can be traced to the 17th century AD. We draw attention to these behaviours in a Babylonian cuneiform medical text known as Shurpu. These three categories were united in the Babylonian mind around the concept of the māmīt 'oath' idea, the behaviour habits being so unbreakable it appeared that the subject had sworn an oath to do or not to do the action involved. The behavioural accounts were entirely objective, including what we would call immature, antisocial and criminal behaviour, and obsessional categories of contamination, aggression, orderliness of objects, sex and religion. They do not include subjective descriptions of obsessional thoughts, ruminations or the subject's attitude to their own behaviour, which are more modern fields of enquiry. The Babylonians had no understanding of brain or psychological function but they were remarkable describers of medical disease and behaviour. Although they had both physical and supernatural theories of many medical disorders and behaviours, they had an open mind on these particular behaviours which they regarded as a 'mystery' yet to be 'resolved'. We are not aware of comparable accounts of these behaviours in ancient Egyptian or classical medicine. These Babylonian descriptions extend the history of these disorders to the first half of the second millennium BC.

  8. Cognitive behavioural interventions in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Paulomi M

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles. Interventions for preventing relapse include, behavioural strategies to decrease the valence of addictive behaviours, coping skills to deal with craving, arousal, negative mood states, assertiveness skills to manage social pressures, family psychoeducation and environmental manipulation and cognitive strategies to enhance self-efficacy beliefs and modification of outcome expectancies related to addictive behaviours. More recent developments in the area of managing addictions include third wave behaviour therapies. Third wave behaviour therapies are focused on improving building awareness, and distress tolerance skills using mindfulness practices. These approaches have shown promise, and more recently the neurobiological underpinnings of mindfulness strategies have been studied. The article provides an overview of cognitive behavioural approaches to managing addictions.

  9. Eating disorder beliefs and behaviours across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Steven; Goss, Ken

    2014-01-01

    To test for differences between diagnostic groups on the severity of eating disorder beliefs and behaviours, evaluate the clinical significance of such differences, and assess the extent to which these beliefs and behaviours may be present at clinically significant levels across eating disorder diagnoses. 136 adult women outpatients (aged 18-65, with a BMI over 15) were diagnosed with an eating disorder and completed the Stirling Eating Disorder Scale. The expected pattern of statistically significant differences was found between diagnostic groups on anorexic dietary beliefs and behaviours and bulimic dietary beliefs and behaviours. A high percentage of participants in each diagnostic group scored above the clinical cut-off on the eating disorder belief and behaviour measures and a very high percentage of participants in each group reported clinically significant levels of restricting beliefs. Transdiagnostic or functional analytic approaches to treatment planning may lead to more effective interventions than current, diagnostically-based, care pathways. The high prevalence of restricting beliefs reported suggested that this may need to be a key focus for intervention for the majority of individuals presenting with an eating disorder. © 2013.

  10. Efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholt, Nina; Krogh, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Transdiagnostic approaches to cognitive behaviour therapy (TCBT) of anxiety disorders have drawn increasing interest and empirical testing over the past decade. In this paper, we review evidence of the overall efficacy of TCBT for anxiety disorders, as well as TCBT efficacy compared with wait......-list, treatment-as-usual, and diagnosis-specific cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) controls. A total of 11 studies reporting 12 trials (n = 1933) were included in the systematic review. Results from the meta-analysis of 11 trials suggest that TCBT was generally associated with positive outcome; TCBT patients did...

  11. Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Derserri Y.; Lee, Hoe C.; Patomella, Ann-Helen; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving…

  12. Low-intensity cognitive-behaviour therapy interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to waiting list for therapist-led cognitive-behaviour therapy: 3-arm randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lovell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is prevalent and without adequate treatment usually follows a chronic course. "High-intensity" cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT from a specialist therapist is current "best practice." However, access is difficult because of limited numbers of therapists and because of the disabling effects of OCD symptoms. There is a potential role for "low-intensity" interventions as part of a stepped care model. Low-intensity interventions (written or web-based materials with limited therapist support can be provided remotely, which has the potential to increase access. However, current evidence concerning low-intensity interventions is insufficient. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of 2 forms of low-intensity CBT prior to high-intensity CBT, in adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV criteria for OCD.This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee North West-Lancaster (reference number 11/NW/0276. All participants provided informed consent to take part in the trial. We conducted a 3-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial in primary- and secondary-care United Kingdom mental health services. All patients were on a waiting list for therapist-led CBT (treatment as usual. Four hundred and seventy-three eligible patients were recruited and randomised. Patients had a median age of 33 years, and 60% were female. The majority were experiencing severe OCD. Patients received 1 of 2 low-intensity interventions: computerised CBT (cCBT; web-based CBT materials and limited telephone support through "OCFighter" or guided self-help (written CBT materials with limited telephone or face-to-face support. Primary comparisons concerned OCD symptoms, measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Observer-Rated (Y-BOCS-OR at 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life, depression, anxiety, and

  13. Low-intensity cognitive-behaviour therapy interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to waiting list for therapist-led cognitive-behaviour therapy: 3-arm randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Judith; Byford, Sarah; Bee, Penny; McMillan, Dean; Gilbody, Simon; Gega, Lina; Hardy, Gillian; Reynolds, Shirley; Barkham, Michael; Mottram, Patricia; Molle, Jo; Knopp-Hoffer, Jasmin; Connell, Janice; Heslin, Margaret; Foley, Christopher; Plummer, Faye

    2017-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is prevalent and without adequate treatment usually follows a chronic course. “High-intensity” cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) from a specialist therapist is current “best practice.” However, access is difficult because of limited numbers of therapists and because of the disabling effects of OCD symptoms. There is a potential role for “low-intensity” interventions as part of a stepped care model. Low-intensity interventions (written or web-based materials with limited therapist support) can be provided remotely, which has the potential to increase access. However, current evidence concerning low-intensity interventions is insufficient. We aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of 2 forms of low-intensity CBT prior to high-intensity CBT, in adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for OCD. Methods and findings This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee North West–Lancaster (reference number 11/NW/0276). All participants provided informed consent to take part in the trial. We conducted a 3-arm, multicentre randomised controlled trial in primary- and secondary-care United Kingdom mental health services. All patients were on a waiting list for therapist-led CBT (treatment as usual). Four hundred and seventy-three eligible patients were recruited and randomised. Patients had a median age of 33 years, and 60% were female. The majority were experiencing severe OCD. Patients received 1 of 2 low-intensity interventions: computerised CBT (cCBT; web-based CBT materials and limited telephone support) through “OCFighter” or guided self-help (written CBT materials with limited telephone or face-to-face support). Primary comparisons concerned OCD symptoms, measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale–Observer-Rated (Y-BOCS-OR) at 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included health

  14. What is the comparative effectiveness of current standard treatment, against an individually tailored behavioural programme delivered either on the Internet or face-to-face for people with acute whiplash associated disorder? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Söderlund, Anne

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the comparative effectiveness of current standard treatment, against an individually tailored behavioural programme delivered via the Internet or face-to-face for people with acute whiplash associated disorders. A multicentre, randomized, three-group design, with concealed allocation. A total of 55 participants (37 female), age 18-65, with acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (Grade I-II), recruited at two emergency clinics in Sweden. Before randomization all participants received standard self-care instructions. The Internet and face-to-face groups followed a seven-week behavioural programme involving individual tailoring, via email (Internet group), or in sessions at a physical therapy unit (face-to-face group). The control group only received the self-care instructions. Pain-related disability, pain intensity, self-efficacy in daily activities, catastrophizing and fear of movement/(re)injury. Assessments were performed at baseline (2-4 weeks postinjury) and at three, six and 12 months postintervention. Both the Internet (n = 16) and face-to-face (n = 14) group showed a larger decrease in pain-related disability than the control group (n = 16); -12 and -11, respectively, compared with -5 in the control group at 12-months follow-up. Significant differences between the groups in overall treatment effect were shown in all outcomes except pain intensity. All groups improved significantly over time in all outcomes, except for fear of movement/(re)injury and catastrophizing in the control group. An individually tailored behavioural programme improved biopsychosocial factors in patients with whiplash associated disorders up to 12 months after treatment. Internet-delivered intervention was as effective as clinic-based face-to-face therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Evidence that non-dreamers do dream: a REM sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Chaumereuil, Charlotte; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether non-dreamers do not produce dreams or do not recall them, subjects were identified with no dream recall with dreamlike behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is typically characterised by dream-enacting behaviours congruent with sleep mentation. All consecutive patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder or rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease who underwent a video-polysomnography were interviewed regarding the presence or absence of dream recall, retrospectively or upon spontaneous arousals. The patients with no dream recall for at least 10 years, and never-ever recallers were compared with dream recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder regarding their clinical, cognitive and sleep features. Of the 289 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, eight (2.8%) patients had no dream recall, including four (1.4%) patients who had never ever recalled dreams, and four patients who had no dream recall for 10-56 years. All non-recallers exhibited, daily or almost nightly, several complex, scenic and dreamlike behaviours and speeches, which were also observed during rapid eye movement sleep on video-polysomnography (arguing, fighting and speaking). They did not recall a dream following sudden awakenings from rapid eye movement sleep. These eight non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder did not differ in terms of cognition, clinical, treatment or sleep measures from the 17 dreamers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder matched for age, sex and disease. The scenic dreamlike behaviours reported and observed during rapid eye movement sleep in the rare non-recallers with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (even in the never-ever recallers) provide strong evidence that non-recallers produce dreams, but do not recall them. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder provides a new model to

  16. In-vivo staging of pathology in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karoline; Fedorova, Tatyana D.; Hansen, Allan K.

    2018-01-01

    originating in the locus coeruleus, and 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET to assess nigrostriatal dopamine storage capacity. For each imaging modality, we compared patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder with previously published reference data of controls without neurological disorders...... or cognitive impairment and with symptomatic patients with Parkinson's disease. We assessed imaging data using one-way ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons. Findings: Between June 3, 2016, and Dec 19, 2017, we recruited 22 consecutive patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder to the study...... REM sleep behaviour disorder (pequal to that in diagnosed Parkinson's disease. These patients also showed noradrenergic...

  17. Is there a common motor dysregulation in sleepwalking and REM sleep behaviour disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridi, Mehdi; Weyn Banningh, Sebastian; Clé, Marion; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine if there is any overlap between the two major non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement parasomnias, i.e. sleepwalking/sleep terrors and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We assessed adult patients with sleepwalking/sleep terrors using rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaires and determined if they had enhanced muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep. Conversely, we assessed rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients using the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale and determined if they had more N3 awakenings. The 251 participants included 64 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (29 with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 35 with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease), 62 patients with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 66 old healthy controls (age-matched with the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder group) and 59 young healthy controls (age-matched with the sleepwalking/sleep terrors group). They completed the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaire, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder single question and Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale. In addition, all the participants underwent a video-polysomnography. The sleepwalking/sleep terrors patients scored positive on rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder scales and had a higher percentage of 'any' phasic rapid eye movement sleep without atonia when compared with controls; however, these patients did not have higher tonic rapid eye movement sleep without atonia or complex behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder had moderately elevated scores on the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale but did not exhibit more N3 arousals (suggestive of non-rapid eye movement parasomnia) than the control group. These results indicate that dream

  18. Similarities and differences between children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and those with obsessive compulsive disorder: executive functioning and repetitive behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Meerum Terwogt, Mark; Koot, Hans M

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine hypothesized underlying neurocognitive processes in repetitive behaviour, children and adolescents (7-16 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) were compared on a range of executive function (EF) measures. Performance on

  19. Pervasive developmental disorders and criminal behaviour - A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and pattern of criminal behaviour in a population of 313 former child psychiatric in-patients with pervasive developmental disorders were studied. The patients were divided into three subgroups and compared with 933 matched controls from the general population. Age at follow.......1% and 18.4%, respectively. The corresponding rate of convictions in the comparison groups was 18.9%, 14.7%, and 19.6% respectively. Particular attention is given to arson in Asperger's syndrome (P = .0009) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  20. Comparison of brief dynamic and cognitive-behavioural therapies in avoidant personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Benner, Ank; Kuipers, Antoinette; Feiertag, Guus A.; Koster, Harrie C.; van Apeldoorn, Franske J.

    Background There is a paucity of controlled trials examining the effectiveness of individual psychotherapy in personality disorders, especially in patients with cluster C disorders. Aims To compare the effectiveness of brief dynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy as out-patient treatment

  1. Brief Report: DSM-5 Sensory Behaviours in Children with and without an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are a new criterion in DSM-5 for the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are also reported in other developmental disorders. Using the Short Sensory profile (SSP) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised we compared atypical sensory behaviour (hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual…

  2. Anxiety and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jacqui; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Connolly, Brenda; McConachie, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder or Williams syndrome are vulnerable to anxiety. The factors that contribute to this risk remain unclear. This study compared anxiety in autism spectrum disorder and Williams Syndrome and examined the relationship between repetitive behaviours and anxiety. Thirty-four children with autism and twenty children…

  3. Comparative analysis of informal borrowing behaviour between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tools of analyses were descriptive statistics of mean and percentages and probit model, The result of the Probit model on the variables influencing borrowing behaviour of male-headed households indicated that the coefficients of household size, farm size, purpose of borrowing, loan duration, interest rate and collateral ...

  4. Mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits in the effects of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour among mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, K I; Rosenström, T; Baryshnikov, I; Karpov, B; Melartin, T; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Joffe, G; Isometsä, E

    2017-07-01

    Substantial evidence supports an association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behaviour. However, few studies have examined factors mediating this relationship among patients with unipolar or bipolar mood disorders. Depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (ICD-10-DCR) patients (n=287) from the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study were surveyed on self-reported childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms, borderline personality disorder traits, and lifetime suicidal behaviour. Psychiatric records served to complement the information on suicide attempts. We examined by formal mediation analyses whether (1) the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour is mediated through borderline personality disorder traits and (2) the mediation effect differs between lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. The impact of childhood maltreatment in multivariate models on either lifetime suicidal ideation or lifetime suicide attempts showed comparable total effects. In formal mediation analyses, borderline personality disorder traits mediated all of the total effect of childhood maltreatment on lifetime suicide attempts, but only one fifth of the total effect on lifetime suicidal ideation. The mediation effect was stronger for lifetime suicide attempts than for lifetime suicidal ideation (P=0.002) and independent of current depressive symptoms. The mechanisms of the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation versus suicide attempts may diverge among psychiatric patients with mood disorders. Borderline personality disorder traits may contribute to these mechanisms, although the influence appears considerably stronger for suicide attempts than for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The neuropsychological correlates of borderline personality disorder and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGris, Jeannette; van Reekum, Rob

    2006-03-01

    In subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD), compared with subjects who attempted suicide, to review neuropsychological (NP) function that may predispose to suicidal behaviour along a continuum of high and low lethality. We undertook electronic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Biosos Reviews, and Cinhal. The searches were restricted to English-language publications from 1985 onward. The search terms borderline personality disorder, suicide, suicide attempt, self-harm behaviour, neuropsychological, executive function (EF), neurocognitive, and neuropsychological function produced 29 neuropsychology studies involving BPD and 7 neuropsychology studies of suicide attempters, regardless of psychiatric diagnosis. Of the BPD studies, 83% found NP impairment in one or more cognitive domains, irrespective of depression, involving specific or generalized deficits linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal regions. The functions most frequently reported (in 71% to 86% of BPD studies) are response-inhibitory processes affecting executive function performance that requires speeded attention and visuomotor skills. Decision making and visual memory impairment are also most frequently affected; 60% to 67% of BPD studies report attentional impairment, verbal memory impairment, and visuospatial organizational impairment. Least affected processes in BPD appear to involve spatial working memory, planning, and possibly, IQ. The similarities in NP deficits found in BPD and suicide-attempt studies involve decision making and Trails performances. BPD studies, however, reflect more frequent impairment on the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sort Test performance than the suicide-attempt studies, whereas verbal fluency appears to be more frequently impaired in those attempting suicide. Impaired EF and disinhibitory processes, as indicated by verbal fluency, Trails, and Stroop performance, primarily associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions may

  6. Prevalence of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Stevenson, C J; Cooke, R W; Stevenson, R C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of behaviour disorders in low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Children of birth weight < or = 2000 g born to mothers resident in Merseyside in 1980-1 assessed using the Rutter parent and teacher behaviour questionnaires and the Conner modification of the Rutter teacher questionnaire. Children attending normal schools were assessed with controls matched for age, sex, and class in school. Children attending special schools were assessed unmatched. SUBJECTS--2...

  7. Headache and temporomandibular disorders: evidence for diagnostic and behavioural overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaros, A G; Urban, D; Locke, J

    2007-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic and behavioural overlap of headache patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), individuals recruited from the general population with self-described headaches were compared with non-headache controls. The examination and diagnostic procedures in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD were applied to both sets of subjects by a blinded examiner. Following their examination, subjects used experience sampling methods to obtain data on pain, tooth contact, masticatory muscle tension, emotional states and stress. Results showed that a significantly higher proportion of the headache patients received an RDC/TMD diagnosis of myofascial pain than non-headache controls. Headache patients also reported significantly more frequent and intense tooth contact, more masticatory muscle tension, more stress and more pain in the face/head and other parts of the body than non-headache controls. These results are similar to those reported for TMD patients and they suggest that headache patients and TMD patients overlap considerably in diagnosis and oral parafunctional behaviours.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of blended vs. face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy for severe anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romijn, Geke; Riper, Heleen; Kok, Robin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, and are associated with poor quality of life and substantial economic burden. Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment to reduce anxiety symptoms, but is also costly and labour intensive. Cost......-effectiveness could possibly be improved by delivering cognitive behavioural therapy in a blended format, where face-to-face sessions are partially replaced by online sessions. The aim of this trial is to determine the cost-effectiveness of blended cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with anxiety disorders, i.......e. panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder, in specialized mental health care settings compared to face-to-face cognitive behavioural therapy. In this paper, we present the study protocol. It is hypothesized that blended cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders...

  9. Atypical antipsychotics for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Jik H; Merry, Sally N; Hetrick, Sarah E; Stasiak, Karolina

    2017-08-09

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths. The aim was to evaluate each drug separately rather than the class effect, on the grounds that each atypical antipsychotic has different pharmacologic binding profile (Stahl 2013) and that this is clinically more useful. In January 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and two trials registers. Randomised controlled trials of atypical antipsychotics versus placebo in children and youths aged up to and including 18 years, with a diagnosis of disruptive behaviour disorders, including comorbid ADHD. The primary outcomes were aggression, conduct problems and adverse events (i.e. weight gain/changes and metabolic parameters). The secondary outcomes were general functioning, noncompliance, other adverse events, social functioning, family functioning, parent satisfaction and school functioning. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors (JL and KS) independently collected, evaluated and extracted data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. We performed meta-analyses for each of our primary outcomes, except for metabolic parameters, due to inadequate outcome data. We included 10 trials (spanning 2000 to 2014), involving a total of 896 children and youths aged five to 18 years. Bar two trials, all came from an outpatient setting. Eight trials assessed risperidone, one assessed quetiapine and one assessed ziprasidone. Nine trials assessed acute efficacy (over four to 10 weeks); one of which combined

  10. Serious child and adolescent behaviour disorders; a valuation study by professionals, youth and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Karin M; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Buskens, Erik; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-06-02

    In child and youth care, quantitative estimates of the impact of serious behaviour problems have not yet been made. Such input is needed to support decision making on investments in treatment. The aim of this paper was to elicit valuations of social and conduct disorders in children and adolescents from three different perspectives: professionals, youth, and parents. We obtained valuations from 25 youth care professionals, 50 children (age 9-10) without serious behaviour problems and 36 adolescents (age 16-17) with and without serious behaviour disorders, and 46 parents with children in the aforementioned age categories. Valuations were estimated from 18 descriptions of behaviour disorders in youth aged 9 and 15 years. Descriptions included Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), and Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). Comorbid conditions were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and substance abuse. Valuations were obtained with the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-3 L) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Valuations were generally severe; problems were by and large reported to worsen quality of life by 50% compared to being fully healthy. Professionals regarded DBD with substance abuse as most severe (VAS values 0.41 for children, and 0.43 for adolescents, i.e. less than half of normal). They rated ODD as least severe (VAS values 0.58 for children, 0.59 for adolescents). Children, adolescents and parents gave lower valuations than professionals, and had a wider range of scores, particularly at the lower end of the scale. Behaviour disorders pose a formidable burden from the perspectives of professionals as well as children, adolescents and parents. These results may support medical decision making to set priorities with regard to prevention and treatment based on perceived severity.

  11. Quality of life in patients with an idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun Tae; Motamedi, Gholam K; Cho, Yong Won

    2017-08-01

    There have been few quality of life studies in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compared the quality of life in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients to healthy controls, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus without complication and idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sixty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (24 female; mean age: 61.43 ± 8.99) were enrolled retrospectively. The diagnosis was established based on sleep history, overnight polysomnography, neurological examination and Mini-Mental State Examination to exclude secondary rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. All subjects completed questionnaires, including the Short Form 36-item Health Survey for quality of life. The total quality of life score in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (70.63 ± 20.83) was lower than in the healthy control group (83.38 ± 7.96) but higher than in the hypertension (60.55 ± 24.82), diabetes mellitus (62.42 ± 19.37) and restless legs syndrome (61.77 ± 19.25) groups. The total score of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients had a negative correlation with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.498, P sleep behaviour disorder had a significant negative impact on quality of life, although this effect was less than that of other chronic disorders. This negative effect might be related to a depressive mood associated with the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy compared to optimised general practitioners’ care for depression : A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A.H.; Baas, K.D.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Wittkampf, K.A.; Huyser, J.; van Weert, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and

  13. Brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Compared to Optimised General Practitioners? Care for Depression: A Randomised Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schene, A. H.; Baas, K. D.; Koeter, M.; Lucassen, P.; Bockting, C. L. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258267992; Wittkampf, K. F.; van Weert, H. C.; Huyser, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: How to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in primary care? Studies that compared (brief) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with care as usual by the General Practitioner (GP) found the first to be more effective. However, to make a fair comparison GP care should be optimised and

  14. Using Behaviour Contracts to Decrease Antisocial Behaviour in Four Boys with an Autistic Spectrum Disorder at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Emma; Kingsdorf, Sheri; Charnock, Jackie; Szabo, Mariann; Middleton, Edi; Phillips, Jo; Gautreaux, Grant

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a behaviour contract has been implemented to achieve positive and enduring results for four boys with a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Four case studies are described which address reductions in behaviours such as assaultive and destructive behaviour, out-of-seat behaviour, inappropriate contact with…

  15. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  16. Intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, H.; Kristensen, M.; Arendt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite promising results from intensive formats of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the format is rarely used. The aim of the study was to systematically review the literature within this area of research and provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness...

  17. Is cognitive-behavioural therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; López-Montoyo, Alba; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Cuijpers, Pim

    2018-07-01

    It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety. The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = -0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.41 to -0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33-65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.

  18. From neurons to nests: nest-building behaviour as a model in behavioural and comparative neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zachary J; Meddle, Simone L; Healy, Susan D

    Despite centuries of observing the nest building of most extant bird species, we know surprisingly little about how birds build nests and, specifically, how the avian brain controls nest building. Here, we argue that nest building in birds may be a useful model behaviour in which to study how the brain controls behaviour. Specifically, we argue that nest building as a behavioural model provides a unique opportunity to study not only the mechanisms through which the brain controls behaviour within individuals of a single species but also how evolution may have shaped the brain to produce interspecific variation in nest-building behaviour. In this review, we outline the questions in both behavioural and comparative neuroscience that nest building could be used to address, summarize recent findings regarding the neurobiology of nest building in lab-reared zebra finches and across species building different nest structures, and suggest some future directions for the neurobiology of nest building.

  19. The relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S; Dodd, Helen F; Majdandžić, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Morris, Talia; Byrow, Yulisha; Bögels, Susan M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-15

    This research investigates the relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders proposed by Bögels and Phares (2008). Challenging parenting behaviour involves the playful encouragement of children to go beyond their own limits, and may decrease children's risk for anxiety (Bögels and Phares, 2008). Parents (n=164 mothers and 144 fathers) of 164 children aged between 3.4 and 4.8 years participated in the current study. A multi-method, multi-informant assessment of anxiety was used, incorporating data from diagnostic interviews as well as questionnaire measures. Parents completed self-report measures of their parenting behaviour (n=147 mothers and 138 fathers) and anxiety (n=154 mothers and 143 fathers). Mothers reported on their child's anxiety via questionnaire as well as diagnostic interview (n=156 and 164 respectively). Of these children, 74 met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 90 did not. Fathers engaged in challenging parenting behaviour more often than mothers. Both mothers' and fathers' challenging parenting behaviour was associated with lower report of child anxiety symptoms. However, only mothers' challenging parenting behaviour was found to predict child clinical anxiety diagnosis. Shared method variance from mothers confined the interpretation of these results. Moreover, due to study design, it is not possible to delineate cause and effect. The finding with respect to maternal challenging parenting behaviour was not anticipated, prompting replication of these results. Future research should investigate the role of challenging parenting behaviour by both caregivers as this may have implications for parenting interventions for anxious children. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents. DSM-5 and ICD-10 are the universally accepted standard criteria for the classification of mental and behaviour disorders in childhood and adults. The age and gender prevalence estimation of various childhood behavioural disorders are variable and difficult to compare worldwide. A review of relevant published literature was conducted, including published meta-analyses and national guidelines. We searched for articles indexed by Ovid, PubMed, PubMed Medical Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, Database of Abstracts and Reviews, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and other online sources. The searches were conducted using a combination of search expressions including “childhood”, “behaviour”, “disorders” or “problems”. Childhood behaviour and emotional problems with their related disorders have significant negative impacts on the individual, the family and the society. They are commonly associated with poor academic, occupational, and psychosocial functioning. It is important for all healthcare professionals, especially the Paediatricians to be aware of the range of presentation, prevention and management of the common mental health problems in children and adolescents. PMID:29456928

  1. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  2. A Naturalistic Comparison of Group Transdiagnostic Behaviour Therapy (TBT) and Disorder-Specific Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Groups for the Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Merrifield, Colleen; Rowa, Karen; Szafranski, Derek D; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi E

    2018-05-29

    Transdiagnostic psychotherapies are designed to apply the same underlying treatment principles across a set of psychiatric disorders, without significant tailoring to specific diagnoses. Several transdiagnostic psychotherapy protocols have been developed recently, each of which has its own strengths and weaknesses. One promising treatment is Transdiagnostic Behaviour Therapy (TBT), in that it is one of the few transdiagnostic treatments to date shown to be effective in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. However, TBT has only been investigated via individual psychotherapy. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a group protocol for TBT, compared with disorder-specific group psychotherapies, in a naturalistic setting. 109 participants with various diagnoses of affective disorders completed either group TBT (n = 37) or a disorder-specific group psychotherapy (n = 72). Measures included assessments of psychiatric symptomatology and transdiagnostic impairment at baseline and post-treatment. Overall, participants in the TBT group demonstrated significant improvements across all measures. When compared with disorder-specific groups, no statistical differences were observed between groups across symptoms; however, participants in the TBT group demonstrated roughly twice the treatment effect sizes in transdiagnostic impairment compared with participants in the disorder-specific groups. In addition, when participants from the most well-represented diagnosis and disorder-specific treatment (social anxiety disorder) were investigated separately, participants in the TBT group demonstrated significantly larger improvements in comorbid depressive symptoms than participants in the disorder-specific treatment. Pending replication and additional comparison studies, group TBT may provide an effective group treatment option for patients with affective disorders.

  3. Homicidal behaviour among people with avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive (cluster C) personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajasalo, Taina; Ylipekka, Mikko; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2013-02-01

    Despite a growing forensic psychiatry literature, no previous study has examined in detail homicidal behaviour among offenders with cluster C personality disorders - the avoidant, dependent or obsessional personality disorders. This study aims to compare homicide offenders with cluster C personality disorders with those with other personality disorders on criminal history, offender-victim relationship and post-offence reaction variables. The sample was drawn from all Finnish homicide cases of 1996-2004 for whom a forensic psychiatric evaluation had been conducted. Data were extracted from forensic psychiatric and crime reports. In a nationwide sample of 593 homicide offenders, 21 had at least one cluster C personality disorder. These offenders had significantly shorter criminal histories than the others. Offender-victim relationship did not differ between the groups, but confession to the crime and feelings of remorse were more common among people with cluster C disorders. In addition, compared with other personality disorder clusters, co-morbid depression was more common. Cluster C personality disorders are rare, but not nonexistent, among homicide offenders. Observed differences in their backgrounds and post-offence behaviours indicate that they may have special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The expanding cognitive-behavioural therapy treatment umbrella for the anxiety disorders: disorder-specific and transdiagnostic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Neil A; Man, Vincent; Lerman, Bethany

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT treatments are based on disorder-specific protocols that have been developed to target individual anxiety disorders, despite that anxiety disorders frequently co-occur and are comorbid with depression. Given the high rates of diagnostic comorbidity, substantial overlap in dimensional symptom ratings, and extensive evidence that the mood and anxiety disorders share a common set of psychological and biological vulnerabilities, transdiagnostic CBT protocols have recently been developed to treat the commonalities among the mood and anxiety disorders. We conducted a selective review of empirical developments in the transdiagnostic CBT treatment of anxiety and depression (2008-2013). Preliminary evidence suggests that theoretically based transdiagnostic CBT approaches lead to large treatment effects on the primary anxiety disorder, considerable reduction of diagnostic comorbidity, and some preliminary effects regarding the impact on the putative, shared psychological mechanisms. However, the empirical literature remains tentative owing to relatively small samples, limited direct comparisons with disorder-specific CBT protocols, and the relative absence of the study of disorder-specific compared with shared mechanisms of action in treatment. We conclude with a treatment conceptualization of the new transdiagnostic interventions as complementary, rather than contradictory, to disorder-specific CBT.

  5. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKGUN AKTAS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  6. The Impact of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Olivia M; Salkovskis, Paul M; Bream, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    It is often suggested that, in general, co-morbid personality disorders are likely to interfere with CBT based treatment of Axis I disorders, given that personality disorders are regarded as dispositional and are therefore considered less amenable to change than axis I psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) on cognitive-behavioural treatment for OCD. 92 individuals with a diagnosis of OCD participated in this study. Data were drawn from measures taken at initial assessment and following cognitive-behavioural treatment at a specialist treatment centre for anxiety disorders. At assessment, participants with OCD and OCPD had greater overall OCD symptom severity, as well as doubting, ordering and hoarding symptoms relative to those without OCPD; however, participants with co-morbid OCD and OCPD demonstrated greater treatment gains in terms of OCD severity, checking and ordering than those without OCPD. Individuals with OCD and OCPD had higher levels of checking, ordering and overall OCD severity at initial assessment; however, at post-treatment they had similar scores to those without OCPD. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on axis I and II co-morbidity and the impact of axis II disorders on treatment for axis I disorders.

  7. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  8. Behavioural addictions in bipolar disorder patients: role of impulsivity and personality dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; Mazza, Marianna; Martinotti, Giovanni; Harnic, Desiree; Catalano, Valeria; Bruschi, Angelo; Pozzi, Gino; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    Behavioural addictions (BAs) can be understood as disorders characterized by repetitive occurrence of impulsive and uncontrolled behaviours. Very few studies have investigated their association with mood disorders. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the main behavioural addictions in a sample of bipolar outpatients in euthymic phase or stabilised by medications and to investigate the role of impulsivity and temperamental and character dimensions. One-hundred-fifty-eight Bipolar Disorder (BD) (DSM-IV) outpatients were assessed with tests designed to screen the main behavioural addictions: pathological gambling (SOGS), compulsive shopping (CBS), sexual (SAST), Internet (IAD), work (WART) and physical exercise (EAI) addictions. TCI-R and BIS-11 were administered to investigate impulsivity and personality dimensions mainly associated with BAs. The clinical sample has been compared with 200 matched healthy control subjects. In bipolar patients, 33% presented at least one BA respect to the 13% of controls. Significantly higher scores at the scales for pathological gambling (paddictions (paddictions in BD showing a significant association of these disorders. BAs are more frequent in bipolar patients than in healthy controls and are related to higher impulsivity levels and character immaturity. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  10. Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a novel model of intensive outpatient cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT indicated for eating disorder patients who are having difficulty modifying their eating habits in response to conventional outpatient CBT. Intensive outpatient CBT is a manual based treatment derived by the CBT-Enhanced (CBT-E for eating disorders. The treatment has four features that distinguish it from the conventional outpatient CBT-E: (1 it is designed to be suitable for both adult and adolescent patients, (2 it is delivered by a multidisciplinary non-eclectic team trained in CBT, (3 there is assistance with eating, (4 there is a family therapy module for patients under the age of 18 years. Preliminary outcome of intensive outpatient CBT-E are encouraging. The treatment has been applied to 20 consecutive underweight eating disorder patients (age 18.2 ± 6.5 years; BMI 14.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2. Thirteen patients (65% concluded the treatment, five (25% were admitted at an eating disorder inpatient unit, and two (10% prematurely interrupted the treatment. Completers obtained significant weight regain and improvement of eating disorder and general psychopathology. Most of the improvements were maintained at six-month follow-up.

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...

  12. Efficacy of multisystemic therapy in youths aged 10-17 with severe antisocial behaviour and emotional disorders: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jia Xuan; Fajardo, Maria Lourdes Restrepo

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial behaviour and conduct disorders are the most common behavioural and mental health problems in children and young people globally. An efficacious intervention is needed to manage these antisocial behaviours that have costly consequences. Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive home-based intervention for youths with psychosocial and behavioural problems, is recommended under National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for conduct disorder. However, reviews on the efficacy of MST are mixed. To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy of MST among youths presenting with antisocial behaviour and emotional disorder respectively. A systematic map term to subject heading search was conducted in PsycINFO, Embase, and Ovid Medline databases for articles up to November 2015. RCTs comparing MST vs.treatment as usual (TAU) in youths presenting with antisocial behaviour and emotional disorder were included. 12 RCTs ( n  = 1425) reported efficacy of MST vs. TAU in youths presenting with antisocial behaviour and emotional disorder. Clinically significant treatment effects of MST showed a reduction of antisocial behaviour which includes delinquency. MST, vs. psychiatric hospitalisation, was associated with a reduction of suicidal attempts in youths presenting with psychiatric emergencies. 4 studies showed that MST was less costly than TAU in the short term, with further analysis required for long-term cost-effectiveness. MST is an efficacious intervention for severe antisocial behaviours in reduction of delinquency and should be included in clinical practices. MST was shown to have a positive effect on emotional disorder but further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of MST with emotional disorder. Further analysis is required to assess the services utilized for long-term cost effectiveness.

  13. Emotion awareness and cognitive behavioural therapy in young people with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Collins, Cara; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Russell, Ailsa; Booth, Anne; Loades, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy. Three groups (aged 11-20 years) participated: (1) typically developing young people ( n = 56); (2) young people on the autism spectrum with no experience of cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 23); and (3) young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 33). All participants completed the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire-30 item version. Young people on the autism spectrum differed significantly from typically developing young people on the emotional awareness measure. Young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy scored significantly lower on the Differentiating Emotions subscale, and significantly higher on the Attending to Others' Emotions subscale, compared to young people on the autism spectrum who had not attended cognitive behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of psycho-educational components of cognitive behavioural therapy when adapting for young people on the autism spectrum.

  14. REM behaviour disorder detection associated with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Gertrud; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection......, a computerized algorithm has been attempted implemented. By analysing the REM and non-REM EMG activity, using advanced signal processing tools combined with a statistical classifier, it is possible to discriminate normal and abnormal EMG activity. Due to the small number of patients, the overall performance...

  15. Eating behaviour and eating disorders in students of nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.

  16. Association between REM sleep behaviour disorder and impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellosta Diago, E; Lopez Del Val, L J; Santos Lasaosa, S; López Garcia, E; Viloria Alebesque, A

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between impulse control disorder (ICD) and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has not yet been clarified, and the literature reports contradictory results. Our purpose is to analyse the association between these 2 disorders and their presence in patients under dopaminergic treatment. A total of 73 patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and treated with a single dopamine agonist were included in the study after undergoing clinical assessment and completing the single-question screen for REM sleep behaviour disorder and the short version of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease. Mean age was 68.88 ± 7.758 years. Twenty-six patients (35.6%) were classified as probable-RBD. This group showed a significant association with ICD (P=.001) and had a higher prevalence of non-tremor akinetic rigid syndrome and longer duration of treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists than the group without probable-RBD. We found a significant correlation between the use of oral dopamine agonists and ICD. Likewise, patients treated with oral dopamine agonists demonstrated a greater tendency toward presenting probable-RBD than patients taking dopamine agonists by other routes; the difference was non-significant. The present study confirms the association between RBD and a higher risk of developing symptoms of ICD in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp -van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  19. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, S.J.; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els

    2013-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  20. Emotional and behavioural problems in children with language impairments and children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. To compare levels of emotional and behavioural problems in children with LI and children with ASD recruited from the same mainstream schools. We measured teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 5-13-year-old children with LI (N = 62) and children with ASD (N = 42) attending mainstream school but with identified special educational needs. Both groups showed similarly elevated levels of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems. The only differences between the LI and ASD groups were on subscales assessing peer problems (which were higher in the ASD group) and prosocial behaviours (which were higher in the LI group). Overall, there were few associations between emotional and behavioural problems and child characteristics, reflecting the pervasive nature of these difficulties in children with LI and children with ASD, although levels of problems were higher in children with ASD with lower language ability. However, in the ASD group only, a measure of family social economic status was associated with language ability and attenuated the association between language ability and emotional and behavioural problems. Children with LI and children with ASD in mainstream school show similarly elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, which require monitoring and may benefit from intervention. Further work is required to identify the child, family and situational factors that place children with LI and children with ASD at risk of emotional and behavioural problems, and whether these differ between the two groups. This work can then guide the application of evidence-based interventions to

  1. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  2. Behavioural medicine and gastrointestinal disorders: the promise of positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie

    2018-04-12

    Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. A shift towards a strength-based, positive psychological science of gastrointestinal disorders could facilitate the integration of early, effective psychological care into gastroenterology practice. In this Perspective, I discuss the potential role of three human strengths with relevance to gastrointestinal health - resilience, optimism and self-regulation - and how these three constructs can be cultivated through existing or emerging brain-gut psychotherapies.

  3. Mental disorder, sexual risk behaviour, sexual violence and HIV in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OLANZAPINE AND QUETIAPINE IN PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bithorai Basumatary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Psychotic disorders are a group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness characterised by loss in touch with reality and disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech. The second generation atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been reported to be the commonly prescribed antipsychotic. However, olanzapine can cause adverse effects like weight gain, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Quetiapine, another second generation antipsychotic has good efficacy and has become well established in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes. There are reports on adverse effects of hyperglycaemia and diabetes with quetiapine, but these are comparatively lesser than olanzapine. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was an unicentric, open label, prospective and comparative clinical study. Subjects (n=80 who were diagnosed with psychotic disorder were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (group 1 or quetiapine (group 2. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed on the basis Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores at baseline, 1 week and 6 weeks. UKU scale (Udvalg Kliniske Undersogelser and laboratory investigations were used to assess the safety profile. RESULTS The two study groups had comparable sociodemographic profile. Both the groups showed significant reduction in psychotic symptoms as compared from baseline to 1 week and 6 weeks (p<0.001. The intergroup comparison of the efficacy of the two groups did not show any statistically significant results. There was statistically insignificant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in both the groups. Sedation (50% in both the groups was the most common adverse effect in both the groups. The use of concomitant medications was comparable in both the groups. Benzodiazepines (56.3% in the olanzapine group and 51.9% in the quetiapine group

  5. REM Behaviour Disorder Detection Associated with Neurodegerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection...... is proposed by analyzing the motor activity during sleep. Method: A total number of twelve patients have been involved in this study, six normal controls and six patients diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease (PD) with RBD. All subjects underwent at least one ambulant polysomnographic (PSG) recording. The sleep...... recordings were scored, according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, by two independent sleep specialists. A follow-up analysis of the scoring consensus between the two specialists has been conducted. Based on the agreement of the two manual scorings...

  6. Suicidal ideation, deliberate self-harm behaviour and suicide attempts among adolescent outpatients with depressive mood disorders and comorbid axis I disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Virpi; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Holi, Matti; Ruuttu, Titta; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to analyse and compare prevalence and associated clinical features of suicidal ideation, self-harm behaviour with no suicidal intent and suicide attempts among adolescent outpatients with depressive mood disorders with or without comorbidity. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent outpatients aged 13-19 years with depressive mood disorders was interviewed using K-SADS-PL for DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses. They filled out self-report questionnaires assessing depressive and anxiety symptoms. Suicidal behaviour was assessed by K-SADS-PL suicidality items. Half of the subjects reported suicidal ideation or behaviour. There was no difference in prevalence of suicidal behaviour between non-comorbid and comorbid mood disorder groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses produced the following associations: (1) suicidal ideation with self-reported depressive symptoms and poor psychosocial functioning, (2) deliberate self-harm behaviour with younger age and poor psychosocial functioning, and (3) suicide attempts with self-reported depressive symptoms and poor psychosocial functioning. Depressed mood disorders, whether comorbid or not, are associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Diagnostic assessment should be supplemented by self-report methods when assessing suicidal behaviour in depressed adolescents.

  7. Labelling people as having personality disorder: Effects upon the attributions and intended behaviours of student mental health nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Magness, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate whether there are differences in the attributions, emotional reactions and intended behaviours of student mental health nurses towards individuals with personality disorder, compared to those with schizophrenia. The relationships between attributions, emotional reactions and intended behaviours were also investigated. Method An experimental mixed design was used. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: one viewing the label of perso...

  8. Increased risk of impulse control symptoms in Parkinson's disease with REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, M L; Macedo, L; Zibetti, M; Sarchioto, M; Vidal, T; Pereira, B; Marques, A; Debilly, B; Derost, P; Ulla, M; Vitello, N; Cicolin, A; Lopiano, L; Durif, F

    2015-02-01

    To assess the frequency of symptoms of impulse control disorders (ICD, namely pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive eating and compulsive shopping) and related behaviours (hobbyism, punding, walkabout and dopamine dysregulation syndrome) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without probable rapid eye movement, sleep behaviour disorder (pRBD). Two hundred and sixteen consecutive PD patients, attending two university-based movement disorders clinics, were screened for p-RBD using the RBD Single Question and the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ). Current ICDs and related behaviours symptoms were assessed with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in PD (QUIP)-short form. PD-pRBD patients (n=106/216;49%) had a longer PD duration, a higher Hoehn & Yahr score, a greater levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD), but no difference in dopamine agonist use, compared to PD-without pRBD. A higher proportion of one or more current ICDs and related behaviours symptoms was reported in PD-pRBD compared to PD-without RBD (53% vs28%; p=0.0002). In a multivariate regression analysis accounting for gender, age of onset, PD duration, PD severity, depression score and total and dopaminergic agonist-LEDD, RBD was associated to a relative risk of 1.84 for any ICD or related behaviours symptoms (p=0.01), and to a risk of 2.59 for any ICD symptoms only (p=0.001). Furthermore, PD-pRBD had a more than fourfold risk for symptoms of pathological gambling (relative risk (RR): 4.87; p=0.049) compared to PD-without pRBD. The present study indicates that RBD is associated with an increased risk of developing symptoms of ICDs in PD. Identifying RBD in PD may help clinicians to choose the best therapeutic strategy. AU1023 Institutional Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Evaluation of cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder in the context of tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Stark, Daniel; Shafran, Roz; Heyman, Isobel; Krebs, Georgina

    2015-12-01

    Paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders (TD) often present together. However, there has been relatively little research on whether comorbid tic disorders influence response to cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for OCD. This study aimed to examine the outcomes of CBT for paediatric patients with OCD and a tic disorder compared to a matched group of children with OCD and no tics. Outcomes were compared post-treatment and at 3 or 6 month follow-up. Participants were 29 young people with tic disorders and OCD (OCD + TD) and 29 young people with OCD without tic disorders (OCD-TD) who were matched according to age, gender and baseline OCD symptom severity. All participants received a course of CBT and outcomes were assessed using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). OCD symptoms reduced over the course of CBT to an equivalent extent in the OCD + TD and OCD-TD groups. Response or remission rates did not differ significantly at either post-intervention or follow-up between those with OCD + TD and those with OCD-TD. For both groups, response rates were high - 72% of both groups were classified as responders post-intervention and, at follow-up, 81% of the OCD + TD group and 82% of the OCD no tics group responded. Those with OCD + TD responded in significantly fewer sessions than those with OCD without tics. A number of potential confounding factors were not assessed and therefore could not be controlled for, such as other comorbidities and stability of medication. Paediatric patients with OCD and tic disorders respond equally well to standard CBT for OCD as compared to those with OCD and no tics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0

  11. Obesity and prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk behaviour for eating disorders. To analyze how the prevalence of risk behaviour depends on age, BMI, and year of survey, logistic regression analyses were applied. On acceptance of no interaction, the effect of each variable was tested...... and described using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Women aged 16-19 or with a BMI of>25 had the greatest chance of reporting risk behaviour for eating disorders. However, many women in their 20s also had risk behaviour. Prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders did not change from...

  12. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin......Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...

  13. Ictal SPECT in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness

  14. The adolescent outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with methylphenidate or methylphenidate combined with multimodal behaviour therapy: Results of a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Prins, P.J.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who participated in a randomized clinical trial, which compared a brief intensive multimodal behaviour therapy combined with optimally titrated methylphenidate to optimally titrated methylphenidate alone (n=45), were

  15. Personal Values and Moral Disengagement Promote Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behaviours in Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Marinella; Muratori, Pietro; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Buonanno, Carlo; Capo, Rosario; Lochman, John E; Barcaccia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pilot study presented in this article investigated the role of moral-cognitive features in understanding aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours in adolescents with Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD). We collected two samples. The community sample was composed of 85 adolescents, whereas the DBD sample was composed of 30 adolescents. Compared with a community sample, adolescents with DBD are more inclined to use moral disengagement (MD) to legitimize their aggressive and rule-breaking behaviours. Moreover, regression models showed that self-enhancement values and MD foster externalizing behaviours taking into account both gender and the group they belonged to, that is, either clinical or community sample. Instead, self-transcendence values could prevent externalizing problems by inhibiting MD. Implications of these findings for assessment and therapeutic interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Behavioural phenotypes of the mucopolysaccharide disorders: a systematic literature review of cognitive, motor, social, linguistic and behavioural presentation in the MPS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E M; Hare, D J

    2013-03-01

    The mucopolysaccharide disorders (MPS) are a group of recessively inherited metabolic disorders resulting in progressive physical and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase databases were searched, alongside manual screening, to identify relevant literature. Papers were included in the review if they were published in a peer reviewed journal and conducted empirical research into cognitive, motor, social or linguistic development or behaviour in one or more MPS disorders. Twenty-five papers were reviewed. Two papers used methodology of a sufficiently high standard to demonstrate a behavioural phenotype; both found sleep disturbance to be part of the phenotype of MPS III. Fearfulness and sleep disturbance were frequently observed in people with MPS I and II. Cognitive and motor impairment and decline, and challenging behaviour were highly prevalent in the severe form of MPS II. Cognitive decline and severe behavioural problems relating to aggression, hyperactivity, orality, unusual affect and temper tantrums were seen in MPS III. Sleep disturbance is part of the behavioural phenotype of MPS III, and challenging behaviour is highly prevalent in MPS II and MPS III, therefore the efficacy of behavioural interventions for these populations should be investigated. Further research into the behaviour and adaptive skills of children with MPS III and MPS IV is required.

  17. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Zeeland, Yvonne R A; Spruit, Berry M; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2009-01-01

    similarities with behavioural disorders present in other bird species. Feather pecking (FP) in poultry is of particular interest in this case. Because of the major impacts on welfare and economy, the disorder has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that genetic, socio-environmental...... and neurobiological factors all play a role in FP. Several theories have been postulated about the different motivational systems that affect the behaviour, of which (redirected) foraging appears to be the most generally accepted. FDB may result from similar motivations and underlying mechanisms, but has also been......Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately...

  18. Comparative analysis of graphite oxidation behaviour based on microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badenhorst, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.badenhorst@up.ac.za; Focke, Walter

    2013-11-15

    Two unidentified powdered graphite samples, from a natural and a synthetic origin respectively, were examined. These materials are intended for use in nuclear applications, but have an unknown treatment history since they are considered proprietary. In order to establish a baseline for comparison, the samples were compared to two commercial flake natural graphite samples with varying impurity levels. The samples were characterized by conventional techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. The results indicated that all four samples were very similar, with low impurity levels and good crystallinity, yet they exhibit remarkably different oxidation behaviours. The oxidized microstructures of the materials were examined using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy at low acceleration voltages. The relative influence of each factor affecting the oxidation was established, enabling a structured comparison of the different oxidative behaviours. Based on this analysis, it was possible to account for the measured differences in oxidative reactivity. The material with the lowest reactivity was a flake natural graphite which was characterized as having highly visible crystalline perfection, large particles with a high aspect ratio and no traces of catalytic activity. The second sample, which had an identical inherent microstructure, was found to have an increased reactivity due to the presence of small catalytic impurities. This material also exhibited a more gradual reduction in the oxidation rate at higher conversion, caused by the accumulation of particles which impede the oxidation. The sample with the highest reactivity was found to be a milled, natural graphite material, despite its evident crystallinity. The increased reactivity was attributable to a smaller particle size, the presence of catalytic impurities and extensive damage to the particle structure caused by jet milling. Despite displaying the lowest levels of

  19. Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behaviour in Delusional Disorder: A Clinical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Molina-Andreu, Oriol; Navarro Odriozola, Víctor; Gastó Ferrer, Cristóbal; Penadés, Rafael; Catalán, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Most of the existing studies suggest that suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death in patients with chronic psychotic disorders. However, very few studies have specifically investigated suicidal behaviour in patients with delusional disorder. Thus, our objective was to review the literature regarding the percentage of lifetime ideation and suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder in order to provide suggestions for clinical practice. Methods. MEDLINE and PsycINFO w...

  20. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorder. However, conduct disorder is characterised by a stable aggressive behavioural pattern, recurrently violating either the basic rights of the others or of the generally accepted social norms. Aggressive behaviour can also be present in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD, Attention Deficit Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD, affective and psychotic disorders, autistic spectrum disorders and in some other developmental neurological disorders including intellectual disability ‒ but only as a possible and not a typical symptom. Child and adolescent psychiatrist can mainly help with aggressive behaviour associated with mental disorders. In all other possible causes of aggressive behaviour, child and adolescent psychiatry has neither the possibility/capacity nor the authority to intervene.  

  1. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  2. Identifying disordered eating behaviours in adolescents: how do parent and adolescent reports differ by sex and age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.

  3. Aversive stimuli exacerbate defensive motor behaviour in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Sinanaj, Indrit; Galli, Silvio; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) can affect the voluntary motor system, without an organic cause. Functional symptoms are thought to be generated unconsciously, arising from underlying psychological stressors. However, attempts to demonstrate a direct relationship between the limbic system and disrupted motor function in FND are lacking. We tested whether negative affect would exacerbate alterations of motor control and corresponding brain activations in individuals with FND. Ten patients and ten healthy controls produced an isometric precision-grip contraction at 10% of maximum force while either viewing visual feedback of their force output, or unpleasant or pleasant emotional images (without feedback). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using fMRI. For controls, force output decayed from the target level while viewing pleasant and unpleasant images. Patients however, maintained force at the target level without decay while viewing unpleasant images, indicating a pronounced effect of negative affect on force output in FND. This emotional modulation of force control was associated with different brain activation patterns between groups. Contrasting the unpleasant with the pleasant condition, controls showed increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas patients had greater activity in the cerebellum (vermis), posterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Engagement of a cerebellar-limbic network in patients is consistent with heightened processing of emotional salience, and supports the role of the cerebellum in freezing responses in the presence of aversive events. These data highlight a possible neural circuit through which psychological stressors elicit defensive behaviour and modulate motor function in FND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do disordered eating behaviours in girls vary by school characteristics? A UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; De Stavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-15

    Previous research on eating disorders, disordered eating behaviours, and whether their prevalence varies across schools, has produced inconsistent results. Our previous work using Swedish record-linkage data found that rates of diagnosed eating disorders vary between schools, with higher proportions of girls and higher proportions of highly educated parents within a school being associated with greater numbers of diagnosed eating disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a UK population-based sample and hypothesised that a similar association would be evident when studying disordered eating behaviours. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to test the hypothesis that prevalence of self- and parent-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, restrictive eating, and fear of weight gain), and body dissatisfaction cluster by school. We had complete data on body dissatisfaction, school attended, and other possible risk factors for 2146 girls in 263 schools at age 14 and on disordered eating behaviours for 1769 girls in 273 schools at age 16. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to assess whether prevalence varied between and within schools, and logistic regression to investigate the association between specific school characteristics and prevalence of disordered eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction. At age 14, there was no evidence for body dissatisfaction clustering by school, or for specific school characteristics being associated with body dissatisfaction. At age 16, there was no evidence for clustering, but higher rates of disordered eating behaviours were associated with attending all-girl schools and lower levels with attending schools with higher academic results. We found no evidence for clustering of disordered eating behaviours in individual schools, possibly because of the small cluster sizes. However, we found evidence for higher levels of disordered eating behaviours in 16

  5. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  6. A Pilot Study Examining ADHD and Behavioural Disturbance in Female Mentally Disordered Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hollingdale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with general population rates, prevalence rates of ADHD have been consistently reported to be higher in both male and female offender populations, the latter estimated to range between 10–29%. Research in forensic institutional settings has reported that aggressive behaviour is a particularly prominent source of impairment among men with ADHD. However there is a paucity of research investigating the type of behavioural incidents that may arise in female offenders with ADHD. This pilot study therefore aimed to further our understanding of ADHD within a cohort of female mentally disordered offenders by ascertaining estimated rates of ADHD and associated functional disturbance presenting in this population. Fifty female offenders completed the Barkley ADHD rating scales. Data on aggressive and self-harming behaviours were obtained from patients’ clinical records. Almost one-third of patients (28% screened positive for ADHD, most commonly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. They were significantly younger than their peers and there were no significant differences in behavioural disturbance records between groups. When controlling for age, hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and combined symptoms were significantly and positively correlated with measures of behavioural disturbance. ADHD symptoms correlated more strongly with self-harm than outward aggression, which is a novel finding. This pilot study has contributed to the knowledge base about the rate and functional problems of female offenders with ADHD. Future research should replicate the study using a larger sample and explore the effect of treatment (pharmacological and psychological on the reduction of ADHD symptoms, behavioural disturbance, length of stay and quality of life.

  7. Behavioural Problems in Children with 46XY Disorders of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini M. Selveindran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the behavioural problems of children with 46XY disorders of sex development (DSD with genital ambiguity and to identify the risk factors that may influence behaviour. The 27 participants (aged 6–18 years consisted of 21 patients raised as boys and 6 patients raised as girls. Control data were obtained from a representative sibling of each patient who was matched for age and gender. The study tool used was the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which is a parent-administered questionnaire. The analysis of the behavioural scores revealed that the patient group had poorer scores in the total, externalizing, and internalizing realms. This group also had poorer scores in the anxious-depressed, social, and rule-breaking realms as compared to the control group. In addition, the XY-F group had higher scores (more pathological than the XY-M group, although the difference in the scores was not statistically significant. A comparison of the prevalence of patients with scores in the clinical range with that of the control group was not statistically significant. These findings support the current recommendations that psychological counselling should be an integral part of the professional support offered to patients with DSD.

  8. Does enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders improve quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Allen, Karina; Fursland, Anthea; Byrne, Susan M; Nathan, Paula R

    2012-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is the degree of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced in life, and embraces emotional well-being, physical health, economic and living circumstances, and work satisfaction. QOL recovery with eating disorder treatment has received sparse attention, and until now, no study has investigated QOL recovery with enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Patients (n = 196) admitted to a specialist eating disorders outpatient programme and receiving CBT-E completed measures of QOL, eating disorder psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem, before and after treatment. QOL at intake was compared with community norms, and QOL below the norm was predicted from sociodemographic and clinical correlates with logistic regression. Baseline QOL below the norm was associated with depression and anxiety Axis I comorbidity, and severity of depressive symptoms. Predictors of post-treatment QOL were baseline QOL and level of depressive symptoms and self-esteem at post-treatment. CBT-E was associated with gains in QOL over the course of treatment, in addition to eating disorder symptom relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. [Eating behaviour disorders and personality. A study using MCMI-II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Santiago Fernández, María José; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia

    2009-04-01

    To study the personality characteristics in patients with eating behaviour disorders and the influence of these characteristics, and certain clinical syndromes on the progress of these disorders, particularly when they have lasted more than seven years. Study of comorbidity using a diagnostic test. Eating behaviour disorders unit outpatients. A total of 147 patients with eating behaviour disorders being treated as outpatients. They were of normal weight, with a mean age of 22.24 years. Assessment of personality and clinical syndromes using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Means of the personality and clinical syndromes scales and determination of prevalence using a rate-base>84. At least one personality disorder was detected in 25.33% of patients with anorexia, 30.44% with bulimia nervosa and 32.13% with binge-eating disorder. In the purgative and non-purgative forms the prevalence was 31.07% and 24.75%, respectively. An obsessive disorder is more common in anorexia (39.77%); a histrionic disorder in bulimia (46.66%); a dependent disorder in the purgative forms (46.15%), and an obsessive one in the no-purgative forms (35.36%). As regards the mean scores, they were significantly higher in patients with bulimia for the histrionic disorder (Pdisorder for more than seven years registered more anxiety (Ppersonality styles and clinical syndromes associated with eating behaviour disorders can be an important therapeutic and prognostic tool.

  10. Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.

  11. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  12. Comparing public and private sector employees' innovative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....

  13. Cognitive behaviour therapy for common mental disorders in people with Multiple Sclerosis: A bench marking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askey-Jones, S; David, A S; Silber, E; Shaw, P; Chalder, T

    2013-10-01

    Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety are common in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and are often under treated. This paper reports on the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive behaviour therapy service for common mental disorders in people with MS and compares it to previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in this population. 49 patients were deemed appropriate for CBT and 29 accepted treatment. Assessments were completed at baseline and end of treatment and included the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale. Results in the form of a standardized effect of treatment were compared with five previous RCTs. The results from this clinical service indicated statistically significant outcomes with reductions in depression and anxiety. The uncontrolled effect size was large but inferior to those found in published RCTs. Cognitive behaviour therapy is effective for people with MS in routine clinical practice. Possible limits on effectiveness include more liberal patient selection, lack of specificity in rating scales and heterogeneity of target problems. Given the high rates of distress in this population, routine psychological interventions within neurology services are justifiable. Future research should aim to maximise CBT in such settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents as a possible symptom of different mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2015-01-01

    Causes of aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents are manifold with exogenous and endogenous factors such as personality traits, temperament, family, socio-cultural, economic and financial factors closely intertwined. Aggressive behaviour, however, can also be associated with mental disorders and this is the topic discussed by the present article. Isolated and occasional outbursts of anger, aggressiveness and rage in children and adolescents can often be confused with conduct disorde...

  15. The Impact of Behaviour Problems on Caregiver Stress in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, L.; Leone, S.; Wiltz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of caregiver stress in a large sample of young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two main objectives were to: (1) disentangle the effects of behaviour problems and level of functioning on caregiver stress; and (2) measure the stability of behaviour problems and…

  16. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  17. Yoga--A Boon to the Adjustment Problems and Behavioural Disorders of Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilselvi, B.; Mala, V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence period is the most important stage of a human being and it is the stage between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is a time of storm and stress. They cannot adjust to their new role in life. They can have mental, emotional, adjustment, and behavioural problems known as "disorders". Behavioural patterns that emerge in…

  18. Teacher-Child Relationships and Classroom-Learning Behaviours of Children with Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoad-Drogalis, Anna; Justice, Laura M.; Sawyer, Brook E.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental language disorders (DLDs) often struggle with classroom behaviour. No study has examined whether positive teacher-child relationships may act as a protective factor for children with DLDs in that these serve to enhance children's important classroom-learning behaviours. Aims: To examine the association…

  19. Contributions of Skinner's Theory of Verbal Behaviour to Language Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gaige; Kohler, Kelly; Ross, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to describe the impact of applied behaviour analysis on language treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) diagnoses. Specifically, this paper will describe Skinner's theory of verbal behaviour and its contributions to evidence-based treatments for communication deficits among individuals with…

  20. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social...

  1. The importance of early anti-social behaviour among men with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a specialist forensic psychiatry hospital unit in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    People with a major mental disorder are at increased risk of committing crimes, especially violent crimes, compared with the general population. Sub-groups have been identified based on age of onset of anti-social or violent behaviour. Mentally disordered offenders with early onset anti-social be...

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Christine M; Berkman, Nancy D; Lohr, Kathleen N; Brownley, Kimberly A; Bann, Carla M; Cullen, Katherine; Quattlebaum, Mary J; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    Psychological and pharmacological interventions for binge-eating disorder have previously demonstrated efficacy (compared with placebo or waitlist control); thus, we aimed to expand that literature with a review of comparative effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE,® EMBASE,® Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL® for binge-eating disorder treatment articles and selected studies using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were sufficient for network meta-analysis comparing two pharmacological interventions; psychological interventions were analysed qualitatively. In all, 28 treatment comparisons were included in this review: one pharmacological comparison (second-generation antidepressants versus lisdexamfetamine) and 26 psychological comparisons. Only three statistically significant differences emerged: lisdexamfetamine was better at increasing binge abstinence than second-generation antidepressants; therapist-led cognitive behavioural therapy was better at reducing binge-eating frequency than behavioural weight loss, but behavioural weight loss was better at reducing weight. The majority of other treatment comparisons revealed few significant differences between groups. Thus, patients and clinicians can choose from several effective treatment options. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. The Developmental Trajectory of Self-Injurious Behaviours in Individuals with Prader Willi Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J. Rice

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the nature and developmental trajectory of self-injurious behaviour in Prader Willi syndrome (PWS and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The development of interventions is greatly aided by understanding gene to behaviour pathways, and this requires an accurate description of the behaviour phenotype, that is, which types and natural history of self-injurious behaviour are more common in PWS and ASD and which are shared with other forms of developmental disability. Self-injury displayed by individuals with PWS and individuals with ASD was compared with that reported in a group of individuals with intellectual disability due to mixed aetiology (ID group. Three self-injurious behaviours (head banging, skin-picking and hitting and/or biting self were measured on five occasions over 18 years using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC a well-validated caregiver report measure. Rates of skin picking were higher in individuals with PWS and hitting and/or biting self was higher in individuals with ASD compared to the ID group. Rates of head banging were similar across the three groups. Over time, skin-picking and head banging increased with age for individuals with ASD and hitting and/or biting self increased for the PWS group. In the PWS and mixed ID groups head banging decreased with age. These findings suggest that the typology and developmental trajectories of self-injurious behaviours differ between those with PWS and ASD.

  4. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used

  5. Predicting Dropout from Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder Using Pre-treatment Characteristics: A Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Maartje S; Wiersma, Femke E; Lammers, Mirjam W; Noorthoorn, Eric O

    2016-11-01

    Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An exploratory logistic regression was performed using eating disorder variables, general psychopathology, personality and demographics to identify predictors of dropout. Binge eating pathology, preoccupations with eating, shape and weight, social adjustment, agreeableness, and social embedding appeared to be significant predictors of dropout. Also, education showed an association to dropout. This is one of the first studies investigating pre-treatment predictors for dropout in BED treatment. The total explained variance of the prediction model was low, yet the model correctly classified 80.6% of cases, which is comparable to other dropout studies in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behaviour in Delusional Disorder: A Clinical Overview

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    Alexandre González-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the existing studies suggest that suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death in patients with chronic psychotic disorders. However, very few studies have specifically investigated suicidal behaviour in patients with delusional disorder. Thus, our objective was to review the literature regarding the percentage of lifetime ideation and suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder in order to provide suggestions for clinical practice. Methods. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched from January 1980 to September 2012 using the following keywords: delusional disorder, paranoia, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behaviour. Results. A total of 10 studies were identified and included in the review. The percentage of suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder was established between 8 and 21%, which is similar to schizophrenia. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more frequent in patients showing persecutory and somatic delusions in the reviewed studies. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to specifically review the suicide phenomenon in patients with delusional disorder. Interestingly, our results support the notion that percentages of both suicidal ideation and behaviour in delusional disorder are similar to patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Cardio-respiratory symptoms in panic disorder: a contribution from cognitive-behaviour therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Spear King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT associated with the medication with patients treated only with medication and verify the behaviour of the cardio-respiratory symptoms of both groups. Methods: Randomized sample in the Psychiatry Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, divided in two groups of 25 participants each. Group 1 undertook 10 weekly sessions of CBT with one hour of duration each together with medication. Group 2, Control, were administered medication that only consisted of tricyclic anti-depressants and selective inhibitors of the re-uptake of serotonin. Evaluation instruments were applied at the beginning and to the end of the interventions. Results: According to the applied scales, group 1 showed statistically more significant results than group 2, with: reduction of panic attacks, cardio-respiratory symptoms, anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia avoidance and fear of bodily sensations. Conclusion: Exposures (in vivo and interoceptive, especially for induction symptom exercises and relaxation, were considered essential to prepare patients with panic disorder to handle future cardio-respiratory symptoms and panic attacks with agoraphobia.

  8. Risk behaviours among substance use disorder treatment seekers with and without adult ADHD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaye, Sharlene; Gilsenan, Joanne; Young, Jesse Tyler; Carruthers, Susan; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; van de Glind, Geurt; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity and consequent risk-taking are features of both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD). To date there are no data on the impact of comorbid ADHD on the likelihood and frequency of risk-taking behaviour among individuals with SUD. The current

  9. Internet cognitive behavioural treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Mackenzie, Anna; Williams, Alishia D; Smith, Jessica; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) is becoming increasing accepted as an efficacious and effective treatment for the anxiety and depressive disorders. However few studies have examined the efficacy of iCBT for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This randomised controlled trial

  10. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  11. Differentiation of High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Based on Neuromotor Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayate, Ashwini; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Iansek, Robert; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) are characterised by impairments in social interaction, stereotypic behaviours or restricted interests. Although currently listed as distinct clinical disorders, the validity of their distinction remains controversial. This study examined gait in children with autism and AD. Eleven children with high-functioning…

  12. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep

  13. Characteristics of challenging behaviours in adults with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Rivet, Tessa T

    2008-12-01

    Challenging behaviours are frequently a problem for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). A better understanding of which individuals display which behaviours, at what rates, and the relationship of these behaviours to comorbid psychopathology would have important implications. A group of 161 adults with ASD (autistic disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified [PDD-NOS]) and 159 matched controls with ID only residing in two large residential facilities in Southeastern United States, were studied using the Autism Spectrum Disorders--Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA). In all four categories of challenging behaviour measured by the ASD-BPA (Aggression/Destruction, Stereotypy, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Disruptive Behavior), frequency of challenging behaviours increased with severity of autistic symptoms. The greatest group differences were found for Stereotypy (repeated/unusual vocalisations/body movements and unusual object play), Self-Injurious Behavior (harming self and mouthing/swallowing objects), Aggression/Destruction (banging on objects), and Disruptive Behavior (elopement). Challenging behaviours in people with ASD and ID are barriers to effective education, training, and social development, and often persist throughout adulthood. Thus, programs designed to remediate such behaviours should continue across the life-span of these individuals.

  14. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...

  15. Sleep and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Maria Livia; Figorilli, Michela; Arnulf, Isabelle; Zibetti, Maurizio; Pereira, Bruno; Beudin, Patricia; Puligheddu, Monica; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Lacomblez, Lucette; Benchetrit, Eve; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Cicolin, Alessandro; Lopiano, Leonardo; Marques, Ana; Durif, Franck

    2018-03-01

    Because the association between rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been debated, we assessed the sleep characteristics and the frequency of RBD using video-polysomnography (v-PSG) in patients with PD with versus without ICDs. Eighty non-demented patients with PD consecutively identified during routine evaluation at three movement disorders centres were enrolled in a case-control study. Forty patients (22 men; mean age: 62.6±9.7 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.1±0.6) with one or more current ICDs were age-matched and sex-matched with 40 patients with no history of ICDs (22 men, mean age: 64.9±7.8 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.2±0.6). They underwent a detailed sleep interview followed by a full-night in-lab v-PSG. Sleep was scored blindly to ICDs condition and RBD diagnosis included a clinical complaint of enacted dreams and/or documented behaviour during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, with the presence of quantified REM sleep without atonia (RSWA). Patients with ICDs had a higher arousal index and higher RSWA than those without ICDs (51.9%±28.2%vs 32.2±27.1%, p=0.004). In addition, RBD was more frequent in the ICD group (85%vs53%, p=0.0001). RBD was still associated with ICDs in a multivariate regression analysis including age of onset, PD duration and severity, treatment duration, levodopa-equivalent and dopamine agonist-equivalent daily doses and antidepressant use (OR: 4.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 18.5), p=0.02). This large, controlled series of patients with PD with ICDs assessed by v-PSG confirms the association between ICDs and RBD. Increased surveillance of symptoms of ICDs should be recommended in patients with PD with RBD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A comparative study of behaviour problems between adopted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that adopted children had more behaviour problems on the PSQ. On SAICA, adopted children showed less social competence. The parenting practices as revealed by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire did not differ between the two groups. The IQ of the children in both groups was within the normal range.

  17. Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using S...

  18. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and

  19. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger's disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual?What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness?What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism?Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange communication system. Behaviour analytic interventions

  20. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange

  1. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljotsson, Brjann; Ruck, Christian; Andreewitch, Sergej; Karlsson, Andreas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Erik; Lindefors, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet- and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the...

  2. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  3. Comparative familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Romano, Mia; Graham, Rebecca K; Ricciardi, Tahlia

    2018-05-01

    We sought to quantify the prevalence and differential prevalence of a bipolar disorder among family members of patients with a bipolar I or II disorder. The sample comprised 1165 bipolar and 1041 unipolar patients, with the former then sub-typed as having either a bipolar I or II condition. Family history data was obtained via an online self-report tool. Prevalence of a family member having a bipolar disorder (of either sub-type) was distinctive (36.8%). Patients with a bipolar I disorder reported a slightly higher family history (41.2%) compared to patients with a bipolar II disorder (36.3%), and with both significantly higher than the rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar depressed patients (18.5%). Findings support the view that bipolar disorder is heritable. The comparable rates in the two bipolar sub-types support the positioning of bipolar II disorder as a valid condition with strong genetic underpinnings.

  4. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  5. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  6. Do maternal attributions play a role in the acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yee Ki Kathy; Kovshoff, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between parental attributions and treatment acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD aged 3–9 years (N = 139) completed survey measures that assessed demographics, parental attributions, treatment acceptability of parent-focused and child-focused behavioural interventions, severity of their child's disruptive behaviour, and severity of their child'...

  7. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  9. Assessing behavioural and cognitive domains of autism spectrum disorders in rodents: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan; Ey, Elodie; Biemans, Barbara; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ring, Robert H; Lajonchere, Clara; Esclassan, Frederic; Talpos, John; Noldus, Lucas P J J; Burbach, J Peter H; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of robust and replicable behavioural testing paradigms with translational value for psychiatric diseases is a major step forward in developing and testing etiology-directed treatment for these complex disorders. Based on the existing literature, we have generated an inventory of applied rodent behavioural testing paradigms relevant to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This inventory focused on previously used paradigms that assess behavioural domains that are affected in ASD, such as social interaction, social communication, repetitive behaviours and behavioural inflexibility, cognition as well as anxiety behaviour. A wide range of behavioural testing paradigms for rodents were identified. However, the level of face and construct validity is highly variable. The predictive validity of these paradigms is unknown, as etiology-directed treatments for ASD are currently not on the market. To optimise these studies, future efforts should address aspects of reproducibility and take into account data about the neurodevelopmental underpinnings and trajectory of ASD. In addition, with the increasing knowledge of processes underlying ASD, such as sensory information processes and synaptic plasticity, phenotyping efforts should include multi-level automated analysis of, for example, representative task-related behavioural and electrophysiological read-outs.

  10. International consensus statement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs): clinical implications and treatment practice suggestions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutcher, S.; Aman, M.; Brooks, S.J.; Daalen, E. van; Fegert, J.; Findling, R.L.; Fisman, S.; Greenhill, L.L.; Huss, M.; Kusumakar, V.; Pine, D.; Taylor, E.; Tyano, S.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians worldwide share concerns that many youngsters with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) do not receive appropriate treatment despite availability of effective therapies. At the request of Johnson and Johnson

  11. Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A

    2014-11-01

    There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kuzmanovic, B

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression...... in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). MethodEighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive...... activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. ConclusionData support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD....

  13. Brain damage and behavioural disorders in fish induced by plastic nanoparticles delivered through the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Karin; Johnson, Elyse V; Malmendal, Anders; Linse, Sara; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2017-09-13

    The tremendous increases in production of plastic materials has led to an accumulation of plastic pollution worldwide. Many studies have addressed the physical effects of large-sized plastics on organisms, whereas few have focused on plastic nanoparticles, despite their distinct chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Hence our understanding of their effects on ecosystem function, behaviour and metabolism of organisms remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that plastic nanoparticles reduce survival of aquatic zooplankton and penetrate the blood-to-brain barrier in fish and cause behavioural disorders. Hence, for the first time, we uncover direct interactions between plastic nanoparticles and brain tissue, which is the likely mechanism behind the observed behavioural disorders in the top consumer. In a broader perspective, our findings demonstrate that plastic nanoparticles are transferred up through a food chain, enter the brain of the top consumer and affect its behaviour, thereby severely disrupting the function of natural ecosystems.

  14. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A.; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract See Postuma (doi:10.1093/aww131) for a scientific commentary on this article. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson’s disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson’s disease and 10 control subjects received 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye

  15. A systematic review of temporal discounting in eating disorders and obesity:behavioural and neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Jessica; Dalton, Bethan; Kekic, Maria; Bartholdy, Savani; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorders (ED) and obesity are suggested to involve a spectrum of self-regulatory control difficulties. Temporal discounting (TD) tasks have been used to explore this idea. This systematic review examines behavioural and neuroimaging TD data in ED and obesity.METHOD: Using PRISMA guidelines, we reviewed relevant articles in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase from inception until 17th August 2016. Studies that reported behavioural differences in TD and/or TD neuroimaging data in ED...

  16. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  17. Probable Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Self-harming Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J S; Simonsen, E

    2018-01-01

    The current study screened for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-harming behaviours, often related to borderline personality disorder (BPD), among individuals in a job centre considered unemployable primarily for psychological reasons. Participants (N = 112) filled in questionnaires...... on PTSD symptoms (n = 62) and self-harming behaviours (n = 59) as part of participating in team-meetings providing the individuals with a return-to-work plan. Differences in demographic variables between individuals with and without valid protocols were small to moderate. Of the individuals filling...

  18. Mental and behavioural disorders among people with congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among...... 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four percent were found to have a mental and/or behavioral diagnose. Mental retardation was found among 34%, psychosis among 13%. Mental and behavioral disorders, especially with symptoms of psychosis and mental retardation, are common among people...... with congenital deafblindness. Clinical experience is needed, as well as cross-disciplinary cooperation and specialized diagnostic methods together with a observation and intervention period in order to be able to assess and differentiate mental and behavioral symptoms from sensory deprivation in people...

  19. Mental and behavioural disorders in the ICD-11: concepts, methodologies, and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2017-04-30

    This review provides an overview of the concepts, methods and current status of the development of the Eleventh Revision of the Mental and Behavioural Disorders chapter of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the global use of the current version (ICD-10) for a wide range of applications in clinical practice and health statistics, a major aim of the development process for ICD-11 has been to increase the utility of the classification system. Expert working groups with responsibility for specific disorder groupings first suggested a set of revised diagnostic guidelines. Then surveys were performed to obtain suggestions for revisions from practicing health professionals. A completely revised structure for the classification of mental and behavioural disorders was developed and major revisions were suggested, for example, for schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. A new category of "gaming disorder" has been proposed and conditions related to sexual health and gender identity will be classified separately from mental disorders. An ICD-11 beta draft is freely available on the internet and public comments are invited. Field studies of the revised diagnostic guidelines are in process to obtain additional information about necessary improvements. A tabulated crosswalk from previous ICD-10 to then ICD-11 criteria will be necessary to ascertain the continuity of diagnoses for epidemiological and other statistical purposes. The final version of ICD-11 is currently scheduled for release by the World Health Assembly in 2018.

  20. Disability pension due to common mental disorders and subsequent suicidal behaviour: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Ghulam; Alexanderson, Kristina; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-04-04

    Adverse health outcomes, including suicide, in individuals on disability pension (DP) due to mental diagnoses have been reported. However, scientific knowledge on possible risk factors for suicidal behaviour (suicide attempt and suicide) in this group, such as age, gender, underlying DP diagnoses, comorbidity and DP duration and grade, is surprisingly sparse. This study aimed to investigate associations of different measures (main and secondary diagnoses, duration and grade) of DP due to common mental disorders (CMD) with subsequent suicidal behaviour, considering gender and age differences. Population-based prospective cohort study based on Swedish nationwide registers. A cohort of 46,515 individuals aged 19-64 years on DP due to CMD throughout 2005 was followed-up for 5 years. In relation to different measures of DP, univariate and multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for suicidal behaviour were estimated by Cox regression. All analyses were stratified by gender and age. During 2006-2010, 1036 (2.2%) individuals attempted and 207 (0.5%) completed suicide. Multivariate analyses showed that a main DP diagnosis of 'stress-related mental disorders' was associated with a lower risk of subsequent suicidal behaviour than 'depressive disorders' (HR range 0.4-0.7). Substance abuse or personality disorders as a secondary DP diagnosis predicted suicide attempt in all subgroups (HR range 1.4-2.3) and suicide in women and younger individuals (HR range 2.6-3.3). Full-time DP was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt compared with part-time DP in women and both age groups (HR range 1.4-1.7). Depressive disorders as the main DP diagnosis and substance abuse or personality disorders as the secondary DP diagnosis were risk markers for subsequent suicidal behaviour in individuals on DP due to CMD. Particular attention should be paid to younger individuals on DP due to anxiety disorders because of the higher suicide risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  1. Maladaptive Behaviours Associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: An Item Response Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin

    2018-03-19

    Cognitive models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) suggest that maladaptive behaviours may contribute to the maintenance of the disorder; however, little research has concentrated on identifying and measuring these behaviours. To address this gap, the Worry Behaviors Inventory (WBI) was developed and has been evaluated within a classical test theory (CTT) approach. As CTT is limited in several important respects, this study examined the psychometric properties of the WBI using an Item Response Theory approach. A large sample of adults commencing treatment for their symptoms of GAD (n = 537) completed the WBI in addition to measures of GAD and depression symptom severity. Patients with a probable diagnosis of GAD typically engaged in four or five maladaptive behaviours most or all of the time in an attempt to prevent, control or avoid worrying about everyday concerns. The two-factor structure of the WBI was confirmed, and the WBI scales demonstrated good reliability across a broad range of the respective scales. Together with previous findings, our results suggested that hypervigilance and checking behaviours, as well as avoidance of saying or doing things that are worrisome, were the most relevant maladaptive behaviours associated with GAD, and discriminated well between adults with low, moderate and high degrees of the respective WBI scales. Our results support the importance of maladaptive behaviours to GAD and the utility of the WBI to index these behaviours. Ramifications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization and treatment of GAD are discussed.

  2. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Tobias; Baldessarini, Ross J; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Information on basic demographic and clinical characteristics of schizoaffective disorder is sparse and subject to sampling bias and low diagnostic reliability. In the present study we aimed to: (i) estimate the demographic and clinical descriptors in schizoaffective disorder patients and (ii) compare the findings with those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To minimize sampling bias and low reliability, we systematically reviewed studies that simultaneously compared schizoaffective, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder patients. We estimated demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics based on weighted pooling, and compared disorders by meta-analysis. We also estimated whether schizoaffective disorder is closer to schizophrenia or to bipolar disorder. We identified 50 studies that included 18312 patients. Most characteristics of the 2684 schizoaffective disorder patients fell between those of 4814 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 10814 with schizophrenia. However, the schizoaffective group had the highest proportion of women (52%), had the youngest age at illness onset (23.3 ± 3.8 years), and had the highest standardized ratings of psychosis and depression. Differences in pooled parameters between schizoaffective versus schizophrenia and versus bipolar disorder subjects were similar. Values for patients with schizoaffective disorders mostly were intermediate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the majority of studies showed schizoaffective patients to be more like schizophrenia than bipolar disorder patients in seven out of nine demographic and clinical categories as well as in five out of eight psychometric measures. These results remained similar when we restricted the analyses to studies with psychotic bipolar disorder patients only or to studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IIIR and DSM-IV only. The present study provided estimates of important characteristics of schizoaffective

  3. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11–12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours...... The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent...... in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can...

  4. Parenting Behaviour among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Boonen, Hannah; Maes, Bea; Noens, Ilse

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the extensive amount of empirical findings about parental perceptions, parenting cognitions, and coping in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research about parenting itself is very scarce. A first goal of this study was to examine the factor structure and internal consistency of two scales to measure parenting…

  5. Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale for Attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first normative values and charts for the screening of ADHD based on the disruptive behavior disorder screening questionnaire for children in Nigeria. The use of these charts and norms will no doubt make the identification of these children easier especially at the community level and strengthen the School health ...

  6. Socio-demographic correlates of mental and behavioural disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Instrument for Children and Adolescents (DICA) was used to interview parents of 1,477 children. Main outcome measures: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), ... Children between 10 and 14 years of age had more than three-fold increased risk of ADHD ...

  7. Economic Evaluation of Concise Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and/or Pharmacotherapy for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; Carlier, Ingrid V E; van Vliet, Irene M; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2015-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders cause great suffering and disability and are associated with high health care costs. In a previous conducted pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we have shown that a concise format of cognitive behavioural- and/or pharmacotherapy is as effective as standard care in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms and in improving subdomains of general health and quality of life in secondary care psychiatric outpatients. In this economic evaluation, we examined whether a favourable cost-utility of concise care compared to standard care was attained. The economic evaluation was performed alongside a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form (SF-36) questionnaire. Cost of healthcare utilization and productivity loss (absenteeism and presenteeism) were assessed using the Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire for Costs associated with Psychiatric Illness (TiC-P). A cost-utility analysis, using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, comparing differences in societal costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) at 1 year was performed. One year after study entry, the difference in mean cost per patient of the two primary treatments was not significant between both groups. No significant differences in other healthcare and non- healthcare costs could be detected between patients receiving concise care and standard care. Also, QALYs were not statistically different between the groups during the study period. From both the societal and healthcare perspective, the probability that concise care is more cost-effective compared to standard care remains below the turning point of 0.5 for all acceptable values of the willingness to pay for a QALY. The economic evaluation suggests that concise care is unlikely to be cost-effective compared to standard care in the treatment for depressive- and anxiety disorders in secondary mental health care during a one year follow up period. Total costs and QALYs

  8. A study of behaviour problems and psychiatric disorders among people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Myrbakk, Even

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...

  9. Altered social behaviours in neurexin 1α knockout mice resemble core symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Mary Grayton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α knockout (KO mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. METHODS: We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9-16 per genotype, per sex. RESULTS: In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder.

  10. Altered Social Behaviours in Neurexin 1α Knockout Mice Resemble Core Symptoms in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayton, Hannah Mary; Missler, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α) knockout (KO) mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. Methods We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J) to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9–16 per genotype, per sex). Results In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. Conclusions These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:23840597

  11. Taking a comparative approach: analysing personality as a multivariate behavioural response across species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia J Carter

    Full Text Available Animal personality, repeatable behaviour through time and across contexts, is ecologically and evolutionarily important as it can account for the exhibition of sub-optimal behaviours. Interspecific comparisons have been suggested as important for understanding the evolution of animal personality; however, these are seldom accomplished due, in part, to the lack of statistical tools for quantifying differences and similarities in behaviour between groups of individuals. We used nine species of closely-related coral reef fishes to investigate the usefulness of ecological community analyses for the analysis of between-species behavioural differences and behavioural heterogeneity. We first documented behavioural carryover across species by observing the fishes' behaviour and measuring their response to a threatening stimulus to quantify boldness. Bold fish spent more time away from the reef and fed more than shy fish. We then used ecological community analysis tools (canonical variate analysis, multi-response permutation procedure, and permutational analysis of multivariate dispersion and identified four 'clusters' of behaviourally similar fishes, and found that the species differ in the behavioural variation expressed; some species are more behaviourally heterogeneous than others. We found that ecological community analysis tools are easily and fruitfully applied to comparative studies of personality and encourage their use by future studies.

  12. Impulse control disorder related behaviours during long-term rotigotine treatment: a post hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, A; Chaudhuri, K R; Boroojerdi, B; Asgharnejad, M; Bauer, L; Grieger, F; Weintraub, D

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with impulse control disorders (ICDs) and other compulsive behaviours (together called ICD behaviours). The frequency of ICD behaviours reported as adverse events (AEs) in long-term studies of rotigotine transdermal patch in PD was evaluated. This was a post hoc analysis of six open-label extension studies up to 6 years in duration. Analyses included patients treated with rotigotine for at least 6 months and administered the modified Minnesota Impulse Disorders Interview. ICD behaviours reported as AEs were identified and categorized. For 786 patients, the mean (±SD) exposure to rotigotine was 49.4 ± 17.6 months. 71 (9.0%) patients reported 106 ICD AEs cumulatively. Occurrence was similar across categories: 2.5% patients reported 'compulsive sexual behaviour', 2.3% 'buying disorder', 2.0% 'compulsive gambling', 1.7% 'compulsive eating' and 1.7% 'punding behaviour'. Examining at 6-month intervals, the incidence was relatively low during the first 30 months; it was higher over the next 30 months, peaking in the 54-60-month period. No ICD AEs were serious, and 97% were mild or moderate in intensity. Study discontinuation occurred in seven (9.9%) patients with ICD AEs; these then resolved in five patients. Dose reduction occurred for 23 AEs, with the majority (73.9%) resolving. In this analysis of >750 patients with PD treated with rotigotine, the frequency of ICD behaviour AEs was 9.0%, with a specific incidence timeline observed. Active surveillance as duration of treatment increases may help early identification and management; once ICD behaviours are present rotigotine dose reduction may be considered. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  13. Male anorexia and bulimia nervosa: Disorder symptoms and impulsive behaviour during hospital treatment and one year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernec, Karin; Mrevlje, Gorazd V; Čarapič, Jadranka; Weber, Urška; Zalar, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy in male patients with anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) treated at the Eating Disorder Unit, University Psychiatric Clinic Ljubljana, Slovenia (EDU UPCL), using longitudinal assessments of eating disorder (ED) symptoms and selected impulsive behaviours highly correlated with these entities from hospital admission till twelve months after. 35 male AN and 35 male BN patients were included. Participants were aged 17 or more and somatically stable with the BMI>12 kg/m(2). Patients with psychiatric comorbidity, mental disorder due to a general medical condition, or serious somatic or neurological disease were excluded. Intensity of ED symptoms and presence of selected impulsive behaviours were evaluated at hospital admission and discharge, and three, six and twelve months after, using an internal Eating Disorder Unit Questionnaire. For statistical analysis multivariate analysis of variance was used. Throughout the research period the appropriate changes in BMI were observed in both patient groups. In both, AN and BN patient groups, the evaluation of longitudinal differences regarding the intensity of all ED symptoms and the presence of studied impulsive behaviours showed a significant decline at discharge and all subsequent assessments compared to the results obtained upon admission to the hospital. The re-hospitalization rates of patients with AN and BN in the first year after discharge from the hospital were 3.84% vs. 3.7% respectively. In male patients with AN and BN treated at the EDU UPCL, ED symptoms, BMI, and studied impulsive behaviours show a substantial improvement during hospital treatment. These changes seem to be long lasting, still being effective through one-year post-hospitalization follow-up.

  14. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body

  17. Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Alterations in Brain and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Guerri, Consuelo; Bazinet, Alissa; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The term ‘Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)’ refers to the range of disabilities that may result from prenatal alcohol exposure. This article reviews the effects of ethanol on the developing brain and its long-term structural and neurobehavioural consequences. Brain imaging, neurobehavioural and experimental studies demonstrate the devastating consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system (CNS), identifying specific brain regions affected, the range...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989

  19. Working memory load affects repetitive behaviour but not cognitive flexibility in adolescent autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian; Roessner, Veit

    2017-03-16

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with repetitive and stereotyped behaviour, suggesting that cognitive flexibility may be deficient in ASD. A central, yet not examined aspect to understand possible deficits in flexible behaviour in ASD relates (i) to the role of working memory and (ii) to neurophysiological mechanisms underlying behavioural modulations. We analysed behavioural and neurophysiological (EEG) correlates of cognitive flexibility using a task-switching paradigm with and without working memory load in adolescents with ASD and typically developing controls (TD). Adolescents with ASD versus TD show similar performance in task switching with no memory load, indicating that 'pure' cognitive flexibility is not in deficit in adolescent ASD. However performance during task repetition decreases with increasing memory load. Neurophysiological data reflect the pattern of behavioural effects, showing modulations in P2 and P3 event-related potentials. Working memory demands affect repetitive behaviour while processes of cognitive flexibility are unaffected. Effects emerge due to deficits in preparatory attentional processes and deficits in task rule activation, organisation and implementation of task sets when repetitive behaviour is concerned. It may be speculated that the habitual response mode in ASD (i.e. repetitive behaviour) is particularly vulnerable to additional demands on executive control processes.

  20. Extrastriatal monoaminergic dysfunction and enhanced microglial activation in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Morten Gersel; Iranzo, Alex; Østergaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal...

  1. Predictors of Outcome for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.W.; Vroling, M.S.; Ouwens, M.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N=304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6months later (N=190). We

  2. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.W.; Vroling, M.S.; Ouwens, M.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van Strien, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We

  3. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittchen, H.U.; Knappe, S.; Andersson, G.; Araya, R.; Banos Rivera, R.M.; Barkham, M.; Bech, P.; Beckers, T.; Berger, T.; Berking, M.; Berrocal, C.; Botella, C.; Carlbring, P.; Chouinard, G.; Colom, F.; Csillag, C.; Cuijpers, P.; David, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G; Essau, C.A.; Fava, G.A.; Goschke, T.; Hermans, D.; Hofmann, S.G.; Lutz, W.; Muris, P.; Ollendick, T.H.; Raes, F.; Rief, W.; Riper, H.; Tossani, E.; van der Oord, S.; Vervliet, B.; Haro, J.M.; Schumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may

  4. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  5. Stepped care cognitive behavioural therapy for children with anxiety disorders: a new treatment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Rien; Liber, Juliette M.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The current nonrandomized clinical trial explored changes over time in children with an anxiety disorder during stepped care, manual-based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Clinically anxious children (8-12 years, n = 133) and their parents participated in child focused CBT (10 sessions). If

  6. The link between negative emotions and eating disorder behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeset, Ester M S; Gulliksen, Kjersti S; Nordbø, Ragnfrid H S; Skårderud, Finn; Holte, Arne

    2012-11-01

    Several theoretical models suggest that deficits in emotional regulation are central in the maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Few studies have examined how patients view the relationship between negative affect and anorectic behaviour. We explored how patients with AN manage the aversive emotions sadness, anger, fear and disgust, and how they link these experiences to their eating disorder behaviours. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 women aged 19-39 years diagnosed with AN (DSM-IV). Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory methods. The participants tended to inhibit expression of sadness and anger in interpersonal situations and reported high levels of anger towards themselves, self-disgust and fear of becoming fat. Different emotions were managed by means of specific eating disorder behaviours. Sadness was particularly linked to body dissatisfaction and was managed through restrictive eating and purging. Anger was avoided by means of restrictive eating and purging and released through anorectic self-control, self-harm and exercising. Fear was linked to fear of fatness and was managed through restrictive eating, purging and body checking. Participants avoided the feeling of disgust by avoiding food and body focused situations. Treatment models of eating disorders highlight the significance of working with emotional acceptance and coping in this patient group. Knowledge about how patients understand the relationships between their negative emotions and their anorectic behaviour may be an important addition to treatment programmes for AN. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Structural but not functional neuroplasticity one year after effective cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Kristoffer N T; Salami, Alireza; Carlbring, Per

    2017-01-01

    , and studies of treatment-induced long-term neuroplasticity are rare. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (using 3T MRI) was performed in 13 subjects with social anxiety disorder on 3 occasions over 1year. All subjects underwent 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy...

  8. Antisocial personality disorder as a predictor of criminal behaviour in drug abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings have been made with regard to the long-term predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on criminal behaviour in samples of substance abusers. A longitudinal record-linkage study of a cohort of 1052 drug abusers admitted 1977–1995 was undertaken. Subjects were...... seriously in drug abusers, and be targeted in treatment to prevent crime in society....

  9. Towards the Prevention of Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Langthorne, Paul; Tonge, Bruce; Emerson, Eric; McGill, Peter; Fletcher, Robert; Dosen, Anton; Kennedy, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary…

  10. Inappropriate sexual behaviour in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: what education is recommended and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, Nicola; Brooks, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder impairing social skills and communication. Adolescents with ASD have sexual needs, but may not understand their physical and emotional development resulting in inappropriate sexual behaviour. The aim of this review is to describe the type of inappropriate behaviour that presents in these adolescents, explain why such behaviours occur, suggest what education is suitable and identify current gaps in research. The databases EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PSYCINFO were searched for relevant articles. In total, 5241 articles were found, with an additional 15 sources found via soft searches, of which 42 met inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Sexual behaviours that occur in these adolescents with ASD include hypermasturbation, public masturbation, inappropriate romantic gestures, inappropriate arousal and exhibitionism. Such behaviours are thought to be caused via a lack of understanding of normal puberty, the absence of appropriate sex education, the severity of their ASD and other associated problems. It is suggested that individualized, repetitive education should be started from an early age in an accessible form. Social skills development is also important before more technical aspects of sex education are taught. Despite being such a common problem for schools, institutions and families to manage, it is surprising how sparse literature is particularly regarding why inappropriate behaviour occurs and what education is effective. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Latent profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their association with behavioural addictions and substance use disorders in young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmet, Simon; Studer, Joseph; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Gmel, Gerhard

    2018-05-04

    Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25.42) from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). A latent profile analysis was performed on family background, personality and mental health factors. The derived profiles were compared with regards to means and prevalence rates of the behavioural addiction and substance use disorder scales. Seven latent profiles were identified, ranging from profiles with a positive family background, favourable personality patterns and low values on mental health scales to profiles with a negative family background, unfavourable personality pattern and high values on mental health scales. Addiction scale means, corresponding prevalence rates and the number of concurrent addictions were highest in profiles with high values on mental health scales and a personality pattern dominated by neuroticism. Overall, behavioural addictions and substance use disorders showed similar patterns across latent profiles. Patterns of family background, personality and mental health factors were associated with different levels of vulnerability to addictions. Behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may thus be the result of the same underlying vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between Behavioural Addictions and Psychiatric Disorders: What Is Known and What Is Yet to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28439243

  13. Relationships between Behavioural Addictions and Psychiatric Disorders: What Is Known and What Is Yet to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders.

  14. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Study of Affective Bipolar Disorder with Schizoaffective Disorder from a Longitudinal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miruna Milin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years there is a great interest for the theory of the “psychotic continuum”, which accepts that there is a transition between schizophrenia and affective pathology, including bipolar disorder with psychotic interferences and the recently introduced diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. There are few studies that analyze bipolar disorder with mood-incongruent psychosis. The purpose of this study was to observe the way in which the interference of mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms can influence the long term evolution of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and the similarities that exists between this type of pathology and schizoaffective disorder. Material and methods: Sixty subjects were selected, who are now diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder, with and without psychotic features. All cases have at least 15 years of evolution since the first episode of psychosis and were analyzed in term of their age of onset and longitudinal evolution. Results: The results showed that bipolar patients who had mood incongruent psychotic symptoms had an earlier age of onset and a higher rate of hospitalizations in their long term evolution compared to bipolar patients without psychotic features, which brings them closer to patients with schizoaffective disorder in term of their pattern of evolution. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that the interference of mood-incongruent psychosis with bipolar disorder determines a worse prognosis of this disease, very similar with the evolution of patients with schizoaffective disorder

  16. Neural correlates of reactive aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenzer-Busch, S; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Kuzmanovic, B; Gaber, T J; Helmbold, K; Ullisch, M G; Baurmann, D; Eickhoff, S B; Fink, G R; Zepf, F D

    2016-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often linked with impulsive and aggressive behaviour, indexed by high comorbidity rates between ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). The present study aimed to investigate underlying neural activity of reactive aggression in children with ADHD and comorbid DBD using functional neuroimaging techniques (fMRI). Eighteen boys with ADHD (age 9-14 years, 10 subjects with comorbid DBD) and 18 healthy controls were administered a modified fMRI-based version of the 'Point Subtraction Aggression Game' to elicit reactive aggressive behaviour. Trials consisted of an 'aggression phase' (punishment for a fictitious opponent) and an 'outcome phase' (presentation of the trial outcome). During the aggression phase, higher aggressive responses of control children were accompanied by higher activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and the temporoparietal junction. Patients displayed inverted results. During the outcome phase, comparison between groups and conditions showed differential activation in the dorsal striatum and bilateral insular when subjects gained points. Losing points was accompanied by differential activation of regions belonging to the insula and the middle temporal sulcus. Data support the hypothesis that deficient inhibitory control mechanisms are related to increased impulsive aggressive behaviour in young people with ADHD and comorbid DBD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Therapist-supported Internet cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Bailey, Kristen; Hayden, Jill A; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-03-12

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. Many people have difficulty accessing treatment, due to a variety of obstacles. Researchers have therefore explored the possibility of using the Internet to deliver CBT; it is important to ensure the decision to promote such treatment is grounded in high quality evidence. To assess the effects of therapist-supported Internet CBT (ICBT) on remission of anxiety disorder diagnosis and reduction of anxiety symptoms in adults as compared to waiting list control, unguided CBT, or face-to-face CBT. Effects of treatment on quality of life and patient satisfaction with the intervention were also assessed. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to 16 March 2015. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We also searched online clinical trial registries and reference lists of included studies. We contacted authors to locate additional trials. Each identified study was independently assessed for inclusion by two authors. To be included, studies had to be randomised controlled trials of therapist-supported ICBT compared to a waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group; unguided CBT (that is, self-help); or face-to-face CBT. We included studies that treated adults with an anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobia) defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III, III-R, IV, IV-TR or the International Classification of Disesases 9 or 10. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and judged overall study quality. We used data from intention-to-treat analyses wherever possible. We assessed treatment effect for the dichotomous outcome

  18. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Tang; Radford, Kylie; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Broe, Tony G A; Draper, Brian

    2018-03-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%), current late-life depression (18.1%), and suicidal ideation (11.1%). Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  19. Depression, Suicidal Behaviour, and Mental Disorders in Older Aboriginal Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal Australians experience higher levels of psychological distress, which may develop from the long-term sequelae of social determinants and adversities in early and mid-life. There is little evidence available on the impact of these on the mental health of older Aboriginal Australians. This study enrolled 336 Aboriginal Australian participants over 60 years from 5 major urban and regional areas in NSW, utilizing a structured interview on social determinants, and life-time history of physical and mental conditions; current psychosocial determinants and mental health. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to examine the link between these determinants and current depressive scores and suicidality. There was a high rate of life-time depression (33.3%, current late-life depression (18.1%, and suicidal ideation (11.1%. Risk factors strongly associated with late-life depression included sleep disturbances, a history of suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation in late-life and living in a regional location. This study supports certain historical and psychosocial factors predicting later depression in old age, and highlights areas to target for prevention strategies.

  20. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of antisocial behaviour disorder, psychopathy and violent crime among military conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basoglu, Cengiz; Semiz, Umit; Oner, Ozgur; Gunay, Huseyin; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut; Sildiroglu, Onur; Algul, Ayhan; Ates, Alpay; Sonmez, Guner

    2008-04-01

    Prefrontal and/or temporo-limbic abnormalities associated with antisocial personality disorder (APD), high psychopathy scores and violent behaviours can readily be evaluated by neuroimaging methods. In this study, we compared the brain metabolites in adult male military conscripts with APD, high psychopathy scores and serious violent crimes (n = 15) with age- and educational-level-matched healthy controls (n = 15) by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All cases were diagnosed by means of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV APD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) semistructured questionnaire in Turkish. The psychopathy scores were evaluated by means of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised translated into Turkish (PCL-R). PCL-R is a 20-item, reliable and valid instrument for assessment of psychopathy, both in categorical and dimensional natures. All patients had a total score of 29 (of possible 40) or higher from PCL-R, indicating a high degree of psychopathy. Our results showed no significant differences in ratio of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline-related compounds in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala-hippocampus regions of cases compared with controls. ACC NAA/Cr was significantly negatively correlated with both the PCL-R total score and the PCL-R factor I score (interpersonal/affective problems) among the cases. As ACC plays an important role in decision-making and emotional information processing, we postulate that the lower NAA/Cr ratio, suggesting impaired neural integrity, may increase the severity of interpersonal/affective problems of the psychopathy factor in male subjects exhibiting APD, high psychopathy overall scores and violent crimes.

  1. Risk factors increasing aggressive behaviour in psychiatric patients hospitalised with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szymaniuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Violent and aggressive behaviour is a serious problem among hospitalised psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to assess factors that may help predict violent behaviour in psychiatric inpatients. Method: The study group consisted of 107 patients hospitalised in the Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 58, schizophrenia (n = 39 and anxiety disorders (n = 10. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of medical records and patient interviews using a self-prepared questionnaire. Results: Of 107 respondents, aggressive behaviour occurred in 46 patients (42.99%. A low risk of aggressive behaviour was observed in 68 patients (63.6%, medium risk – in 37 patients (34.6%, and high risk – in 2 subjects (1.9%. The study demonstrated a significant association between aggressive behaviour and short duration of the illness (p = 0.002, the criminal history of the patient (p = 0.003, the use of sedatives (p = 0.04, unemployment (p = 0.00034 and male gender in patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (p = 0.03. There were no statistically significant differences between the incidence of violence and the main diagnosis (p = 0.56. The study showed no association with alcohol (p = 0.5 and psychoactive substance abuse (p = 0.07, age (p = 0.8, addiction in family (p = 0.1, history of suicide attempt (p = 0.08 and the lack of insight into the illness (p = 0.8. Conclusions: Based on these results, it appears that the most important factors in the occurrence of aggressive behaviour were criminal history, prior violent behaviour and short duration of the illness. The use of sedative drugs and male gender were also significant risk factors.

  2. REM sleep behaviour disorder is associated with lower fast and higher slow sleep spindle densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Christian; Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jacques; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences in sleep spindle properties and scalp topography between patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and healthy controls, whole-night polysomnograms of 35 patients diagnosed with RBD and 35 healthy control subjects matched for age and sex were compared. Recordings included a 19-lead 10-20 electroencephalogram montage and standard electromyogram, electrooculogram, electrocardiogram and respiratory leads. Sleep spindles were automatically detected using a standard algorithm, and their characteristics (amplitude, duration, density, frequency and frequency slope) compared between groups. Topological analyses of group-discriminative features were conducted. Sleep spindles occurred at a significantly (e.g. t34 = -4.49; P = 0.00008 for C3) lower density (spindles ∙ min(-1) ) for RBD (mean ± SD: 1.61 ± 0.56 for C3) than for control (2.19 ± 0.61 for C3) participants. However, when distinguishing slow and fast spindles using thresholds individually adapted to the electroencephalogram spectrum of each participant, densities smaller (31-96%) for fast but larger (20-120%) for slow spindles were observed in RBD in all derivations. Maximal differences were in more posterior regions for slow spindles, but over the entire scalp for fast spindles. Results suggest that the density of sleep spindles is altered in patients with RBD and should therefore be investigated as a potential marker of future neurodegeneration in these patients. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. [Clinical study of comparing comorbidity between depression and neurological disorder with depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; He, Mao-Lin; Li, Shun-Wei

    2010-01-26

    To compare the clinical traits in comorbidity between depression and neurological disorder with depressive disorder and explore the characteristic of the outpatients with neurological disorder comorbidity in depression. According to Diagnosis and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorder-IV (DSM-IV) criteria, outpatients were diagnosed as depressive disorder at Departments of Neurology and Psychology. We used HAMD-17 scale to evaluate the patient's severity. There was no statistical difference in severity of depression in two groups. But the clinical traits showed significant differences between two outpatient groups: the outpatients with neurological disorder comorbidity in depression were elder, had more somatic disorders and a higher retard symptom factor score while the other are relative younger, have less physical disorders and higher the core symptom factor score on the other hand. The patients of comorbidity between depression and neurological disorders have unique clinical traits. Thus it will be helpful to improve the identification of diagnosis and choose an appropriate treatment if we know the differences well.

  4. Predictors of orthorexic behaviours in patients with eating disorders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Rogoza, Radosław; Gramaglia, Carla; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2015-10-15

    The construct of orthorexia in eating disorders (EDs) has received very little attention despite clinical observations of a possible overlap between the two. The aim of this study was: 1) to assess orthorexic behaviours, eating disorder pathology and attitudinal body image in ED patients; 2) to identify possible predictors of orthorexia nervosa among ED patients. Fifty-two women diagnosed with EDs were recruited. Patients' assessment included the following: the ORTO-15 test (Polish version) for orthorexic behaviours; the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) to identify ED symptoms; the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (Polish version) to assess body image. A latent class analysis was performed and differences between identified classes were assessed. The main differences concerned weight, ED pathology and orthorexic behaviours within the same group of ED patients. In order to examine predictors of orthorexia nervosa, we investigated a structural equation model, which excellently fitted to the data (χ(2)(17) = 23.05; p = .148; CFI = .962; RMSEA = .08; p = .25; SRMR = .05). In ED patients, orthorexic behaviour was negatively predicted by eating pathology, weight concern, health orientation and appearance orientation. The assessment of the orthorexia construct in EDs may add to the paucity of studies about this issue and may help to clarify the relationship between the two. Differences and similarities seem to exist between these disorders, and may benefit from specific treatment approaches. Moreover, these preliminary findings open tracks for future research in the field of the psychology of eating.

  5. Probable Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Self-harming Behaviour: Potential Barriers to Employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S; Simonsen, E

    2017-11-14

    The current study screened for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-harming behaviours, often related to borderline personality disorder (BPD), among individuals in a job centre considered unemployable primarily for psychological reasons. Participants (N = 112) filled in questionnaires on PTSD symptoms (n = 62) and self-harming behaviours (n = 59) as part of participating in team-meetings providing the individuals with a return-to-work plan. Differences in demographic variables between individuals with and without valid protocols were small to moderate. Of the individuals filling in the PTSD questionnaire 40% fulfilled criteria for probable PTSD and 31% of the individuals filling in the questionnaire on self-harming behaviours reported five or more types of self-harming behaviours. Only a minority of these individuals had PTSD or BPD respectively mentioned in their case records. Further investigation of the prevalence of PTSD and self-harming behaviour among individuals considered unemployable is warranted as well as an enhanced focus in jobcentres and other institutions supporting employability on detection and treatment of PTSD and early signs of BPD.

  6. Body Experience and Mirror Behaviour in Female Eating Disorders Patients and non Clinical Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Probst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the attention for mirror exercises in therapies targeted specifically to body experience concerns has increased. This retrospective study will explore the mirror behaviour of anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and non-clinical female subjects (CG and investigate whether mirror avoidance or checking are related to negative body experiences.The group of eating disorders consisted of 560 AN and 314 BN patients. The control group consisted of 1151 female subjects. The Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction were used. To explore the mirror behaviour, one item of the Body Attitude Test ‘I am observing my appearance in the mirror’ was used. Nonparametric analyses (Spearman rho correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used because of the categorical data.BN patients observed their body more often in the mirror than AN patients and the control subjects do. Age and BMI showed no significant main effect of mirror frequency. The relation between the frequency of mirror behaviour and body experience were significant but low (under .40. AN patients and control subjects with a mirror checking behaviour had a more negative body experience than those with mirror avoidance behaviour. In the BN group, no differences were found.There is support to integrate mirror exercises in a treatment of eating disorder patients. From a clinical point, mirror exercises are preferably combined with a body oriented therapy within a multidimensional cognitive behavioural approach. Recommendations for mirror exercises based on the clinical experience are given.

  7. Mice lacking Brinp2 or Brinp3, or both, exhibit behaviours consistent with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Ruth Berkowicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brinps 1 – 3, and Astrotactins (Astn 1 and 2, are members of the Membrane Attack Complex / Perforin (MACPF superfamily that are predominantly expressed in the mammalian brain during development. Genetic variation at the human BRINP2/ASTN1 and BRINP1/ASTN2 loci has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We, and others, have previously shown that Brinp1-/- mice exhibit behaviour reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Method: We created Brinp2-/- mice and Brinp3-/- mice via the Cre-mediated LoxP system to investigate the effect of gene deletion on anatomy and behaviour. Additionally, Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- double knock-out mice were generated by interbreeding Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice. Genomic validation was carried out for each knock-out line, followed by histological, weight and behavioural examination. Brinp1-/-Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- triple knock-out mice were also generated by crossing Brinp2/3 double knock-out mice with previously generated Brinp1-/- mice, and examined by weight and histological analysis.Results: Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice differ in their behaviour: Brinp2-/- mice are hyperactive, whereas Brinp3-/- mice exhibit marked changes in anxiety-response on the elevated plus maze. Brinp3-/- mice also show evidence of altered sociability. Both Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice have normal short-term memory, olfactory responses, pre-pulse inhibition and motor learning. The double knock-out mice show behaviours of Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice, without evidence of new or exacerbated phenotypes. Conclusion: Brinp3 is important in moderation of anxiety, with potential relevance to anxiety disorders. Brinp2 dysfunction resulting in hyperactivity may be relevant to the association of ADHD with chromosome locus 1q25.2. Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- genes do not compensate in the mammalian brain and likely have distinct molecular or cell-type specific functions.

  8. Conversational behaviour of children with Asperger syndrome and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Anne; Cox, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Social communication problems in individuals who have Asperger syndrome constitute one of the most significant problems in the syndrome. This study makes a systematic analysis of the difficulties demonstrated with the use of language (pragmatics) in adolescents who have Asperger syndrome. Recent advances in discourse analysis were applied to conversational samples from a group of children with Asperger syndrome and a matched control group of children with severe conduct disorder. Two types of conversation were sampled from each group, differing in emotional content. The results showed that in these contexts children with Asperger syndrome were no more verbose as a group than controls, though they showed a tendency to talk more in more emotion-based conversations. Children with Asperger syndrome, as a group, performed similarly to control subjects in ability to respond to questions and comments. However, they were more likely to show responses which were problematic in both types of conversation. In addition, individuals with Asperger syndrome showed more problems in general conversation than during more emotionally and socially loaded topics. The group with Asperger syndrome was found to contain a small number of individuals with extreme verbosity but this was not a reliable characteristic of the group as a whole.

  9. Cognitive shifting and externalising problem behaviour in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Prins, J B; Teunisse, J P

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural problems are frequently reported in residential care for people with an intellectual disability (ID) in particular when they are additionally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are indications that impairment in cognitive shifting may be associated with problem behaviour. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship of cognitive shifting and severity of ASD symptoms with externalising problem behaviour in individuals with ID, with and without ASD, and (2) to examine whether a diagnosis based on shifting impairment is more predictive of externalising problem behaviour than an ASD diagnosis. Participants consisted of adolescents and young adults with mild ID, with and without ASD (n = 41). Pearson intercorrelations were computed to explore the relationship between shifting impairment and severity of ASD symptoms on the one hand and ratings of externalising problem behaviour on the other hand. t-Tests were performed to analyse differences in externalising problem behaviour. Unlike ASD symptom severity, shifting scores were found to be associated with externalising problem behaviour, but only if shifting was measured using rating scales and not when using neuropsychological tasks. Externalising problem behaviour scores significantly differed when groups were classified according to shifting impairment (impaired vs. non-impaired) but not when they were classified according to ID and ASD diagnoses. It is proposed to use a cognition-based approach when analysing problem behaviour, thus concentrating not so much on ID and ASD diagnosis and their corresponding symptoms, but rather placing the focus on cognitive symptoms. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Compare of Executive Function in Bipolar I Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza khodaei-Ardakani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is evidence for differential executive function in Bipolar I Disorder (BID and schizophrenia that may tend different cognitive deficits and abnormalities. The objective of this sudsy was to compare the executive function of BID and schizophrenic patients. Materials & Methods: We studied 50 patients with BID, and 50 with schizophrenia participants in outpatients' clinic of Rouzbeh hospital. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST the Persian version. The participants were mach in three basic variables which had most contributions in cognitive conditions in patients. They were Age, educational status and period of illness. Results: The two patient groups had compared performance on the WCST in compared with general population (P<0/05. In the WCST, schizophrenic patients showed impairment executive function than BID patients (P<0/05. Conclusion: findings indicated that schizophrenic patients had more dysfunctions executive function than the Bipolar disorder I patients. Although, both disorders may show impairment in executive function, but the dysfunction in schizophrenia greater than Bipolar I Disorder patients.

  11. Behavioural profiles in captive-bred cynomolgus macaques: towards monkey models of mental disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored. METHODS: The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering. RESULTS: The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation. CONCLUSIONS: No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  12. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, James A; Wells, J Elisabeth; Frampton, Christopher M A; Joyce, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. One personality theory which demonstrates strong heritability is Cloninger's psychobiological model measured using the temperament and character inventory (TCI). 277 individuals who completed the TCI questionnaire as part of the South Island Bipolar Study were also interviewed to assess for lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Four groups were compared, bipolar disorder (BP), type 1 and 2, MDD (major depressive disorder), and nonaffected relatives of a proband with BP. With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA) was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST) than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  13. Interpersonal Factors Are Associated with Lower Therapist Adherence in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Chambless, Dianne L; McCarthy, Kevin S; Gallop, Robert; Sharpless, Brian A; Milrod, Barbara L; Barber, Jacques P

    2016-05-01

    The contributions of disorder severity, comorbidity and interpersonal variables to therapists' adherence to a cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) manual were tested. Thirty-eight patients received panic control therapy (PCT) for panic disorder. Trained observers watching videotapes of the sixth session of a 24-session protocol rated therapists' adherence to PCT and their use of interventions from outside the CBT model. Different observers rated patients' behavioural resistance to therapy in the same session using the client resistance code. Interview measures obtained before treatment included the Panic Disorder Severity Scale, the anxiety disorders interview schedule for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, Axis II. Questionnaire measures were the anxiety sensitivity index at intake, and, at session 2, the therapist and client versions of the working alliance inventory-short form. The higher the patients' resistance and the more Axis II traits a patient had, the less adherent the therapist. Moreover, the more resistant the client, the more therapists resorted to interventions from outside the CBT model. Stronger therapist and patient alliance was also generally related to better adherence, but these results were somewhat inconsistent across therapists. Pretreatment disorder severity and comorbidity were not related to adherence. Interpersonal variables, particularly behavioural resistance to therapy, are related to therapists' ability to adhere to a treatment manual and to their use of interventions from outside of the CBT model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Patients' behavioural resistance to therapy may make it more difficult for cognitive-behavioural clinicians to adhere to a structured treatment protocol and more likely for them to borrow interventions from outside the CBT model. Patients' Axis II traits may make adherence to treatment CBT protocol more difficult

  14. The importance of health behaviours in childhood for the development of internalizing disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu Yun; Kirk, Sara F L; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-12-12

    Poor mental health constitutes a considerable global public health burden with approximately half of all cases of poor mental health having their onset before the age of 14 years. The identification of modifiable risk factors early in life is therefore essential to prevention, however, there are presently very few longitudinal studies on health behaviours for mental health to inform public health decision makers and to justify preventive action. We examined the importance of diet quality, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours in childhood for internalizing disorder throughout adolescence. We linked data from a population-based lifestyle survey among 10 and 11 year old grade five students in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with physician diagnoses of internalizing disorders from administrative health records. We applied negative binomial regressions to examine the associations of health behaviours with the number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder. Of the 4875 students, 23.9% had one or more diagnoses for internalizing disorder between the age of 10 or 11 years and 18 years. The number of health care provider contacts with a diagnosis of internalizing disorder was statistically significant higher among students with less variety in their diets, and among students who reported less PA and more time using computers and video games. The number of health care provider contacts was also higher for girls, and for students with low self-esteem and from low-income households. These findings suggest that diets and active lifestyles in childhood affect mental health during adolescence, and imply that succxessful health promotion programs targeting children's diets and activity will contribute to the prevention of mental health disorders in addition to the prevention of chronic diseases later in life.

  15. Inflexible daily behaviour is associated with the ability to control an automatic reaction in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Shisei; Fujino, Junya; Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Ohta, Haruhisa; Kanai, Chieko; Kubota, Manabu; Nakamura, Motoaki; Kato, Nobumasa; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2018-05-24

    Inflexible behaviours in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) broadly obstruct social communication. Meanwhile, flexibility implicates cognitive control to resolve socially conflicting situations; however, it remains unclear how people with ASD behave in the face of these conflicts in this respect. We used the ultimatum game (UG) and the implicit-association test (IAT) to examine goal-directed/economic flexibility, both of which involve conflict and cognitive control. In addition, we used the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire (DFlex) to measure inflexible everyday behaviour with diminished cognitive control and attention shifting. We observed the decreased flexibility in participants with ASD (DFlex and IAT); further, their IAT scores positively correlated with DFlex. However, in the UG, contrary to our prediction, participants with ASD accepted unfair offers more frequently than TD. These results suggest that assessing the automatic/attention processing level with the IAT could be a useful approach to study behavioural flexibility among ASD compared with the UG, which might comprise multiple response strategies besides economic rationality. Overall, the severity of inflexible daily behaviours in people with ASD may be associated with a reduced flexible attitude at an automatic level, altered attention processing and decreased cognitive control.

  16. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and striatal dopamine depletion in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S J; Lee, Y; Lee, J J; Lee, P H; Sohn, Y H

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is related to striatal dopamine depletion. This study was performed to confirm whether clinically probable RBD (cpRBD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a specific pattern of striatal dopamine depletion. A prospective survey was conducted using the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) in 122 patients with PD who had undergone dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography scan. Patients with cpRBD (RBDSQ ≥ 7) exhibited greater motor deficits, predominantly in the less-affected side and axial symptoms, and were prescribed higher levodopa-equivalent doses at follow-up than those without cpRBD (RBDSQ ≤ 4), despite their similar disease and treatment durations. Compared to patients without cpRBD, those with cpRBD showed lower DAT activities in the putamen, particularly in the less-affected side in all putaminal subregions, and a tendency to be lower in the ventral striatum. In addition, greater motor deficits in patients with cpRBD than in those without cpRBD remained significant after controlling for DAT binding in the putamen and other confounding variables. These results demonstrated that the presence of RBD in patients with PD is associated with different patterns of both motor deficit distribution and striatal DAT depletion, suggesting that the presence of RBD represents a distinct PD subtype with a malignant motor parkinsonism. © 2017 EAN.

  18. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  19. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Garijo, Josep; Edo Villamón, Silvia; Ruipérez, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD) symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls) matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed. PMID:24453917

  20. Impact of obesity and mood disorders on physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Marleau, Jacques; Baillot, Aurélie

    2018-01-01

    Albeit obesity and mood disorders frequently co-occur, few studies examined the impacts of this co-occurrence. The aim was to compare individuals with obesity and mood disorders (ObMD) to those with obesity without mood disorder in terms of physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services. Cross-sectional study using the Canadian Community Health Survey including a weighted sample of individuals with obesity (n = 1298) representing inhabitants from the province of Quebec (Canada). Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions indicated that ObMD reported more physical conditions with odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.8] (hypertension) to 2.8 [95%CI: 1.3 - 6.0] (stomach ulcer). Also, ObMD reported poorer psychological well-being with OR ranging from 2.1 [95%CI: 1.4 - 3.3] (stress) to 25.6 [95%CI: 14.7 - 45.0] (poor perceived mental health). ObMD also reported more consultations with health professionals with OR ranging from 1.9 [95%CI: 1.0 - 3.5] (physicians) to 7.7 [95%CI: 4.2 - 14.3] (psychologists), and less healthy behaviours with OR ranging from 1.7 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.6] (fruits and vegetables intake) to 2.1 [95%CI: 1.3 - 3.3] (tobacco). Self-reported data so we cannot discard the possibility of a bias in reporting. Also, given the cross-sectional design, no directional conclusion or causality about our results is possible. The co-occurrence of mood disorder and obesity seems to be an aggravating factor of obesity-related factors because it is associated with poorer health in several areas. Interventions to prevent or manage obesity in mood disorders are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating emotion recognition and empathy deficits in Conduct Disorder using behavioural and eye-tracking methods

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Key, Nayra, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to characterise the nature of the emotion recognition and empathy deficits observed in male and female adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) and varying levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The first two experiments employed behavioural tasks with concurrent eye-tracking methods to explore the mechanisms underlying facial and body expression recognition deficits. Having CD and being male independently predicted poorer facial expression recognition across all ...

  2. Benefits of music therapy on behaviour disorders in subjects diagnosed with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, M; Jiménez-Palomares, M; Rodríguez-Mansilla, J; Flores-Nieto, A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; González López-Arza, M V

    2017-05-01

    Dementia is characterised by cognitive deterioration and the manifestation of psychological and behavioural symptoms, especially changes in perception, thought content, mood, and conduct. In addition to drug therapy, non-pharmacological treatments are used to manage these symptoms, and one of these latter treatments is music therapy. Since this novel technique in non-verbal, it can be used to treat patients with dementia at any stage, even when cognitive deterioration is very severe. Patients' responses to music are conserved even in the most advanced stages of the disease DEVELOPMENT: A literature research was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, PubMed, Science Direct y Dialnet. The period of publication was 2003 to 2013 and the search keywords were 'Music Therapy, Dementia, Behaviour, Behaviour Disorders y Behavioural Disturbances'. Out of the 2188 studies that were identified, 11 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Music therapy is beneficial and improves behavior disorders, anxiety and agitation in subjects diagnosed with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated analysis of connected speech reveals early biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavnička, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Tykalová, Tereza; Šonka, Karel; Růžička, Evžen; Rusz, Jan

    2017-02-02

    For generations, the evaluation of speech abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) has been limited to perceptual tests or user-controlled laboratory analysis based upon rather small samples of human vocalizations. Our study introduces a fully automated method that yields significant features related to respiratory deficits, dysphonia, imprecise articulation and dysrhythmia from acoustic microphone data of natural connected speech for predicting early and distinctive patterns of neurodegeneration. We compared speech recordings of 50 subjects with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), 30 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 50 healthy controls, and showed that subliminal parkinsonian speech deficits can be reliably captured even in RBD patients, which are at high risk of developing PD or other synucleinopathies. Thus, automated vocal analysis should soon be able to contribute to screening and diagnostic procedures for prodromal parkinsonian neurodegeneration in natural environments.

  4. Self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Licence, Lucy; Richards, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    This review summarises the recent trends in research in the field of self-injurious behaviour in people with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. New data on incidence, persistence and severity add to studies of prevalence to indicate the large scale of the clinical need. A number of person characteristics have been repeatedly identified in prevalence and cohort studies that: can be considered as risk markers (e.g. stereotyped behaviour, autism spectrum disorder) and indicate possible causal mechanisms (e.g. sleep disorder, anxiety). Studies have started to integrate traditional operant learning paradigms with known person characteristics and reviews and meta-analyses of applied behaviour analytic procedures can now inform practice. Despite these positive developments interventions and appropriate support falls far short of the required need. Expansions in applied research are warranted to develop and evaluate innovative service delivery models that can translate knowledge of risk markers and operant learning paradigms into widespread, low cost routine clinical practice. Alongside this, further pure research is needed to elucidate the direction of causality of implicated risk factors, in order to understand and intervene more effectively in self-injury.

  5. Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Guenther, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.

  6. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. ISRCTN 15562271. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The path from childhood behavioural disorders to felony offending: Investigating the role of adolescent drinking, peer marginalisation and school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Mason, W Alex; Bolen, Jonathan D; Chmelka, Mary B; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Nordström, Tanja; Taanila, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse and peers? Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4644 men from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime than the behavioural continuity path, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour amongst behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Conditions associated with REM sleep behaviour disorder: Description of a hospital series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenza Abildúa, M J; Miralles Martinez, A; Arpa Gutiérrez, F J; Lores Gutiérrez, V; Algarra Lucas, C; Jimeno Montero, C; Sánchez García, B; Mata Álvarez-Santullano, M; Borrue Fernández, C; Cordero Martín, G; Gutiérrez Cueto, G; Torrecillas Narváez, M D; Thuissard Vasallo, I; Gómez Aceña, A

    2017-02-16

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by violent behaviours (screaming, kicking, vivid dreams) during REM sleep. It has a prevalence of 1% to 2% of the general population and is especially frequent in men and the population older than 60. In the last decade, RBD has been suggested to be a prodrome of neurodegenerative disease. We analysed associated neurological diseases and responses to drug treatment in 33 patients with RBD treated in the multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit at Hospital Infanta Sofía. We conducted an observational descriptive retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RBD and treated in our multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit between October 2012 and December 2015. We recorded age, sex, associated diseases, and treatments administered to these patients. A total of 365 patients were attended at our unit, including 33 with RBD: 13 women (40%) and 20 men (60%). Mean age was 62.72 years. An associated disorder was identified in 48%, with the most common being mild cognitive impairment (69%). The percentage of patients with RBD and an associated disorder among patients older than 60 was 68%. Eighty-two percent of the patients required treatment. The most commonly used drug was clonazepam (76%), followed by melatonin (9%), gabapentin (6%), and trazodone (3%). In our series, 48% of the patients had an associated disorder. The likelihood of detecting an associated disorder increases with patients' age. The vast majority of patients required drug treatment due to symptom severity; the most frequently administered drug was clonazepam (76%). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative costs and cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Justine; Zinsou, Cyprien; Parkhurst, Justin; N'Dour, Marguerite; Foyet, Léger; Mueller, Dirk H

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural interventions have been widely integrated in HIV/AIDS social marketing prevention strategies and are considered valuable in settings with high levels of risk behaviours and low levels of HIV/AIDS awareness. Despite their widespread application, there is a lack of economic evaluations comparing different behaviour change communication methods. This paper analyses the costs to increase awareness and the cost-effectiveness to influence behaviour change for five interventions in Benin. Cost and cost-effectiveness analyses used economic costs and primary effectiveness data drawn from surveys. Costs were collected for provider inputs required to implement the interventions in 2009 and analysed by 'person reached'. Cost-effectiveness was analysed by 'person reporting systematic condom use'. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all uncertain variables and major assumptions. Cost-per-person reached varies by method, with public outreach events the least costly (US$2.29) and billboards the most costly (US$25.07). Influence on reported behaviour was limited: only three of the five interventions were found to have a significant statistical correlation with reported condom use (i.e. magazines, radio broadcasts, public outreach events). Cost-effectiveness ratios per person reporting systematic condom use resulted in the following ranking: magazines, radio and public outreach events. Sensitivity analyses indicate rankings are insensitive to variation of key parameters although ratios must be interpreted with caution. This analysis suggests that while individual interventions are an attractive use of resources to raise awareness, this may not translate into a cost-effective impact on behaviour change. The study found that the extensive reach of public outreach events did not seem to influence behaviour change as cost-effectively when compared with magazines or radio broadcasts. Behavioural interventions are context-specific and their effectiveness influenced by a

  10. Canadian guidelines on pharmacotherapy for disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-02-01

    To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone's major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use.

  11. Canadian Guidelines on Pharmacotherapy for Disruptive and Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, or Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Gardner, David M; Murphy, Andrea L; Feldman, Mark; Bélanger, Stacey A; Steele, Margaret M; Boylan, Khrista; Cochrane-Brink, Kate; Goldade, Roxanne; Soper, Paul R; Ustina, Judy; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based guidelines on pharmacotherapy for severe disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or conduct disorder (CD). The guidelines assume that psychosocial interventions have been pursued but did not achieve sufficient improvement. Method: A multidisciplinary consensus group used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach for rating evidence quality and for grading recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of medications studied in placebo-controlled trials for treating disruptive and aggressive behaviour in children and adolescents with ADHD, ODD, or CD. We followed consensus procedures to make 1 of 4 recommendations for each medication: strong, in favour (↑↑); conditional, in favour (↑?); conditional, against (↓?); and strong, against (↓↓). Results: For children and adolescents with disruptive or aggressive behaviour associated with ADHD, psychostimulants received a strong recommendation in favour of use, while atomoxetine and alpha-2 agonists received a conditional recommendation in favour of use. If these patients do poorly with ADHD medications, the medication with the most evidence is risperidone. Risperidone also has the most evidence for treating disruptive or aggressive behaviour in the absence of ADHD. However, given risperidone’s major adverse effects, it received only a conditional recommendation in favour of use. We recommended against using quetiapine, haloperidol, lithium, or carbamazepine because of the poor quality of evidence and their major adverse effects. Conclusion: When severe disruptive or aggressive behaviour occurs with ADHD, medications for ADHD should be used first. Other medications have major adverse effects and, with the exception of risperidone, very limited evidence to support their use. PMID:25886657

  12. Exposure-based cognitive-behavioural therapy via the internet and as bibliotherapy for somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2016-11-01

    In DSM-5 two new diagnoses, somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD), have replaced DSM-IV hypochondriasis. There are no previous treatment studies for these disorders. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered as therapist-guided or unguided internet treatment or as unguided bibliotherapy could be used to increase treatment accessibility. To investigate the effect of CBT delivered as guided internet treatment (ICBT), unguided internet treatment (U-ICBT) and as unguided bibliotherapy. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) where participants (n = 132) with a diagnosis of SSD or IAD were randomised to ICBT, U-ICBT, bibliotherapy or to a control condition on a waiting list (trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01966705). Compared with the control condition, all three treatment groups made large and significant improvements on the primary outcome Health Anxiety Inventory (between-group d at post-treatment was 0.80-1.27). ICBT, U-ICBT and bibliotherapy can be highly effective in the treatment of SSD and IAD. This is the first study showing that these new DSM-5 disorders can be effectively treated. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Psychosocial morbidity associated with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder in psychiatric out-patients: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2015-10-01

    The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders. To compare the levels of psychosocial morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed with semi-structured interviews. We compared 307 patients with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder but without bipolar disorder and 236 patients with bipolar disorder but without borderline personality disorder. The patients with borderline personality disorder less frequently were college graduates, were diagnosed with more comorbid disorders, more frequently had a history of substance use disorder, reported more suicidal ideation at the time of the evaluation, more frequently had attempted suicide, reported poorer social functioning and were rated lower on the Global Assessment of Functioning. There was no difference between the two patient groups in history of admission to psychiatric hospital or time missed from work during the past 5 years. The level of psychosocial morbidity associated with borderline personality disorder was as great as (or greater than) that experienced by patients with bipolar disorder. From a public health perspective, efforts to improve the detection and treatment of borderline personality disorder might be as important as efforts to improve the recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  15. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  16. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  17. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  18. QUANTITATIVE EEG COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD AND ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen D. Dimitrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is another psychiatric condition of the neurodevelopmental type. Both disorders affect information processing in the nervous system, altering the mechanisms which control how neurons and their synapses are connected and organized. Purpose: To examine if quantitative EEG assessment is sensitive and simple enough to differentiate autism from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurologically typical children. Material and methods: Quantitative EEG is a type of electrophysiological assessment that uses computerized mathematical analysis to convert the raw waveform data into different frequency ranges. Each frequency range is averaged across a sample of data and quantified into mean amplitude (voltage in microvolts mV. We performed quantitative EEG analysis and compared 4 cohorts of children (aged from 3 to 7 years: with autism (high [n=27] and low [n=52] functioning, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [n=34], and with typical behavior [n75]. Results: Our preliminary results show that there are significant qEEG differences between the groups of patients and the control cohort. The changes affect the potential levels of delta-, theta-, alpha-, and beta- frequency spectrums. Conclusion: The present study shows some significant quantitative EEG findings in autistic patients. This is a step forward in our efforts, aimed at defining specific neurophysiologic changes, in order to develop and refine strategies for early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, differentiation from other development conditions in childhood, detection of specific biomarkers and early initiation of treatment.

  19. Is bruxism a disorder or a behaviour? Rethinking the international consensus on defining and grading of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Santiago, V; Lobbezoo, F

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the international consensus on defining and grading of bruxism (Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Glaros AG, Kato T, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ et al. J Oral Rehabil. 2013;40:2), this commentary examines its contribution and underlying assumptions for defining sleep bruxism (SB). The consensus' parsimonious redefinition of bruxism as a behaviour is an advance, but we explore an implied question: might SB be more than behaviour? Behaviours do not inherently require clinical treatment, making the consensus-proposed 'diagnostic grading system' inappropriate. However, diagnostic grading might be useful, if SB were considered a disorder. Therefore, to fully appreciate the contribution of the consensus statement, we first consider standards and evidence for determining whether SB is a disorder characterised by harmful dysfunction or a risk factor increasing probability of a disorder. Second, the strengths and weaknesses of the consensus statement's proposed 'diagnostic grading system' are examined. The strongest evidence-to-date does not support SB as disorder as implied by 'diagnosis'. Behaviour alone is not diagnosed; disorders are. Considered even as a grading system of behaviour, the proposed system is weakened by poor sensitivity of self-report for direct polysomnographic (PSG)-classified SB and poor associations between clinical judgments of SB and portable PSG; reliance on dichotomised reports; and failure to consider SB behaviour on a continuum, measurable and definable through valid behavioural observation. To date, evidence for validity of self-report or clinician report in placing SB behaviour on a continuum is lacking, raising concerns about their potential utility in any bruxism behavioural grading system, and handicapping future study of whether SB may be a useful risk factor for, or itself a disorder requiring treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Terapia cognitivo-comportamental dos transtornos alimentares Cognitive-behavioural therapy of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Duchesne

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A terapia cognitivo-comportamental é uma intervenção breve, semi-estruturada e orientada para metas, que tem sido amplamente utilizada nos centros de pesquisa e tratamento de transtornos alimentares. O presente artigo tem por objetivo descrever as principais estratégias cognitivas e comportamentais utilizadas no tratamento ambulatorial dos transtornos alimentares. Vários ensaios clínicos avaliaram a eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental, indicando que ela favorece a remissão ou diminuição da freqüência de episódios de compulsão alimentar, dos comportamentos purgativos e da restrição alimentar. Tem sido relatada também melhora do humor, do funcionamento social, e diminuição da preocupação com peso e formato corporal.The cognitive-behavioural therapy is a brief, semi-structured and goal oriented intervention, which has been largely used in research and treatment centers specialized on eating disorders. The present article describes the main cognitive and behavioral strategies used in the outpatient treatment of eating disorders. Several clinical studies assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy, indicating the remission or the reduction of the frequency of binge eating episodes, purgative behaviours and food restriction. Social and mood improvement, as well as reduction of weight and body shape concerns, have also been reported.

  1. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Bipolar disorder and criminality: a comparative study by gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, N; Rafrafi, R; Ben Romdhane, I; Ridha, R

    2013-12-01

    Unlike schizophrenia, the impact of gender on the criminality of patients with bipolar disorder has received little attention. To estimate the sex ratio in relation to acts committed by forensic bipolar patients and evaluate the impact of gender on the characteristics of this crime. A comparative study by gender, conducted at the psychiatric hospital Razi has included all patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized between 1990 and 2010 after being relaxed for mental illness, owing to the Tunisian penal code. The total number of patients was 36 and the sex ratio of 3.5.A suicide history was four times more common in women. Alcohol abuse was found only in men. Relapses were more frequent in women (3.06 I year against 1.14 I year, p = 0.02). Rapid cycling and comorbid anxiety were noted only in female patients. Filicide and prostitution were committed exclusively by women, economic crimes and sexual assaults were the preserve of men. The male offenses were more impulsive and unpremeditated (p = 0.04). Although sex ratio is in favor of men, women's representation in the violence induced by bipolar disorder is significant, resulting, particularly during depressive phases, by serious and deadly acts. Preventive measures of acting out in bipolar patients must be supported and especially adapted to the genre

  3. A comparative study of East and West Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans; Esbjerg, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a project comparing retail buy-ing behaviour in Poland and Germany. The study demon-strates several differences in the way listing decisions are made in the two countries - differences which at the same time raise prob-lems and offer opportunities for small...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder increases the risk of having abnormal eating behaviours in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docet, M F; Larrañaga, A; Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V

    2012-06-01

    To determine the rate of abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. This case-control study includes: obese adult patients defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m², screening positive in the adult ADHD self-report scale-V1.1. (ASRS-V1.1), attending the Nutrition Section, as cases; and obese adult patients screening negative, as controls. Weight, height and BMI were determined in all the participants. The rate of abnormal eating behaviours was determined using an eating pattern questionnaire. Forty-five out of 51 (88.2%) cases vs 127 out of 179 (70.9%) controls had abnormal eating behaviours (p=0.01). Eating between-meal snacks was found in 39 (76.5%) cases vs 107 (59.8%) controls (p=0.03), going on binge eating episodes in 28 (54.9%) vs 42 (23.5%) (p=0.00), waking up at night to eat in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), eating large amounts of food in 13 (25.5%) vs 38 (21.2%) (p=0.52), and eating in secret in 11 (21.6%) vs 16 (8.9%) (p=0.01), respectively. This is the first study that determines the rate of these abnormal eating behaviours in obese adult patients with ADHD in comparison with obese adult patients without ADHD. A high rate of abnormal eating behaviours was observed in obese patients with ADHD. Our results suggest that ADHD is a risk factor for the development of these abnormal eating behaviours, which may be contributing factors of obesity and the unsuccessful treatment of obese patients.

  5. Comparative study of heat transfer and wetting behaviour of conventional and bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Peter; Prabhu, K. Narayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar 575 025 Mangalore, Karnataka State (India)

    2008-02-15

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils as bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment. The study involved the assessment of the severity of quenching and wetting behaviour of conventional and vegetable oil quench media. Quench severities of sunflower, coconut and palm oils were found to be greater than mineral oil. The quench severity of aqueous media is greater than oil media although their wettability is poor as indicated by their higher contact angles. A dimensionless contact angle parameter defined in this work is found to be a better parameter to compare the wetting behaviour with heat transfer. (author)

  6. Parental attributions for positive behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussanich, P; Hartley, S L; Bolt, D

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined parental attributions for positive child behaviour in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their association with parent outcomes. In total, 175 couples who had a child with ASD (5-12 years) completed measures about the child's positive behaviour, ASD symptoms, functional skills and negative behaviour problems, and their own positive and negative affect and closeness in the parent-child relationship. A comparison group of 170 couples who had a child without a neurodevelopmental disability also completed measures. Dyadic multilevel models were conducted. Parents of children with ASD believed that their child's positive behaviour was due to factors less internal to the child, less stable and less controllable by the child than the comparison group. Beliefs about stability were associated with closeness in the parent-child relationship. Child age and level of impairment and parent education were associated with parental attributions. Interventions that alter parental attributions may offer pathways to increase closeness in the parent-child relationship. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparing profiles of mental disorder across birth cohorts: results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.

  8. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for social anxiety disorder in routine practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, A.D.; O'Moore, Kathleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common, chronic and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment of SAD and internet CBT (iCBT) offers a cost-effective and convenient alternative to face to face approaches, with high fidelity and demonstrated

  9. Effects of blood lead and cadmium levels on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkup-Jabłońska, Małgorzata; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta; Jurczak, Anna; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna; Rotter, Iwona; Prokopowicz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The developing brain of a child is extremely prone to damage resulting from exposure to harmful environmental factors, e.g. heavy metals. Intoxication of children's organisms with lead and cadmium affects their intellectual development. Even a relatively small amount of this metal in children's blood can lead to developmental dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between blood lead and cadmium levels in children with behaviour disorders and their functioning in the home. This survey-based study was conducted among 78 families with children diagnosed as having behaviour disorders. It was performed using the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV. To determine lead and cadmium levels the laboratory procedure was based on Stoppler and Brandt's method. The mean blood lead level was 19.71 µg/l and the mean blood cadmium level was 0.215 µg/l. Higher blood lead levels in children correlates positively with incidences of hyperactive and impulsive behaviour in the home, as assessed by parents (p=0.048). Statistically significant effects of cadmium on children's behaviour were not noticed. The effect of lead on the developing organism of a child has such behavioural consequences as attention disorders, hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour which, in turn, may interfere with children's functioning in the home. A negative effect of cadmium on the functioning of children with behaviour disorders in the home was not proved.

  10. BEHAVIOURAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruiz Aparicio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have unique characteristics and very little is known about how these characteristics may influence the family and the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of their siblings. The purpose of the current study is to focus on the siblings and to review the literature related to the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of siblings of individuals with ASD. We have identified and analysed 24 articles to find the relevant results that may help us to understand the needs of these siblings. The findings suggest mixed results but they also bring to light a number of risk factors that could have an impact on the entire family and particularly on the siblings of children with ASD.

  11. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted...... to obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics. Relevant studies were identified using computerised searches of the Medline and PsycINFO databases and the Cochrane Library for the years 1950-2010. The search identified no meta-analyses, yet twelve (systematic) reviews and eight randomised controlled...... trials provided evidence for the current review. Most evidence was found for habit reversal training (HRT) and the available but smaller evidence also supports the efficacy of exposure with response prevention (ERP). Both interventions are considered first line behavioural treatments for tics for both...

  12. [Social Cognition and its Contribution to the Rehabilitation of Behavioural Disorders in Traumatic Brain Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, José Ignacio; Rusu, Olga; Fonseca, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Social behaviour disorders in traumatic brain injury are caused by the dysfunction of cognitive processes involved in social and interpersonal interaction. The concept of social cognition was introduced by authors studying schizophrenia, autism or mental retardation. The boundaries and the content of the concept have not yet been definitively defined, but theory of mind, empathy and emotional processing are included in all the models proposed. The strategies proposed to improve social behaviour focus on the restoration of cognitive processes such as working memory, emotional recognition and processing, and empathy, as well as social skills. To date, there is very little evidence on the efficacy of the aforementioned social cognition strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Disappearance of "phantom limb" and amputated arm usage during dreaming in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Arnulf, Isabelle; Montagna, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Limb amputation is followed, in approximately 90% of patients, by "phantom limb" sensations during wakefulness. When amputated patients dream, however, the phantom limb may be present all the time, part of the time, intermittently or not at all. Such dreaming experiences in amputees have usually been obtained only retrospectively in the morning and, moreover, dreaming is normally associated with muscular atonia so the motor counterpart of the phantom limb experience cannot be observed directly. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), in which muscle atonia is absent during REM sleep and patients act out their dreams, allows a more direct analysis of the "phantom limb" phenomena and their modifications during sleep.

  14. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pablo Luis; Torrente, Fernando Manuel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Lischinsky, Alicia Graciela; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Rojas, Juan Ignacio; Romano, Marina; Manes, Facundo F

    2018-03-23

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem.ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance.Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could be effective in treating adults with ADHD, especially when combined with pharmacological treatment. CBT aims to change the thoughts and behaviours that reinforce harmful effects of the disorder by teaching people techniques to control the core symptoms. CBT also aims to help people cope with emotions, such as anxiety and depression, and to improve self-esteem. To assess the effects of cognitive-behavioural-based therapy for ADHD in adults. In June 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases and three trials registries. We also checked reference lists, handsearched congress abstracts, and contacted experts and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of CBT for adults with ADHD, either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with another treatment, versus one of the following: unspecific control conditions (comprising supportive psychotherapies, no treatment or waiting list) or other specific interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures suggested by Cochrane. We included 14 RCTs (700 participants), 13 of which were conducted in the northern hemisphere and 1 in Australia.Primary outcomes: ADHD symptomsCBT versus unspecific control conditions (supportive psychotherapies, waiting list or no treatment)- CBT versus supportive psychotherapies: CBT was more effective than supportive therapy for improving clinician-reported ADHD symptoms (1 study, 81 participants; low-quality evidence) but not for self-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -0.16, 95% CI -0.52 to 0

  15. Personality and Differential Treatment Response in Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Segal, Zindel V; McBride, Carolina C; Kennedy, Sidney H; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for major depressive disorder exist, yet some patients fail to respond, or achieve only partial response. One approach to optimizing treatment success is to identify which patients are more likely to respond best to which treatments. The objective of this investigation was to determine if patient personality characteristics are predictive of response to either cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy (PHT). Method Depressed patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures the higher-order domain and lower-order facet traits of the Five-Factor Model of Personality, and were randomized to receive either CBT or PHT. Result Four personality traits—the higher-order domain neuroticism and 3 lower-order facet traits: trust, straightforwardness, and tendermindedness—were able to distinguish a differential response rate to CBT, compared with PHT. Conclusion The assessment of patient dimensional personality traits can assist in the selection and optimization of treatment response for depressed patients. PMID:18616856

  16. Transdiagnostic versus disorder-specific internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Jill M; Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2017-03-01

    Disorder-specific and transdiagnostic internet cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) programs are effective for anxiety and depression, but no studies have compared their effectiveness in primary care. Patient characteristics, adherence and effectiveness of Transdiagnostic iCBT (n=1005) were compared to disorder-specific programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (n=738) and depression (n=366) in a naturalistic non-randomised comparison study. Patients completed their iCBT program in primary care. The PHQ-9 (depression), GAD-7 (generalized anxiety), K-10 (distress), and the WHODAS-II (disability) were measured at pre- and post-treatment. Patients in the Transdiagnostic program had higher comorbidity rates and baseline distress. All programs were associated with medium to large within-group effect sizes for improving anxiety, depression and distress between pre- and post-treatment (d's=0.64-1.39). Controlling for baseline group differences in severity, we found small effect sizes favoring the Transdiagnostic program over the GAD program in reducing PHQ-9 (d=0.44, 95%CI: 0.34-0.53), K-10 (d=0.21, 95%CI: 0.16-0.35) and WHODAS scores (d=0.20, 95%CI: 0.10-0.29), and small effect sizes favoring the Transdiagnostic program over the Depression program in reducing GAD-7 scores (d=0.48, 95%CI: 0.36-0.60). A smaller proportion of patients completed the Transdiagnostic program (44.9%) compared to the depression (51.6%) and GAD (49.2%) programs, which was attributable to baseline differences in age and symptom severity. Both Transdiagnostic iCBT and disorder-specific iCBT programs are effective in primary care, but there appears to be small effects favoring Transdiagnostic iCBT. Methods to increase adherence are needed to optimize the benefits to patients, and these findings await replication in a RCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioural Flexibility in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome, Down Syndrome, Non-Specific Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, R.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V. A.; Korzilius, H.; Mouws, C.; Lancioni, G. E.; O'Reilly, M. F.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about behavioural flexibility in children and adults with Angelman syndrome and whether people with this syndrome have more or less problems in being behaviourally flexible as compared with other people. Method: Behavioural flexibility scores were assessed in 129 individuals with Angelman syndrome using 11 items from…

  18. Comparing the driving behaviours of individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and those with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujito, Ryoko; Kamimura, Naoto; Ikeda, Manabu; Koyama, Asuka; Shimodera, Shinji; Morinobu, Shigeru; Inoue, Shimpei

    2016-01-01

    Assessing driving aptitude in dementia patients is critically important for both patient and public safety. However, there have been only a few reports on the driving behaviours and accident risk of patients with dementia, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Therefore, we compared the characteristics of driving behaviours in patients with FTLD and those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects were 28 FTLD and 67 AD patients who visited the Department of Psychiatry, Kochi Medical School Hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews with their families and caregivers about traffic accident history and changes in patient driving behaviours after dementia onset and then compared the findings between the two groups. Overall changes in driving behaviours were reported in 89% (25/28) and 76% (51/67) of the FTLD and AD patients, respectively (P = 0.17). In the FTLD group, difficulty in judging inter-vehicle distances, ignoring road signs and traffic signals, and distraction were reported in 50% (14/28), 61% (17/28), and 50% (14/28) of patients, respectively, and 75% (21/28) patients had caused a traffic accident after dementia onset. The risk of causing an accident was higher in the FTLD group than in the AD group (odds ratio = 10.4, 95% confidence interval = 3.7-29.1). In addition, the mean duration between dementia onset and a traffic accident was 1.35 years in the FTLD group compared with 3.0 years in the AD group (P driving behaviours than those with AD, and the risk of causing a traffic accident may be higher in patients with FTLD from an early disease stage. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  20. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna

    2014-12-01

    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder: results from a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lenhard, Fabian; Ssegonja, Richard; Andersson, Erik; Feldman, Inna; Rück, Christian; Mataix-Cols, David; Serlachius, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) intervention for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared with untreated patients on a waitlist. Design Single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting A research clinic within the regular child and adolescent mental health service in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Sixty-seven adolescents (12-17 years) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of M...

  2. The sleeping brain in Parkinson's disease: A focus on REM sleep behaviour disorder and related parasomnias for practicing neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Sringean, Jirada; Rattanachaisit, Watchara; Truong, Daniel D

    2017-03-15

    Sleep disorders are identified as common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and recently this recognition has been expanded to include parasomnias, encompassing not only REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), but also other non-REM forms. RBD, a prototypical parasomnia in PD, exists even in the prodromal stage of the disease, and is characterized by the presence of dream enactment behaviours occurring alongside a loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep. In contrast, non-REM parasomnias are more frequently observed in the late stage PD. However, the development of these disorders often overlaps and it is not uncommon for PD patients to meet the criteria for more than one type of parasomnias, thus making a clinical distinction challenging for practicing neurologists who are not sleep specialists. Indeed, clinical recognition of the predominant form of parasomnia does not just depend on video-polysomnography, but also on an individual physician's clinical acumen in delineating pertinent clinical history to determine the most likely diagnosis and proceed accordingly. In this review article, we highlight the various forms of parasomnias that have been reported in PD, including, but not limited to, RBD, with a focus on clinical symptomatology and implications for clinical practice. In addition, we review the differences in PD-related parasomnias compared to those seen in general populations. With advances in sleep research and better technology for ambulatory home monitoring, it is likely that many unanswered questions on PD-related parasomnias will soon be resolved resulting in better management of this nocturnal challenge in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Service Evaluation of a 1-Year Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Programme for Women with Borderline Personality Disorder in a Low Secure Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily; Krawczyk, Kirsten; Staniford, Jessica; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies about the effectiveness of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for the treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder have had promising results. However, no previous studies have examined its effectiveness when delivered in low secure inpatient services for women. To evaluate clinical outcomes during and after a 1-year period of admission within a low secure unit for women offering a Dialectical Behaviour Therapy programme. A naturalistic, within subjects study of clinical data collected as part of routine practice was conducted. Participants were 18 consecutively admitted women who met the diagnostic criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder and had completed at least 1 year of treatment. Measures covered: risk behaviours; self-reported symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder, and current mood and symptom experience; staff reports of clinical problems, needs and social functioning. Scores were compared between admission and at 6 months and 1 year. There was a statistically significant improvement on all 13 measures over the year's treatment. Most improvement was demonstrated between admission and 6 months. Engagement in1-year's treatment was associated with significant reduction in risk behaviours and both staff-rated and self-rated outcome measures. Some significant questions remain about which elements of the programme are most effective but the results are encouraging.

  4. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Clinical Uses of Melatonin in Neurological Diseases and Mental and Behavioural Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Barcelo, Emilio J; Rueda, Noemi; Mediavilla, María D; Martinez-Cue, Carmen; Reiter, Russel J

    2017-11-20

    Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, epilepsy, headaches, etc.) as well as mental and behavioural disordes (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders, etc.), have served as a basis for the design of clinical trials to study melatonin's possible usefulness in human pathology, although the satisfactory results obtained from the laboratory "bench" are not always applicable to the patient's "bedside". In this article, we review those papers describing the results of the administration of melatonin to humans for various therapeutic purposes in the field of neuropathology. Clinical trials with strong methodologies and appropriate doses of melatonin are necessary to support or reject the usefulness of melatonin in neurological diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Diagnostic boundaries of autism disorder vs pervasive developmental disorder nos comparative observational study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carigi, Tiziana; Muratori, Filippo; Termine, Cristiano; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Derhemi, Ledhina; Di Nardo, Roberta; Rossi, Giorgio; Balottin, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), and above all diagnosis of the different PDD subtypes, is an ongoing challenge in psychopathology. Application of categorical criteria is complex and problematic in the clinical field where the boundaries dividing some of the PDD entities are blurred, creating particular problems for the clinician. A dimensional clinical approach, considering autistic symptom severity, level of functioning, developmental characteristics and symptoms other than the ones typically observed in autism, may be a more suitable approach in the clinical field and could provide the clinician treating these disorders with empirical guidance. To identify the clinical features that might differentiate the PDD subtypes, we conducted a comparative study in a clinical sample of children affected by autism disorder (AD) or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and a mini critical review of the available literature addressing clinical and psychopathological differences between the two subtypes. The results of both our study and our literature review seem to show little support for the current PDD subtypes. In such a framework, the most significant element in clinical practice appears to be a deep knowledge of the characteristics of the individual in question. By adopting a broad and multi-faceted perspective, it becomes possible to define the most effective rehabilitation treatment. This applies particularly to the pharmacological treatment, since, to date, no specific therapies for PDDs are known and the choice of pharmacotherapy can be decided only on the basis of the patient's general profile and specific features.

  7. Predictors and moderators of response to enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Allen, Elizabeth; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    Consistent predictors, and more especially moderators, of response to psychological treatments for eating disorders have not been identified. The present exploratory study examined predictors and moderators of outcome in adult patients who took part in a randomised clinical trial comparing two leading treatments for these disorders, enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Four potentially important findings emerged. Firstly, patients with a longer duration of disorder were less likely to benefit from either treatment. Second, across the two treatments the presence, at baseline, of higher levels of over-evaluation of the importance of shape predicted a less good treatment outcome. Third DSM-IV diagnosis did not predict treatment outcome. Fourth, with the exception of patients with baseline low self-esteem who achieved a better outcome with CBT-E, it was generally not possible to identify a subgroup of patients who would differentially benefit from one or other treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigator-blinded, randomized study to compare the efficacy of combined CBT for alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder versus CBT focused on alcohol alone in adults with comorbid disorders: the Combined Alcohol Social Phobia (CASP) trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Andrew J; Sannibale, Claudia; Stapinski, Lexine A; Teesson, Maree; Rapee, Ronald M; Haber, Paul S

    2013-07-30

    Alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder are common and disabling conditions that frequently co-exist. Although there are efficacious treatments for each disorder, only two randomized controlled trials of interventions for these combined problems have been published. We developed a new integrated treatment for comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder based on established Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) interventions for the separate disorders. Compared to established MI/CBT for alcohol use disorders this new intervention is hypothesised to lead to greater reductions in symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol use disorder and to produce greater improvements in quality of life. Higher levels of alcohol dependence will result in relatively poorer outcomes for the new integrated treatment. A randomised controlled trial comparing 9 sessions of individual integrated treatment for alcohol and social phobia with 9 sessions of treatment for alcohol use problems alone is proposed. Randomisation will be stratified for stable antidepressant use. Post treatment clinical assessments of alcohol consumption and diagnostic status at 3 and 6 month follow-up will be blind to allocation. The proposed trial addresses a serious gap in treatment evidence and could potentially define the appropriate treatment for a large proportion of adults affected by these problems. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000228381.

  9. Integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural therapy for bipolar disorder with comorbid substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven H; Barrowclough, Christine; Allott, Rory; Day, Christine; Earnshaw, Paul; Wilson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Although comorbid substance use is a common problem in bipolar disorder, there has been little research into options for psychological therapy. Studies to date have concentrated on purely cognitive-behavioural approaches, which are not equipped to deal with the ambivalence to change exhibited by many towards therapy designed to change substance use. This paper provides the first report of an integrated psychological treatment approach for bipolar disorder with comorbid substance use. The intervention reported combines motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioural therapy to address ambivalence and equips individuals with strategies to address substance use. Across five individual case studies, preliminary evidence is reported to support the acceptability and the feasibility of this approach. Despite most participants not highlighting their substance use as a primary therapy target, all but one exhibited reduced use of drugs or alcohol at the end of therapy, sustained at 6 months' follow-up. There was some evidence for improvements in mood symptoms and impulsiveness, but this was less clear-cut. The impact of social and relationship issues on therapy process and outcome is discussed. The implications of the current findings for future intervention research in this area are considered. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cognitive behavioural therapy in pain and psychological disorders: Towards a hybrid future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y

    2017-03-08

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a form of evidence-based talking therapy that emphasises the importance of behaviour and conscious thoughts in shaping our emotional experiences. As pain becomes increasingly accepted as not only a sensory but also an emotional experience, success in using CBT to treat emotional disorders has resulted in the incorporation of cognitive-behavioural principles into the management of chronic pain. Outcomes of CBT-informed interdisciplinary pain management programmes are modest at best, despite rapid methodological improvements in trial design and implementation. Whilst the field searches for new treatment directions, a hybrid CBT approach that seeks to simultaneously tackle pain and its comorbidities shows promise in optimising treatment effectiveness and flexibility. This article provides a brief description of the core characteristics of CBT and the transformation this therapeutic model has brought to our understanding and management of chronic pain. Current evidence on efficacy of CBT for chronic pain is then reviewed, followed by a critical consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the new hybrid treatment approach that conceptualises and treats chronic pain in connection with its comorbidities. Recent progress made in the area of pain and insomnia is highlighted as an example to project therapeutic innovations in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Skills use and common treatment processes in dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicot, Kirsten; Gonzalez, Rafael; McCabe, Rosemarie; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) trains participants to use behavioural skills for managing their emotions. The study aimed to evaluate whether skills use is associated with positive treatment outcomes independently of treatment processes that are common across different therapeutic models. Use of the DBT skills and three common treatment processes (therapeutic alliance, treatment credibility and self-efficacy) were assessed every 2 months for a year in 70 individuals with borderline personality disorder receiving DBT. Mixed-multilevel modelling was used to determine the association of these factors with frequency of self-harm and with treatment dropout. Participants who used the skills less often at any timepoint were more likely to drop out of DBT in the subsequent two months, independently of their self-efficacy, therapeutic alliance or perceived treatment credibility. More frequent use of the DBT skills and higher self-efficacy were each independently associated with less frequent concurrent self-harm. Treatment credibility and the alliance were not independently associated with self-harm or treatment dropout. The skills use measure could not be applied to a control group who did not receive DBT. The sample size was insufficient for structural equation modelling. Practising the DBT skills and building an increased sense of self-efficacy may be important and partially independent treatment processes in dialectical behaviour therapy. However, the direction of the association between these variables and self-harm requires further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  13. Comparing solutions to the expectancy-value muddle in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Sullivan, B; McGee, H; Keegan, O

    2008-11-01

    The authors of the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behaviour (TPB) recommended a method for statistically analysing the relationship between the indirect belief-based measures and the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control (PBC). However, there is a growing awareness that this yields statistically uninterpretable results. This study's objective was to compare two solutions to what has been called the 'expectancy-value muddle'. These solutions were (i) optimal scoring of modal beliefs and (ii) individual beliefs without multiplicative composites. Cross-sectional data were collected by telephone interview. Participants were 110 first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), who were offered CRC screening in the study hospital (83% response rate). Participants were asked to rate the TPB constructs in relation to attending for CRC screening. There was no significant difference in the correlation between behavioural beliefs and attitude for rescaled modal and individual beliefs. This was also the case for control beliefs and PBC. By contrast, there was a large correlation between rescaled modal normative beliefs and subjective norm, whereas individual normative beliefs did not correlate with subjective norm. Using individual beliefs without multiplicative composites allows for a fairly unproblematic interpretation of the relationship between the indirect and direct TPB constructs (French & Hankins, 2003). Therefore, it is recommended that future studies consider using individual measures of behavioural and control beliefs without multiplicative composites and examine a different way of measuring individual normative beliefs without multiplicative composites to that used in this study.

  14. Comparing Millennials With Their Predecessors Regarding Online Travel Behaviours: A Logistical Regression Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Suzanne; Henriques, Carla; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Millennials, also known as Generation Y, are characterized by their use of technology, which is an integral part of their lives. Research has shown that they are different from earlier generations regarding their behaviours and attitudes. This article investigates and compares the behavior of Millennials with those of previous generations using data collected among 1,732 Worldwide Internet users. In order to understand what differentiates Millennials, this study considers several characterist...

  15. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-11-03

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted.

  16. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BURDEN OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jayakrishnaveni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mental and behavioural disorders have a large impact on individuals, family and communities. There is a paucity of studies on burden and cost of illness of Bipolar Affective Disorder both internationally and in India. Such studies are important for clinical management and policy decisions. Aim of the study - The aim of the present study is to assess the magnitude of the cost of illness and family burden of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia and to find out the difference in the burden of the caregivers for both the groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Institute of Mental Health, Chennai. Sixty patients in each group were included by stratified sampling. Caregivers living with patients for atleast one year are included in the study, and those with any comorbid illness, were excluded from the study. ICD -10 diagnostic and research criteria were used for diagnosis of BPAD and Schizophrenia, Questionnaire for Assessment of Cost of Illness was used to assess cost of illness and Family Burden Interview Schedule was used to assess burden of caregivers. RESULTS Schizophrenia patients are mostly from urban, nuclear family. The illness characters & sociodemographic profile of caregivers are comparable. Lifetime costs and loss of income over lifetime was more in schizophrenia. Loss of income in the past year was similar. The burden was comparable for caregivers of both groups in disruption of family routine, interaction with family members, effect on mental health. CONCLUSION Burden of both diseases were comparable except schizophrenics experience more financial burden.

  18. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for children with anxiety disorders: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigerland, Sarah; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Thulin, Ulrika; Öst, Lars-Göran; Andersson, Gerhard; Serlachius, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in children, but few affected seek or receive treatment. Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) could be a way to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments. A randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate ICBT for children with anxiety disorders. Families (N = 93) with a child aged 8-12 years with a principal diagnosis of generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, separation anxiety, social phobia or specific phobia were recruited through media advertisement. Participants were randomised to 10 weeks of ICBT with therapist support, or to a waitlist control condition. The primary outcome measure was the Clinician Severity Rating (CSR) and secondary measures included child- and parent-reported anxiety. Assessments were made at pre-treatment, post-treatment and at three-month follow-up. At post-treatment, there were significant reductions on CSR in the treatment group, with a large between-group effect size (Cohen's d = 1.66). Twenty per cent of children in the treatment group no longer met criteria for their principal diagnosis at post-treatment and at follow-up this number had increased to 50%. Parent-reported child anxiety was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the waitlist group at post-treatment, with a small between-group effect size (Cohen's d = 0.45). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding child-ratings of anxiety at post-treatment. Improvements were maintained at three-month follow-up, although this should be interpreted cautiously due to missing data. Within the limitations of this study, results suggest that ICBT with therapist support for children with anxiety disorders can reduce clinician- and parent-rated anxiety symptoms. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01533402. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Agüera, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-04-15

    Studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. A total sample of 2010 treatment-seeking patients with a gambling disorder participated in this stand-alone study. All were recruited from a single Pathological Gambling Unit in Spain (1709 strategic and 301 non-strategic gamblers). The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected at the start of treatment. Data was analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative responses. There were significant differences in several socio-demographic and clinical variables, as well as in personality traits (novelty seeking and cooperativeness). Multiple regression analysis showed harm avoidance and self-directedness were the main predictors of gambling severity and psychopathology, while age at assessment and age of onset of gambling behaviour were predictive of gambling severity. Strategic gambling (as opposed to non-strategic) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes, but the effect size of the relationships was small. It is possible to identify distinct phenotypes depending on the preference of gambling. While these phenotypes differ in relation to the severity of the gambling disorder, psychopathology and personality traits, they can be useful from a clinical and therapeutic perspective in enabling risk factors to be identified and prevention programs targeting specific individual profiles to be developed.

  20. Changes in the self during cognitive behavioural therapy for social anxiety disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Bree; Peters, Lorna

    2017-03-01

    A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Guided by Stopa's (2009a, b) model of self, most studies examined change in self-related content, followed by change in self-related processing. No study examined change in self-structure. Pre- to post-treatment reductions were observed in self-related thoughts and beliefs, self-esteem, self-schema, self-focused attention, and self-evaluation. Change in self-related constructs predicted and/or mediated social anxiety reduction, however relatively few studies examined this. Papers were limited by small sample sizes, failure to control for depression symptoms, lack of waitlist, and some measurement concerns. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A 4-year prospective study of eating disorder NOS compared with full eating disorder syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W Stewart; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James E; Halmi, Katherine A; Bryson, Susan

    2009-09-01

    To examine the course of Eating Disorder NOS (EDNOS) compared with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Prospective study of 385 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for AN, BN, BED, and EDNOS at three sites. Recruitment was from the community and specialty clinics. Participants were followed at 6-month intervals during a 4-year period using the Eating Disorder Examination as the primary assessment. EDNOS remitted significantly more quickly that AN or BN but not BED. There were no differences between EDNOS and full ED syndromes, or the subtypes of EDNOS, in time to relapse following first remission. Only 18% of the EDNOS group had never had or did not develop another ED diagnosis during the study; however, this group did not differ from the remaining EDNOS group. EDNOS appears to be a way station between full ED syndromes and recovery, and to a lesser extent from recovery or EDNOS status to a full ED. Implications for DSM-V are examined.

  2. Relationships Between Self-Reported and Observed Parenting Behaviour, Adolescent Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours, and the 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Data From the Australian Temperament Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Letcher, Primrose; Krug, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether self-reported and observationally measured parental behaviours were associated with disordered eating, and investigated possible moderation by a serotonin-transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Study 1 included 650 adolescents from the Australian Temperament Project who completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 Drive for Thinness and Bulimia scales at 15/16 years and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. Parents completed an Australian Temperament Project-devised measure of parental warmth and harsh punishment. Study 2 included a subgroup of 304 participants who also engaged in a video-recorded family interaction, with observed parental warmth and hostility coded by the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale. Greater self-reported parental warmth was associated with lower bulimia scores. Conversely, observationally measured parental warmth was associated with lower drive for thinness, but not bulimia. Self-reported parental harsh punishment was associated with bulimia only, with observed parental hostility associated with neither outcome. 5-HTTLPR genotype did not moderate the relationship between parent behaviours and adolescent disordered eating. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Baseline omega-3 index correlates with aggressive and attention deficit disorder behaviours in adult prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Meyer

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments.To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population.136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC, NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ and the Brown's Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS, provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated.The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = -0.21, P = 0.016; total AQ score (r = -0.234, P = 0.011; Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016; Hostility AQ (r = -0.239, P = 0.009; indirect aggression (r = -0.188 p = 0.042; total BADDS (r = -0.263, p = 0.005; Activation (r = -0.224, p = 0.016; Attention (r = -0.192, p = 0.043; Effort (r = -0.253, p = 0.007; Affect (r = -0.330, p = 0.000 and Memory (r = -0.240, p = 0.010.There is a high variability in omega-3 status of a NSW prison

  5. Assertive Anger Mediates Effects of Dialectical Behaviour-informed Skills Training for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Berthoud, Laurent; de Roten, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Kolly, Stéphane; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Page, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT)-informed skills training for borderline personality disorder (BPD) aims at the development of specific emotion regulation skills in patients, particularly with regard to the regulation of problematic anger. While the effects of dialectical behaviour skills training have been shown, their processes of change are rarely examined. Neacsiu, Rizvi and Linehan (2010) found that patient's self-reported use of emotion regulation skills was a mediator of therapeutic change in these treatments; however, they found no effect for problematic anger. From an integrative perspective on anger (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, 2007; Pascual-Leone & Paivio, 2013), there are several forms of anger, varying in their degree of therapeutic productivity. The present add-on randomized controlled trial included n = 41 patients with BPD (n = 21 DBT-informed skills training versus n = 20 treatment as usual). The first study examined the outcome of the DBT-informed skills training encompassing basic components of training in mindfulness, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness and emotion regulation. Results showed that symptom reduction was significantly greater in the DBT-informed skills training, compared with the treatment as usual. The second study used process assessment, for which all patient completers underwent a 50-min-long psychological interview both early and late in treatment, which was rated using the Classification of Affective Meaning States. DBT-informed skills training produced increased levels of primary 'assertive' anger, as compared with the treatment as usual, whereas no effect was found for 'rejecting' secondary anger. Most importantly, we showed that changes in assertive anger mediated the reported symptom reduction, in particular in patient's social roles. We discuss these results in the context of underlying mechanisms of change in DBT skills group treatments, in particular towards developing more productive forms of

  6. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for social anxiety disorder in routine practice

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A.D.; O'Moore, Kathleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common, chronic and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment of SAD and internet CBT (iCBT) offers a cost-effective and convenient alternative to face to face approaches, with high fidelity and demonstrated efficacy. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT programme for SAD (The This Way Up Clinic Shyness Programme) when delivered in routine practice through two different p...

  7. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) for social anxiety disorder across two routine practice pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Alishia D.; O'Moore, Kathleen; Mason, Elizabeth; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common, chronic and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment of SAD and internet CBT (iCBT) offers a cost-effective and convenient alternative to face to face approaches, with high fidelity and demonstrated efficacy. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT programme for SAD (The This Way Up Clinic Shyness Programme) when delivered in routine practice through two different p...

  8. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrios, Michael; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Moulding, Richard; Klein, Britt; Austin, David; Meyer, Denny; Ahern, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder that constitutes a leading cause of disability. Although Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for OCD, this specialised treatment is unavailable to many due to access issues and the social stigma associated with seeing a mental health specialist. Internet-based psychological treatments have shown to provide effective, accessible and affordable treatment for a range ...

  9. REM sleep behaviour disorder: prodromal and mechanistic insights for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekriwal, Anand; Kern, Drew S; Tsai, Jean; Ince, Nuri F; Wu, Jianping; Thompson, John A; Abosch, Aviva

    2017-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by complex motor enactment of dreams and is a potential prodromal marker of Parkinson's disease (PD). Of note, patients with PD observed during RBD episodes exhibit improved motor function, relative to baseline states during wake periods. Here, we review recent epidemiological and mechanistic findings supporting the prodromal value of RBD for PD, incorporating clinical and electrophysiological studies. Explanations for the improved motor function during RBD episodes are evaluated in light of recent publications. In addition, we present preliminary findings describing changes in the activity of the basal ganglia across the sleep-wake cycle that contribute to our understanding of RBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  11. A Comparative Study of the Behaviour of Five Dense Glass Materials Under Shock Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Darren D.; Proud, William G.; Field, John E.

    2001-06-01

    Previous work at the Cavendish Laboratory on the properties of glasses under shock loading has demonstrated that the material response is highly dependent upon the composition of the glass. The shock response of glass materials with an open structure, such as borosilicate, exhibits a ramping behaviour in the longitudinal stress histories due to structural collapse. Glass materials with a “filled” microstructure, as in the case of Type-D, Extra Dense Flint (DEDF) do not exhibit a ramping behaviour and behave in a manner similar to polycrystalline ceramics [1]. The current investigation compares the behaviour of five such glasses (SF15, DEDF, LACA, SF57 and DEDF-927210) under shock loading conditions. It is observed that slight changes in material composition can have a large affect on the inelastic behaviour. Principal Hugoniot and shear strength data are presented for all of the materials for pressures ranging from 2 to 14 GPa. Evidence of the so-called failure-front [2] is presented via lateral stress histories measured using manganin stress gauges and confirmed with high-speed photography. 1. Bourne, N.K., Millett, J.C.F., and Field, J.E., “On the strength of shocked glasses” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 455 (1999) 1275-1282 2. Brar, N.S., “Failure Waves in Glass and Ceramics Under Shock Compression”, in "Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 1999", ed. M.D. Furnish, L.C. Chhabildas, and R.S. Hixson, American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, New York, (1999) 601-606

  12. Change Factors in the Process of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Hilbert, S; Schubert, C; Schlegl, S; Freyer, T; Löwe, B; Osen, B; Voderholzer, U

    2017-05-01

    While there is a plethora of evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), studies on change factors of the therapeutic process that account for this success are scarce. In the present study, 155 participants with primary OCD were investigated during CBT inpatient treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-SR served as a measure of symptom severity. In addition, the following process change factors were measured: therapeutic relationship, experience of self-esteem during therapy, experience of mastery, problem actualization and clarification. All variables were assessed on a weekly basis for seven weeks. Linear mixed growth curve analyses were conducted to model the decrease of symptoms over time and to analyse whether the change factors predicted symptom reduction. The analyses revealed a linear decrease of symptoms with high inter-individual variation. Results further showed that increase in self-esteem and mastery experiences as well as the initial score on mastery experience and clarification predicted decrease on the Y-BOCS. We conclude that CBT therapists should focus on clarification in the very first sessions, and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy, which is related to mastery, throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Increase in mastery and self-esteem experiences are associated with symptom decrease in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Initial score of mastery experiences and problem clarification predict symptom decrease in OCD during CBT. CBT therapists should focus on problem clarification in the very first sessions and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hallucinations and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease: dream imagery intrusions and other hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Repetto, Alessandra; Zangaglia, Roberta; Pacchetti, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep-related parasomnia which may be considered a "dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep", given that conflicting elements of REM sleep (dreaming) and of wakefulness (sustained muscle tone and movements) coexist during the episodes, leading to motor and behavioural manifestations reminiscent of an enacted dream. RBD has been reported in association with α-synucleinopathies: around a third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have full-blown RBD. Recent data indicate that PD patients with RBD are more prone to hallucinations than PD patients without this parasomnia. However it is still not clear why RBD in PD is associated with an increased prevalence of VHs. Data exist which suggest that visual hallucinations in PD may be the result of untimely intrusions of REM visual imagery into wakefulness. RBD, which is characterised by a REM sleep dissociation pattern, might be a condition that particularly favours such intrusions. However, other hypotheses may be advanced. In fact, deficits in attentional, executive, visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities have been documented in RBD and found to occur far more frequently in PD with RBD than in PD without RBD. Neuropsychological deficits involving visual perception and attentional processes are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of VHs. On this basis, RBD in PD could be viewed as a contributory risk factor for VHs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuyun; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p ADHD. PMID:27918425

  15. The Influence of Health Behaviours in Childhood on Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health. This study aimed to examine the association of diet quality, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in childhood with ADHD throughout adolescence. We linked data from grade five students aged primarily 10 and 11 years old who participated in a population-based lifestyle survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia with their administrative health care data. We applied negative binomial regression methods to examine the associations between health behaviours and ADHD. Of the 4875 students, 9.7% had one or more diagnoses of ADHD between the ages of 10/11 and 18 years. The number of primary diagnoses with ADHD was statistically significantly lower among students with better diet quality, higher levels of physical activity, and those that spent less time playing computers and video games (p < 0.05. These findings suggest that health promotion programs aiming to improve children’s diets and active lifestyles may also reduce the public health burden of ADHD.

  16. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [An exploratory study of 'blended' cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with a panic disorder: results and patients' experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, A; Kampman, M; Exterkate, C C; Hendriks, G J

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology (e-health or 'blended' care), combined with evidence-based face-to-face CBT, is becoming increasingly implemented into mental health care and is expected to result in improved effectiveness and efficiency. To explore the feasibility of blended CBT for patients with a panic disorder. Nine face-to-face sessions of blended CBT (n = 18), supplemented with the digital support of a tabletcomputer and three e-mail contacts, were compared with 12 weekly sessions of regular CBT (n = 18). Primary outcomes were panic frequency and avoidance behaviour; the secondary outcome was general functioning. Patients' experiences of the treatment were collected in the form of a structured interview. The effect sizes found in both the regular and the blended CBT were medium to high (Cohen's d 0.42-1.60). In both types of treatment there was a significant reduction in patients' symptoms. There were no big differences in patient satisfaction regarding the treatment received. The therapists registered 39 face-to-face minutes in the blended treatment but they registered in total 41 fewer face-to-face minutes; this represented a time reduction of 4%. Blended CBT with help of a tablet computer seems to be a suitable method for treating panic disorder psychologically, although the time saved is only moderate. Much more research is needed to ascertain the feasibility and the cost effectiveness of blended CBT.

  18. Efficacy of a cognitive and behavioural psychotherapy applied by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Amale; Ponte, Joaquín; Salgueiro, Monika; Unanue, Saloa; Donaire, Carmen; Gómez, Maria Cruz; Burgos-Alonso, Natalia; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2015-03-20

    In contrast with the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, the most common treatment for anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care is pharmacological. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention, delivered by primary care psychologists in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder compared to usual care. This is an open-label, multicentre, randomized, and controlled study with two parallel groups. A random sample of 246 patients will be recruited with mild-to-moderate mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, from the target population on the lists of 41 primary care doctors. Patients will be randomly assigned to the intervention group, who will receive standardised cognitive-behavioural therapy delivered by psychologists together with usual care, or to a control group, who will receive usual care alone. The cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention is composed of eight individual 60-minute face-to face sessions conducted in eight consecutive weeks. A follow-up session will be conducted over the telephone, for reinforcement or referral as appropriate, 6 months after the intervention, as required. The primary outcome variable will be the change in scores on the Short Form-36 General Health Survey. We will also measure the change in the frequency and intensity of anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory) at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months later. Additionally, we will collect information on the use of drugs and health care services. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a primary care-based cognitive-behavioural psychological intervention in patients with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The international scientific evidence has demonstrated the need for psychologists in primary care. However, given the differences between health policies and health services, it is important to test the effect of these psychological interventions

  19. Comprehensive behavioural analysis of Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats reveals differential effects of housing conditions on tests relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M Turner

    Full Text Available Genetic (G and environmental (E manipulations are known to alter behavioural outcomes in rodents, however many animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders only use a restricted selection of strain and housing conditions. The aim of this study was to examine GxE interactions comparing two outbred rat strains, which were housed in either standard or enriched cages. The strains selected were the albino Sprague-Dawley rat, commonly used for animal models, and the other was the pigmented Long Evans rat, which is frequently used in cognitive studies. Rats were assessed using a comprehensive behavioural test battery and included well-established tests frequently employed to examine animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases, measuring aspects of anxiety, exploration, sensorimotor gating and cognition. Selective strain and housing effects were observed on a number of tests. These included increased locomotion and reduced pre-pulse inhibition in Long Evans rats compared to Sprague Dawley rats; and rats housed in enriched cages had reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to standard housed rats. Long Evans rats required fewer sessions than Sprague Dawley rats to learn operant tasks, including a signal detection task and reversal learning. Furthermore, Long Evans rats housed in enriched cages acquired simple operant tasks faster than standard housed Long Evans rats. Cognitive phenotypes in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders would benefit from using strain and housing conditions where there is greater potential for both enhancement and deficits in performance.

  20. Treatment of child anxiety disorders via guided parent-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter J; Karalus, Jessica; Voysey, Merryn; Willetts, Lucy; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    Promising evidence has emerged of clinical gains using guided self-help cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for child anxiety and by involving parents in treatment; however, the efficacy of guided parent-delivered CBT has not been systematically evaluated in UK primary and secondary settings. To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity guided parent-delivered CBT treatments for children with anxiety disorders. A total of 194 children presenting with a current anxiety disorder, whose primary carer did not meet criteria for a current anxiety disorder, were randomly allocated to full guided parent-delivered CBT (four face-to-face and four telephone sessions) or brief guided parent-delivered CBT (two face-to-face and two telephone sessions), or a wait-list control group (trial registration: ISRCTN92977593). Presence and severity of child primary anxiety disorder (Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, child/parent versions), improvement in child presentation of anxiety (Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale), and change in child anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, child/parent version and Child Anxiety Impact scale, parent version) were assessed at post-treatment and for those in the two active treatment groups, 6 months post-treatment. Full guided parent-delivered CBT produced superior diagnostic outcomes compared with wait-list at post-treatment, whereas brief guided parent-delivered CBT did not: at post-treatment, 25 (50%) of those in the full guided CBT group had recovered from their primary diagnosis, compared with 16 (25%) of those on the wait-list (relative risk (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-2.99); and in the brief guided CBT group, 18 participants (39%) had recovered from their primary diagnosis post-treatment (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.89-2.74). Level of therapist training and experience was unrelated to child outcome. Full guided parent-delivered CBT is an effective and inexpensive first-line treatment for child anxiety.

  1. Generalized anxiety disorder: comorbidity, comparative biology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Ballenger, James C; Sheehan, David; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a severe and chronic anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable worrying and somatic anxiety (tension, insomnia and hypervigilance). It is a common condition, with lifetime prevalence rates for DSM-IV GAD in the general population of approx. 5-6% being reported. In addition, like other anxiety disorders, GAD also shows comorbidity with depression and most of the other anxiety disorders. This article reviews data on the prevalence of GAD, its comorbidity with depression, and its social and economic impact. Proposed neurobiological mechanisms for GAD are discussed, since an understanding of these may help in the development of future therapies. Finally, current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for GAD are reviewed, with particular attention being paid to published clinical-trial data.

  2. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in Pub......Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible...... for inclusion. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol...

  3. Relationship among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dietary behaviours and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Kwon, H J; Ha, M; Lim, M H; Oh, S Y; Kim, J H; Yoo, S J; Paik, K C

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood and can be associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to reveal the connection between ADHD symptoms, food habits and obesity. We examined 12 350 children (6010 boys, 6340 girls) from 27 elementary schools in Cheonan, the Republic of Korea. The study subjects were 5- to 13-year-old children (9.4 ± 1.7 years). Parents completed the DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale. Food habits were measured by a questionnaire adapted from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and a validated mini-dietary assessment tool. The full set of hypothesized associations was tested using covariance structural modelling. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6% and that of obesity was 4.5% in our study population. The data was well fit by the model. ADHD was associated with body mass index (BMI; standardized β = 0.086, P ADHD was a risk factor for obesity through dietary behavioural change and socio-economic status. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role.

  5. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.

  6. Predicting dropout from intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder using pre-treatment characteristics: A naturalistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Wiersma, F.E.; Lammers, M.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Method: Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An

  7. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive-behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Jonathan R I; Lester, Kathryn J; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Curtis, Charles; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Dalgleish, Tim; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiervang, Einar R; Hötzel, Katrin; Hudson, Jennifer L; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J; Marin, Carla E; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Breen, Gerome; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. AIMS: To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of

  8. A Systematic Review of the Behavioural Outcomes Following Exercise Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Crozier, Michael; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ?16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical…

  9. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  10. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  11. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and

  12. Association between Parent Reports of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behaviours and Child Impulsivity in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Daley, D. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although children with intellectual disability (ID) seemed to be at increased risk for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperactivity problems when assessed with parent report questionnaires and clinical interviews, there has been little attention to the associations between parent reports and observed child behaviours.…

  13. A system of token economy associated to response cost applied to the out of the task behaviour of two adolescents suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chaves Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a program of token economy, that is, positive reinforcement, associated to negative punishment, that is, response cost, on the “out of the task” behaviour of two adolescents diagnosed as suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The program involved presenting or removing points contingent to the emission of adequate or inadequate behaviour, respectively, considering the task at hand. The token economy system was carried out through the adoption of colourful individual cards numbered from one to 10 points. Points were also removed when the student showed at the present session an increased frequence of inadequate behaviour compared to the last session. When reaching 10 points, the cards were exchanged for the privilegies (positive reinforcers previously negotiated between teacher and student. Statistical treatment was carried out through the use of Levene and Student t tests. The significance of the difference between means (p < 0.0001 revealed the efficacy of the intervention treatment on the behaviour of both participants. It was concluded that the merging effect of the positive reinforcement and negative punishment (= response cost learning principles leads to the modification of classroom disruptive behaviours in children with ADHD.

  14. Mindreading Dysfunction in Avoidant Personality Disorder Compared With Other Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Fabio; Procacci, Michele; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Semerari, Antonio; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Carcione, Antonino; Pedone, Roberto; Colle, Livia

    2016-10-01

    The ability to reflect on one's own states of mind and those of others (metacognition or mindreading) is strongly implicated in personality disorders (PDs). Metacognition involves different abilities, and there is evidence that specific abilities can be selectively impaired in different PDs. The purposes of this study were to compare metacognitive competence in avoidant PD (AvPD) with that in other PDs and to investigate whether there is a specific profile for AvPD. Sixty-three patients with AvPD and 224 patients with other PDs were assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Interview. AvPD patients showed difficulties with two metacognitive functions: monitoring and decentration, even when the severity of psychopathology was controlled for. These results support the hypothesis of specific profiles of metacognitive dysfunction in different PDs and highlight a close link between impaired monitoring and decentration functions and the inhibited and withdrawn personality style typical of AvPD.

  15. Moral disengagement and callous-unemotional traits: A longitudinal study of Italian adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Paciello, Marinella; Buonanno, Carlo; Milone, Annarita; Ruglioni, Laura; Lochman, John E; Masi, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    Callous-unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of moral cognitive mechanisms, such as moral disengagement, but these previous studies focused primarily on normal or 'at-risk' samples. We aimed to evaluate associations and possible interactions between moral disengagement as a cognitive dimension and callous-unemotional traits as an affective dimension in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. We recruited 55 adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder from a community care hospital in Pisa. They were evaluated at baseline and after one year with measures that included a moral disengagement scale, the Antisocial Process Screening Device, to assess callous traits, and the Youth Self-Report, to explore externalising behaviour problems. Structural equation modelling showed that higher initial moral disengagement scores were associated with later higher levels of callous-unemotional traits in adolescents and vice versa, even after, respectively, controlling for previous levels of callous traits and moral disengagement. As impairments in either cognitive or affective traits may predispose to problematic development of the other, our findings would suggest that screening at the earliest opportunity possible for both moral disengagement and callous-unemotional traits among children with disruptive behaviour disorders could help to map natural outcome pathways and thus tailor more accurate interventions for prevention of antisocial or criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  17. Immediate Effects of Body Checking Behaviour on Negative and Positive Emotions in Women with Eating Disorders: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nicole; Lindenberg, Julia; Zeeck, Almut; Kosfelder, Joachim; Vocks, Silja

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural models of eating disorders state that body checking arises in response to negative emotions in order to reduce the aversive emotional state and is therefore negatively reinforced. This study empirically tests this assumption. For a seven-day period, women with eating disorders (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 29) were provided with a handheld computer for assessing occurring body checking strategies as well as negative and positive emotions. Serving as control condition, randomized computer-emitted acoustic signals prompted reports on body checking and emotions. There was no difference in the intensity of negative emotions before body checking and in control situations across groups. However, from pre- to post-body checking, an increase in negative emotions was found. This effect was more pronounced in women with eating disorders compared with healthy controls. Results are contradictory to the assumptions of the cognitive-behavioural model, as body checking does not seem to reduce negative emotions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  19. Using model fish to study the biological mechanisms of cooperative behaviour: A future for translational research concerning social anxiety disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Carvalho, Tamires Dos Santos; Maximino, Caio

    2018-03-02

    Human societies demand of its composing members the development of a wide array of social tools and strategies. A notable example is human outstanding ability to cooperate with others, in all its complex forms, depicting the reality of a highly demanding social framework in which humans need to be integrated as to attain physical and mental benefits. Considering the importance of social engagement, it's not entirely unexpected that most psychiatric disorders involve some disruption of normal social behaviour, ranging from an abnormal absence to a significant increase of social functioning. It is however surprising that knowledge on these social anxiety disorders still remains so limited. Here we review the literature focusing on the social and cooperative toolbox of 3 fish model species (cleaner fishes, guppies and zebrafish) which are amenable systems to test for social disorders. We build on current knowledge based on ethological information, arising from studies on cooperative behaviour in cleanerfishes and guppies, while profiting from the advantages of the intense use of zebrafish, to create novel paradigms aiming at the major socio-cognitive modules/dimensions in fish species. This focus may enable the discovery of putative conserved endpoints which are relevant for research into social disorders. We suggest that cross-species, cross-domain, functional and genetic approaches could provide a wider array of information on the neurobiological bases of social and cooperative behaviour, crucial to understanding the neural bases of social disorders and key to finding novel avenues towards treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Chemical and behavioural addiction of medical students. Comparative study in Lebanese students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaouad, J; Kazour, F; Haddad, R; Rouhayem, J; Chammai, R; Richa, S

    2012-12-01

    Evaluate chemical and behavioural dependence of medical students, and compare it to a control group (students in non-medical faculties), in order to underline the harmful effect of university on medical students' dependence. A three-part questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 140 medical students at the Saint-Joseph university of Beirut (USJ), and to 140 students in many other USJ faculties, and filled in anonymously. The first part is about demographic criteria and the second and third parts are respectively about chemical and behavioural dependence, based on DSM IV criteria. There is no statistically significant difference between the two studied populations concerning the dependence on alcohol, cannabis, sedatives, opiates, amphetamines, workaholism, gambling and Internet. However, the prevalence of addiction to caffeine, cocaine, nicotine; sexual addiction, and compulsive buying are significantly lower in medical students when compared to the control group. Men, compared to women, did not show significantly higher levels of dependence on chemical substances. Workaholism is not significantly more prevalent in women. Sexual addiction and compulsive buying are not significantly higher in men. However, pathological gambling and Internet addiction are significantly more prevalent in men. Finally, this study does not show a variation in dependence through the years of medical studies. Most studies show that medical students have high levels of dependence on alcohol, opiates and sedatives. The results of our study show greater dependence on caffeine followed by nicotine, alcohol and sedatives. Medical students in our population did not reveal higher dependence rates compared to other university students. Overall, substance addiction in medical students may be related to the stress of medical studies, and easy access to drugs and prescriptions. These factors may be balanced by perfectionist traits, ethical standards and knowledge of adverse effects seen in

  1. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  2. Comparing sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur'aini Nur'aini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disturbances commonly occur in adolescents. Socioeconomic levels, lifestyle, and urban or suburban environments influence the sleep patterns of adolescents. The modernization process in urban environments is marked by the development of information technology media, and the lack of parental monitoring potentially influencing adolescent sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may affect children's physical growth, as well as their emotional, cognitive, and social development. Objective To assess for sleep disorders in urban and suburban adolescents, and to determine the factors that influence the prevalence of sleep disturbances. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 to 15-year-old junior high school students in urban (n=350 and suburban (n=350 environments in the city of Medan, North Sumatera. The study was undertaken from May to June 2010 using the Sleep Disorders Scale for Children (SDSC, a set of questionnaires. The SDSC was filled out by parents based on what they remembered about their children's sleep patterns in the prior 6 months. Results In the urban group, there were 133 (38.0% subjects with sleep disturbances, 182 (52.0% were borderline, and 35 (10.0% were normal. In the suburban group, there were 132 (37.7% subjects with sleep disturbances, 180 (51.4% were borderline, and 38 (10.9% were normal. The most influential factors for sleep disturbances in urban and suburban youth were environmental noise (P=0.001 and consuming beverages that contain caffeine (P=0.001. There were three types of sleep disorders that significantly found more in urban adolescents: disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, disorders of excessive somnolence, and sleep hyperhidrosis. Conclusion The prevalence of sleep disturbances do not differ between urban and suburban adolescents. Howevet; there are significant differences in the types of sleep disorders experienced. The most influential factors on sleep disturbance in both

  3. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  4. The Effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E): A Naturalistic Study within an Out-Patient Eating Disorder Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Rachel; Sheffield, Jeanie; Rhodes, Natalie; Fleming, Carmel; Ward, Warren

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) for adults with a range of eating disorder presentations within routine clinical settings has been examined in only two known published studies, neither of which included a follow-up assessment period. The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-E within an out-patient eating disorder service in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, and incorporated a follow-up assessment period of approximately 20 weeks post-treatment. The study involved 114 adult females with a diagnosed eating disorder, who attended an average of 20-40 individual CBT-E sessions with a psychologist or a psychiatry registrar between 2009 and 2013. Of those who began treatment, 50% did not complete treatment, and the presence of psychosocial and environmental problems predicted drop-out. Amongst treatment completers, statistically and clinically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed at post-treatment, which were generally maintained at the 20-week follow-up. Statistically significant improvements in eating disorder and general psychopathology were observed amongst the total sample. The findings, which were comparable to the previous Australian effectiveness study of CBT-E, indicate that CBT-E is an effective treatment for adults with all eating disorders within out-patient settings. Given the high attrition rate, however, minimizing drop-out appears to be an important consideration when implementing CBT-E within clinical settings.

  5. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: Translation from Randomized Controlled Trial to a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Woodward, Debbie; Hoefkens, Antonia; Limbert, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) (Fairburn, Cooper and Shafran, 2003) was developed as a treatment approach for eating disorders focusing on both core psychopathology and additional maintenance mechanisms. To evaluate treatment outcomes associated with CBT-E in a NHS Eating Disorders Service for adults with bulimia and atypical eating disorders and to make comparisons with a previously published randomized controlled trial (Fairburn et al., 2009) and "real world" evaluation (Byrne, Fursland, Allen and Watson, 2011). Participants were referred to the eating disorder service between 2002 and 2011. They were aged between 18-65 years, registered with a General Practitioner within the catchment area, and had experienced symptoms fulfilling criteria for BN or EDNOS for a minimum of 6 months. CBT-E was commenced by 272 patients, with 135 completing treatment. Overall, treatment was associated with significant improvements in eating disorder and associated psychopathology, for both treatment completers and the intention to treat sample. Findings support dissemination of CBT-E in this context, with significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology. Improvements to global EDE-Q scores were higher for treatment completers and lower for the intention to treat sample, compared to previous studies (Fairburn et al., 2009; Byrne et al., 2011). Level of attrition was found at 40.8% and non-completion of treatment was associated with higher levels of anxiety. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

  6. Relationship between perceived limit-setting abilities, autism spectrum disorder severity, behaviour problems and parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A

    2017-11-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.

  7. A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Zoe; Lovell, Karina; Blore, David; Ali, Shehzad; Delgadillo, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by comparison to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) based on exposure and response prevention. This was a pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial in which 55 participants with OCD were randomized to EMDR (n = 29) or CBT (n = 26). The Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale was completed at baseline, after treatment and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment completion and response rates were compared using chi-square tests. Effect size was examined using Cohen's d and multilevel modelling. Overall, 61.8% completed treatment and 30.2% attained reliable and clinically significant improvement in OCD symptoms, with no significant differences between groups (p > .05). There were no significant differences between groups in Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale severity post-treatment (d = -0.24, p = .38) or at 6 months follow-up (d = -0.03, p = .90). EMDR and CBT had comparable completion rates and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.M.; Christensen, E.M.; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with bipolar depression and patients with recurrent depressive disorder present with different subtypes of depressive episode as according to ICD-10. Sampling and Methods: All patients who got a diagnosis of bipolar affective...... disorder, current episode of depression, or a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment or at the first discharge from psychiatric hospitalization in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. Results......: Totally, 389 patients got a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, and 5.391 patients got a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode of depression, at first contact. Compared with patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, patients with bipolar...

  9. The behaviour of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R

    2014-02-01

    Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N = 112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.

  10. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  11. A comparative study of the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, A; Sun, Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and commercially pure zirconium (CP-Zr). For this purpose, these two bio-metals were thermally oxidised under the same condition (650°C for 6h) and the oxidised specimens were characterised using various analytical and experimental techniques, including oxygen uptake analysis, layer thickness and hardness measurements, scratch tests, dry sliding friction and wear tests and tribocorrosion tests in Ringer's solution. The results show that under the present thermal oxidation condition, 4 times more oxygen is introduced into CP-Zr than into CP-Ti and the oxide layer produced on CP-Zr is nearly 6 times thicker than that on CP-Ti. Thermally oxidised CP-Zr possesses a higher hardness, a deeper hardening depth and better scratch resistance than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Under dry sliding and tribocorrosion conditions, thermally oxidised CP-Zr also possesses much better resistance to material removal and a higher load bearing capacity than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Thus, thermally oxidised Zr possesses much better mechanical behaviour than thermally oxidised Ti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health behaviour in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes compared to a representative reference population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kummer

    Full Text Available We provide a population-based overview of health behaviours of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in comparison to the general population, and analyse their relevance for glycaemic control and self-rated health status.Data from questionnaires of 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with diabetes (n = 629 were compared to a representative sample (n = 6,813.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a significantly increased odds of infrequent physical activity (adjusted OR 1.56, short overall duration of physical activity per week (OR 1.55, difference -1.3 hours/week, and high daily computer use (OR 2.51. They had a lower odds of active and passive smoking (OR 0.31 and OR 0.29, and high daily television time (OR 0.68. The odds of an at least good and excellent self-rated health status was increased with intense physical activity, and decreased with active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer and television. Active smoking and prolonged daily use of computer were associated with higher HbA1c.Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes showed a different profile of health behaviour. Their overall health may improve if their education stresses specifically frequent physical activity with longer overall duration and less frequent television or computer use.

  13. SAVINGS BEHAVIOUR IN HOUSEHOLDS OF FARMERS AS COMPARED TO OTHER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Savings generated by the sector of households constitute an important growth factor in every economy. They are the basic source of capital accumulation, determining investment opportunities of the economy. Financial behaviour of households in terms of the accumulation of savings is infl uenced  by numerous factors, both internal, i.e. connected directly with a given household, and external, independent of it. The aim of this paper was to analyse savings behaviour of households of farmers as compared to the other socio-economicgroups in Poland in the years 2003 and 2013. Analyses were conducted on saving propensity, savings rates, and objectives and forms of savings accumulation by households of various socio-economic groups. Analyses showed that in 2013, saving propensity and savings rates in households of farmers were relatively low in comparison to other household groups. In households of farmers the objective of savings was, more frequently than in the other socio-economic groups of households, to ensure provisions for running consumption expenditure, purchase durable goods and expand their economic activity. In contrast, in comparison to the other households, farmers less frequently saved money for recreation and physical therapy.

  14. Comparative behaviour of the Dynamically Penalized Likelihood algorithm in inverse radiation therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llacer, Jorge [EC Engineering Consultants, LLC, Los Gatos, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jllacer@home.com; Solberg, Timothy D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)]. E-mail: Solberg@radonc.ucla.edu; Promberger, Claus [BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten (Germany)]. E-mail: promberg@brainlab.com

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a description of tests carried out to compare the behaviour of five algorithms in inverse radiation therapy planning: (1) The Dynamically Penalized Likelihood (DPL), an algorithm based on statistical estimation theory; (2) an accelerated version of the same algorithm; (3) a new fast adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) algorithm; (4) a conjugate gradient method; and (5) a Newton gradient method. A three-dimensional mathematical phantom and two clinical cases have been studied in detail. The phantom consisted of a U-shaped tumour with a partially enclosed 'spinal cord'. The clinical examples were a cavernous sinus meningioma and a prostate case. The algorithms have been tested in carefully selected and controlled conditions so as to ensure fairness in the assessment of results. It has been found that all five methods can yield relatively similar optimizations, except when a very demanding optimization is carried out. For the easier cases, the differences are principally in robustness, ease of use and optimization speed. In the more demanding case, there are significant differences in the resulting dose distributions. The accelerated DPL emerges as possibly the algorithm of choice for clinical practice. An appendix describes the differences in behaviour between the new ASA method and the one based on a patent by the Nomos Corporation. (author)

  15. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  16. Short-Term Cognitive-Behavioural Group Treatment for Hoarding Disorder: A Naturalistic Treatment Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, Richard; Nedeljkovic, Maja; Kyrios, Michael; Osborne, Debra; Mogan, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The study aim was to test whether a 12-week publically rebated group programme, based upon Steketee and Frost's Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based hoarding treatment, would be efficacious in a community-based setting. Over a 3-year period, 77 participants with clinically significant hoarding were recruited into 12 group programmes. All completed treatment; however, as this was a community-based naturalistic study, only 41 completed the post-treatment assessment. Treatment included psychoeducation about hoarding, skills training for organization and decision making, direct in-session exposure to sorting and discarding, and cognitive and behavioural techniques to support out-of-session sorting and discarding, and nonacquiring. Self-report measures used to assess treatment effect were the Savings Inventory-Revised (SI-R), Savings Cognition Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Pre-post analyses indicated that after 12 weeks of treatment, hoarding symptoms as measured on the SI-R had reduced significantly, with large effect sizes reported in total and across all subscales. Moderate effect sizes were also reported for hoarding-related beliefs (emotional attachment and responsibility) and depressive symptoms. Of the 41 participants who completed post-treatment questionnaires, 14 (34%) were conservatively calculated to have clinically significant change, which is considerable given the brevity of the programme judged against the typical length of the disorder. The main limitation of the study was the moderate assessment completion rate, given its naturalistic setting. This study demonstrated that a 12-week group treatment for hoarding disorders was effective in reducing hoarding and depressive symptoms in an Australian clinical cohort and provides evidence for use of this treatment approach in a community setting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A 12-week group programme delivered in a community setting was effective for helping with

  17. Mindfulness trait, eating behaviours and body uneasiness: a case-control study of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, A; Callus, E; Grossi, E

    2012-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and multifaceted eating disorder, and the literature indicates that BED patients show greater difficulty in identifying and making sense of emotional states, and that they have limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Findings show many links between mindfulness and emotional regulation, however there has been no previous research on mindfulness traits in BED patients. One hundred fifty BED patients (N=150: women=98, men=52; age 49.3±4.1) were matched for gender, age, marital status and educational level with 150 non-bingeing obese and 150 normal-weight subjects. All were assessed with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Objective bulimic episodes (EDE-OBEs) and Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). For all the participants past or current meditation experience was an exclusion criteria. Findings showed that Mindfulness-global, Non reactivity to experience, Acting with awareness, Describing with words and Observation of experience scores were significantly lower in BED than control groups (pmindfulness measures, the obese control group did not differ from the normal weight control group. Moreover, correlations showed that mindfulness was more widely negatively correlated with the BED's OBEs, BES and BUT-GSI scores. Meanwhile, binge eating behaviours, frequency and severity (OBEs and BES) were more negatively correlated with action (Nonreactivity- to-experience and Acting-with-awareness scores). Body Uneasiness was more negatively correlated with mental processes (Describing-with-words and Observation-ofexperience) and mindfulness features. Implications on understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating in BED were considered. Moreover, clinical considerations on treatment targets of mindfulnessbased eating awareness training were discussed.

  18. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative studies of photoelectrochemical behaviours of rutile and anatase electrodes prepared by OMCVD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoura, H; Nasu, M; Takahashi, Y

    1985-10-01

    Photoelectrochemical behaviours of two kinds of polymorphic form of TiO2, rutile and anatase, prepared by the organometallic chemical vapour deposition from isopropyl titanate have been comparatively studied. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of these TiO2 electrodes depend strongly upon the crystal structure and the deposition temperature. Their bandgap energies have been determined to be 3.0 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively, by the analysis of the photocurrent action spectra. The conduction band-edge and the valence band-edge of the anatase electrode, which have been estimated from photocurrent-potential curves, locate at the energy level about 0.1 eV higher and lower, respectively, than those of the rutile electrode. (orig.).

  20. Academic performance of school children with behavioural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behavioural disorders can have a negative influence on the academic performance of school children. There are no similiar published is no known studies in Nigeria. Objective: To compare the academic performance of primary school children with behavioural disorders with that of their controls. Methods: A ...

  1. The relationship between race and challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Kozlowski, Alison M; Sipes, Megan

    2011-01-01

    To examine the contributions of race and diagnostic category to endorsement rates of challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with autism, PDD-NOS and atypical development without ASD, using the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part-3 (BISCUIT Part-3). Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) on each sub-scale of the BISCUIT Part-3. Follow-up univariate analyses and post-hoc tests as needed. Scores on the BISCUIT Part-3 were compared for 453 Caucasian and 409 African-American infants and toddlers, grouped by race and diagnosis. Significant differences between races were found on five out of 10 aggressive behaviours, while no significant differences were found on self-injurious or stereotypic behaviours. Significant differences between diagnostic groups were found on all behaviours. Cultural factors should be taken into account when examining challenging behaviours in infants and toddlers with ASD.

  2. Pharmaceutical Innovation in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Mental Disorders Compared with Other Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Joanna P; Seabury, Seth; Aigbogun, Myrlene Sanon; Kamat, Siddhesh; van Eijndhoven, Emma; Francois, Clement; Henderson, Crystal; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed. Disease burden and prevalence for mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder); cancer; rheumatoid arthritis; chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; and neurological disorders (dementia and epilepsy) were estimated from literature sources. Pharmaceutical treatment innovation was measured by the total number of drug launches and the number of drugs launched categorized by innovativeness. Research and development expenditures were estimated using published information on annual public and domestic private research and development expenditures by disease area. Lastly, investment relative to disease burden was measured among the set of disease classes for which all three measures were available: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurology (dementia and epilepsy combined). The level of investment and pharmaceutical innovation in mental disorders was comparatively low, especially relative to the burden of disease. For mental disorders, investment was $3.1 per $1,000 burden invested in research and development for schizophrenia, $1.8 for major depressive disorder, and $0.4 for bipolar disorder relative to cancer ($75.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ($9.4), diabetes ($7.6), cardiovascular disease ($6.3), or rheumatoid arthritis ($5.3). Pharmaceutical innovation was also low

  3. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  4. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  5. Metapragmatic Explicitation and Social Attribution in Social Communication Disorder and Developmental Language Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Collins, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to investigate metapragmatic (MP) ability in 6-11-year-old children with social communication disorder (SCD), developmental language disorder (DLD), and typical language development and to explore factors associated with MP explicitation and social understanding (SU). Method: In this cross-sectional study,…

  6. A Proposed Functional Abilities Classification Tool for Developmental Disorders Affecting Learning and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental disorders affecting learning and behaviour (DDALB (e.g., attention, social communication, language, and learning disabilities, etc. require individualized support across multiple environments to promote participation, quality of life, and developmental outcomes. Support to enhance participation is based largely on individual profiles of functioning (e.g., communication, cognitive, social skills, executive functioning, etc., which are highly heterogeneous within medical diagnoses. Currently educators, clinicians, and parents encounter widespread difficulties in meeting children’s needs as there is lack of universal classification of functioning and disability for use in school environments. Objective: a practical tool for functional classification broadly applicable for children with DDALB could facilitate the collaboration, identification of points of entry of support, individual program planning, and reassessment in a transparent, equitable process based on functional need and context. We propose such a tool, the Functional Abilities Classification Tool (FACT based on the concepts of the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. FACT is intended to provide ability and participation classification that is complementary to medical diagnosis. For children presenting with difficulties, the proposed tool initially classifies participation over several environments. Then, functional abilities are classified and personal factors and environment are described. Points of entry for support are identified given an analysis of functional ability profile, personal factors, environmental features, and pattern of participation. Conclusion: case examples, use of the tool and implications for children, agencies, and the system are described.

  7. The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M

    2016-01-01

    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Diagnostic practice and its impacts on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the impacts of diagnostic practices on families, and the consequent impact on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic practice may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process impacting on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best practice for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.

  9. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Exploring a post-traumatic stress disorder paradigm in Flinders sensitive line rats to model treatment-resistant depression I: bio-behavioural validation and response to imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sarel Jacobus; Harvey, Brian Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Co-morbid depression with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often treatment resistant. In developing a preclinical model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), we combined animal models of depression and PTSD to produce an animal with more severe as well as treatment-resistant depressive-like behaviours. Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, were exposed to a stress re-stress model of PTSD [time-dependent sensitisation (TDS)] and compared with stress-naive controls. Seven days after TDS stress, depressive-like and coping behaviours as well as hippocampal and cortical noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were analysed. Response to sub-chronic imipramine treatment (IMI; 10 mg/kg s.c.×7 days) was subsequently studied. FSL rats demonstrated bio-behavioural characteristics of depression. Exposure to TDS stress in FSL rats correlated negatively with weight gain, while demonstrating reduced swimming behaviour and increased immobility versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI significantly reversed depressive-like (immobility) behaviour and enhanced active coping behaviour (swimming and climbing) in FSL rats. The latter was significantly attenuated in FSL rats exposed to TDS versus unstressed FSL rats. IMI reversed reduced 5HIAA levels in unstressed FSL rats, whereas exposure to TDS negated this effect. Lowered NA levels in FSL rats were sustained after TDS with IMI significantly reversing this in the hippocampus. Combining a gene-X-environment model of depression with a PTSD paradigm produces exaggerated depressive-like symptoms that display an attenuated response to antidepressant treatment. This work confirms combining FSL rats with TDS exposure as a putative animal model of TRD.

  11. The Risk Factors for Criminal Behaviour in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASDs): A Comparison of Childhood Adversities between Individuals with HFASDs Who Exhibit Criminal Behaviour and Those with HFASD and No Criminal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someki, Fumio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Most reports of the criminal behaviour of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have been case studies, and few have empirically examined the risk factors of criminal behaviour among these individuals. This study examined 175 individuals with HFASD, including 36 individuals who had a prior history of criminal…

  12. How immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour: comparative analysis among Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver

    2014-08-14

    Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18

  13. Delusional disorder and schizophrenia: a comparative study across multiple domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, V; Cuesta, M J

    2016-10-01

    Delusional disorder (DD) is an under-researched condition and its relationship to schizophrenia (SZ) controversial. This study aimed to further characterize DD and to examine multi-domain evidence for the distinction between DD and SZ. Using univariate analyses we examined 146 subjects with DD, 114 subjects with paranoid SZ and 244 subjects with non-paranoid SZ on 52 characteristics from several domains including demographics, risk factors, premorbid features, illness characteristics, index episode features, delusional-related features, response to treatment and outcome. In a further step, we searched for independent associations of the examined characteristics with DD v. SZ. Univariate analyses showed that DD differed from either form of SZ in 40 characteristics, the pattern of findings indicated that paranoid SZ was much more similar to non-paranoid SZ than DD. Relative to subjects with SZ, those with DD were more likely to have drug abuse before illness onset, better premorbid sexual adjustment, later age at illness onset, higher levels of affective symptoms and lack of insight, poorer response to antipsychotic medication, better functioning in the domains of personal care, paid work and social functioning; last, subjects with DD had fewer but more severe delusions and higher ratings of conviction of delusional experience than those with SZ. Predominance of jealousy and somatic delusions was confined to subjects with DD. DD and SZ represent two distinct classes of disorders, the differential features of DD being of nosological, aetiological and therapeutic relevance.

  14. Quality of Diagnosis and Treatment Plans After Using the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviours' in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Multiple Case Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruijssers, A.; Meijel, B. van; Maaskant, M.; Keeman, N.; Achterberg, T. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities often have a multitude of concurrent problems due to the combination of cognitive impairments, psychiatric disorders (particularly anxiety) and related challenging behaviours. Diagnoses in people with intellectual disabilities are complicated. This

  15. Comparing attentional control and intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and non clinical population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Moradi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention is an important factor in information processing; obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD are two main emotional disorders with a chronic course. This research examined the relationship among attentional control and intrusive thoughts (worry, rumination and obsession in these disorders. It was hypothesized that attentional control is a common factor in OCD and GAD. In addition, we compared worry, rumination and obsession among OCD, GAD and non- clinical participants.The research sample included three groups: OCD (n = 25, GAD (n = 30 and non- clinical samples (n = 56. Data were collected using the Attentional Control Scale (ACS, Rumination Response Scale (RRS, Pennsylvania State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using MANOVA and MANCOVA by SPSS-17.Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that the OCD and GAD groups reported greater deficits in attentional control, higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms, rumination, worry, anxiety and depression compared to the control group.This research indicated a great attentional deficit in obsessive- compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. However, no significant difference was found between these two disorders.

  16. Predicting outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy in child anxiety disorders: the influence of genetic, demographic and clinical information

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Jennifer L; Lester, Kathryn J; Lewis, Cathryn M; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A; Eley, Thalia C

    2013-01-01

    Background. Within a therapeutic gene by environment (GxE) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in \\ud the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; 5HTTLPR and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; NGF is \\ud associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety disorders. The aim of this \\ud study was to explore one potential means of extending the translational reach of G×E data in a way that may be clinically \\ud informative. W...

  17. Disruptive behavioural disorders, self harm and suicidal ideation among German adolescents in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Brown, Jennifer; Siefen, Rainer G

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the unique and shared risk factors for suicidal behaviour, self-injury, and externally focussed aggressive behaviour among German youths and adolescents of both sexes. Also explored is the issue of multiple maladaptive behaviours and whether or not these are interrelated. The period of the sample comprised 2002-2003 admissions (N = 3694) to a clinic for child and adolescent psychiatry and psychosomatics. Measures were taken from medical-psychological documentation ("Ba-Do") and self-report questionnaire and included items relating to self-injurious behaviour, suicidal intent and socially disruptive and threatening behaviour (FAPS). Self and expert ratings of suicidal and self-injurious behaviour were significantly statistically correlated. Overt aggression was unrelated to suicidal behaviour. Suicidal and self-injurious behaviour were more common among female than male adolescents. Age, disharmony within the family and excessive parental demands were major global determinants of suicidal behaviour for both genders, but unrelated to self-injurious or socially disruptive behaviour, the latter being more associated with parental under-involvement and feelings of hostile rejection. Intelligence and age were significant predictors of overt aggression among females; intellectual functioning, number of siblings and disability among family members emerged as major determinants of suicidal behaviour among males. Findings are discussed in terms of practice interventions.

  18. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Harley

    2011-01-01

    With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.

  19. Comparative Studies on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behaviour of DMR 249A Steel and its welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Dilkush; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    DMR249A Medium strength (low carbon) Low-alloy steels are used as structural components in naval applications due to its low cost and high availability. An attempt has been made to weld the DMR 249A steel plates of 8mm thickness using shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Welds were characterized for metallography to carry out the microstructural changes, mechanical properties were evaluated using vickers hardness tester and universal testing machine. Potentio-dynamic polarization tests were carried out to determine the pitting corrosion behaviour. Constant load type Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing was done to observe the cracking tendency of the joints in a 3.5%NaCl solution. Results of the present study established that SMA welds resulted in formation of relatively higher amount of martensite in ferrite matrix when compared to gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). It is attributed to faster cooling rates achieved due to high thermal efficiency. Improved mechanical properties were observed for the SMA welds and are due to higher amount of martensite. Pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking resistance of SMA welds were poor when compared to GTA welds.

  20. Asking for work adjustments or initiating behavioural changes - what makes a 'problematic co-worker' score Brownie points? An experimental study on the reactions towards colleagues with a personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Fay, Doris; Seemann, Anne

    2016-10-01

    People with mental disorders, especially personality disorders, often face low acceptance at work. This is particularly problematic when returning to work after sick leave, because it impedes reintegration into the former workplace. This study explores colleagues' reactions towards a problematic worker dependent on the returning person's reintegration strategy: The returning person undertaking changes in their behaviour is compared with the person requesting adjustments of the workplace. In an experimental study, 188 employed persons read one of four vignettes that described a return-to-work-situation of a problematic co-worker. Across all vignettes, the co-worker was depicted as having previously caused problems in the work team. In the first vignette, the co-worker did not change anything (control condition) when she returned to work; in the second, she asked for workplace adjustments; in the third vignette she initiated efforts to change her own behaviour; and the fourth vignette combined both workplace adjustments and behavioural change. Study participants were asked for their reactions towards the problematic co-worker. Vignettes that included a behavioural change evoked more positive reactions towards the co-worker than vignettes without any behavioural change. Asking for workplace adjustments alone did not yield more positive reactions compared to not initiating any change. When preparing employees with interactional problems for their return to work, it is not effective to only instruct them on their statutory entitlement for workplace adjustments. Instead, it is advisable to encourage them to proactively strive for behaviour changes.

  1. Silymarin improves the behavioural, biochemical and histoarchitecture alterations in focal ischemic rats: a comparative evaluation with piracetam and protocatachuic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Rajesh R; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Naik, Suresh R

    2012-08-01

    Comparative neuroprotective potential of silymarin, piracetam and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (PCA) was evaluated in focal ischemic rats. Various pharmacological, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite content, brain water content) and behavioural (memory impairment, motor control, neurological score) including infarct size and histopathological alterations were evaluated. Silymarin (200mg/kg) and PCA treatment significantly improved behavioural, biochemical and histopathological changes, and reduced water content and infarct size. However, piracetam only improved behavioural and histopathological changes, reduced water content and infarct size. The findings indicate that silymarin exhibits neuroprotective activity better than PCA and piracetam in focal ischemia/reperfusion reflected by its better restoration of behavioural and antioxidant profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coping Strategies Associated With Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescent Inpatients With Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671

  3. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost

  4. Mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relationship among parenting stress, parental practices and child behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria João; Vieira-Santos, Salomé; Santos, Vanessa; Vale, Maria Carmo

    2011-03-01

    This study focuses on mothers of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sets out (1) to characterize dimensions of both parental functioning (parenting stress and parental practices) and child characteristics (behaviour) and (2) to determine predictors of parenting stress, namely parental rearing practices or perceived behaviour of the child, in order to plan intervention with the families. Fifty-two mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD and aged 6-12 years participated in the study. The Portuguese versions of the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin and Santos 2003), EMBU-P (Canavarro and Pereira 2007) and Child Behaviour Checklist (Albuquerque et al. 1999) were used. Results showed that mothers of children with ADHD experience higher levels of parenting stress (emerging essentially from the child's characteristics) and report more behavioural problems in their children (for girls and boys), but use parental practices similar to those of the mothers of the Portuguese validation sample. Results also indicate that child behaviour (both internalized and externalized) and parental practices dominated by rejection predict parenting stress. These findings have implications for intervention with children diagnosed with ADHD and their families.

  5. Pathological Gambling: Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorder, Behavioural Addiction, or Both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottesi, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic and progressive condition, defined as “persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour”; it is currently classified among the Impulse control disorders (Not Elsewhere Classified) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The diagnostic criteria for PG resemble those of both Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Compulsive disorders (in particular, Obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD])....

  6. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  7. Adult picky eaters with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: comparable distress and comorbidity but different eating behaviors compared to those with disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N =  325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N =  81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  9. Comparative evaluation of corrosion behaviour of type K thin film thermocouple and its bulk counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Barhai, P.K.; Srikanth, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anodic vacuum arc deposited chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' in 5% NaCl solution than their respective wires. → Chromel undergoes localised corrosion while alumel shows uniform corrosion. → Virgin samples of chromel-alumel TFTCs exhibit good thermoelectric response. → Their thermoelectric outputs remain largely unaffected when shelved under normal atmospheric conditions. → After 288 h of exposure in salt spray environment, their thermoelectric outputs show noticeable change due to size effects. - Abstract: This paper investigates the corrosion behaviour of type K thermoelements and their thin films, and compares the performance of chromel-alumel thin film thermocouple with its wire counterpart before and after exposure to 5% NaCl medium. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests reveal that chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' than their respective wires. Alumel corrodes faster when coupled with chromel in films than as wires. Secondary electron micrographs and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that chromel shows localised corrosion while alumel undergoes uniform corrosion. Corrosion adversely affects the thermocouple output and introduces an uncertainty in the measurement.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for mental disorders: implications for public health care funding policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Gail; Payne, Krista

    2006-09-01

    Publicly funded cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for mental disorders is scarce in Canada, despite proven efficacy and guidelines recommending its use. This paper reviews published data on the economic impact of CBT to inform recommendations for current Canadian mental health care funding policy. We searched the literature for economic analyses of CBT in the treatment of mental disorders. We identified 22 health economic studies involving CBT for mood, anxiety, psychotic, and somatoform disorders. Across health care settings and patient populations, CBT alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy represented acceptable value for health dollars spent, with CBT costs offset by reduced health care use. International evidence suggests CBT is cost-effective. Greater access to CBT would likely improve outcomes and result in cost savings. Future research is warranted to evaluate the economic impact of CBT in Canada.

  11. A Comparative Analysis Of Thyroid Disorders (Laboratory Features ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperthyroidism with substantial quantity of T3 toxicosis was however found to be high and comparable in both the areas. Conclusion: Adequate iodine intake through effective salt iodization programme is advocated to achieve good iodine status with low level of hypothyroidism. Keywords: Thyroidal dysfunction: Jos, Kano, ...

  12. The Relationship between Sensory Processing Difficulties and Behaviour in Children Aged 5-9 Who Are at Risk of Developing Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cara; Snow, Pamela C.; Holland, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural problems in childhood are common, with significant and wide-ranging implications for individuals, families and the community. There is some evidence that sensory processing difficulties are associated with behavioural problems in children with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

  13. Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial comparing clinician vs. technician assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; McIntyre, Karen; Schwencke, Genevieve; Solley, Karen

    2010-06-03

    Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has been shown to be effective when guided by a clinician. The present study sought to replicate this finding, and determine whether support from a technician is as effective as guidance from a clinician. Randomized controlled non-inferiority trial comparing three groups: Clinician-assisted vs. technician-assisted vs. delayed treatment. Community-based volunteers applied to the VirtualClinic (www.virtualclinic.org.au) research program and 150 participants with GAD were randomized. Participants in the clinician- and technician-assisted groups received access to an iCBT program for GAD comprising six online lessons, weekly homework assignments, and weekly supportive contact over a treatment period of 10 weeks. Participants in the clinician-assisted group also received access to a moderated online discussion forum. The main outcome measures were the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7). Completion rates were high, and both treatment groups reduced scores on the PSWQ (ptechnician-assisted groups, respectively, and on the GAD-7 were 1.55 and 1.73, respectively. At 3 month follow-up participants in both treatment groups had sustained the gains made at post-treatment. Participants in the clinician-assisted group had made further gains on the PSWQ. Approximately 81 minutes of clinician time and 75 minutes of technician time were required per participant during the 10 week treatment program. Both clinician- and technician-assisted treatment resulted in large effect sizes and clinically significant improvements comparable to those associated with face-to-face treatment, while a delayed treatment/control group did not improve. These results provide support for large scale trials to determine the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of technician-assisted iCBT programs for GAD. This form of treatment has potential to increase the

  14. Help from home for depression: A randomised controlled trial comparing internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy with bibliotherapy for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Smith

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a leading cause of the Global Burden of Disease. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT is an effective treatment for MDD, but access can be impaired due to numerous barriers. Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT can be utilised to overcome treatment barriers and is an effective treatment for depression, but has never been compared to bibliotherapy. This Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT included participants meeting diagnostic criteria for MDD (n = 270 being randomised to either: iCBT (n = 61, a CBT self-help book (bCBT (n = 77, a meditation self-help book (bMED (n = 64 or wait-list control (WLC (n = 68. The primary outcome was the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale (PHQ-9 at 12-weeks (post-treatment. All three active interventions were significantly more effective than WLC in reducing depression at post-treatment, but there were no significant differences between the groups. All three interventions led to large within-group reductions in PHQ-9 scores at post-treatment (g = 0.88–1.69, which were maintained at 3-month follow-up, although there was some evidence of relapse in the bMED group (within-group g [post to follow-up] = 0.09–1.04. Self-help based interventions could be beneficial in treating depression, however vigilance needs to be applied when selecting from the range of materials available. Replication of this study with a larger sample is required.

  15. [Aggressive behaviour and substance abuse among schizophrenic adolescents compared to antisocial adolescents--a follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Dreher, Jan; Walger, Petra; Junglas, Jürgen; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze aggressive behaviour towards others by schizophrenic as opposed to antisocial adolescents, and the influence of substance abuse before, during and after their hospitalization. We analyzed 21 schizophrenic adolescents and compared their aggressive behaviour and their substance abuse to that of 21 antisocial juveniles before and during their hospitalization and again at the time of a follow-up interview. The two samples were matched for age, sex and intelligence. In a first step, data were gathered from the hospital records, in a second step, for follow-up data we conducted standardized telephone interview with the patient and his or her parent or caregiver. Within the analysis we focused on aggressive behaviour towards other people and objects, as well as on criminal acts and regular substance abuse. We found less aggressive behaviour among psychotic patients during and post-hospitalization than among their antisocial counterparts. As inpatients, the acutely psychotic juveniles were at higher risk for aggressive acts, but adequate treatment subdued their offensive behaviour. In the long term, there were fewer criminal arrests among psychotic patients. Only in connection with their substance abuse, their aggressive misconduct towards others increased. Our results suggest that drug treatment during adolescence might help to lessen the risk of aggressive behaviour towards others.

  16. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  17. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Dirksen, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  18. A comparative study of cognitive deficits in patients with delusional disorder and paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies have evaluated the neurocognitive functions of patients with persistent delusional disorder. Aim: To study the neurocognitive profile of patients with delusional disorder and compare it with those of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Attention concentration, executive functions, memory, and IQ were assessed in 20 patients with delusional disorder and were compared with 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. All three groups were matched on age, sex, and level of education. The two patient groups were also matched on duration of illness. Results: In general, patients with delusional disorder performed worst than healthy controls and patients with paranoid schizophrenia performed in between the other two groups. Compared with healthy controls, both patients with delusional disorder and patients with paranoid schizophrenia were significantly impaired on different tests of attention and visual learning and memory. Compared with patients with paranoid schizophrenia, patients with delusional disorder had more impairment different tests of attention, visual learning and memory, verbal working memory, and executive functions. Conclusion: Patients with delusional disorder exhibit cognitive dysfunctions that are very similar to schizophrenia, but are more severe in intensity. The resemblance of cognitive profiles suggests that the two disorders may have similar etiological basis.

  19. Effects of symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology on challenging behaviours among infants and toddlers with Autistic Disorder and PDD-NOS as assessed with the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C; Worley, Julie A; Neal, Daniene; Sipes, Megan

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether level of symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology exacerbated challenging behaviours in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT)-Part 2 which measures co-morbid symptoms and the BISCUIT- Part 3 which examines challenging behaviours, 362 infants and toddlers with ASD were evaluated. Findings showed that participants scoring high on symptoms of Avoidance and Tantrum/Conduct problems had greater rates of aggressive/destructive behaviours, self-injurious behaviours (SIB) and stereotypies compared to those with low scores. Participants with high levels of Inattention/Impulsivity or Eat/Sleep concerns, compared to those with low levels, demonstrated greater aggressive/destructive behaviour and stereotypies. For symptoms of Anxiety/Repetitive Behaviours, participants with high scores displayed greater levels of stereotypies. Symptoms of co-morbid psychopathology are present at a very early age for children with ASD and elevated levels of these symptoms may exacerbate challenging behaviours.

  20. Quality of Diagnosis and Treatment Plans After Using the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviours' in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Multiple Case Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijssers, Addy; van Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Keeman, Noortje; van Achterberg, Theo

    2016-07-01

    People with intellectual disabilities often have a multitude of concurrent problems due to the combination of cognitive impairments, psychiatric disorders (particularly anxiety) and related challenging behaviours. Diagnoses in people with intellectual disabilities are complicated. This study evaluates the quality of the diagnoses and treatment plans after using a guideline that was developed to support professionals in their diagnostic tasks. A comparative multiple case study with an experimental and control condition, applying deductive analyses of diagnoses and treatment plans. The analyses revealed that the number of diagnostic statements and planned treatment actions in the experimental group was significantly larger and more differentiated than in the control condition. In the control group, consequential harm and protective factors were hardly mentioned in diagnoses and treatment plans. Working with the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and CB' leads to improved diagnoses and treatment plans compared with care as usual. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Behaviour and communication analysis using ABA methodology principles for twins with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Berlot, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Autistic disorders are categorized as neurodevelopmental disorders and are considered incurable. People with autistic disorders have issues on various fields of operation – one of those is also the occurrence of inappropriate behavioral patterns and the ability to communicate with the environment. Especially the occurrence of inappropriate behavioral patterns and the inability to communicate with the environment have a strong impact on the inclusion of people with autistic disorders in differ...

  2. Does prior psychotherapy experience affect the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsignore, Aba

    2008-08-01

    To examine whether and how different patterns of psychotherapy history (no prior therapy, successful therapy experience, and unsuccessful therapy experience) affect the outcome of future treatment among patients undergoing cognitive-behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder. Fifty-seven patients with varying histories of psychotherapy participating in cognitive-behavioural group treatment for social anxiety disorder were included in the study. Symptom severity (including anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, and global symptom severity) was assessed at pre- and posttreatment. A therapist-rated measure of patient therapy engagement was included as a process variable. First-time therapy patients showed more favourable pretreatment variables and achieved greater benefit from group therapy. Among patients with unsuccessful therapy experience, substantial gains were attained by those who were able to actively engage in the therapy process. Patients rating previous therapies as successful could benefit the least and tended to stagnate. Possible explanations for group differences and clinical implications are discussed. Prior psychotherapy experience affects the course of cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with social phobias. While patients with negative therapy experience may need extensive support in being and remaining actively engaged, those rating previous therapies as successful should be assessed very carefully and may benefit from a major focus on relational aspects.

  3. Fluoxetine combined with clorazepate dipotassium and behaviour modification for treatment of anxiety-related disorders in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, S; Anzola, B; Olivares, A; Ibáñez, M

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of clorazepate dipotassium combined with fluoxetine and a behaviour modification programme for the treatment of anxiety disorders in dogs was investigated. Forty dogs with anxiety disorders were initially enrolled and 36 dogs completed the trial. Dogs were classified into two behavioural categories (anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression) according to their presenting complaints, and were also subdivided into males, females, juveniles and adults. The dog owners were provided with a behaviour modification plan for their dogs to be commenced in the first week of therapy. Clorazepate dipotassium was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 4 weeks, and fluoxetine was administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg every 24 h for 10 weeks. Therapy with both drugs was initiated simultaneously. Improvement was reported in 25/36 dogs. Significant differences in treatment effects were observed between anxious dogs with aggression and anxious dogs without aggression (P<0.05). Positive correlations between owner compliance with the treatment plan and reported improvement achieved during three periods of study were also noted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between atypical sensory processing patterns, maladaptive behaviour and maternal stress in Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, C; López, B; Gandía, H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated sensory processing in a sample of Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the study aimed to explore (1) the prevalence and distribution of atypical sensory processing patterns, (2) the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive behaviour with atypical sensory processing and (3) the possible relationship between sensory subtype and maternal stress. The short sensory profile 2 (Dunn 2014) and the vineland adaptive behavior scale (Sparrow et al. 1984) were administered to examine the sensory processing difficulties and maladaptive behaviours of 45 children with ASD aged 3 to 14; their mothers also completed the parenting stress index-short form (Abidin 1995). Atypical sensory features were found in 86.7% of the children; avoider and sensor being the two most common patterns. No significant relationship was found between atypical sensory processing and adaptive behaviour. However, the analysis showed a strong relationship between sensory processing and maladaptive behaviour. Both maladaptive behaviour and sensory processing difficulties correlated significantly with maternal stress although maternal stress was predicted only by the sensory variable, and in particular by the avoider pattern. The findings suggest that sensory features in ASD may be driving the high prevalence of parental stress in carers. They also suggest that the effect on parental stress that has been attributed traditionally to maladaptive behaviours may be driven by sensory difficulties. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the development of interventions and the need to explore contextual and cultural variables as possible sources of variability. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  6. Comparing psychological disorders in addicts treated under NA Association and TC Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Jamshidi

    2018-02-01

    Results: Findings obtained from the analysis of comparing two independent groups showed that NA group had better conditions than TC clients group in terms of psychological and personality disorders and they had significant difference statistically (P

  7. Comparative analysis of three screening instruments for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers at high risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, I.J.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Visser, J.C.; Dietz, C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Several instruments have been developed to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in high-risk populations. However, few studies compare different instruments in one sample. Data were gathered from the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire, Social Communication Questionnaire,

  8. Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P Scott; Berrett, Michael E; Hardman, Randy K; Eggett, Dennis L

    2006-01-01

    Spiritual interventions are rarely used in contemporary treatment programs and little empirical evidence is available concerning their effectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a spiritual group intervention for eating disorder inpatients. We compared the effectiveness of a Spirituality group with Cognitive and Emotional Support groups using a randomized, control group design. Participants were 122 women receiving inpatient eating disorder treatment. Patients in the Spirituality group tended to score significantly lower on psychological disturbance and eating disorder symptoms at the conclusion of treatment compared to patients in the other groups, and higher on spiritual well-being. On weekly outcome measures, patients in the Spirituality group improved significantly more quickly during the first four weeks of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that attending to eating disorder patients' spiritual growth and well-being during inpatient treatment may help reduce depression and anxiety, relationship distress, social role conflict, and eating disorder symptoms.

  9. Cognitive behavioural therapy attenuates the enhanced early facial stimuli processing in social anxiety disorders: an ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianqin; Liu, Quanying; Li, Yang; Yang, Jun; Gu, Ruolei; Liang, Jin; Qi, Yanyan; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xun

    2017-07-28

    Previous studies of patients with social anxiety have demonstrated abnormal early processing of facial stimuli in social contexts. In other words, patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) tend to exhibit enhanced early facial processing when compared to healthy controls. Few studies have examined the temporal electrophysiological event-related potential (ERP)-indexed profiles when an individual with SAD compares faces to objects in SAD. Systematic comparisons of ERPs to facial/object stimuli before and after therapy are also lacking. We used a passive visual detection paradigm with upright and inverted faces/objects, which are known to elicit early P1 and N170 components, to study abnormal early face processing and subsequent improvements in this measure in patients with SAD. Seventeen patients with SAD and 17 matched control participants performed a passive visual detection paradigm task while undergoing EEG. The healthy controls were compared to patients with SAD pre-therapy to test the hypothesis that patients with SAD have early hypervigilance to facial cues. We compared patients with SAD before and after therapy to test the hypothesis that the early hypervigilance to facial cues in patients with SAD can be alleviated. Compared to healthy control (HC) participants, patients with SAD had more robust P1-N170 slope but no amplitude effects in response to both upright and inverted faces and objects. Interestingly, we found that patients with SAD had reduced P1 responses to all objects and faces after therapy, but had selectively reduced N170 responses to faces, and especially inverted faces. Interestingly, the slope from P1 to N170 in patients with SAD was flatter post-therapy than pre-therapy. Furthermore, the amplitude of N170 evoked by the facial stimuli was correlated with scores on the interaction anxiousness scale (IAS) after therapy. Our results did not provide electrophysiological support for the early hypervigilance hypothesis in SAD to faces, but

  10. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural play therapy on the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Balaghi, Atena; Moharrari, Fatemeh

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be the most prevalent disorder of childhood and adolescence, and a variety of methods have been used in its diagnosis and treatment. This study was conducted to study the efficacy of play therapy on the symptoms of ADHD in children aged 7-9 years. Using a clinical trial design, we selected 30 study participants among individuals who had been referred to the Ebne-sina hospital, child and adolescent outpatient clinic, Mashhad, Iran, and who had been diagnosed with ADHD by psychiatrists. The 30 study participants were then divided into two groups, experimental and control, based on similar characteristics (Birth order, parents' educational level, parents' occupation and average of last year school marks). Pre-tests (the Rutter Parental Questionnaire and the Rutter Children Behaviour Questionnaire for teachers) were performed prior to play therapy, and all patients in both groups had been receiving medication. Following play therapy, post-tests were also conducted for both groups. Eight sessions of sham play therapy has been performed for case group. (Cognitive-behavioural play therapy has not been performed basically.) All results were evaluated using an independent t test and a comparative test. Play therapy appeared to significantly reduce the symptoms of ADHD. The significant differences found between the experimental and control groups indicate that play therapy could be used as an effective treatment method for children with ADHD.

  11. A comparative study of cognitive behavioural therapy and shared reading for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Josie; Farrington, Grace; Lampropoulou, Sofia; Lingwood, Jamie; Jones, Andrew; Ledson, James; McDonnell, Kate; Duirs, Nicky; Humphreys, Anne-Louise

    2017-09-01

    The case for psychosocial interventions in relation to chronic pain, one of the most common health issues in contemporary healthcare, is well-established as a means of managing the emotional and psychological difficulties experienced by sufferers. Using mixed methods, this study compared a standard therapy for chronic pain, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), with a specific literature-based intervention, shared reading (SR) developed by national charity, The Reader. A 5-week CBT group and a 22-week SR group for patients with chronic pain ran in parallel, with CBT group members joining the SR group after the completion of CBT. In addition to self-report measures of positive and negative affect before and after each experience of the intervention, the 10 participants kept twice-daily (12-hourly) pain and emotion diaries. Qualitative data were gathered via literary-linguistic analysis of audio/video-recordings and transcriptions of the CBT and SR sessions and video-assisted individual qualitative interviews with participants. Qualitative evidence indicates SR's potential as an alternative or long-term follow-up or adjunct to CBT in bringing into conscious awareness areas of emotional pain otherwise passively suffered by patients with chronic pain. In addition, quantitative analysis, albeit of limited pilot data, indicated possible improvements in mood/pain for up to 2 days following SR. Both findings lay the basis for future research involving a larger sample size. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Examining Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principals' Instructional Supervision Behaviours: A Comparative Study of Turkish Private and Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…

  13. Improved physical fitness of cancer survivors : A randomised controlled trial comparing physical training with physical and cognitive-behavioural training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; Van Den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the effect of a group-based 12-week supervised exercise programme, i.e. aerobic and resistance exercise, and group sports, with that of the same programme combined with cognitive-behavioural training on physical fitness and activity of cancer survivors. One hundred and forty seven cancer

  14. Family Burden and Social Support in Mental Illness: A Comparative Study in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    JOSY KADAVIL THOMAS

    2018-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to assess and compare the global functioning of individuals affected with two major mental illnesses i.e. schizophrenia and mood disorders , social support perceived by them, and family burden and social support perceived by their caregivers. The individuals affected with schizophrenia were found to be more severely ill with a longer duration of illness, and perceived less social support as compared to those with mood disorders. The caregivers’ perceived socia...

  15. Dopaminergic influences on executive function and impulsive behaviour in impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Iracema; Barraclough, Michelle; McKie, Shane; Hinvest, Neal; Evans, Jonathan; Elliott, Rebecca; McDonald, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    The development of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) may arise from an interaction among cognitive impairment, impulsive responding and dopaminergic state. Dopaminergic state may be influenced by pharmacologic or genotypic (catechol-O-methyltransferase; COMT) factors. We sought to investigate this interaction further by comparing those with (n = 35) and without (n = 55) ICDs on delay-discounting in different pharmacologic conditions (ON or OFF dopaminergic medication) and on response inhibition as well as aspects of executive functioning in the ON state. We then undertook an exploratory sub-group analysis of these same tasks when the overall PD group was divided into different allelic variants of COMT (val/val vs. met/met). A healthy control group (HC; n = 20) was also included. We found that in those with PD and ICDs, 'cognitive flexibility' (set shifting, verbal fluency, and attention) in the ON medication state was not impaired compared with those without ICDs. In contrast, our working memory, or 'cognitive focus', task was impaired in both PD groups compared with the HC group when ON. During the delay-discounting task, the PD with ICDs group expressed greater impulsive choice compared with the PD group without ICDs, when in the ON, but not the OFF, medication state. However, no group difference on the response inhibition task was seen when ON. Finally, the met homozygous group performed differently on tests of executive function compared with the val homozygous group. We concluded that the disparity in levels of impairment among different domains of executive function and impulsive decision-making distinguishes those with ICD in PD from those without ICD, and may in part be affected by dopaminergic status. Both pharmacologic and genotypic influences on dopaminergic state may be important in ICD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Trainee nursery teachers' perceptions of disruptive behaviour disorders; the effect of sex of child on judgements of typicality and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadaki, K; Sonuga-Barke, E J S; Kakouros, E

    2003-11-01

    Adults' perceptions of children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which usually interfere with socialization and referral of children to mental health services, might differ according to the child's sex. Given the importance of (a) the interactions between these children and their educators, and (b) early identification and referral, the impact of the child's sex on adults' perceptions is an important factor to consider. To examine the role of gender-related expectations in the identification and referral of childhood DBDs by trainee nursery teachers. One hundred and fifty-eight female trainee nursery teachers (mean age = 20 years) at the Department of Early Childhood Education in Athens. Trainee nursery teachers' perceptions of male and female children with DBDs were explored using a Greek version of the Parental Account of the Causes of Childhood Problems Questionnaire. Eighty-one participants answered questions about a set of disruptive behaviours ascribed to a boy and 77 about the same behaviour ascribed to a girl. DBDs ascribed to girls were considered to be no more severe or of greater concern than those ascribed to boys. Judgements of severity were related to concern in the same way for boys and girls. However, DBDs were regarded as less typical for girls than boys. The child's sex affected trainee teachers' judgements of typicality, but not severity, of children's behaviour problems. The implications of this finding for socialization practices and referral attitudes are discussed.

  17. Effects of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention on baseline brain perfusion in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Plener, Paul; Straub, Joana

    2017-04-12

    A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT). A control group included medication-naive patients under treatment as usual while waiting for the psychotherapy. We found relatively increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), the right caudate nucleus and the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) after CBT compared with before CBT. Relatively increased rCBF in the right DLPFC postgroup CBT was confirmed by time (post vs. pre)×group (intervention/waiting list) interaction analyses. In the waiting group, relatively increased rCBF was found in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). The relatively small number of patients included in this pilot study has to be considered. Our findings indicate that noninvasive resting perfusion scanning is suitable to identify CBT-related changes in adolescents with MDD. rCBF increase in the DLPFC following a significant reduction in MDD symptoms in adolescents might represent the core neural correlate of changes in 'top-down' cognitive processing, a possible correlate of improved self-regulation and cognitive control.

  18. Making the Transition from Diagnosis to Treatment-Planning: Validity, Reliability and Factor Structure of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Behaviour Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2018-01-01

    The validity, reliability and factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Behaviour Checklist-Revised (ASDBC-R) were measured in a sample of 140 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged between 6 and 18 years. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was satisfactory and the ASDBC-R significantly correlated with the Social Responsiveness…

  19. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  20. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-02-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  1. Comparative effects of exposure to high-energy electrons and gamma radiation on active avoidance behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of two types of ionizing radiation was examined on active avoidance behaviour. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to avoid footshock by jumping onto a retractable ledge. When irradiated with high-energy electrons or gamma photons, their performance was degraded in a dose-dependent manner. However, electrons were 1.6 times as effective as gamma photons with ED50s of 62 and 102 Gy, respectively. All animals recovered within 24 min for all doses used. The data suggest that different types of ionizing radiation may not be equivalent when assessing their effect on behaviour. (author)

  2. Suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviours in adolescent and adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Tomas, Irene Alvarez; Temes, Christina M; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Zanarini, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence data on self-mutilation and suicide attempts for adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) are currently not available. The purpose of this paper was to determine the frequency and methods of two forms of physically self-destructive acts (i.e. self-mutilation and suicide attempts) reported by adolescent borderline inpatients in one of the largest samples to date and to compare these results with a similarly diagnosed and assessed group of adult borderline inpatients. A total of 104 adolescent inpatients with BPD and 290 adult inpatients with BPD were interviewed about their lifetime history of physically self-destructive acts. The overall rates of self-mutilation (about 90%) and suicide attempts (about 75%) were similar during index admission for both adolescent and adult borderline patients. However, adolescents reported significantly higher rates of extreme levels of lifetime self-mutilation (e.g. >25 and >50 episodes) and cutting in particular, as compared with adult BPD. In contrast, borderline adults were significantly more likely to report a history of numerous (five or more) suicide attempts than adolescents with BPD. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts among adolescent borderline patients are prevalent and serious. Taken together, these results suggest that extreme levels of self-mutilation distinguish adolescent BPD from adults with BPD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p  bullying (β = 0.097, p  < 0.001). While significant indirect associations

  4. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  5. [Intrafamilial disruptive behaviour disorders in children and adolescents: Present data and treatment prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, E; Franc, N; Ha, C; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2018-04-01

    Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics. Most families remain isolated for a long time and, even in case of consulting in a mental health setting, disclosure of the nature of the difficulties is often delayed. This article presents the specificities of these children and their clinical characteristics. It also studies the victimized parents, the entire family, and their relation to the external environment. When observing these young offenders oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are frequently found. The diagnosis of "conduct disorder confined to family context" defined in the ICD 10 is the most appropriate to describe them. But it is regrettable that there has currently been no study to validate it and to determine its specificity. Compared with other young children who have "classic" disruptive disorders, children involved in violence against their parents have more difficulties with affect regulation, impulse control, and interpersonal skills. These children also frequently have low self-esteem and difficulties interacting with their peers. They may be isolated and bullied. They feel more sadness than these other young people and use violence as a way to express their emotions. Within the family both girls and boys commit violence against their parents. Girls will mostly use psychological violence but can also be involved in physical aggression. The first victim of child-to-parent violence is the mother. As mothers are

  6. A framework for mapping and comparing behavioural theories in models of social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlüter, Maja; Baeza, Andres; Dressler, Gunnar; Frank, Karin; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Jager, Wander; Janssen, Marco A.; McAllister, Ryan R.J.; Müller, Birgit; Orach, Kirill; Schwarz, Nina; Wijermans, Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Formal models are commonly used in natural resource management (NRM) to study human-environment interactions and inform policy making. In the majority of applications, human behaviour is represented by the rational actor model despite growing empirical evidence of its shortcomings in NRM contexts.

  7. Science Teachers' Information Processing Behaviours in Nepal: A Reflective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Kamal Prasad

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the investigation of the information processing behaviours of secondary level science teachers. It is based on the data collected from 50 secondary level school science teachers working in Kathmandy valley. The simple random sampling and the Cognitive Style Inventory have been used respectively as the technique and tool to…

  8. [Deleterious Results of Safety Seeking Behaviours in Panic Disorder: Polydipsia and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emel; Karabaş, Özer; Yorguner, Neşe; Wurz, Axel; Topçuoğlu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder that involves recurrent panic attacks, which emerge when a harmless stimulus is interpreted as "catastrophic". In an attempt to avoid the panic attack or prevent confrontation, the patient exhibits a dysfunctional attitude and behavior, such as evasion and safety-seeking behavior (SSB). Dysfunctional behavior leads to an increase in the recurrence of panic attacks and affects the patient's life in a negative way. According to the cognitive behavioral therapy model, SSB contributes to the continuation of unrealistic beliefs (e.g. physical experiences) regarding and prevents the patient from grasping new information that may potentially contradict the unrealistic cognitions. In this paper, we present a case with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder. Interestingly, this patient developed diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and psychogenic polydipsia (PPD) as a consequence of his SSB. PPD is a common occurrence in patients with psychiatric disorders, especially in schizophrenia. Up to now, no case of a panic disorder with either DM or PPD has been reported in the literature. While it is accepted that major depression poses a risk for DM type 2, panic disorder may also increase this risk. Treatment of the panic disorder with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) resulted in improvement of PPD and DM type 2. In conclusion, the role of SSB in medical disorders accompanied by psychiatric disorders should be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  9. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some...

  10. Parent-child inpatient treatment for children with behavioural and emotional disorders: a multilevel analysis of within-subjects effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Elena; Schröder, Sabine; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred

    2015-11-16

    The importance of parental involvement in child treatment is well-established. Several child psychiatric clinics have, therefore, set up inpatient family units where children and parents are both actively involved in the treatment. Unfortunately, evidence supporting the benefits of these units is sparse. We evaluated the effectiveness of inpatient treatment for families with severe parent-child interaction problems in a child psychiatric setting. Consecutive admissions to the parent-child ward (N = 66) were studied. A within-subjects design was used with four assessment points (baseline, admission, discharge, four-week follow-up). Outcome measures were 1) parent and teacher ratings of child behaviour, and 2) parent self-ratings of parenting practices, parental strains and parental mental health. Data were analyzed using multilevel modelling for longitudinal data (piecewise growth curve models). All parent-rated measures improved significantly during the four-week treatment period (d = 0.4 - 1.3). These improvements were significantly greater than those observed during the four-week pre-admission period. In addition, benefits were maintained during the four-week follow-up period. Only parents' self-efficacy in managing their child's behaviour showed continued improvement during follow-up. Teacher ratings of children's disruptive behaviour at school were stable during the pre-admission period and showed significant improvements at follow-up (d = 0.3 - 0.4). We conclude that parent-child inpatient treatment has positive effects on child and parent behaviour and mental health, and can therefore be recommended for children with behavioural and emotional disorders and severe parent-child interaction problems.

  11. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Comparative effects of building envelope improvements and occupant behavioural changes on the exergy consumption for heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Shukuya, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Much focus is put on measures to improve the building envelope system performance to reduce the impact of the building sector on the global environmental degradation. This paper compares the potential of building envelope improvements to those of a change in the occupant's behavioural pattern. Three cases of improvements together with a base case were analysed using exergy analysis, because the exergy concept is useful to understand the underlying processes and the necessary adjustments to the calculation of the heat-pump system. The assumptions for the occupant behaviour were set up based on our field measurements conducted in a dormitory building and the calculation was for steady-state conditions. It was found that the potential of occupant behavioural changes for the reduction in exergy consumption is more affected by the outdoor temperature compared to building envelope improvements. The influence of occupant behaviour was highly significant (more than 90% decrease of exergy consumption) when the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors is small, which is the case for long periods in regions with moderate temperatures during summer and/or winter. Nevertheless, both measures combined lead to a reduction from 76% up to 95% depending on the outside conditions and should be the final goal.

  13. Comparative validity of MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E A

    1996-06-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) overlapping and nonoverlapping scales were demonstrated to perform comparably to their original MMPI forms. They were then evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) personality disorder scales. The MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder scales demonstrated convergent and discriminant coefficients similar to their original forms. However, the MMPI-2 personality scales classified significantly more of the sample as Dramatic, whereas the MCMI-II diagnosed more of the sample as Anxious. Furthermore, single-scale and 2-point code type classification rates were quite low, indicating that at the level of the individual, the personality disorder scales are not measuring comparable constructs. Hence, each instrument is providing similar and unique information, justifying their continued use together for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Down Syndrome: Cluster Analysis of Aberrant Behaviour Checklist Data Supports Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, N. Y.; Capone, G. T.; Kaufmann, W. E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic validity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has been challenged in Down syndrome (DS), because of the high prevalence of cognitive impairments in this population. Therefore, we attempted to validate DSM-based diagnoses via an unbiased categorisation of…

  15. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fern?ndez-Aranda, Fernando; Fr?berg, Frida; Aymam?, Neus; G?mez-Pe?a, M?nica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; del Pino-Guti?rrez, Amparo; Ag?era, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background: studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. Method: a total sample of 2010 trea...

  16. Likelihood and predictors of detention in patients with personality disorder compared with other mental disorders: A retrospective, quantitative study of Mental Health Act assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Kike; Tyrer, Peter; Singh, Swaran P; Burns, Tom; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Thana, Lavanya; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Crawford, Mike J

    2016-08-01

    The UK guidelines on the treatment of personality disorder recommend avoiding compulsory treatment except in extreme situations. Little is known about how often patients with personality disorder are detained or how this compares with the treatment of other mental disorders. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that people with personality disorder are infrequently detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA) and that risk factors associated with detention are the same as those for people with other mental disorders. We used a retrospective, quantitative study of MHA assessments. Of the 2 087 assessments undertaken, 204 (9.8%) patients had a diagnosis of personality disorder; 40.7% of assessments in the personality disorder group resulted in detention, as did 69.7% of patients with other mental disorders. A higher proportion of people with personality disorder received no intervention following assessment compared with those with other mental disorders (20.6% vs. 4.7%, p mental disorders. Detention rates in patients with personality disorder are lower than those for other disorders but are still substantial. Risk factors for detention in patients with personality disorder differ from those with other mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  18. Electrochemical noise evaluation of anodized aluminum. Comparative study against corrosion behaviour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, N.; Corvo, F.; Mendoza, A.; Simancas, J.; Morcillo, M.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Fragata, F.; Pena, J. J.; Sanchez de Villalaz, M.; Flores, S.; Almeida, E.; Rivero, S.; Rincon, O. T. de.

    2003-01-01

    The present work reports the evaluation of aluminum and anodized aluminum by electrochemical noise, as a part of the PATINE/CYTED project of the working group NS5. A visual examination is also made. The samples were exposed at several Ibero-American atmospheres up to 2 years of exposure. Different thickness of anodized aluminum were evaluated. The electrochemical potential noise of the 5 μm unexposed sample (pattern) showed a different behaviour to that showed by the other anodized specimens. This could be due to a slower sealed of the samples of higher thickness. The same behavior was observed on the samples exposed at the rural station. el Pardo. According to the visual examination, the samples of bare aluminum and those of anodized 5 μm thickness were the most affected by pitting corrosion in the highly polluted atmospheres. A good correlation between corrosion behaviour determined by visual examination and EN was obtained. (Author) 4 refs

  19. The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome: differences in adaptive behaviour versus Down syndrome alone and autistic disorder alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Anastasia; Perelli, Valentina; Bozza, Margherita; Bargagna, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The autistic phenotype in Down syndrome (DS) is marked by a characteristic pattern of stereotypies, anxiety and social withdrawal. Our aim was to study adaptive behaviour in DS with and without autistic comorbidity using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS), the Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) and the DSM IV-TR criteria. We assessed 24 individuals and established three groups: Down syndrome (DS), DS and autistic disorder (DS-AD), and autistic disorder (AD). The DS and DS-AD groups showed statistically significantly similar strengths on the VABS (in receptive and domestic skills). The DS and DS-AD subjects also showed similar strengths on the CARS (in imitation and relating), differing significantly from the AD group. The profile of adaptive functioning and symptoms in DS-AD seemed to be more similar to that found in DS than to the profile emerging in AD. We suggest that the comorbidity of austistic symptoms in DS hampered the acquisition of adaptive skills more than did the presence of DS alone.

  20. Role of a behavioural therapy involving psychodrama for the treatment of sleep disorders in paediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnara, Jean; Lemoine, Patrick

    2017-07-28

    Sleep disorders are common in young children. Our objective was to describe a psychodrama using puppets and to assess the interest of this approach for the treatment of sleep disorders in ambulatory paediatric patients. This retrospective, observational, monocentre study was carried between 1st January 2014 and 31st December 2015. Children aged 12 months to 6 years with a sleep disorder confirmed according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 were recruited. The parents were questioned separately about their child's sleep rhythm and the family's quality of life (QoL). The child sitting on their parent's knee and, using puppets to represent the family members, the paediatrician reproduced the scenario that took place at home and demonstrated what should be changed. The parents were contacted by telephone 1-2 weeks after the therapy to determine whether the child's sleep patterns had improved. The primary endpoint was resolution of the sleep disorder. Thirty-eight children (mean age 27.2 ± 14.0 months; mean duration of sleep disorder 12.7 ± 9.5 months) were assessed. The most common sleep disorders were difficulties in falling asleep at evening bed-time (76.3%) and night-time wakening (76.3%). The main triggering factors were the birth of a sibling (30.8%) or an illness (30.8%). In the majority (52.2%) of families who were convinced that the psychodrama would work, an immediate and complete resolution of the sleep disorder was obtained within 3 days of the consultation. QoL improved in the majority of families after the consultation (QoL was average in 68.4% of families before the consultation vs. good in 84.2% after the consultation). Psychodrama was effective at bringing about an immediate and complete resolution of sleep disorders in children. This confirms the findings of other reports that show that behavioural therapy is effective in this context. This method could be adapted effectively by individual practitioners, enabling children to

  1. Work-related behaviour and experience patterns of physicians compared to other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Kieschke, Ulf; Spahn, Claudia

    2007-08-11

    To identify health risk factors and resources of physicians in comparison with other professions. Data of cross-sectional mail surveys conducted among German physicians (n = 344), teachers (n = 5169), policemen (n = 851), prison officers (n = 3653), and starting entrepreneurs (n = 632) were analysed regarding eleven health-relevant dimensions and four behaviour patterns examined by the questionnaire "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Pattern (AVEM)". Only 17% of the physicians showed healthy behaviour and experience patterns. With 43%, they scored highest in terms of reduced working motivation. Together with the teachers, they also had the highest scores for resignation and burnout (27%). Satisfaction with life and work as well as social support showed medium scores. Starting entrepreneurs showed the healthiest patterns (45%), but also the highest risk pattern for overexertion (38%). It was possible to identify clear risk patterns for profession-related psychosocial symptoms and impairments. The high scores for reduced working motivation demonstrate the need for interventions to improve organisation of health care and individual coping strategies.

  2. Mixed messages in learning communication skills? Students comparing role model behaviour in clerkships with formal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2012-01-01

    Medical students learn professional communication through formal training and in clinical practice. Physicians working in clinical practice have a powerful influence on student learning. However, they may demonstrate communication behaviours not aligning with recommendations in training programs. This study aims to identify more precisely what differences students perceive between role model communication behaviour during clerkships and formal training. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected about physicians' communication performance as perceived by students. Students filled out a questionnaire in four different clerkships in their fourth and fifth year. Just over half of the students reported communication similar to formal training. This was especially true for students in the later clerkships (paediatrics and primary care). Good examples were seen in providing information corresponding to patients' needs and in shared decision making, although students often noted that in fact the doctor made the decision. Bad examples were observed in exploring cognitions and emotions, and in providing information meeting patient's pace. Further study is needed on actual physician behaviour in clinical practice. From our results, we conclude that students need help in reflecting on and learning from the gap in communication patterns they observe in training versus clinical practice.

  3. Comparative brain transcriptomic analyses of scouting across distinct behavioural and ecological contexts in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzheng S.; Mattila, Heather R.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Southey, Bruce R.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in behaviour are often consistent across time and contexts, but it is not clear whether such consistency is reflected at the molecular level. We explored this issue by studying scouting in honeybees in two different behavioural and ecological contexts: finding new sources of floral food resources and finding a new nest site. Brain gene expression profiles in food-source and nest-site scouts showed a significant overlap, despite large expression differences associated with the two different contexts. Class prediction and ‘leave-one-out’ cross-validation analyses revealed that a bee's role as a scout in either context could be predicted with 92.5% success using 89 genes at minimum. We also found that genes related to four neurotransmitter systems were part of a shared brain molecular signature in both types of scouts, and the two types of scouts were more similar for genes related to glutamate and GABA than catecholamine or acetylcholine signalling. These results indicate that consistent behavioural tendencies across different ecological contexts involve a mixture of similarities and differences in brain gene expression. PMID:25355476

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy for self-harming patients with personality disorder: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Bhatti, Nyla; Barnicot, Kirsten; Bremner, Stephen; Gaglia, Amy; Katsakou, Christina; Molosankwe, Iris; McCrone, Paul; Zinkler, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is to reduce self-harm, but findings from empirical studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of DBT in reducing self-harm in patients with personality disorder. Participants with a personality disorder and at least 5 days of self-harm in the previous year were randomised to receive 12 months of either DBT or treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was the frequency of days with self-harm; secondary outcomes included borderline personality disorder symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, subjective quality of life, and costs of care. Forty patients each were randomised to DBT and TAU. In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was a statistically significant treatment by time interaction for self-harm (incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.92, p self-harm decreased by 9% relative to TAU. There was no evidence of differences on any secondary outcomes. The economic analysis revealed a total cost of a mean of 5,685 GBP (6,786 EUR) in DBT compared to a mean of 3,754 GBP (4,481 EUR) in TAU, but the difference was not significant (95% CI -603 to 4,599 GBP). Forty-eight per cent of patients completed DBT. They had a greater reduction in self-harm compared to dropouts (incidence rate ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.80, p self-harm in patients with personality disorder, possibly incurring higher total treatment costs. The effect is stronger in those who complete treatment. Future research should explore how to improve treatment adherence. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Behaviour Support Training for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaad, Eman; Thabet, Rawy A.

    2016-01-01

    Al Jalila Foundation (AJF) is a philanthropic organization based in Dubai. The organization sponsored a training programme in 2013 to support parents of children with various disabilities to cope with the behavioural and emotional challenges that are related to the child's disability. The course lasts for 6 weeks and is delivered across the United…

  6. Therapist Factors in Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almlov, J.; Carlbring, P.; Berger, T.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective method for treating major depression, but it often works best when therapist support is provided in the form of e-mail support or telephone calls. The authors investigated whether there were any intraclass correlations within

  7. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Disruptive Behaviour Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michelle A.; Theule, Jennifer; Cheung, Kristene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have looked at the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for young children with externalizing behaviour problems. Objective: The present study compiled these results through a comprehensive review to provide greater clarity regarding the efficacy of this treatment. Methods: Using a random effects model,…

  8. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  9. Prevalence of mental disorders in migrants compared with original residents and local residents in Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.

  10. Comparative analysis of psychological adaptation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and shizotypal disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the comparing of psychological adaptation characteristics (type of attitude to a disease, psychological defense mechanisms, special aspects of coping-strategy as exemplified by 2 groups of schizophrenia disorder patients: 1 schizotypal disorders (F-21 according to ICD-10; 2 paranoid schizophrenia (F-20 according to ICD-10. The authors arrived at the conclusion of the same nature if special aspects of psychological adaptation in the groups compared. At the same time, both groups compared showed imbalance of «the level of success» between individual characteristics constituting the module of psychological adaptation. This circumstance testifies to the fact that psychological adaptation in the patients with schizophrenic disorders should be evaluated on a case- bycase basis. In conclusion, the study revealed the necessity to take into consideration of these characteristics during rehabilitation of these patients.

  11. Childhood-compared to adolescent-onset bipolar disorder has more statistically significant clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jessica N; Miller, Shefali; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Wang, Po W; Chang, Kiki D; Hill, Shelley J; Rasgon, Natalie L; Ketter, Terence A

    2015-07-01

    The strengths and limitations of considering childhood-and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (BD) separately versus together remain to be established. We assessed this issue. BD patients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Patients with childhood- and adolescent-onset were compared to those with adult-onset for 7 unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics with replicated associations with early-onset patients. Among 502 BD outpatients, those with childhood- (adolescent- (13-18 years, N=218) onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 unfavorable illness characteristics, including lifetime comorbid anxiety disorder, at least ten lifetime mood episodes, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and prior suicide attempt, than those with adult-onset (>18 years, N=174). Childhood- but not adolescent-onset BD patients also had significantly higher rates of first-degree relative with mood disorder, lifetime substance use disorder, and rapid cycling in the prior year. Patients with pooled childhood/adolescent - compared to adult-onset had significantly higher rates for 5/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics, while patients with childhood- compared to adolescent-onset had significantly higher rates for 4/7 of these unfavorable illness characteristics. Caucasian, insured, suburban, low substance abuse, American specialty clinic-referred sample limits generalizability. Onset age is based on retrospective recall. Childhood- compared to adolescent-onset BD was more robustly related to unfavorable bipolar illness characteristics, so pooling these groups attenuated such relationships. Further study is warranted to determine the extent to which adolescent-onset BD represents an intermediate phenotype between childhood- and adult-onset BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALISYS OF ARTICULATION AND PHONOLOGY DISORDERS IN FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sound expression is the first impression of speech and language. Whatever its origin, false pronunciation is the first sign. In the early school years of developmental speech – if a language disorder appears, it is often followed by the disruption of the phonological – articulation segment.This research aims to establish and compare frequency, type, and every articulate and acoustic characteristics of the disordered sound in both children with Dyslalia, as well as those with SLI.This micro investigation was done using 71 examinees ages 6 to 8. Thirty-five examinees were with Dyslalia and 36 had SLI. Their achievements are underlined using comparative analysis, tested with two relevant tests.Some of the more important conclusions are:Children with Dyslalia mostly showed distorted sounds, while those with SLI mostly substituted the disordered sound. In Dyslalia, fricatives were most affected, but in the case of SLI, all sound groups were disordered usually. In both tested groups, the type of disorder was due to the misplacement of sound formation. All children having articulation disorders while also having sound discrimination have not only phonetic contrasts, but were also being influenced by the rest of the linguistic aspects.

  13. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. A cost of illness study of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and comorbid anxiety disorders as compared to clinically anxious and typically developing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The study’s aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs

  15. Differential diagnosis between obsessive compulsive disorder and restrictive and repetitive behavioural patterns, activities and interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Pérez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities inherent to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share a number of features that can make the differential diagnosis between them extremely difficult and lead to erroneous overdiagnosis of OCD in people with autism. In both cases there may appear to have a fixation on routine, ritualized patterns of verbal and nonverbal behavior, resistance to change, and highly restrictive interests, which becomes a real challenge for differentiating rituals, stereotypes and adherence to routines in ASD from obsessions and compulsions in OCD. This article provides key points to clarify this differential diagnosis through the analysis of emotional valence, content, function and psychological theories that explain the obsessions and compulsions in OCD, and the desire for sameness, stereotyped movements and limited interest in autism. The terms "obsession" and "compulsion" should no longer be used when referring to patterns of behavior, interests or restricted and repetitive activities in autism due to syntonic characteristics, low perception of personal responsibility and low neutralizing efforts. Treatment focuses on changing the environment, the use of socio-communicative compensatory strategies and behavioral modification techniques to improve cognitive and behavioral flexibility. When there is comorbidity between, exposure behavioral and response prevention techniques are then used, followed by others of more cognitive orientation if necessary. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Prevalence of neurodevelopmental, behavioural and learning disorders in Pediatric Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal Mariño, Marta; Gago Ageitos, Ana; Ares Alvarez, Josefa; Del Rio Garma, Mercedes; García Cendón, Clara; Goicoechea Castaño, Ana; Pena Nieto, Josefina

    2017-11-20

    To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care pediatrics in Atlantic Galicia. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 9 outpatient clinics in A Coruña and Pontevedra with a population of 8293 children between September and November 2015. A total of 1286 randomly selected patients from 0 to 14 years of age were included. From the medical history was registered: age, sex, psychiatric diagnosis established by DSM-IV-TR criteria in its five axes, professionals who participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the process and what type of treatment was received. Authorization was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Galicia number 2015/427. 148 of 1286 patients presented psychiatric pathology (11,5% IC 95% 9.73-13,29), 68% male. Between 0 and 5years, the prevalence was 4.5%; between 6y and 10y, 18.5% and between 11y and 14y 22%. Symptoms lasted a median of 25 months. The most frequent pathologies in 1286 patients were ADHD (5.36%), language disorders (3.42%), learning disorders (3.26%), anxiety-depressive disorders (2.4%) and behavior disorders (1.87%). Of the 148 cases, 47% had comorbidity with another mental disorder. Most of them required attention by multiple social, health and educational professionals; 33% received psychopharmacological treatment. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in pediatric primary care is frequent, chronic and complex, increases with age and requires many health, educational and social resources. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  18. Assessment of Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Dysthymic Disorder (DD): A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Roopesh Gopal Nariyandada; Yallappa, Sudarshan Chikkanayakanahalli; Saya, Ganesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    There is paucity of data on Quality of Life (QOL) in non-psychotic mental disorders. To assess the Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and compare it with Dysthymic Disorder (DD). This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 patients each diagnosed to have OCD and DD during October 2009 to September 2011 in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Text Revised) criteria was used for diagnosis of OCD and DD. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and WHO QOL BREF (brief form) scales were used. Data was analysed by independent sample t-test. Overall QOL score was 51.07(SD=11.47) and 50.91(SD=7.41) in OCD and DD groups respectively. QOL score was comparatively low in psychological domain with score of 44.12(SD=14.14) and 45.10(12.35) in OCD and DD respectively. There was no significant difference in the QOL score of the two groups with respect to socio demographic variables in OCD group, but it was different with respect to place of residence in DD group (p0.05). Overall QOL score was average and there was no significant difference of QOL score between the OCD and DD groups implying that both these non-psychotic mental disorders may have same influence or effect on QOL of the subjects. Further analytical studies will explore the associated factors of QOL in OCD and DD.

  19. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  20. Comparative axial morphology in pinnipeds and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S E; Clack, J A; Hutchinson, J R

    2011-10-01

    Regional variation in the axial skeleton of pinnipeds (seals and walruses) and its correlation with aquatic locomotory behaviour is examined using vertebral functional profiles. The results demonstrate clear morpho-functional differences in the thoracolumbar region of modern pinnipeds (Phocidae, Otariidae, Odobenus) that can be strongly linked to swimming style. Phocid seals have a rigid thoracic region attached to a highly flexible lumbar region with long muscular lever arms providing the necessary mobility and leverage to perform pelvic oscillations. Conversely, otariid seals have extremely flexible inter-vertebral joints along the length of the column which should enhance manoeuvrability and turning performance. They also have greater muscular leverage in the anterior thoracic region to support pectoral oscillations. Odobenus (walrus) shows vertebral characteristics most similar to phocids, but with some otariid qualities, consistent with an intermediate or mixed form of aquatic locomotion, with pelvic oscillation dominating over pectoral oscillation. Comparison of the vertebral functional profiles in the fossil taxon Allodesmus kernensis with those of modern pinniped clades reveals that this extinct pinniped may also have used a combination of pectoral and pelvic oscillatory movements during swimming, but in a manner opposite to that of Odobenus, with pectoral oscillatory movements dominating. This study raises questions about the evolution and diversification of pinniped locomotory behaviours, but also provides the necessary framework to begin to examine axial mechanics and locomotory stages in other fossil pinnipedimorphs and their relatives in more detail. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Attitudes and behaviour towards construction waste minimisation: a comparative analysis between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingkuang; Gong, Enqin; Wang, Dong; Lai, XiaoHong; Zhu, Jian

    2018-05-21

    With the spread of the concept of sustainable development, people have gained awareness about the problem of massive illegal dumping of construction waste. In this research, a questionnaire survey was carried out in the USA and China. The results indicated the following. (1) Workers in both the countries had positive minimisation attitudes, and the attitude of Chinese construction workers was not significantly different from that of American construction workers. Furthermore, their average values were 3.9 and 4.07, respectively. (2) Business owners had a poor understanding of the obligations that should be fulfilled by contractors and construction workers, which greatly reduced (a) construction workers' and contractors' motivation to implement waste minimisation management and (b) the benefit-driven effect. (3) In terms of perceived behavioural control, Chinese construction workers had poorer minimisation technologies and knowledge than American construction workers, and it was very difficult for them to implement construction waste minimisation. The research conclusions and relevant suggestions may be used to improve the construction waste minimisation behaviour and awareness of Chinese people and promote China's construction waste minimisation management.

  2. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Bervoets (Diederik C.); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); J.J.N. Alessie (Jeroen J.N.); M.J. Buijs (Martijn J.); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuestion: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual

  3. Comparing Tactical Behaviour of Soccer Players in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 Small-Sided Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Bernardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare players’ tactical behaviour in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 soccer small-sided games (SSGs. The sample comprised 3,482 tactical actions performed by 18 U-11 youth soccer players from a Portuguese club, in 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs. All participants played eight minutes in both situations and field size was adapted according to the number of players involved (30 m x 19.5 m for 3 vs. 3 and 60 m x 39 m for 6 vs. 6. The System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT was used for data collection and analyses. Descriptive analysis was conducted to verify frequencies and percentages of the variables assessed. The chi-squared (χ2 test was performed to compare the frequencies of the variables between 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs and Standardized Residuals (e were used to examine the influence of the frequency of one or more variables within 3 vs. 3 and 6 vs. 6 SSGs. Data treatment was performed through SPSS for Windows®, version 18.0. Results indicated that players displayed safer behaviours in 6 vs. 6 SSG and more aggressive behaviours in 3 vs. 3 SSG. Findings can aid coaches and teachers to develop different players’ tactical skills according to the chosen SSG (3 vs. 3 or 6 vs. 6 form.

  4. Lessons learned while developing, adapting and implementing a pilot parent-mediated behavioural intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jasmine M; Rubenstein, Eric; Tsai, Peng-Chou; Rahman, Hafizur; Rieth, Sarah R; Ali, Hasmot; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-07-01

    Low- and middle-income countries often have limited resources, underdeveloped health systems and scarce knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop and adapt intervention materials and to train a native clinician to implement a community-based parent-mediated behavioural intervention in rural Gaibandha, Bangladesh. Intervention materials to support parents' use of behavioural strategies were developed and refined by US behavioural intervention experts and Bangladesh field experts. Study investigators trained a native child psychologist in developmental milestones and behavioural intervention techniques. The native clinician delivered a 1-day group education session attended by 10 families of children aged 7-9 years with autism spectrum disorder, followed by two one-on-one training sessions with each family to train and practice individualized strategies for targeted challenging behaviours. Preliminary qualitative results indicate the importance of materials that are culturally appropriate and at an adequate literacy level. All families expressed strong desires to have learned the behavioural strategies when their child was younger and vocalized their need for further support and tools to help their children. This study is a preliminary step to creating sustainable and low-cost autism spectrum disorder interventions in rural Bangladesh, and possibly for families in regions with similar cultural and socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  5. Brain damage and behavioural disorders in fish induced by plastic nanoparticles delivered through the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Karin; Johnson, Elyse V.; Malmendal, Anders; Linse, Sara; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous increases in production of plastic materials has led to an accumulation of plastic pollution worldwide. Many studies have addressed the physical effects of large-sized plastics on organisms, whereas few have focused on plastic nanoparticles, despite their distinct chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Hence our understanding of their effects on ecosystem function, behaviour and metabolism of organisms remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that plastic nanoparticles reduc...

  6. Factors associated with healthy and unhealthy workplace eating behaviours in individuals with overweight/obesity with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S L; Barber, J A; Burger, A; Barnes, R D

    2018-04-01

    Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire. Eating unplanned food occurred on average 2.43 times per week (SD = 3.37), and eating unplanned food even when meals were brought from home occurred on average 1.28 times per week (SD = 1.84). Individuals with BED purchased lunch even when they brought food from home significantly more frequently than did individuals without BED. Those with BED also reported significantly poorer work and social adjustment related to binge eating as compared with those without BED. The most significant barriers to healthy eating in the workplace were coworker influence, eating more food in general and more junk food in response to stress, eating unplanned food at work and time constraints. These factors may be important to target in weight-loss treatment to increase individuals' weight loss success. As individuals with BED may be the most vulnerable to eating unplanned foods, clinicians may want to focus on this potential barrier in BED treatment.

  7. Test-retest reliability of schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelmann, Hanno; Franklin, Jeremy; Bußhoff, Jana; Baethge, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a frequent diagnosis, and its reliability is subject to ongoing discussion. We compared the diagnostic reliability of schizoaffective disorder with its main differential diagnoses. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo for all studies on the test-retest reliability of the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder as compared with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression. We used meta-analytic methods to describe and compare Cohen's kappa as well as positive and negative agreement. In addition, multiple pre-specified and post hoc subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out. Out of 4,415 studies screened, 49 studies were included. Test-retest reliability of schizoaffective disorder was consistently lower than that of schizophrenia (in 39 out of 42 studies), bipolar disorder (27/33), and unipolar depression (29/35). The mean difference in kappa between schizoaffective disorder and the other diagnoses was approximately 0.2, and mean Cohen's kappa for schizoaffective disorder was 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.59). While findings were unequivocal and homogeneous for schizoaffective disorder's diagnostic reliability relative to its three main differential diagnoses (dichotomous: smaller versus larger), heterogeneity was substantial for continuous measures, even after subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In clinical practice and research, schizoaffective disorder's comparatively low diagnostic reliability should lead to increased efforts to correctly diagnose the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Electrochemical noise evaluation of anodized aluminum. Comparative study against corrosion behaviour in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt, N.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the evaluation of aluminum and anodized aluminum by electrochemical noise, as a part of the PATINA/CYTED project of the working group Nº 5. A visual examination is also made. The samples were exposed at several Ibero-American atmospheres up to 2 years of exposure. Different thickness of anodized aluminum were evaluated. The electrochemical potential noise of the 5 μm unexposed sample (pattern showed a different behaviour to that showed by the other anodized specimens. This could be due to a slower sealed of the samples of higher thickness. The same behaviour was observed on the samples exposed at the rural station El Pardo. According to the visual examination, the samples of bare aluminum and those of anodized 5 μm thickness were the most affected by pitting corrosion in the highly polluted atmospheres. A good correlation between corrosion behaviour determined by visual examination and EN was obtained.

    Como parte de las investigaciones de la Red PATINA el grupo de trabajo Nº 5 dedicó su atención al comportamiento del aluminio desnudo y anodizado con diferentes espesores en diferentes atmósferas de Iberoamérica. En el presente trabajo se presenta una evaluación de patrones de aluminio 99,5 % de pureza desnudo y anodizado con espesores de 15 y 25 μm, mediante ruido electroquímico. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con el comportamiento determinado en diferentes atmósferas durante un período de 2 años. El ruido de voltaje del patrón de 5 μm de espesor presenta un comportamiento diferente al de los restantes espesores, lo que coincide con una mayor susceptibilidad a la corrosión picadura de este primer anodizado. Se reportan también algunas diferencias en el ruido de corriente. Se concluye que mediante la utilización del ruido electroquímico es posible caracterizar el aluminio con respecto a su sensibilidad a la corrosión picadura en condiciones atmosféricas.

  9. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Farsham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD. The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method:  Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants.Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of  facial emotional recognition between BPD and  SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001. A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008. A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(.The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  10. Comparing Facial Emotional Recognition in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Patients with Schizotypal Personality Disorder with a Normal Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsham, Aida; Abbaslou, Tahereh; Bidaki, Reza; Bozorg, Bonnie

    2017-04-01

    Objective: No research has been conducted on facial emotional recognition on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The present study aimed at comparing facial emotion recognition in these patients with the general population. The neurocognitive processing of emotions can show the pathologic style of these 2 disorders. Method: Twenty BPD patients, 16 SPD patients, and 20 healthy individuals were selected by available sampling method. Structural Clinical Interview for Axis II, Millon Personality Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Facial Emotional Recognition Test was were conducted for all participants. Discussion: The results of one way ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test analysis revealed significant differences in neuropsychology assessment of facial emotional recognition between BPD and SPD patients with normal group (p = 0/001). A significant difference was found in emotion recognition of fear between the 2 groups of BPD and normal population (p = 0/008). A significant difference was observed between SPD patients and control group in emotion recognition of wonder (p = 0/04(. The obtained results indicated a deficit in negative emotion recognition, especially disgust emotion, thus, it can be concluded that these patients have the same neurocognitive profile in the emotion domain.

  11. Impact of a behavioural sleep intervention on symptoms and sleep in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and parental mental health: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona; Gerner, Bibi; Efron, Daryl; Khano, Sonia; Oberklaid, Frank

    2015-01-20

    To examine whether behavioural strategies designed to improve children's sleep problems could also improve the symptoms, behaviour, daily functioning, and working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mental health of their parents. Randomised controlled trial. 21 general paediatric practices in Victoria, Australia. 244 children aged 5-12 years with ADHD attending the practices between 2010 and 2012. Sleep hygiene practices and standardised behavioural strategies delivered by trained psychologists or trainee paediatricians during two fortnightly consultations and a follow-up telephone call. Children in the control group received usual clinical care. At three and six months after randomisation: severity of ADHD symptoms (parent and teacher ADHD rating scale IV-primary outcome), sleep problems (parent reported severity, children's sleep habits questionnaire, actigraphy), behaviour (strengths and difficulties questionnaire), quality of life (pediatric quality of life inventory 4.0), daily functioning (daily parent rating of evening and morning behavior), working memory (working memory test battery for children, six months only), and parent mental health (depression anxiety stress scales). Intervention compared with control families reported a greater decrease in ADHD symptoms at three and six months (adjusted mean difference for change in symptom severity -2.9, 95% confidence interval -5.5 to -0.3, P=0.03, effect size -0.3, and -3.7, -6.1 to -1.2, P=0.004, effect size -0.4, respectively). Compared with control children, intervention children had fewer moderate-severe sleep problems at three months (56% v 30%; adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.59; Pfamilies reported greater improvements in all other child and family outcomes except parental mental health. Teachers reported improved behaviour of the children at three and six months. Working memory (backwards digit recall) was higher in the intervention

  12. A naturalistic study of the acceptability and effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for psychiatric disorders in older australians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Mewton

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the acceptability, effectiveness and uptake of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT amongst older individuals (>60 years seeking psychiatric treatment in general practice.The sample consisted of 2413 (mean age 39.5; range 18-83 years patients prescribed iCBT through This Way Up clinic by their primary care clinician. The intervention consisted of six fully automated, unassisted online lessons specific to four disorders major depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder or social phobia. Patients were categorised into five age groups (18-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60 years and above. 225 (9.3% patients were aged over 60 years. Analyses were conducted across the four disorders to ensure sufficient sample sizes in the 60 years and older age group. Age differences in adherence to the six lesson courses were assessed to demonstrate acceptability. Age-based reductions in psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; K10 and disability (the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule; WHODAS-II were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. To evaluate the uptake of iCBT, the age distribution of those commencing iCBT was compared with the prevalence of these disorders in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being.Older adults were more likely to complete all six lessons when compared with their younger counterparts. Marginal model analyses indicated that there were significant reductions in the K10 and WHODAS-II from baseline to post-intervention, regardless of age (p<0.001. The measurement occasion by age interactions were not significant, indicating that individuals showed similar reductions in the K10 and WHODAS-II regardless of age. In general, the age distribution of individuals commencing the iCBT courses matched the age distribution of the four diagnoses in the Australian general population, indicating that i

  13. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  14. Volunteers as Teachers of Child Management to Parents of Behaviour-Disordered Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Frederick W.; France, Karyn G.

    1984-01-01

    Ten women volunteers were trained as teachers of child management skills to parents of behavior-disordered preschoolers. Evaluation of the project's outcomes using a consumer satisfaction survey, parent ratings on a problem behavior checklist, and staff ratings of goal attainment, showed major changes in child behavior maintained at three-month…

  15. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A; Bornstein, Michael M; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  17. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD): Primary School Teachers' Knowledge of Symptoms, Treatment and Managing Classroom Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkin, Beryl; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Mwaba, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    ADHD is one of the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Teachers are a valuable source of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of the disorder. They also play a major role in creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine primary…

  18. Behaviour Disorders Related to Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    King'endo, Madrine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the behavior disorders displayed by secondary school students as a result of substance abuse. This would assist to train teachers on specialized intervention methods so that they can have knowledge on how to curb drug menace in learning institutions. The students were interrogated about substance abuse…

  19. An Analysis of Functional Assessment in Relation to Students with Serious Emotional and Behaviour Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowick, Blaine; Storey, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the functional assessment paradigm in relation to students with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who have well developed cognitive abilities and linguistic skills. Based on the needs of these students, the Assessment Intervention Process, a system for facilitating the development of effective positive behavior plans…

  20. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    play, and also in unstructured part than structured part. The findings highlighted the ‘motivational aspects’ of musical interaction between the child and the therapist, and supported the long-lived claims of improvisational music therapy, promoting self-expression’, emotional communication and social...... joint attention behaviours in children than free play. The most clinically relevant and important findings were that children displayed markedly more and longer events of ‘eye contact’ ‘joy’ ‘emotional synchronicity’ and ‘initiation of engagement’ spontaneously in improvisational music therapy than free...

  1. A comparative study of behavioural, physical and mental health status between term-limited and tenure-tracking employees in a population of Japanese male researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Yano, E

    2006-04-01

    Traditional lifelong employment systems have been changing rapidly in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the health impacts of term-limited employment systems that have recently been introduced into Japanese academic institutes. Cross-sectional. A total of 514 male researchers (275 term limited and 239 tenure track) were compared in terms of behavioural, physical and mental status at annual health examinations. At these examinations, working hours and health-related lifestyles were examined using a self-completed questionnaire. Clinical structured interviews of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were used to detect major depression. The term-limited researchers tended to work longer hours (Pbreakfast less regularly (P0.05) between the two groups, fatigue was more prevalent (P=0.027) in the term-limited researchers than in the tenure-track researchers, adjusting for the effects of age. Compared with colleagues working in the same laboratories, the term-limited researchers worked longer hours, irrespective of fatigue, whereas only the fatigued tenure-track researchers worked longer hours. In the total sample, the fatigued researchers tended to belong to laboratories where their colleagues, on average, worked longer hours, compared with the non-fatigued researchers. These results imply that the term-limited researchers suffered more from fatigue, due to longer working hours, than their colleagues, and that organized, rather than personal, interventions with respect to the working environment may be effective in reducing overload in such workplaces.

  2. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  4. Depressive disorder and social stress in Pakistan compared to people of Pakistani origin in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Nasim; Tomenson, Barbara; Jackson, Judy; Gater, Richard; Creed, Francis

    2011-11-01

    Depressive disorder is more common in low to middle than high-income countries, but the reasons for this have not been explicitly defined. We compared the results of two population-based studies of people of Pakistani origin: one living in rural Pakistan and one in UK. Both samples were screened with the self-reporting questionnaire followed by research interview to determine depressive disorders and social stress. Logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence of depressive disorder in the two countries after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and social stress. The estimated prevalence of depression for men was 35.8% (95% CI 16.1-55.5) in Pakistan and 9% (5.0-13.0) in Manchester (pstress (both sexes). 35% of women in Pakistan and 71% of those in UK had received 8 years or more of education. Extremely poor housing and marked poverty were experienced by 36.1% of women in Pakistan and 0.6% of those in Manchester. In Pakistan, housing and poverty predominated as correlates of depression, whereas in Manchester it was marked difficulties in physical health and close relationships. The results suggest that the higher rate of depressive disorder amongst women in Pakistan compared to UK can be attributed to less education and frequent severe social difficulties. These differences have implications for treatment.

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders among video display terminal (VDT workers comparing with other office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Akbari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsScientific and industrial development has led to increased production,which has been associated with different complications, including occupational stress, and increased incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders arefrequent causes of absenteeism in developed countries. We designed this study to assess musculoskeletal disorders and occupational stress among video display terminal (VDT workers in comparison with other office workers.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study on 72 VDT workers (case and 145 office workers (control. In this study we used Nordic and Osipow questionnaires in order to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders and job stress, respectively. The questionnaires were filled by direct interview. T test, chi square, Fisher test and logistic regression were used for data analysis.ResultsThe frequency of musculoskeletal disorders among VDT users in the last 12 months was 46.5%, 20.3%, 5.1%, 12.4% and 57.6% in neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist and low back areas, respectively. The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints in neck, shoulder and wrist and mean score of occupational stress was significantly higher in the case group comparing with controlgroup, and both results were statistically significant.ConclusionVDT working is a high-risk job for musculoskeletal disorders. In this study the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders, especially in high-risk regions for this job, was higher in VDTworkers than other office workers. We recommend to perform other studies in order to find non-ergonomic points and postures in these persons.

  6. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAXENA, SHEKHAR; JANÉ-LLOPIS, EVA; HOSMAN, CLEMENS

    2006-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice. PMID:16757984

  7. Prevention of mental and behavioural disorders: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shekhar; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hosman, Clemens

    2006-02-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity have proven to reduce mental health problems. Specific interventions to increase resilience in children and adolescents through parenting and early interventions, and programmes for children at risk for mental disorders such as those who have a mentally ill parent or have suffered parental loss or family disruption, have also shown to increase mental well-being and decrease depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive disorders. Interventions for the adult population, from macro-policy strategies, such as taxation of alcohol products or workplace legislation, to individual support for those with signs of a mental disorder, can reduce mental health problems and associated social and economic burdens. Exercise, social support or community participation have also shown to improve mental health of older populations. Public mental health will benefit from continuing building the evidence base through combining different evaluation methods across low, middle and high income countries. The translation of evidence into policy and practice calls for action at the international, national and local level, including building capacity, advocacy, mainstreaming mental health into public health and other policies and securing infrastructures and sustainability. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in improving the evidence on prevention and promotion in mental health, in engaging relevant stakeholders for developing programmes, and as professional care providers in their practice.

  8. Comparative study of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 and AISI 439 stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Claret Soares Sabioni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a comparison of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 austenitic and AISI 439 ferritic stainless steels. The oxidation experiments were performed between 850 and 950 °C, in oxygen and Ar (100 vpm H2. In most cases, it was formed a Cr2O3 protective scale, whose growth kinetics follows a parabolic law. The exception was for the the AISI 304 steel, at 950 °C, in oxygen atmosphere, which forms an iron oxide external layer. The oxidation resistance of the AISI 439 does not depend on the atmosphere. The AISI 304 has the same oxidation resistance in both atmospheres, at 850 °C, but at higher temperatures, its oxidation rate strongly increases in oxygen atmosphere. Concerning the performance of these steels under oxidation, our results show that the AISI 439 steel has higher oxidation resistance in oxidizing atmosphere, above 850 °C, while, in low pO2 atmosphere, the AISI 304 steel has higher oxidation resistance than the AISI 439, in all the temperature range investigated.

  9. Comparative study of the creep behaviour of single crystals and polycrystals of alpha uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.P.

    1964-03-01

    In the first chapter, one describes the creep machine developed to study the deformation of uranium at high temperature in vacuum with a continuous recording. The second chapter presents the results concerning the polycrystals of uranium. The application of the DORN method gives an activation energy for creep of 42 ± 2 Kc, above 550 Celsius degrees, equal to the activation energy for self-diffusion. The study of the variation of the creep rate with the applied stress and the metallographic observations of the deformation induced polygonization allow to conclude that the deformation is controlled by climb of dislocations. In the third chapter, the deformation above 550 Celsius degrees of single crystals of uranium (obtained by β → α change) is studied. The major deformation mode is slip. The preexisting polygonization of these single crystals is very stable and the disorientation between adjacent sub-grains increases with the deformation. The activation energy for creep is higher than that for polycrystals. These results show the influence of the polygonization due to the β → α change on the creep behaviour of α uranium. (authors) [fr

  10. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushon Farmanara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. In contrast, Canadian interventions at the federal level were centred on knowledge exchange and advocacy, primarily through the Mental Health Commission of Canada. While significant improvements were made during this period to increase CBT access in England, there continues to be an insufficient availability of psychological services to meet the growing need in Canada. While a national roll-out akin to the IAPT program in England is unlikely in Canada, similar reforms could be initiated at the provincial level of government. Indeed, several provincial governments have acknowledged the need for an expansion of CBT services and, over the last decade, some have tried to make CBT techniques more widely accessible. We review the case of the Bounce Back program developed in British Columbia (BC to illustrate this potential in the Canadian context. Best practices indicate that care is needed beyond the provision of psychiatric services and pharmacotherapy alone, and the initial results of both the IAPT program and BC’s Bounce Back program strongly suggest that it is possible to provide these cost-effective services in a public system.

  11. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD: Primary school teachers' knowledge of symptoms, treatment and managing classroom behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Topkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ADHD is one of the most common chronic conditions of childhood. Teachers are a valuable source of information with regard to referral and diagnosis of the disorder. They also play a major role in creating an environment that is conducive to academic, social and emotional success for children with ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine primary school teachers' knowledge of the symptoms and management of children in their classrooms who were diagnosed with ADHD. The participants were 200 South African primary school teachers (178 female, 22 male; mean age = 43 years of children enrolled in Grades One to Four. A self-administered questionnaire, the Knowledge of Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS, which measures the misperceptions and understanding of the disorder, was used to collect the data. The results indicated that overall, 45% of the teachers correctly identified the responses to the items asked in the questionnaire. The "don't know responses" accounted for 31% of responses, while 22% of the responses were incorrectly identified. Furthermore, teachers were more knowledgeable of the general associated features of ADHD than of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. A majority of teachers indicated that they had received training. These findings suggest a need to consider improving evidenced-based classroom interventions for ADHD among South African teachers.

  12. A comparative analysis of the effect of gaseous fission products release on the thermal behaviour of oxide fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totev, T.L.; Kolev, I.G.

    1992-01-01

    Four different models of gaseous fission product release are compared in order to assess the relative effect of thermal characteristics of the fuel rods. The results show that the use of Weisman and EPRI models at a high burnup (over 50000 MW.d/tU) leads to almost the same figures of maximum fuel temperature and gas gap thermal conductivity. The use of Beyer-Hann (Betelle) and Pazdera-Valach (Rzez) models leads to under prediction of the fuel element thermal characteristics. A conclusion has been made that the Weisman model is the most suitable for the WWER-type fuel elements behaviour prediction. 10 refs., 7 figs

  13. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  14. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive–behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Curtis, Charles; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Dalgleish, Tim; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heiervang, Einar R.; Hötzel, Katrin; Hudson, Jennifer L.; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Marin, Carla E.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Breen, Gerome; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. Aims To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980). Method Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Results No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P = 5 × 10−8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5 × 10−6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis. Conclusions This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts. PMID:26989097

  15. Prediction of outcome in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Fabian; Sauer, Sebastian; Andersson, Erik; Månsson, Kristoffer Nt; Mataix-Cols, David; Rück, Christian; Serlachius, Eva

    2018-03-01

    There are no consistent predictors of treatment outcome in paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One reason for this might be the use of suboptimal statistical methodology. Machine learning is an approach to efficiently analyse complex data. Machine learning has been widely used within other fields, but has rarely been tested in the prediction of paediatric mental health treatment outcomes. To test four different machine learning methods in the prediction of treatment response in a sample of paediatric OCD patients who had received Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT). Participants were 61 adolescents (12-17 years) who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial and received ICBT. All clinical baseline variables were used to predict strictly defined treatment response status three months after ICBT. Four machine learning algorithms were implemented. For comparison, we also employed a traditional logistic regression approach. Multivariate logistic regression could not detect any significant predictors. In contrast, all four machine learning algorithms performed well in the prediction of treatment response, with 75 to 83% accuracy. The results suggest that machine learning algorithms can successfully be applied to predict paediatric OCD treatment outcome. Validation studies and studies in other disorders are warranted. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Performance Anxiety Disorder: Developing a Proposal for an Inventory, According to the Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Varvatsoulias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial aims at the presentation of a proposal regarding an inventory about performance anxiety disorder in a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT framework. It provides some initial understanding as to that condition and how CBT could assist in the consideration of it counter to social anxiety disorder. At first, there is an introduction to performance anxiety in line to social anxiety/phobia and some questionnaires that have been developed which include performance anxiety as an element of social anxiety/phobia. Then, I am presenting the proposal, both in view to the rationale for that and the construction of an inventory with items drawn from elements that performance anxiety is related with, such as uneasiness about worry, self-focus issues of perfectionism and internal/external shame ideas. The statements in the inventory refer to hypothetical examples in life so inventory to be easily responded to, when administered to participants. This proposal closes with the conclusion that the questionnaire will be pilot-studied in the future by the author so the feasibility of it and/or possible changes to be considered when empirically studied.

  17. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (INCA study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, Lidy M.; Frankena, Klaas; Toorman, Jan; Savelkoul, Huub F.; Dubois, Anthony E.; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Haagen, Ton A.; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of a restricted elimination diet in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have mainly been investigated in selected subgroups of patients. We aimed to investigate whether there is a connection between diet and behaviour in an unselected group of

  19. Lessons Learned While Developing, Adapting and Implementing a Pilot Parent-Mediated Behavioural Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jasmine M.; Rubenstein, Eric; Tsai, Peng-Chou; Rahman, Hafizur; Rieth, Sarah R.; Ali, Hasmot; Lee, Li-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries often have limited resources, underdeveloped health systems and scarce knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. The objectives of this preliminary study were to develop and adapt intervention materials and to train a native clinician to implement a community-based parent-mediated behavioural intervention in rural…

  20. Parents' Opinions about an Intervention to Manage Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anna R.; Grahame, Victoria; Garland, Deborah; Gaultier, Fiona; Lecouturier, Jan; Le Couteur, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social communication skills. We report data collected via focus group discussions as part of a feasibility and acceptability pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) about a new parent group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB)…

  1. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  2. Clinical and dosimetric analysis of peculiarities of intellectual development, mental and behavioural disorders in children with oncological pathology of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovich, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 116 children with thyroid cancer was conducted in 1995-1997. On the basis of the data obtained the three-level system of prophylaxis and correction of mental and behavioural disorders in the children suffering from thyroid cancer has been developed

  3. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy versus a Counselling Intervention for Anxiety in Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne M.; Chowdhury, Uttom; White, Susan W.; Reynolds, Laura; Donald, Louisa; Gahan, Hilary; Iqbal, Zeinab; Kulkarni, Mahesh; Scrivener, Louise; Shaker-Naeeni, Hadi; Press, Dee A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) as a treatment for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been explored in a number of trials. Whilst CBT appears superior to no treatment or treatment as usual, few studies have assessed CBT against a control group receiving an alternative therapy. Our randomised controlled…

  4. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Person with an Autism Spectrum Condition and Intellectual Disability: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Neil; Allez, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the difficulties in assessing and treating PTSD in people with intellectual disability is that it may not present with the typical symptoms associated with the disorder. This may be why there is a dearth of literature on the treatment of PTSD using cognitive behavioural approaches for people with intellectual disability (e.g.…

  5. Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos M.C.A.; Geraets, Chris N.W.; Veling, Wim; van Beilen, Marije; Staring, Anton B.P.; Gijsman, Harm J.; Delespaul, Philippe A.E.G.; van der Gaag, Mark

    Background: Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. Methods:

  6. Needs of Persons with Severe Intellectual Disabilities: A Q-Methodological Study of Clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuger, Linda; van Exel, Job; Nieboer, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: A demand-oriented approach is becoming increasingly important in care provision. The purpose of this study was to identify the primary needs of clients with Severe Behavioural Disorders and Severe Intellectual Disabilities. Materials and Methods: We used the theory of Social Production Function and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to…

  7. Alexithymia, depression and anxiety in parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorder: Comparative study of autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, İbrahim; Kara, Koray; Almbaideen, Mahmoud; Karaman, Dursun; Gül, Hesna

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and their relatives have problems expressing and recognizing emotions, but there is a lack of studies on alexithymia, and the relationship between parental alexithymia and depression-anxiety symptoms in these groups. The aim of this study was therefore to measure alexithymia, depression, and anxiety levels in parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and determine whether there is a positive correlation between the child's neurodevelopmental problem severity and parent scores. Parents of 29 autistic disorder (AD), 28 pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and 29 ADHD children were recruited into the study, and completed a demographic information form, as well as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Alexithymia symptoms were higher in parents of children with AD than in others but unexpectedly, also these symptoms were higher in ADHD parents than in PDD-NOS groups. In addition, there were unexpected differences according to alexithymia subtype, while only the difference in maternal TAS-1 scores (difficulty in describing feelings) were statistically significant. Parental depression and state anxiety scores were increased as the child's symptom severity increased, but trait anxiety symptoms were higher in the AD and ADHD group than in the PDD-NOS group. In all groups, maternal depression and anxiety scores were higher than paternal scores, and differences were significant for depression and anxiety types in AD, and for only anxiety types in ADHD parents. The AD group had the strongest correlation between parental depression-anxiety and alexithymia. The possibility of alexithymia, depression and anxiety should be kept in mind when working with parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Personality disorder traits, family environment, and alcohol misuse: a multivariate behavioural genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Vernon, P A; Livesley, W J

    2000-06-01

    This study seeks to estimate the extent to which a common genetic and environmental basis is shared between (i) traits delineating specific aspects of antisocial personality and alcohol misuse, and (ii) childhood family environments, traits delineating broad domains of personality pathology and alcohol misuse. Postal survey data were collected from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Twin pairs were recruited from Vancouver, British Columbia and London, Ontario, Canada using newspaper advertisements, media stories and twin clubs. Data obtained from 324 monozygotic and 335 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the extent to which traits delineating specific antisocial personality traits and alcohol misuse shared a common genetic and environmental aetiology. Data from 81 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the degree to which traits delineating personality pathology, childhood family environment and alcohol misuse shared a common aetiology. Current alcohol misuse and personality pathology were measured using scales contained in the self-report Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology. Perceptions of childhood family environment were measured using the self-report Family Environment Scale. Multivariate genetic analyses showed that a subset of traits delineating components of antisocial personality (i.e. grandiosity, attention-seeking, failure to adopt social norms, interpersonal violence and juvenile antisocial behaviours) are influenced by genetic factors in common to alcohol misuse. Genetically based perceptions of childhood family environment had little relationship with alcohol misuse. Heritable personality factors that influence the perception of childhood family environment play only a small role in the liability to alcohol misuse. Instead, liability to alcohol misuse is related to genetic factors common a specific subset of antisocial personality traits describing conduct problems, narcissistic and stimulus

  9. The effectiveness of internet cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT for social anxiety disorder across two routine practice pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alishia D. Williams

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a common, chronic and disabling mental disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT is a highly effective treatment of SAD and internet CBT (iCBT offers a cost-effective and convenient alternative to face to face approaches, with high fidelity and demonstrated efficacy. The aim of the current paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of an iCBT programme for SAD (The This Way Up Clinic Shyness Programme when delivered in routine practice through two different pathways. Patients in the prescription pathway (Study 1, N = 368, 50% female, mean age = 34 were ‘prescribed’ the Shyness Programme by a registered practitioner of the This Way Up Clinic who supervised their progress throughout the programme. Patients in the referral pathway (Study 2, N = 192, 50% female, mean age = 36 were referred to the This Way Up Clinic and supervised by a specialist CBT clinician at the clinic. Intention-to-treat marginal model analyses demonstrated significant reductions in primary outcomes of social anxiety symptoms (Mini-SPIN and psychological distress (K10, corresponding to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = .82–1.09, 95% CIs .59–1.31 and secondary outcomes of impairment (WHODAS-II and depressive symptoms (PHQ9, corresponding to small effect sizes (Cohen's d = .36–.46, 95% CIs .19–.68 for patients in both pathways. Results provide evidence of the effectiveness of iCBT for social anxiety disorder when delivered in routine practice.

  10. A Comparison of Math Cover, Copy, Compare Intervention Procedures for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Reeva C; Gadke, Daniel L

    2018-03-01

    Cover, Copy, Compare (CCC) and Copy, Cover, Compare (MCCC) procedures are effective interventions for improving math fluency. However, there is a gap in literature exploring the use of these interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of CCC and MCCC for children with ASD using a multi-component single-case experimental design. The results showed no notable difference between the interventions. Implications and limitations, particularly surrounding experimental control, are discussed in detail.

  11. Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques when promoting physical activity: A systematic review comparing experimental and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Breanne E; Cook, Jill L; Freene, Nicole; Finch, Caroline F; Kemp, Joanne L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Gaida, James E

    2018-06-01

    Physiotherapists promote physical activity as part of their practice. This study reviewed the behaviour change techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity in experimental and observational studies. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies. Twelve databases were searched using terms related to physiotherapy and physical activity. We included experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapist-led physical activity interventions delivered to adults in clinic-based private practice and outpatient settings to individuals with, or at risk of, non-communicable diseases. Observational studies reporting the techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity were also included. The behaviour change techniques used in all studies were identified using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. The behaviour change techniques appearing in efficacious and inefficacious experimental interventions were compared using a narrative approach. Twelve studies (nine experimental and three observational) were retained from the initial search yield of 4141. Risk of bias ranged from low to high. Physiotherapists used seven behaviour change techniques in the observational studies, compared to 30 behaviour change techniques in the experimental studies. Social support (unspecified) was the most frequently identified behaviour change technique across both settings. Efficacious experimental interventions used more behaviour change techniques (n=29) and functioned in more ways (n=6) than did inefficacious experimental interventions (behaviour change techniques=10 and functions=1). Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques. Less behaviour change techniques were identified in observational studies compared to experimental studies, suggesting physiotherapists use less BCTs clinically than experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Collaborative Care for patients with severe borderline and NOS personality disorders: A comparative multiple case study on processes and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koekkoek Bauke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured psychotherapy is recommended as the preferred treatment of personality disorders. A substantial group of patients, however, has no access to these therapies or does not benefit. For those patients who have no (longer access to psychotherapy a Collaborative Care Program (CCP is developed. Collaborative Care originated in somatic health care to increase shared decision making and to enhance self management skills of chronic patients. Nurses have a prominent position in CCP's as they are responsible for optimal continuity and coordination of care. The aim of the CCP is to improve quality of life and self management skills, and reduce destructive behaviour and other manifestations of the personality disorder. Methods/design Quantitative and qualitative data are combined in a comparative multiple case study. This makes it possible to test the feasibility of the CCP, and also provides insight into the preliminary outcomes of CCP. Two treatment conditions will be compared, one in which the CCP is provided, the other in which Care as Usual is offered. In both conditions 16 patients will be included. The perspectives of patients, their informal carers and nurses are integrated in this study. Data (questionnaires, documents, and interviews will be collected among these three groups of participants. The process of treatment and care within both research conditions is described with qualitative research methods. Additional quantitative data provide insight in the preliminary results of the CCP compared to CAU. With a stepped analysis plan the 'black box' of the application of the program will be revealed in order to understand which characteristics and influencing factors are indicative for positive or negative outcomes. Discussion The present study is, as to the best of our knowledge, the first to examine Collaborative Care for patients with severe personality disorders receiving outpatient mental health care. With the chosen

  13. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Alguacil, Juan; Gil, Fernando; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rojas-García, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese is the only one for which there is more evidence of the existence of association with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. - Highlights: • We evaluated the association between As, Cd and Mn with neurodevelopment in

  14. Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Lacasaña, Marina, E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Centre Superior d' Investigació en Salut Pública, Conselleria de Sanitat, Valencia (Spain); Alguacil, Juan [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Gil, Fernando [Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, Beatriz [Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada (Spain); Rojas-García, Antonio [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence published to date on the potential effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children exposed to arsenic, cadmium and manganese and to quantify the magnitude of the effect on neurodevelopment by pooling the results of the different studies. We conducted a systematic review of original articles from January 2000 until March 2012, that evaluate the effects on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders due to pre or post natal exposure to arsenic, cadmium and manganese in children up to 16 years of age. We also conducted a meta-analysis assessing the effects of exposure to arsenic and manganese on neurodevelopment. Forty-one articles that evaluated the effects of metallic elements on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders met the inclusion criteria: 18 examined arsenic, 6 cadmium and 17 manganese. Most studies evaluating exposure to arsenic (13 of 18) and manganese (14 of 17) reported a significant negative effect on neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders. Only two studies that evaluated exposure to cadmium found an association with neurodevelopmental or behavioural disorders. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a 50% increase of arsenic levels in urine would be associated with a 0.4 decrease in the intelligence quotient (IQ) of children aged 5–15 years. Moreover a 50% increase of manganese levels in hair would be associated with a decrease of 0.7 points in the IQ of children aged 6–13 years. There is evidence that relates arsenic and manganese exposure with neurodevelopmental problems in children, but there is little information on cadmium exposure. Few studies have evaluated behavioural disorders due to exposure to these compounds, and manganese