WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviour change interventions

  1. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  2. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  3. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  4. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  5. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  6. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart Jh

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  7. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  8. Digital Behaviour Change Interventions for Osteoarthritis - A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Berry

    2015-10-01

    •\tTo examine how uptake and usage of digital interventions has been reported Methods: A pre-defined search was carried out using databases including: AMED, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Psycinfo, Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Articles were included if: they reported PA data; included people with OA; and if the intervention was accessed via a digital platform. Results: The database searches generated 2132 published papers. After applying selection criteria, eight studies were included in the final review. 5 out of the 8 included studies showed a statistically significant increase in self-reported levels of PA for up to 12 months. A number of outcome measures were used but were predominantly self-reported. BCTs used included: goal setting, action planning, problem solving, feedback, shaping knowledge, self-talk, and self-monitoring. Most studies (n=6 were based on social cognitive theory. A variety of methods were employed to report uptake and usage of digital interventions, making it difficult for comparisons to be made. Discussion and Conclusions: There is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of internet based interventions to increase PA in OA. Most studies rely on self-report to determine change in levels of PA; objective measurement may be beneficial. Interventions were generally based on Social Cognitive Theory; other constructs may increase effectiveness. Clearer reporting of BCTs and intervention usage is needed.

  9. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  10. Web-assisted tobacco intervention in Portuguese : intentions to make behavioural changes and behavioural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT - The problem of how to support “intentions to make behavioural changes” (IBC) and “behaviour changes” (BC) in smoking cessation when there is a scarcity of resources is a pressing issue in public health terms. The present research focuses on the use of information and communications technologies and their role in smoking cessation. It is developed in Portugal after the ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (on 8 November 2005). The prevalence of smokers over fi...

  11. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jepson Ruth G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency. Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008. Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse, whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating. Almost 50% (n = 48 of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation. Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained

  12. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Heath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.

  13. An environmental social marketing intervention among employees: assessing attitude and behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory-Smith, D.; Wells, V.K.; Manika, D.; Graham, S

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of individual and organisational factors on two simultaneous environmental social marketing interventions (SmartPrint and heating/cooling) and types of behaviours (recycling, printing and heating/cooling), among employees of a British City Council. Using a quantitative methodology, in the form of a situated experiment, self-reported attitudes, perceptions of organisational support, self-reported behaviours and actual behaviours were measured before and after the ...

  14. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort. PMID:25084300

  15. Mapping barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory for Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON), a multi-site implementation intervention in acute care hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Julia E.; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Marquez, Christine; Almaawiy, Ummukulthum; Chan, Wai-Hin; D’Souza, Jennifer; Liu, Barbara; Straus, Sharon E; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background As evidence-informed implementation interventions spread, they need to be tailored to address the unique needs of each setting, and this process should be well documented to facilitate replication. To facilitate the spread of the Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON) intervention, the aim of the current study is to develop a mapping guide that links identified barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory. Methods Focus groups were conducted with ...

  16. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  17. A randomised controlled trial of an exercise plus behaviour change intervention in people with multiple sclerosis: the step it up study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Coote, Susan; Gallagher, Stephen; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Larkin, Aidan; Newell, John; Motl, Robert; Hayes, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise has consistently yielded short-term, positive effects on health outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these effects have not been maintained in the long-term. Behaviour change interventions aim to promote long-term positive lifestyle change. This study, namely, “Step it Up” will compare the effect of an exercise plus Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based behaviour change intervention with an exercise plus control education intervention on walking mobility...

  18. A healthy eating and lifestyle school intervention : conceptual and attitudinal change but no behavioural change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Graça Simões; Vieira, Margarida; Anastácio, Zélia

    2012-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetables intake in adolescence is among main risk factors for obesity and other chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Establishing healthy eating habits in adolescents is of paramount importance to lead to future healthy adults, and school is the best place to take forward an effective approach to improve their food choices. The aim of this study was to investigate how far a specific school intervention is able to promote conceptual, attitudi...

  19. How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as key ...

  20. How do lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions? A protocol for a qualitative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as ...

  1. 'Making every contact count': Evaluation of the impact of an intervention to train health and social care practitioners in skills to support health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Tinati, Tannaze; Cradock, Sue; Begum, Rufia; Jarman, Megan; Pease, Anna; Margetts, Barrie; Davies, Jenny; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Barker, Mary

    2016-02-01

    A total of 148 health and social care practitioners were trained in skills to support behaviour change: creating opportunities to discuss health behaviours, using open discovery questions, listening, reflecting and goal-setting. At three time points post-training, use of the skills was evaluated and compared with use of skills by untrained practitioners. Trained practitioners demonstrated significantly greater use of these client-centred skills to support behaviour change compared to their untrained peers up to 1 year post-training. Because it uses existing services to deliver support for behaviour change, this training intervention has the potential to improve public health at relatively low cost. PMID:24713156

  2. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  3. Development of a behaviour change intervention: a case study on the practical application of theory

    OpenAIRE

    Porcheret, M; Main, C; Croft, P.; McKinley, R; Hassell, A.; Dziedzic, K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of theory in implementation of complex interventions is widely recommended. A complex trial intervention, to enhance self-management support for people with osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care, needed to be implemented in the Managing Osteoarthritis in Consultations (MOSAICS) trial. One component of the trial intervention was delivery by general practitioners (GPs) of an enhanced consultation for patients with OA. The aim of our case study is to describe the systematic selecti...

  4. Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, L.J.M.; Kogel, C.H. de; Nijman, H.L.I.; Raine, A.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Background A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical posit

  5. Choice architecture interventions for increased vegetable intake and behaviour change in a school setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine Riebeling; Houlby, Louise; Skov, Laurits Rohden;

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The primary objective of this review is to assess the prevalence and quality of published studies on the effect of choice architectural nudge interventions promoting vegetable consumption among adolescents. Additionally, this review aims to identify studies estimating adolescents’ attitude...... evaluated as of high, moderate or weak quality. Finally, studies were grouped by type of intervention and underwent a narrative synthesis. Results: The search showed that only very few studies investigated the effects of choice architectural nudging interventions on vegetable consumption and none of them...... architectural nudge interventions aiming to promote the intake of vegetables among adolescents in a school context. It also highlights that no previous studies have considered the attitudes towards choice architectural nudge interventions as a potential factor for their success – or lack thereof – in achieving...

  6. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  7. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  8. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed. PMID:26445201

  9. Predictors and change in dietary behaviours among young men : an intervention in the military

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Young men are difficult to reach with conventional nutrition information and they have a low intake of vegetables and fruits and whole grain cereals. The low intake of these foods gives rise to concern about their future health. Few intervention studies have focused on improving young men’s consumption of vegetables, fruits and whole grain cereals and few studies have explored important correlates of young men’s intake of vegetables. This study is a part of a larger project with the aim t...

  10. Statistical synthesis of contextual knowledge to increase the effectiveness of theory-based behaviour change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell

    2011-07-01

    Tailored implementation strategies targeting health professionals' adoption of evidence-based recommendations are currently being developed. Research has focused on how to select an appropriate theoretical base, how to use that theoretical base to explore the local context, and how to translate theoretical constructs associated with the key factors found to influence innovation adoption into feasible and tailored implementation strategies. The reasons why an intervention is thought not to have worked are often cited as being: inappropriate choice of theoretical base; unsystematic development of the implementation strategies; and a poor evidence base to guide the process. One area of implementation research that is commonly overlooked is how to synthesize the data collected in a local context in order to identify what factors to target with the implementation strategies. This is suggested to be a critical process in the development of a theory-based intervention. The potential of multilevel modelling techniques to synthesize data collected at different hierarchical levels, for example, individual attitudes and team level variables, is discussed. Future research is needed to explore further the potential of multilevel modelling for synthesizing contextual data in implementation studies, as well as techniques for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:21543383

  11. From Mobile Phone Monitoring of Depressive States using GPS Traces Analysis to Data-Driven Behaviour Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Canzian

    2015-10-01

    We have also shown that it is possible to develop inference algorithms as a basis for unobtrusive monitoring and prediction of depressive mood disorders. The key open question is how to exploit the correlations between mobility metrics and depressive states we observe in the data. We are currently exploring a variety of possible solutions for enabling automatic delivery of behaviour intervention through real-time analysis of the sensed data. The focus of this initial work is on a specific modality, i.e., GPS location, but the results of this work can be indeed exploited to build more complex system based on the analysis of data extracted by means of other sensors, such as accelerometers, and other sources of information, such as call and SMS logs. We indeed plan to use the application in future studies that will focus on specific populations, such as clinically-diagnosed depressed individuals. Ethical considerations are also an important part of our investigation: we believe that the potential risks associated to the delivery of incorrect behaviour interventions should be analysed in depth. A possible solution might consist in mixed intervention methods, based on the automatic delivery of behaviour interventions by means of mobile phones with the involvement of mental healthcare officers and clinicians, at least in case of mild and severe depressive cases.

  12. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Beecham, David; Barrett, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM) also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU's Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE), this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities. PMID:23983698

  13. The Applicability of Behaviour Change in Intervention Programmes Targeted at Ending Female Genital Mutilation in the EU: Integrating Social Cognitive and Community Level Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased migration, female genital mutilation (FGM also referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting is no longer restricted to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The European Parliament estimates that up to half a million women living in the EU have been subjected to FGM, with a further 180,000 at risk. Aware of the limited success of campaigns addressing FGM, the World Health Organization recommended a behavioural change approach be implemented in order to end FGM. To date, however, little progress has been made in adopting a behaviour change approach in strategies aimed at ending FGM. Based on research undertaken as part of the EU’s Daphne III programme, which researched FGM intervention programmes linked to African communities in the EU (REPLACE, this paper argues that behaviour change has not been implemented due to a lack of understanding relating to the application of the two broad categories of behaviour change approach: individualistic decision-theoretic and community-change game-theoretic approaches, and how they may be integrated to aid our understanding and the development of future intervention strategies. We therefore discuss how these can be integrated and implemented using community-based participatory action research methods with affected communities.

  14. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  15. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  16. A digital intervention to increase motivation and access to NHS Stop Smoking Services: Applying the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop the ‘Stop-app’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Fulton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smokers are four times more likely to stop smoking with the help of an NHS Stop Smoking Service (SSS. However attendance is in decline, possibly due to the increase in popularity of e-cigarettes. SSS’s will support smokers who choose to use e-cigarettes as part of a quit attempt, therefore interventions are needed to encourage continued access and uptake of SSS. Aim: To design an evidence based intervention (Stop-app to increase referrals, 4 week quit rates and reduce ‘did not attend’ (DNA rates within SSS. Methods/Results: In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at the service; the belief that there would be ’scare tactics’, ‘nagging’, that the service would be unfriendly and clinical; and a lack of perceived efficacy of the service. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. A range of factors were identified as needing to change. These aligned with capability (e.g. a lack of knowledge about the benefits of SSS, opportunity (e.g. beliefs that SSS are not easy to access and to motivation to act (e.g. beliefs that they did not need and would not benefit from SSS. We describe the content development process, illustrating the choice of 19 ‘Behaviour Change Techniques’ included in our digital intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the proposed intervention by interviewing stop smoking service advisors and non-NHS provider sites (e.g. library services and children’s centres. Findings from interviews are presented and have been used to consider the best path for implementation of the web-app within service provision. Conclusion: The ‘Stop –app’ is in development and will be accessible online, linking with the SSS booking system used by Public

  17. Web seminar: Behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, V

    2012-01-01

    The IDEAS project runs web seminars as part of its Technical Resource Centre. The IDEAS web seminar series aims to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. Seminar description: On 7 November 2012, join the IDEAS team for a varied presentation and discussion on behaviour change.This web seminar is part of a series IDEAS is running to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. There will be an opportunity for questions and comme...

  18. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the...... complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in...

  19. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  20. Exercise motivation in university community members : a behavioural intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila Ortís, Lluís; Niñerola Maymí, Jordi; Cruz Feliu, Jaume; Losilla Vidal, Josep Maria; Parrado Romero, Eva; Pintanel i Bassets, Mònica; Valero Herreros, Montse; Vives Brosa, Jaume

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how exercise level, exercise motives, and barriers changed from the baseline phase to the follow-up phase after a behavioural and cognitive intervention aimed at increasing exercise. Seventy-five members of our university community (43 subjects in the control group and 32 in the experimental group), all of whom received cognitive feedback, agreed to complete the baseline phase. Only the experimental group received behavioural feedback and a free-access...

  1. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chidrawi, H. Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The ...

  2. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  3. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental......-environmental behaviours. However, the spillover mostly affects low-cost behaviours. Not unexpectedly, the monetary inducement had a stronger direct impact on "green" shopping than verbal encouragement and praise. However, contrary to popular beliefs, the spillover effects of a monetary inducement on other pro......This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated to a...

  4. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  5. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, W.; Black, Christina; Davies, J H; Tinati, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women a...

  6. The need to promote behaviour change at the cultural level: one factor explaining the limited impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. A process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wight Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few of the many behavioral sexual health interventions in Africa have been rigorously evaluated. Where biological outcomes have been measured, improvements have rarely been found. One of the most rigorous trials was of the multi-component MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health programme, which showed improvements in knowledge and reported attitudes and behaviour, but none in biological outcomes. This paper attempts to explain these outcomes by reviewing the process evaluation findings, particularly in terms of contextual factors. Methods A large-scale, primarily qualitative process evaluation based mainly on participant observation identified the principal contextual barriers and facilitators of behavioural change. Results The contextual barriers involved four interrelated socio-structural factors: culture (i.e. shared practices and systems of belief, economic circumstances, social status, and gender. At an individual level they appeared to operate through the constructs of the theories underlying MEMA kwa Vijana - Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action – but the intervention was unable to substantially modify these individual-level constructs, apart from knowledge. Conclusion The process evaluation suggests that one important reason for this failure is that the intervention did not operate sufficiently at a structural level, particularly in regard to culture. Recently most structural interventions have focused on gender or/and economics. Complementing these with a cultural approach could address the belief systems that justify and perpetuate gender and economic inequalities, as well as other barriers to behaviour change.

  7. Past behaviour change success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. Coercion and force can induce behavior change. Authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. We tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). Global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug purity). Yet, setting guidance and control measures that are reasonable accepted by all people, groups, and cultures is more difficult in health matters involving personal choice and liberty. Marketing and advertising professionals are quite familiar with the science of behavior change. It is difficult to measure whether a health promotion campaign is a success. For example, the statistics show that the number of people who smoke and smoking-related illnesses and deaths is falling. This behavior change may be a result of health warnings on cigarette packets and bill boards and the activities of antismoking groups. Yet, many people have died during the 25 years of the antismoking campaign and many more still smoke even though they know the consequences of smoking. In 1991, participants at an African conference on AIDS drafted a belief statement that examines the complexities of behavior change and the great need to understand behavior change to stop the spread of HIV. The statement contends that people have an inherent capacity to change but the power to do so is often denied or not exercised. A supportive response to people living with HIV in the community is an important part of the process helping people begin to change and maintain health promoting behaviors. PMID:12159251

  8. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  9. What Are the Most Effective Intervention Techniques for Changing Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour--and Are They the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. L.; French, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used…

  10. Ethnographic methods for process evaluations of complex health behaviour interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Wood, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the contribution that ethnography could make to process evaluations for trials of complex health-behaviour interventions. Process evaluations are increasingly used to examine how health-behaviour interventions operate to produce outcomes and often employ qualitative methods to do this. Ethnography shares commonalities with the qualitative methods currently used in health-behaviour evaluations but has a distinctive approach over and above these methods. It is an overlooke...

  11. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  12. Evaluation of behavioural interventions in HIV/STI prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    There is an urgent need for well designed randomised trials to assess the impact of behavioural interventions at both individual and community levels in developed and developing countries. The relative lack of such studies partly reflects the particular challenges of applying randomised trials in this area. Although there are obvious differences between clinical and behavioural interventions, the principles underlying successful evaluation are not fundamentally different. Experience gai...

  13. Testing an integrated model of the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory for different energy balance-related behaviours and intervention intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Nele; Hagger, Martin; Streukens, Sandra; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse de; Claes, Neree

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to test the relations between constructs from the self-determination theory (autonomous and controlled motivation), the theory of planned behaviour (attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions), and behaviour change within a theoretically integrated model. Additionally, the aim was to test if these relations vary by behaviour (physical activity or dietary behaviour) or intervention intensity (frequency). Design It was a randomized controlled trial with a 'usua...

  14. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A; Butow, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (p<.05). The TPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result. PMID:22349778

  15. [Infertility: psychological-psychopathological consequences and cognitive-behavioural interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsi, C; Efthimiou, K

    2014-01-01

    Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term, however other causes can be found in both sexes. The diagnosis of infertility and the concurrent medical treatment are rather stressful events for the couple and can provoke a number of negative symptoms such as depression, anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms which may interfere with the medical therapeutic procedures especially with the in-vitro fertilisation technique. The relationship between infertility and psychological factors has not been explored fully and are still under research. However current findings can be summarized in three basic hypotheses; namely, the effect of psychological factors on the appearance of infertility, the psychological consequences of infertility at the couple, and the reciprocal relation of psychological factors and infertility. Stress and anxiety activate the hypothalamic-adrenal axis (HPA), and this activation can disturb the hormones of fertility. The presence of depressive/anxiety symptoms seems to have a negative impact on the treatment of infertility and sometimes can be a risk factor for lower pregnancy rate. There is a possibility that psychological complaints could develop, prior, during and after the diagnosis of infertility and may interfere with the fertilisation therapy. Should such psychological complaints develop it is suggested that psychotherapeutic treatment is used in conjunction with the treatment approach of infertility, e.g. IVF. The above mentioned suggestion is supported by a large number of researchers and current research efforts focus on different psychotherapeutic interventions such as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has shown during research its superiority compared to other psychotherapeutic interventions and that could be an effective way to decrease the depressive

  16. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E.; Dunsmuir, S., Atkinson, C. & Wright, S.; Duke-Williams, O.; Stamatakis, E.; Shelton, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whit...

  17. Family-Centred Applied Behaviour Analysis Verbal Behaviour Intervention for Young Taiwanese Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Szu-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Current educational policy promotes the use of evidence-based practices to maximize children's learning outcomes. With the goal of enhancing a child's ability to learn functional language, the purpose of this study was to focus on involving families through the utilization of evidence-based intervention based upon the Applied Behaviour Analysis…

  18. Perceptions and behaviour towards climate change and energy savings: the role of social media

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, Lara S. G.; Alani, Harith

    2015-01-01

    Success in promoting changes in behaviour is often dependent on the choice of interventions. This research investigates the use of social technology features as interventions to raise energy awareness and to promote a collective behaviour change towards saving energy. Aiming at understanding this scenario, an online survey was conducted to extract from Internet users their current position towards climate change, energy savings, and social media usage. Main results are reported in this paper ...

  19. Development and evaluation of a mass media Theory of Planned Behaviour intervention to reduce speeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Tagg, Stephen; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Eadie, Douglas

    2005-02-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has been widely applied to the explanation of health and social behaviours. However, despite its potential to inform behaviour change efforts, there have been surprisingly few attempts to use the TPB to design actual interventions. In 1998, the Scottish Road Safety Campaign implemented a 3-year mass media campaign to reduce speeding on Scotland's roads which was explicitly shaped by the TPB's three main predictors: Attitude, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioural Control. A 4-year longitudinal cohort study examined the impact of the campaign on communications outcomes and on TPB constructs. Overall, empirical support was found for the decision to use TPB as the theoretical underpinning of the advertising. The advertising was effective in triggering desired communications outcomes, and was associated with significant changes in attitudes and affective beliefs about speeding. In conclusion, future directions for road safety advertising and for TPB research are discussed. PMID:15198999

  20. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-01-01

    Background Conference theme: Using behaviour change theory to create high-quality interventions and products. BetterPoints is a localised behaviour change system that uses incentivisation, recognition and social interaction – all driven by an innovative technology. Our main method of engagement is a proprietary smartphone app. The app is part of a powerful behaviour change technology platform that allows rapid customisation, massive reward flexibility and sophisticated reporting. This...

  1. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-10-01

    The BetterPoints system is unique in it’s flexibility and ability to draw on multiple behaviour change models to create high quality interventions. Early findings from existing programmes being implemented for Local Authorities in the UK suggest that BetterPoints can demonstrate real-world behaviour change. We would like to work with academic partners to further investigate these real-world changes in behaviour and establish a robust evidence base.

  2. Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Importance Of Early Developmental And Behavioural Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interaction. Parent mediated behavioural interventions are effective in the management of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Children with autistic symptoms who receive earlier referrals to specialists and obtain intensive behavioural intervention achieve optimal outcomes.

  3. The Effectiveness of Mobile-Health Technology-Based Health Behaviour Change or Disease Management Interventions for Health Care Consumers: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Free, C.; Phillips, G; Watson, L.; Galli, L.; Felix, L; Edwards, P.; Patel, V.; Haines, A.

    2013-01-01

    Editors’ Summary Background Over the past few decades, computing and communication technologies have changed dramatically. Bulky, slow computers have been replaced by portable devices that can complete increasingly complex tasks in less and less time. Similarly, landlines have been replaced by mobile phones and other mobile communication technologies that can connect people anytime and anywhere, and that can transmit text messages (short message service; SMS), photographs, and data at the tou...

  4. A complex behavioural change intervention to reduce the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in the pre-conception period in Malaysia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Skau, Jutta KH; Nordin, Awatef BA; Cheah, Julius CH; Ali, Roslinah; Zainal, Ramli; Aris, Tahir; Ali, Zainudin M; Matzen, Priya; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Mark A Hanson; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past two decades, the population of Malaysia has grown rapidly and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia has dramatically increased, along with the frequency of obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension. Early-life influences play an important role in the development of non-communicable diseases. Indeed, maternal lifestyle and conditions such as gestational diabetes mellitus or obesity can affect the risk of diabetes in the next generation. Lifestyle changes can ...

  5. Effects of a behavioural intervention on quality of life and related variables in angioplasty patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appels, Ad; van Elderen, Therese; Bär, Frits;

    2006-01-01

    The EXhaustion Intervention Trial investigated the effect of a behavioural intervention programme on exhaustion, health-related quality of life (HRQL), depression, anxiety, hostility, and anginal complaints in angioplasty patients who felt exhausted after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  6. Book review: nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Peter John’s latest book investigates how to get the best out of nudge, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden.

  7. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    intervention was effective in eliciting a behavioural change toward a more active lifestyle among people with subacute spinal cord injury. Trial registration: NTR2424. [Nooijen CFJ, Stam H, Bergen MP, Bongers-Janssen HMH, Valent L, van Langeveld S, Twisk J, Act-Active Research Group, van den Berg-Emons RJG (2016 A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 35–41

  8. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon R. Barnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1 based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2 have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  9. Leadership challenges in change intervention and navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Carolus Reinecke; UKPERE, Wilfred; Visagie, Jan Christoffel

    2012-01-01

    The success of any change intervention depends on the leadership of the organisation. It is therefore important to note that leadership is an enabler of any type of change. Quite often organisations require transformational leadership for the successful implementation of any change intervention. Transformational leaders focus on three critical activities namely the creation of a compelling sense of vision, the mobilization of commitment to the vision and the implementation of change. In gener...

  10. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    OpenAIRE

    Gift Vinger; Frans Cilliers

    2006-01-01

    The South African higher education (HE) sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effec...

  11. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the...... target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  12. Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Importance Of Early Developmental And Behavioural Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interacti...

  13. Randomised controlled trial of behavioural infant sleep intervention to improve infant sleep and maternal mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, H; Wake, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of a behavioural sleep intervention with written information about normal sleep on infant sleep problems and maternal depression. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Well child clinics, Melbourne, Australia Participants 156 mothers of infants aged 6-12 months with severe sleep problems according to the parents. Main outcome measures Maternal report of infant sleep problem; scores on Edinburgh postnatal depression scale at two and four months. Intervention Discussion on behavioural infant sleep intervention (controlled crying) delivered over three consultations. Results At two months more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (53/76 v 36/76, P=0.005). Overall depression scores fell further in the intervention group than in the control group (mean change −3.7, 95% confidence interval −4.7 to −2.7, v −2.5, −1.7 to −3.4, P=0.06). For the subgroup of mothers with depression scores of 10 and over more sleep problems had resolved in the intervention group than in the control group (26/33 v 13/33, P=0.001). In this subgroup depression scores also fell further for intervention mothers than control mothers at two months (−6.0, −7.5 to −4.0, v −3.7, −4.9 to −2.6, P=0.01) and at four months (−6.5, −7.9 to 5.1 v –4.2, –5.9 to −2.5, P=0.04). By four months, changes in sleep problems and depression scores were similar. Conclusions Behavioural intervention significantly reduces infant sleep problems at two but not four months. Maternal report of symptoms of depression decreased significantly at two months, and this was sustained at four months for mothers with high depression scores. What is already known on this topicInfant sleep problems and postnatal depression are both common potentially serious problemsWomen whose infants have sleep problems are more likely to report symptoms of depressionUncontrolled studies in clinical populations suggest that reducing infant

  14. A mixed method analysis of an Early Intervention Program for students with behavioural and concentration difficulties in two schools in Malmö, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research, set in two schools in Malmö, Sweden, was to examine the outcomes of a combined approach of a behavioural modification program and a biofeedback intervention for students, aged 7 to 12, with behavioural and concentration difficulties. Biofeedback is the use of technology to measure physiological changes in the body (such as heart rate and breathing) and gives this information back to the user. The behavioural modification program was an intervention known as Family Cl...

  15. Changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Straker, Leon; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gardiner, Paul A; Hill, Kylie

    2016-04-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Given the evidence for the health benefits associated with participating in 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA each week, there is considerable interest in methods to increase PA in people with COPD. Studies to date have focused largely on exercise training and behavioural approaches, and many have demonstrated minimal, if any effect. An intermediate goal that focuses on reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing participation in light intensity PA is a more realistic goal in this population and offers a gateway to higher intensity PA. Although strategies that are capable of reducing time spent in SB in COPD are unknown, studies that have shown some increase in PA in this population often provide individualized goal setting, motivational interviewing and frequent contact with health-care professionals to provide advice regarding strategies to overcome barriers. Therefore, these approaches should be considered in interventions to reduce time in SB. There are a range of devices available to monitor time in SB for use in both clinical and research settings. To move this area forward, a theoretically informed and systematic approach to behaviour change is needed. The theoretical model, the 'behaviour change wheel', is described and an example is provided of how it can be applied to a person with COPD. PMID:26560834

  16. Mechanisms of behavioural maintenance: Long-term effects of theory-based interventions to promote safe water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Theory-based interventions can enhance people's safe water consumption, but the sustainability of these interventions and the mechanisms of maintenance remain unclear. We investigated these questions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour. Seven hundred and ten (445 analysed) randomly selected households participated in two cluster-randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh. Study 1 promoted switching to neighbours' arsenic-safe wells, and Study 2 promoted switching to arsenic-safe deep wells. Both studies included two intervention phases. Structured interviews were conducted at baseline (T1), and at 1-month (T2), 2-month (T3) and 9-month (T4) follow-ups. In intervention phase 1 (between T1 and T2), commitment-based behaviour change techniques--reminders, implementation intentions and public commitment--were combined with information and compared to an information-only control group. In phase 2 (between T2 and T3), half of each phase 1 intervention group was randomly assigned to receive either commitment-based techniques once more or coping planning with reminders and information. Initial well-switching rates of up to 60% significantly declined by T4: 38.3% of T2 safe water users stopped consuming arsenic-safe water. The decline depended on the intervention. Perceived behavioural control, intentions, commitment strength and coping planning were associated with maintenance. In line with previous studies, the results indicate that commitment and reminders engender long-term behavioural change. PMID:26304476

  17. Providing Training in Positive Behavioural Support and Physical Interventions for Parents of Children with Autism and Related Behavioural Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, David

    2014-01-01

    Though professionals working with children on the autism spectrum who display challenging behaviour routinely receive training in the use of both positive behavioural support techniques and physical interventions, such training is rarely provided for the parents of these children. This article reports on the impact of training provided for family…

  18. Disease Interventions Can Interfere with One Another through Disease-Behaviour Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Andrews

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of disease dynamics on networks can aid our understanding of how infectious diseases spread through a population. Models that incorporate decision-making mechanisms can furthermore capture how behaviour-driven aspects of transmission such as vaccination choices and the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs interact with disease dynamics. However, these two interventions are usually modelled separately. Here, we construct a simulation model of influenza transmission through a contact network, where individuals can choose whether to become vaccinated and/or practice NPIs. These decisions are based on previous experience with the disease, the current state of infection amongst one's contacts, and the personal and social impacts of the choices they make. We find that the interventions interfere with one another: because of negative feedback between intervention uptake and infection prevalence, it is difficult to simultaneously increase uptake of all interventions by changing utilities or perceived risks. However, on account of vaccine efficacy being higher than NPI efficacy, measures to expand NPI practice have only a small net impact on influenza incidence due to strongly mitigating feedback from vaccinating behaviour, whereas expanding vaccine uptake causes a significant net reduction in influenza incidence, despite the reduction of NPI practice in response. As a result, measures that support expansion of only vaccination (such as reducing vaccine cost, or measures that simultaneously support vaccination and NPIs (such as emphasizing harms of influenza infection, or satisfaction from preventing infection in others through both interventions can significantly reduce influenza incidence, whereas measures that only support expansion of NPI practice (such as making hand sanitizers more available have little net impact on influenza incidence. (However, measures that improve NPI efficacy may fare better. We conclude that the

  19. Effects of an Emotional Literacy Intervention for Students Identified with Bullying Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional…

  20. Socioeconomic gradients in the effects of universal school-based health behaviour interventions: a systematic review of intervention studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J.; Turley, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour emerge in early life before tracking into adulthood. Many interventions to improve childhood health behaviours are delivered via schools, often targeting poorer areas. However, targeted approaches may fail to address inequalities within more affluent schools. Little is known about types of universal school-based interventions which make inequalities better or worse. Methods Seven databases were searched using a range of natural languag...

  1. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Vinger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African higher education (HE sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effect change in their organisations. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was administered to 190 HE leaders, followed by individual interviews. It was found that these leaders exhibit transformational leadership fairly often and that, contrary to criticism, they manage change fairly successfully.

  2. Nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Peter John‘s recent book investigates how to get the best out of nudge theories, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden. Nudge, Nudge, Think, Think: Experimenting with Ways to Change Civic Behaviour. Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker and Corinne Wales. Bloomsbury Academic Publishing. September ...

  3. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Knowler, C.; Frederickson, N.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list com...

  4. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a

  5. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional

  6. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Flaura K.; Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research ...

  7. Behaviour change and social blinkers? The role of sociology in trials of self-management behaviour in chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-02-01

    Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context. PMID:24528304

  8. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  9. Replication of a whole school ethos-changing intervention: different context, similar effects, additional insights

    OpenAIRE

    Hawe, Penelope; Bond, Lyndal; Ghali, Laura M; Perry, Rosemary; Davison, Colleen M; Casey, David M; Butler, Helen; Webster, Cynthia M; Scholz, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole school, ethos-changing interventions reduce risk behaviours in middle adolescence, more than curriculum-based approaches. Effects on older ages are not known. We set out to replicate one of these interventions, Australia’s Gatehouse Project, in a rural Canadian high school. Methods A guided, whole school change process sought to make students feel more safe, connected, and valued by: changes in teaching practices, orientation processes, professional development of staff, reco...

  10. Effects of parent and child characteristics on participation and outcome of an individualized booster parent intervention for children with externalizing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Londen, M. van; Dekoviç, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether a booster parent training, offered after a cognitive behavioural child intervention, is effective in reduction of aggressive behaviour and changes in parenting. A second aim was to identify parent and child characteristics that influence parental participation. Chi

  11. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Direito, Artur; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklis...

  12. 'On Your Feet to Earn Your Seat', a habit-based intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B.; Thuné-Boyle, I.; Iliffe, S; Fox, K R; Jefferis, B. J.; Hamer, M.; Tyler, N.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many older adults are both highly sedentary (that is, spend considerable amounts of time sitting) and physically inactive (that is, do little physical activity). This protocol describes an exploratory trial of a theory-based behaviour change intervention in the form of a booklet outlining simple activities (‘tips’) designed both to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase physical activity in older adults. The intervention is based on the ‘habit formation’ model, which proposes t...

  13. Family-Based Behavioural Intervention Program for Obese Children: An Observational Study of Child and Parent Lifestyle Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Teder, Marie; Mörelius, Eva-Lotte; Nordwall, Maria; Bolme, Per; Ekberg, Joakim; Wilhelm, Elisabeth; Timpka, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Family-based behavioural intervention programs (FBIPs) against childhood obesity have shown promising results, but the mediating mechanisms have not been identified. The aim of this study was to examine changes in obese childreńs lifestyle habits during a 2-year FBIP according to their own and parents’ reports, the concordance between these reports and the correlations to change in post-intervention z-BMI. Methods An observational study of 26 children (8.3–12.0 years) and their par...

  14. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  15. 通过动机谈话促进2型糖尿病患者的行为改变——快乐生活俱乐部TM注项目报告(三)%The happy life club (3):Motivational interview as a key intervention of behaviour change among type 2 diabetes patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colette Browning; Shane Thomas; 杨辉; Anna Chapman; 张拓红; 李志新

    2011-01-01

    本文是快乐生活俱乐部系列文章之三,重点阐述慢性病管理的关键干预措施动机谈话的概念和相关理论、核心技术要点和实施环节,以及保证干预质量的主要措施,包括健康教练培训和实施过程监控.并讨论动机谈话等心理学服务技术对中国社区卫生服务政策、质量和医学教育的意义.%This is the third article of the Happy Life Club series.The article explores motivational interviewing (MI) as the key intervention of the project in changing behaviours of type 2 diabetes patients.Concept of the MI and related behaviour change models are discussed then followed detailed discussion on MI principle and key skills.MI training,process monitor and outcome assessment method are also explained.It concludes with implication discussion on how the motivational interviewing use as an innovation in healthcare settings for promoting patient-centre care and improving quality of care and quality of life.Improvement on health policy and medical education is also critical for ensuing quality of psychological and behaviour change services both in primary care and hospital services.

  16. Emotional Intervention on Stigmergy Based Foraging Behaviour of Immune Network Driven Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Tsankova, Diana

    2008-01-01

    The proposed stigmergy based foraging behaviour control using two artificial emotion mechanisms ? one as a superstructure over the immune navigator, and another as an advisor of puck picking up/dropping behaviour, improves the speed of the clustering process. The intervention of the EM1 on the immune navigator improves the collision-free goal following behaviour of each robot, which affects the final implementation of the

  17. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...... in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease...

  18. Do maternal attributions play a role in the acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yee Ki Kathy; Kovshoff, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between parental attributions and treatment acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD aged 3–9 years (N = 139) completed survey measures that assessed demographics, parental attributions, treatment acceptability of parent-focused and child-focused behavioural interventions, severity of their child's disruptive behaviour, and severity of their child'...

  19. Monitoring progress of the role of integration of environmental health education with water and sanitation services in changing community behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Ammal M; Saad, Amal; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Emam, Hanaa M; El-Etreby, Lobna A

    2007-02-01

    The health benefits of clean water, improved sanitation and better hygiene are now more recognized than ever before. The objective of the present study focused on monitoring the progress of behavioural changes towards appropriate behaviours related to water, environment and sanitation (WES). This was achieved through assessing the baseline community behaviours towards WES, exploring to what extent community hygienic behaviours had changed towards desirable and sustainable behaviours, through monitoring progress. The expected behavioural changes are results of an integrated package; safe water supply, sanitation, and hygiene education interventions produced by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The monitoring progress consisted of three household surveys that were administered over three years in four Egyptian districts within three Governorates; Fayoum, Beni Suef, and El-Menia. Behavioural changes were detected through special observation checklist indicators. These indicators were 7, 6, and 9 indicators each for personal hygienic behaviours, proper handling of drinking water, and proper use and maintenance of simple constructed sanitary latrines. The results from the baseline to mid-term and final surveys suggested improvement in the majority of the household behaviours towards the desirable behaviours. The proportions of the householders who practiced desirable behaviours were not to the same levels in the four districts. The results provide support to the concept that integrated interventions can produce a significant sustainable improvement in health promotion. PMID:17365081

  20. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Jorna, Michelle; Hume, Clare; Arundell, Lauren; Chahine, Natalie; Tienstra, Myrthe; Crawford, David

    2011-09-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered by teachers targeting children's television viewing, computer use, physical activity and potential mediators of behaviour change. Fifteen schools from disadvantaged areas in Melbourne, Australia agreed to participate in the study (43% school-level response rate). Out of the 1566 Grades 5 and 6 (9-12 year old) children invited to take part in the study, 1048 (67% response rate) provided informed consent. Schools were randomized to either an intervention or wait-list control condition. Teachers delivered six lessons, which included strategies such as self-monitoring, behavioural contracting and budgeting of screen time. Children completed a self-report survey at baseline and post-intervention examining screen-based behaviours, physical activity, self-efficacy and behavioural capability. Teachers reported implementation of and attitudes to the programme. Seventy-one per cent of teachers delivered at least four of the six lessons. Most teachers reported that the materials were easy to follow and deliver; however, many teachers reported modifying the materials in some way. Among boys, there were favourable small intervention effects on weekend screen time [(coefficient = -0.62, 95% 95% confidence interval: -1.15, -0.10, p = 0.020)]. The intervention also had significant positive effects on children's self-efficacy for reducing television viewing and on behavioural capability (television viewing styles). Future studies that assess the translation of efficacious programmes and that test whether such programmes are equally effective in different settings (e.g. in the family setting) are urgently required. PMID:21177770

  1. The 'balance intervention' for promoting caloric compensatory behaviours in response to overeating: a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Breedveld, Boudewijn; Kremers, Stef; Brug, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    To help people prevent weight gain, the Netherlands Nutrition Centre initiated the 'balance intervention', which promotes moderation of food intake and/or increased physical activity in response to occasions of overeating. The aim of this study was to determine whether intervention materials were appreciated, encouraged information seeking and increased motivation and caloric compensatory behaviours. A three-group randomized trial with pre-intervention measures (n = 963, response 86%) and post-intervention measures (n = 857) using electronic questionnaires was conducted among participants aged 25-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel. The first group received a printed brochure and electronic newsletters (print group), the second group was exposed to radio advertisements (radio group) and the third group was the control group. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of the materials on self-reported prevalence of overeating, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and compensatory behaviours. At follow-up, we found significantly more positive attitudes, intentions and dietary action in the print and radio groups. However, participants who received the radio advertisement had a significantly lower perceived behavioural control. No effects were found on the prevalence of overeating. The results indicate that the intervention materials have potential for increasing people's attitudes, motivation and self-reported behaviour actions, with a possible negative side-effect on perceived behavioural control. PMID:16606638

  2. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Ai May; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Sarmugam, Rani; Howard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculat...

  3. The effect of complex workplace dietary interventions on employees dietary behaviours, nutrition knowledge and health status

    OpenAIRE

    Geaney, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing prevalence and associated burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases is a global public health concern. The environments in which people live and work influences their dietary behaviours. Aim The focus of this thesis was on the effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions. The comparative effectiveness of a complex workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention were assessed both alone and in combination relat...

  4. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let?s Talk about the Children, LT) on children?s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with thei...

  5. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  6. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  7. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  8. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-Jaap; SCHULZE Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  9. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  10. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  11. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  12. Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

    2002-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

  13. Developing optimism : a cognitive-behavioural intervention to reduce stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Danielle Louise

    2011-01-01

    Optimistic explanatory style refers to the way in which individual’s routinely attribute cause to the events in their lives (Ambramson et al., 1978) and can be successfully enhanced through the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group-based workshops (Buchanan et al., 1999; Seligman et al., 2007). It has been successfully measured via the self-report Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ: Peterson et al., 1982) and has been associated with better performance and lower ...

  14. Acceptability of a theory of planned behaviour email-based nutrition intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, E J; Mullan, B A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated feasibility and acceptability of a new email-delivered intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a university-based population of Australian young adults. The study explored whether there are differences in the reported feasibility and acceptability between demographic groups within the population of interest and at three levels of intervention intensity. The email-delivered intervention program consists of an implementation intention 'planning task' and between 3 and 15 short email messages over a 15-day study period. The intervention program was developed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and was designed to modify perceived behavioural control. One hundred and ten participants (mean age = 19.21 years, 25.6% male) completed the feasibility and acceptability questionnaire at Day 15. This questionnaire contained items about all intervention components. High acceptability and feasibility scores were found for all intervention parts and at all levels of intervention intensity. There were few significant differences in the reported acceptability of items between key demographic sub-groups, and no differences in reported acceptability at different levels of intervention intensity. These results suggest that this email-delivered intervention is an acceptable and feasible tool for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption for participants in the target population. PMID:22942273

  15. Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Louise

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a rising prevalence of excessive weight gain in pregnancy and an increasing number of pregnant women who are overweight or obese at the start of the pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal consequences and increases the risk of long-term obesity. Pregnancy therefore may be a key time to prevent excessive weight gain and improve the health of women and their unborn child. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy and explore the factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. This included a meta-analysis of controlled trials of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views of women on weight management during pregnancy. A thorough search of eleven electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of included studies, relevant review articles and experts in the field were contacted to identify potentially relevant studies. Two independent reviewers extracted data. RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analyses. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data were aligned using a matrix framework. Results Five controlled trials and eight qualitative studies were included. The overall pooled effect size found no significant difference in gestational weight gain amongst participants in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference -0.28 95% CI -0.64 to 0.09. The study designs, participants and interventions all varied markedly and there was significant heterogeneity within this comparison in the meta-analysis (I2 67%. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis did not identify contextual elements that

  16. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyd Beal III

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB, in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change.Motivation for the study: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention.Research design, approach and method: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis.Main findings: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government

  17. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. PMID:25565009

  18. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  19. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome, Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1 verbal and nonverbal communication, (2 reciprocal social interaction and (3 repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions: * What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? * What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? * What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? * Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results: In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT, Applied behavioural analysis (ABA. Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and

  20. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study aimed to test the acceptability and short-term effectiveness of a telephone-delivered multiple health behaviour change intervention for relatives of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods A community-based sample of 22 first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer survivors were recruited via a media release. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks (post-intervention. Outcome measures included health behaviours (physical activity, television viewing, diet, alcohol, body mass index, waist circumference and smoking, health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 and perceived colorectal cancer risk. Intervention satisfaction levels were also measured. The intervention included six telephone health coaching sessions, a participant handbook and a pedometer. It focused on behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer [physical activity, diet (red and processed meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol, weight management and smoking], and colorectal cancer risk. Results From baseline to six weeks, improvements were observed for minutes moderate-vigorous physical activity (150.7 minutes, processed meat intake (−1.2 serves/week, vegetable intake (1 serve/day, alcohol intake (−0.4 standard drinks/day, body mass index (−1.4 kg/m2, and waist circumference (−5.1 cm. Improvements were also observed for physical (3.3 and mental (4.4 health-related quality of life. Further, compared with baseline, participants were more likely to meet Australian recommendations post-intervention for: moderate-vigorous physical activity (27.3 vs 59.1%; fruit intake (68.2 vs 81.8%; vegetable intake (4.6 vs 18.2%; alcohol consumption (59.1 vs 72.7%; body mass index (31.8 vs 45.5% and waist circumference (18.2 vs 27.3%. At six weeks participants were more likely to believe a diagnosis of CRC was related to family history, and there was a decrease in their perceived risk of developing CRC in their lifetime following

  1. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail. PMID:24559524

  2. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards; Jim Lumsden; Carol Rivas; Lindsey Edwards; Hope Caton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs),...

  3. Gaming concepts and incentives to change driver behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Roderick; Koenig, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept that deals specifically with changing driver behaviour in order to reduce traffic congestion. The project I-GEAR (incentives and gaming environments for automobile routing) aims to understand the motivations that drivers have while undertaking the daily commute and then to provide them with a range of incentives to change their behaviour. A key focus within the project is on ways in which the problem could potentially be solved without recourse to an e...

  4. Behaviour and climate change : consumer perceptions of responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Ponting, C.; Peattie, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the under-researched notion of consumer responsibility, a potentially significant influence on consumer behaviour that marketers and policymakers may be able to harness as they attempt to respond to environmental challenges such as climate change. The paper uses data derived from a commercially motivated survey (n = 1513) to explore domestic consumption behaviours most closely associated with the issue of disruptive climate change. A measure of 'General Environmental Respo...

  5. Changes in import pricing behaviour: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stahn, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Since changes in import prices feed into consumer prices and thus might affect monetary policy decisions, policymakers need to establish whether or not German importers' long-run pricing behaviour has changed. Of particular interest are any shifts in the importance of cost passthrough and pricing-to-market for import pricing in Germany that may have ocurred since the 1990s. We analyse pricing in single equations for 11 product categories because the factors influencing the pricing behaviour, ...

  6. Changes in Import Pricing Behaviour: Evidence for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstin Stahn

    2011-01-01

    Since changes in import prices feed into consumer prices and thus might affect monetary policy decisions, policymakers need to establish whether or not German importers’ long-run pricing behaviour has changed. Of particular interest are any shifts in the importance of cost passthrough and pricing-to-market for import pricing in Germany that may have ocurred since the 1990s. We analyse pricing in single equations for 11 product categories because the factors influencing the pricing behaviour, ...

  7. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  8. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically for...... food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest in the...

  9. Mobile Phone-Based Behavioural Interventions for Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Trudnak, Tara E.; Martinasek, Mary P.; Oberne, Alison B.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To perform a systematic review of the literature concerning behavioural mobile health (mHealth) and summarize points related to heath topic, use of theory, audience, purpose, design, intervention components, and principal results that can inform future health education applications. Design: A systematic review of the literature. Method:…

  10. Teacher-Reported Effects of the Playing-2-Gether Intervention on Child Externalising Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…

  11. Behavioural Intervention Effects in Dysarthria Following Stroke: Communication Effectiveness, Intelligibility and Dysarthria Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Lowit, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dysarthria is a common post-stroke presentation. Its management falls within the remit of the speech and language therapy profession. Little controlled evaluation of the effects of intervention for dysarthria in stroke has been reported. Aims: The study aimed to determine the effects of a period of behavioural communication…

  12. School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects on Academic, Social, and Behavioural Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit significant academic, social, and behavioural difficulties in school settings. This article reviews empirical findings regarding the effects of classroom interventions for students with ADHD. Three major types of interventions are reviewed including behavioural (e.g., token…

  13. A South African University practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Nicola J.; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary bac...

  14. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  15. The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Victoria; Sheffield, David

    2015-06-01

    A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption. PMID:26032793

  16. Evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of a behaviour change intervention for lowering cardiovascular disease risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care (PRIMROSE study):Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, David; Burton, Alexandra; Walters, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin; Heinkel, Samira; Atkins, Lou; Blackburn, Ruth; Holt, Richard I. G.; Hunter, Rachael Maree; King, Michael; Marston, Louise; Michie, Susan; Morris, Richard W.; Morris, Steve; Omar, Rumana Z.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPeople with severe mental illnesses die up to 20 years earlier than the general population, with cardiovascular disease being the leading cause of death. National guidelines recommend that the physical care of people with severe mental illnesses should be the responsibility of primary care; however, little is known about effective interventions to lower cardiovascular disease risk in this population and setting. Following extensive peer review, funding was secured from the United Ki...

  17. Behavioural and developmental interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a clinical systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much controversy exists regarding the clinical efficacy of behavioural and developmental interventions for improving the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of behavioural and developmental interventions for ASD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comprehensive searches were conducted in 22 electronic databases through May 2007. Further information was obtained through hand searching journals, searching reference lists, databases of theses and dissertations, and contacting experts in the field. Experimental and observational analytic studies were included if they were written in English and reported the efficacy of any behavioural or developmental intervention for individuals with ASD. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively and, where possible, meta-analyses of the study results were conducted. One-hundred-and-one studies at predominantly high risk of bias that reported inconsistent results across various interventions were included in the review. Meta-analyses of three controlled clinical trials showed that Lovaas treatment was superior to special education on measures of adaptive behaviour, communication and interaction, comprehensive language, daily living skills, expressive language, overall intellectual functioning and socialization. High-intensity Lovaas was superior to low-intensity Lovaas on measures of intellectual functioning in two retrospective cohort studies. Pooling the results of two randomized controlled trials favoured developmental approaches based on initiative interaction compared to contingency interaction in the amount of time spent in stereotyped behaviours and distal social behaviour, but the effect sizes were not clinically significant. No statistically significant differences were found for: Lovaas versus special

  18. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  19. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health. OBJECTIVE: To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research. RESULTS: We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of

  20. Design for Behaviour Change: Cooking towards a better future

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is an area that is gathering much attention these days in the design field. Its momentum probably spurred by decline in different areas seen around us. This is probably why there are uprisings of movements that attempt to move us away from current scenarios. We cannot really quantify the state of cooking behaviour due to its complex composition; but with the presence of food movements and their growing exertive pressures around the world, one cannot help but respon...

  1. Assessing intervention measures for anti-social behaviour : A case study of secondary school in Lobatse, Botswana. / Heather Modiane Sechele

    OpenAIRE

    Sechele, Heather Modiane

    2012-01-01

    Intervention for students' antisocial behaviour is a challenging issue for teachers in secondary schools. Even though Government has implemented intervention measures in secondary schools to assist teachers in interveni.ng in curbing antisocial behaviour by students, the problems of student misconduct still prevail. The purpose of this study was to investigate intervention measures employed to curb antisocial bebaviour by students in a secondary school in Lobatse Botswana. The researcher w...

  2. Changes in mobility behaviours, a comparison between 3 big cities

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents some results of a PhD research which is on changes in mobility behaviours. At the present time, while the policies try to manage and reduce automobile, motorization and car use are still very high. The objective is to analyse the reluctance to and the acceptance of a change of behaviours toward more sustainable mobility. Briefly, we try to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change.

  3. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  4. Intervention effects of a school-based health promotion programme on obesity related behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobel, Susanne; Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Wartha, Olivia; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme "Join the Healthy Boat" promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children's behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA), a decrease in screen media use (SMU), more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC) were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years) participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions. PMID:25328688

  5. The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour interventions for reducing body mass index in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Liane B; Ling, Jonathan; Soos, Istvan; Robalino, Shannon; Ells, Louisa

    2016-07-01

    Intervention studies have been undertaken to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) and thereby potentially ameliorate unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We synthesised evidence and quantified the effects of SB interventions (single or multiple components) on body mass index (BMI) or BMI z-score in this population. Publications up to March 2015 were located through electronic searches. Inclusion criteria were interventions targeting SB in children that had a control group and objective measures of weight and height. Mean change in BMI or BMI z-score from baseline to post-intervention were quantified for intervention and control groups and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. The pooled mean reduction in BMI and BMI z-score was significant but very small (standardized mean difference = -0.060, 95% confidence interval: -0.098 to -0.022). However, the pooled estimate was substantially greater for an overweight or obese population (standardized mean difference = -0.255, 95% confidence interval: -0.400 to -0.109). Multicomponent interventions (SB and other behaviours) delivered to children from 5 to 12 years old in a non-educational setting appear to favour BMI reduction. In summary, SB interventions are associated with very small improvement in BMI in mixed-weight populations. However, SB interventions should be part of multicomponent interventions for treating obese children. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27098454

  6. Pro-Environmental behaviour and implementation of environmental interventions in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Nazish

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the swiftly growing global environmental complications, many call for changes in how individuals should deal with the environment. A vital aspect of moving towards an environmentally sustainable world is to encourage and promote pro-environmental behaviour. Environmental psychologists are studying the human aspect of environmental issues. Recently, focus on, how everyday behaviours of people can be a reason to environmental changes and how to inspire individuals to perform envi...

  7. Improving hand hygiene compliance for the reduction of nosocomial infections: recommendations for behaviour change in a health care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Reason, Florence Paige

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial infection rates are highly dependent on hand hygiene compliance within health care facilities. This paper examines the literature concerning elements of effective hand hygiene interventions and relevant behaviour change theory, in addition to current practice surrounding hand hygiene interventions in leading institutions, in order to inform and propose recommendations for the improvement and success of the University Health Network’s current hand hygiene initiative. The results of ...

  8. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part III: behavioural and psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdellen, Cara; van de Griendt, Jolande; Hartmann, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    This clinical guideline provides recommendations for the behavioural and psychosocial interventions (BPI) of children and adolescents with tic disorders prepared by a working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS). A systematic literature search was conducted to...... obtain an update on the efficacy of BPI for tics. Relevant studies were identified using computerised searches of the Medline and PsycINFO databases and the Cochrane Library for the years 1950-2010. The search identified no meta-analyses, yet twelve (systematic) reviews and eight randomised controlled...... trials provided evidence for the current review. Most evidence was found for habit reversal training (HRT) and the available but smaller evidence also supports the efficacy of exposure with response prevention (ERP). Both interventions are considered first line behavioural treatments for tics for both...

  9. Evaluation of a family-based behavioural intervention programme for children with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Teder, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Impaired eating habits and reduced physical activity have become associated with obesity in children in the last three decades. Parents have a responsibility to be good models for their children regarding lifestyle patterns and habits. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate a family-based behavioural intervention programme (FBIP) for children with obesity designed for use in paediatric outpatient care. The specific aims were to investigate the clinical outcomes and progra...

  10. Patients’ experiences of a behavioural intervention for migraine headache: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Myfanwy Ann; Cousins, Sian; Middleton, Laura; Warriner-Gallyer , Genevieve; Ridsdale, Leone Lorna

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMigraine headache has a high prevalence and a severe impact on personal, social and work life, forming a significant burden on patients, service providers and society. There is some evidence of the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to supplement drug therapy but a recognised need to identify an effective minimal contact approach to enhance access and provide a model for use in publicly funded health systems. This study uses in-depth interviews to examine patients’ experienc...

  11. Is a Cognitive-Behavioural Biofeedback Intervention Useful to Reduce Injury Risk in Junior Football Players?

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Edvardsson; Andreas Ivarsson; Urban Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divide...

  12. Intervention in Multi-cultural Organizations -Prevention of Accidents as political change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Kamp, Annette; Koch, Christian

    1999-01-01

    mainstream safety culture approaches is over rationalististic compared with day to day life of organisations. A simplistic model of mans behaviour, and too abbreviated understanding of the total set of goals and means in action in organisation and rather simple change management models flaws the safety...... shown how different sets of meaning assigned to accidents -cultures- is in conflict and that the accident analysis process leads to the domination of one of them; the "faulty human behaviour" perception. Hence an intervention method for prevention of accidents must built on first an understanding of an...

  13. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  14. Consumer willingness to invest money and time for benefits of lifestyle behaviour change: An application of the contingent valuation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.G. Alayli-Goebbels (Adrienne F.G.); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.J.H.A. Ament (André); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); S.D.M. Bot (Sandra); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective: To use contingent valuation (CV) to derive individual consumer values for both health and broader benefits of a public-health intervention directed at lifestyle behaviour change (LBC) and to examine the feasibility and validity of the method. Method: Particip

  15. Translating clinicians' beliefs into implementation interventions (TRACII: A protocol for an intervention modeling experiment to change clinicians' intentions to implement evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Nick

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical research constantly produces new findings, but these are not routinely incorporated into health care practice. Currently, a range of interventions to promote the uptake of emerging evidence are available. While their effectiveness has been tested in pragmatic trials, these do not form a basis from which to generalise to routine care settings. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour, theories of human behaviour that have proved to be useful in other settings offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of interventions. Aims The aims of this protocol are 1 to develop interventions to change beliefs that have already been identified as antecedents to antibiotic prescribing for sore throats, and 2 to experimentally evaluate these interventions to identify those that have the largest impact on behavioural intention and behavioural simulation. Design The clinical focus for this work will be the management of uncomplicated sore throat in general practice. Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections are common presenting features in primary care. They are frequently treated with antibiotics, and research evidence is clear that antibiotic treatment offers little or no benefit to otherwise healthy adult patients. Reducing antibiotic prescribing in the community by the "prudent" use of antibiotics is seen as one way to slow the rise in antibiotic resistance, and appears safe, at least in children. However, our understanding of how to do this is limited. Participants will be general medical practitioners. Two theory-based interventions will be designed to address the discriminant beliefs in the prescribing of antibiotics for sore throat, using empirically derived resources. The interventions will be evaluated in a 2 × 2 factorial randomised

  16. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  17. The role of game design in addressing behavioural change

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing promotion of design for behavioural change as a means of addressing the complex societal and environmental challenges the world currently faces, comes the associated challenge of developing appropriate design techniques to achieve such change. Whilst many designers have sought inspiration from game design they have often drawn from the techniques associated with ‘gamification’ which has been heavily criticised as manipulative and only capable of addressing simplistic extri...

  18. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  19. Implementation of physical coordination training and cognitive behavioural training interventions at cleaning workplaces - secondary analyses of a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Faber, Anne; Jespersen, Tobias;

    2012-01-01

    intervention effects, more research on implementation is needed. Trial registration: ISRCTN96241850. Practitioner summary: Both physical coordination training and cognitive behavioural training are potential effective workplace interventions among low educated job groups with high physical work demands......This study evaluates the implementation of physical coordination training (PCT) and cognitive behavioural training (CBTr) interventions in a randomised controlled trial at nine cleaners' workplaces. Female cleaners (n = 294) were randomised into a PCT, a CBTr or a reference (REF) group. Both 12......-week interventions were performed in groups guided by an instructor. Records were kept on intervention dose (adherence) unanticipated events at the work place (context) and quality of intervention delivery (fidelity). Participant adherence was 37% in the PCT and 49% in the CBTr interventions. Optimal...

  20. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja; Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behaviour...

  1. PRIME – PRocess modelling in ImpleMEntation research: selecting a theoretical basis for interventions to change clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitts Nigel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical research constantly produces new findings but these are not routinely translated into health care practice. One way to address this problem is to develop effective interventions to translate research findings into practice. Currently a range of empirical interventions are available and systematic reviews of these have demonstrated that there is no single best intervention. This evidence base is difficult to use in routine settings because it cannot identify which intervention is most likely to be effective (or cost effective in a particular situation. We need to establish a scientific rationale for interventions. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour, theories of human behaviour that have proved useful in other similar settings may provide a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice. The objectives of the study are: to amplify and populate scientifically validated theories of behaviour with evidence from the experience of health professionals; to use this as a basis for developing predictive questionnaires using replicable methods; to identify which elements of the questionnaire (i.e., which theoretical constructs predict clinical practice and distinguish between evidence compliant and non-compliant practice; and on the basis of these results, to identify variables (based on theoretical constructs that might be prime targets for behaviour change interventions. Methods We will develop postal questionnaires measuring two motivational, three action and one stage theory to explore five behaviours with 800 general medical and 600 general dental practitioners. We will collect data on performance for each of the behaviours. The relationships between predictor variables (theoretical constructs and outcome measures (data on performance in each survey will be assessed using multiple regression analysis and structural equation

  2. Measurement of the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS intervention programme on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Polise Service employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cherian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if there was any change in the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS employees of Limpopo province after attending the HIV/AIDS intervention programme. From a population of (N=108 employees, those who attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop participated as experimental group (n=51 while those who attended the suicide prevention and disability workshop as control group (n=57. Random sampling method was used to select the above sample. Both workshops were conducted at various places in Limpopo Province. Pre-tests were administered before the workshops while the post-tests were administered after the workshops. The results were analysed using 2 (Group: Experimental versus Control Group x 2 (Time: Pre-test versus Post-test, a repeated measure Analyses of Variances (ANOVA. The findings showed that there was a significant change in HIV/AIDS knowledge after employees have attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop. There was however no significant change in attitude and behaviour after the HIV/AIDS awareness programme. The study recommends that a one day workshop is not enough to change attitude and behaviour. It also recommends that a follow up in the form of delayed post-test is required to investigate if the behaviour of the members who promised to change positively had actually changed as behaviour changes cannot manifest in a one day workshop. This can also serve as a suggestion for further research.

  3. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  4. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  5. Peer-Mediated Interventions with Elementary and Secondary School Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Blake, John; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) have been shown to be effective for increasing adaptive social and academic behaviours of children and youth. Although PMI efficacy is generally well supported, there have been relatively few published intervention studies that focus on elementary, middle and high school students with emotional and behavioural…

  6. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  7. "Behaviour changes in Permethrin-resistant strain of Anopheles Stephensi "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatandoost H

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour studies indicated that the permethrin resistant strin of An. Stephensi was 3-fold resistant to knock-down compared with the susceptible strain. The resistant strain was however 3-fold less irritable to permethrin and less responsive than the susceptible strain to the movement of an aspirator. If reduced irritability and reduced responsiveness to catch are consequences of the changes in the nervous system, then such a form of resistance may be disadvantageous to mosquitoes in natural populations.

  8. Engaging communities for sustainable behaviour change in Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Kay; Cosgrove, Tom

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed As 'Ireland's Smarter Travel Demonstration City' Limerick is charged with piloting ways to convince its citizens to move around their city in a more sustainable way, in particular to walk, cycle and use public transport more. The project is funded by the Department of Transport with EU support and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of University of Limerick (UL) researchers and Limerick Local Authority staff. Behaviour change programs tend to focus on a few behavioura...

  9. STUDIES CONCERNING the IMPACT of CLIMATE CHANGES on HONEYBEES BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Parvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta Elena Simion; Adriana Amfim

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to clarify some aspects of the biological evolution of bee families under the influence of environmental temperature and subsequent reporting of behavioural change. The experiment was conducted in a private apiary in Giurgiu County, during three years, in May and June. The biological material was represented by 14 strong colonies. The bees were maintained in vertical hives. The biological evolution of bees was analyzed in population growth period. Bee indicators were the following...

  10. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  11. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  12. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H.; Jancey, Jonine; Xiang, Liming; Deborah A. Kerr; Howat, Peter A.; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at basel...

  13. The effectiveness of different interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours in households with children: a network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J.; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R.; Hubbard, Stephanie J.; Cooper, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a “usual care or no intervention” which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to...

  14. The Effectiveness of Different Interventions to Promote Poison Prevention Behaviours in Households with Children: A Network Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Achana, Felix A; Sutton, Alex J.; Kendrick, Denise; Wynn, Persephone; Young, Ben; Jones, David R.; Hubbard, Stephanie J.; Cooper, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Background There is evidence from 2 previous meta-analyses that interventions to promote poison prevention behaviours are effective in increasing a range of poison prevention practices in households with children. The published meta-analyses compared any intervention against a “usual care or no intervention” which potentially limits the usefulness of the analysis to decision makers. We aim to use network meta-analysis to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions to ...

  15. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental...... food choice, whilst (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future...... research should emphasise a real life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings....

  16. Sexual Behaviour of Rural College Youth in Maharashtra,India: An Intervention Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Ghule; Balaiah Donta

    2008-01-01

    Objective To promote healthy sexual behaviour among rural college youth. Methods The intervention study consisted a sample of 1 500(800 male and 700 female) in baseline and 1 953 (1 022 male and 931 female) college going students in post intervention,in the age groups 15—24 years from 8 colleges in Thane district of Maharashtra.The interventions included dissemination of IEC(Information,Education and Communication),counselling in colleges and provision of health care services at rural health centers in the experimental area.Male and female teachers and peer leaders were trained to provide IEC.Chi-square test was carried out to find out the association between contributing factors and sexual behaviour. Results Post intervention results showed that overall any sexual experience (coital/non—coital) increased by 2.6%and 1.0%among male students and 4.6% and 0.8% among female students in control and experimental groups respectively which suggests that in the control area physical closeness and sexual relationship has increased between sexes.A significant improvement was noted in the usage of condom during their sexual intercourse in experimental group.The provision of IEC in college settings,peer leader training and orientation to teachers helped students and teachers to initiate a dialogue on reproductive health issues.Intervention programs helped college youth to develop the skills,make informed decisions about engaging in sexual intercourse and using contraceptives in a social context that sometimes encourages risky sexual behaviour.The study found that peer interaction was exposure to erotic material;habits and working status among boys and peer interaction and place of study among girls were closely associated with their coital and non—coital sex experience.Conclusion A scientifically developed,need based and demand driven reproductive health service package for male and female students in colleges can help them to develop their knowledge

  17. Can research assessments themselves cause bias in behaviour change trials? A systematic review of evidence from solomon 4-group studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1 assessed experimental group; (2 unassessed experimental group (3 assessed control group; or (4 unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour

  18. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  19. Testing a participatory strategy to change hygiene behaviour: face washing in central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; West, S K; Muñoz, B; Kayongoya, A; Taylor, H R; Mmbaga, B B

    1994-01-01

    A participatory strategy to increase face washing was designed and tested in central Tanzania. Changing children's face-washing behaviour is postulated to be important in preventing the transmission of eye disease, particularly blinding trachoma. The strategy used non-formal adult education techniques at neighbourhood level meetings to build a community consensus to keep children's faces clean for the prevention of eye disease. Men, women, schoolchildren, traditional healers and village social groups participated in the intervention. The strategy was evaluated by observing changes in numbers of clean faces of a sample of preschool children in the village. Clean faces increased from 9% to 33% over the course of a year. Factors which were related to sustained change in children's clean faces included distance to water, age of the child, and presence of a corrugated metal roof. Owning cattle was associated with lack of sustainable change in this population. PMID:7992324

  20. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  1. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...... for experimental studies with predefined choice architectural interventions in the period June 2011 - March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. An update of the review was conducted during the summer of 2014. Results: The evidence...... indicates that (i) health labelling at point-of-purchase is associated with healthier food choice, whilst (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier...

  2. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  3. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  4. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  5. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  6. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: → Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.→ IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. → IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. → IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. → IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  7. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. METHOD: Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. RESULTS: Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural

  8. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  9. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  10. IS A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL BIOFEEDBACK INTERVENTION USEFUL TO REDUCE INJURY RISK IN JUNIOR FOOTBALL PLAYERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Edvardsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old were divided into one experiment (n = 13 and one control group (n = 14. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale, history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28 in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14 = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study, to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given

  11. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Daivadanam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Discussion: Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary

  12. Federal structures and associated behavioural interventions in prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The recently published HTA-report “Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking” detects a lack of high-quality publications considering the national prevention structures. Included publications do not give any information regarding current interventions in Germany. The goal of this addendum is to give an overview of the federal prevention system and associated measures for behavioural smoking prevention. Methods: Firstly, relevant tobacco prevention structures with associated tasks and activities were identified. Further, a survey of available project information was conducted in December 2007. This procedure based on systematic analysis in PrevNet-network as well as on manual search on the web sites of primary network centres (PrevNet-Knotenpunkte or other relevant federal state organisations. A written, postal questionnaire was conducted among network centres, federal state organisations and selected health insurance funds. Results: Interventions regarding primary prevention of smoking cover a variety of activities and campaigns issued by the Federal Government, several national organisations, federal and local authorities as well as health insurance funds. Institutions such as the German Ministry of Health, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZGA, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ contribute to smoking prevention on national level. Diverse professional associations, workshops or authorities set up the organisational framework for coordination and planning of tobacco prevention on federal state level. Even on communal level institutional structures in terms of local professional departments and committees are established. The health insurance companies and their associations also play a major role in prevention of smoking uptake. “Rauchfrei”, “Be smart, don´ t start”, “Klasse 2000”, “ALF” or “Just be smokefree” are among the most well

  13. Prevention and lifestyle behaviour change : a competence framework

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, K; De Normanville, Clare; Stansfield, Karen; Barnett, Nicholas; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Qutishat, Dania; Okasheh, Rasha; Ion, V.; Wicks, H; Smewing, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Prevention, Health and Wellbeing and Health Inequalities are key national and regional priorities for the future of our nation and for the NHS. This was highlighted in recent ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives’ Marmot review. The ‘Prevention and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: A Competence Framework’, has been developed to support NHS Yorkshire and the Humber’s key Public Health strategy ‘Making Every Contact Count’, to which there has already been an excellent response. Delivery on this subject has al...

  14. Helping "light green" consumers walk the talk : Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Litvine, Dorian; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to "walk the talk", i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention sur...

  15. Understanding NTNU's students' and employees' recycling behaviour based on intervention strategies by applying a comprehensive psychological model

    OpenAIRE

    Tobolova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    One of the solutions for the environmental problem of waste is proper waste separation by individuals. This Master’s Thesis discusses the psychological variables of individuals’ waste separation behaviour. Building on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Norm-activation Model, Habits and the Comprehensive Action Determination Model, a questionnaire was created paying close attention to the intervention strategies implemented by the project group ‘Klimafot Avfall’ at The Norwegian University of Sc...

  16. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in the United Kingdom: impact of behaviour, services and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, G.; Field, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health concern. The United Kingdom (UK) has some of the most advanced STI surveillance systems globally. This review uses national surveillance data to describe remarkable changes in STI epidemiology in the UK over the last century and explores behavioural and demographic shifts that may explain these trends. The past ten years have seen considerable improvements in STI service provision and the introduction of national public health i...

  17. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  18. Is a cognitive-behavioural biofeedback intervention useful to reduce injury risk in junior football players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Arne; Ivarsson, Andreas; Johnson, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a relatively high injury risk. Previous research has suggested that it could be possible to reduce sports injuries through psychological skills training. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which a cognitive behavioural biofeedback intervention could reduce the number of sports injuries in a sample of players in Swedish elite football high schools. Participants from four elite football high schools (16-19 years old) were divided into one experiment (n = 13) and one control group (n = 14). Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires to assess anxiety level (Sport Anxiety Scale), history of stressors (Life Event Scale for Collegiate Athletes) and coping skills (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory - 28) in a baseline measure. Mann-Whitney U-tests showed no significant differences in pre-intervention scores based on the questionnaires. The experimental group participated in a nine-week intervention period consisting of seven sessions, including: somatic relaxation, thought stopping, emotions/problem focused coping, goal setting, biofeedback training as well as keeping a critical incident diary. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference between the control and experimental group U (n1 = 13, n2 = 14) = 51.00, p = 0.054. However, considering the small sample, the statistical power (0.05 for present study), to detect effects was low. The results of the study are discussed from a psychological perspective and proposals for future research are given. Key pointsCognitive-behavioral training together with biofeedback training seems to be an effective strategy to decrease the occurrence of injuries.More intervention studies should be conducted applying existing biofeedback methodology, especially in the injury preventive area.Future research should develop a bio-psychological injury model aimed at predicting injury occurrence which describes the physiological stress responses and how they

  19. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption: can nutrition knowledge change food behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    The status and explanatory role of nutrition knowledge is uncertain in public health nutrition. Much of the uncertainty about this area has been generated by conceptual confusion about the nature of knowledge and behaviours, and, nutrition knowledge and food behaviours in particular. So the paper describes several key concepts in some detail. The main argument is that 'nutrition knowledge' is a necessary but not sufficient factor for changes in consumers' food behaviours. Several classes of food behaviours and their causation are discussed. They are influenced by a number of environmental and intra-individual factors, including motivations. The interplay between motivational factors and information processing is important for nutrition promoters as is the distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Consideration of the domains of nutrition knowledge shows that their utility is likely to be related to consumers' and nutritionists' particular goals and viewpoints. A brief survey of the recent literature shows that the evidence for the influence of nutrition knowledge on food behaviours is mixed. Nevertheless, recent work suggests that nutrition knowledge may play a small but pivotal role in the adoption of healthier food habits. The implications of this overview for public health nutrition are: (i) We need to pay greater attention to the development of children's and adults' knowledge frameworks (schema building); (ii) There is a need for a renewed proactive role for the education sector; (iii) We need to take account of consumers' personal food goals and their acquisition of procedural knowledge which will enable them to attain their goals; (iv) Finally, much more research into the ways people learn and use food-related knowledge is required in the form of experimental interventions and longitudinal studies. PMID:12492651

  20. Oral Hygiene Behaviour Change During the Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamani, Saeed; Jansson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking cessation and the use of proximal tooth cleaning routines after a nonsurgical periodontal treatment phase in a Specialist clinic of Periodontology and to evaluate if these behaviour changes had any influence on the periodontal healing results. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective longitudinal study on a randomly selected population of 100 patients referred for periodontal treatment. The variables were registered from the dental records and the radiographs. Forty-six individuals declared that they were smokers at baseline and one individual of those quitted smoking during the nonsurgical treatment period. The percentage of individuals who performed proximal tooth cleaning daily was significantly increased from 56% to 72% during the treatment period. The patients practising proximal tooth cleaning daily had significantly lower Plaque index before as well as after the nonsurgical periodontal treatment phase compared to those without the routine. The subjects who did not perform tooth cleaning daily before the treatment and who did not introduce this routine had significantly deeper periodontal pockets compared to those who performed inter-dental cleaning daily before treatment or who had adopted the routine during the treatment phase. However, there were no significant differences according to number of deepened periodontal pockets after nonsurgical treatment irrespective of proximal cleaning routines. In the future, motivational interviewing may be a more effective method to achieve a behaviour change if an extended education of dental hygienists within this area will be implemented. PMID:23284591

  1. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  2. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  3. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  4. The limits of behaviour change theory: condom use and contexts of HIV risk in the Kolkata sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses ethnographic data from a sex workers' HIV project in India to consider the appropriateness of individual, social/group and structural theories of health behaviour when applied to HIV-prevention initiatives. Existing theories are critiqued for their modernist representation of behaviour as determined by individual rational decision-making processes or by external structural forces, with inadequate recognition being given to the roles that human agency, subjective meaning and local context play in everyday actions. Analysis of sex workers' accounts of their sexual practices suggests that existing theories of health behaviour can only partially account for sexual behaviour change retrospectively and that they have limited predictive value with respect to the outcomes of individual sexual encounters. Our data show that these outcomes were, in fact, highly context dependent, while possibilities for action were ultimately strongly constrained by structural forces. Findings suggest that interventions need to adopt an integrated, structurally-oriented approach for promoting safer sexual practices in sex work settings. Recognising that no one model of health behaviour is likely to be adequate in explaining or predicting behaviour change encourages responsiveness to local people's agency, recognises the different (health- and non-health-related) registers of risk with which people operate and encourages flexibility according to local contingencies and contexts. PMID:18038279

  5. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Humans alter the water cycle by constructing dams and through water withdrawals. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, model analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented. The results indicate that the impact of man-made reservoirs and water withdrawals on the long-term global terrestrial water balance is small. However, in some river basins, impacts of human interventions are significant. In parts o...

  6. STUDIES CONCERNING the IMPACT of CLIMATE CHANGES on HONEYBEES BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Parvu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to clarify some aspects of the biological evolution of bee families under the influence of environmental temperature and subsequent reporting of behavioural change. The experiment was conducted in a private apiary in Giurgiu County, during three years, in May and June. The biological material was represented by 14 strong colonies. The bees were maintained in vertical hives. The biological evolution of bees was analyzed in population growth period. Bee indicators were the following: egg-laying activities of the queen bee, honey bee flight activity, gentleness of bees, swarming behaviour. It was found out that by lowering the temperature with about 3°C, the number of eggs laid decreased by 11%, the differences being significant (p ≤ 0.05. In rainy years, it has been a tendency of swarming, 41.7% of bee colonies showing this trend. The irritability of bees was significantly higher in periods of warm temperatures, this occurring in the early morning hours.

  7. Analysis of behavioural changes induced by prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out to detect an impairment of central nervous system functions after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of rats (Wistar) were either irradiated in-utero on the 13th day of gestation with doses of 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 or 0,90 Gy or on days 11, 13 or 16 p.c. with a dose of 0.60 Gy (Cs 137, 1.0 Gy/min). When adult all animals were confronted with a series of standardized tests of operant, instrumental behaviour in which they were required to press a lever for food reward. The contingencies of reinforcement and the data collection from 10 simultaneously operating test chambers were controlled by a microcomputer. The behavioural performance of each exposure group (n=10) and its course during the tests were expressed as percentages of reinforced lever presses/session and compared to other biological, especially weight changes. The analysis of the experimental data obtained so far indicate that the observed performance deficits depended more on the exposure date than on the exposure dose. (orig.)

  8. Using Narrated Literacy-Based Behavioural Interventions to Decrease Episodes of Physical Aggression in Elementary Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shelley; Bucholz, Jessica L.; Hazelkorn, Michael; Cooper, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of literacy-based behavioural interventions (Bucholz et al., 2008) to decrease acts of physical aggression with kindergarten and first grade students. The study used a multiple baseline design across three participants. The results showed a decrease in acts of physical aggression by students with…

  9. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  10. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the ...

  11. The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!: a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francke Anneke L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain (physical discomfort and challenging behaviour are highly prevalent in nursing home residents with dementia: at any given time 45-80% of nursing home residents are in pain and up to 80% have challenging behaviour. In the USA Christine Kovach developed the serial trial intervention (STI and established that this protocol leads to less discomfort and fewer behavioural symptoms in moderate to severe dementia patients. The present study will provide insight into the effects of implementation of the Dutch version of the STI-protocol (STA OP! in comparison with a control intervention, not only on behavioural symptoms, but also on pain, depression, and quality of life. This article outlines the study protocol. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomized controlled trial in 168 older people (aged >65 years with mild or moderate dementia living in nursing homes. The clusters, Dutch nursing homes, are randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (training and implementation of the STA OP!-protocol or the control condition (general training focusing on challenging behaviour and pain, but without the step-wise approach. Measurements take place at baseline, after 3 months (end of the STA OP! training period and after 6 months. Primary outcome measures are symptoms of challenging behaviour (measured with the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH, and pain (measure with the Dutch version of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors (PACSLAC-D and the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument (MDS-RAI pain scale. Secondary outcome measures include symptoms of depression (Cornell and MDS-RAI depression scale, Quality of Live (Qualidem, changes in prescriptions of analgesics and psychotropic drugs, and the use of non-pharmacological comfort interventions (e.g. snoezelen, reminiscence therapy. Discussion The transfer from the American design to

  12. School Social Workers as Response to Intervention Change Champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneca Winfrey Avant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.

  13. Children: a critical link for changing driving behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    Sustainable transportation is a pressing issue, according to Transport Canada, the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Centre for Sustainable Transportation and several others. To meet Canada's commitment to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent by 2005, reducing the number of kilometres driven seems to be the only viable solution. Improving air quality by reducing the use of cars will lessen the negative impact in children. Some of the strategies proposed include compact, mixed-use communities, user fees, increased use of public transit are combined with a requirement for greater public education and awareness. Several studies have demonstrated that increased knowledge of an issue alone does not lead to changes in behaviour. One strategy recommended is called social marketing, by fostering changes in norms, providing prompts, obtaining public commitments and the removal of barriers. Raising the profile of children in sustainable transportation makes parents more receptive to information about child-friendly transportation. Some of the impacts of cars on children are: traffic fatalities, less than 50 per cent of children now walk to school, the average physical activity guidelines for children are not met in two thirds of children, obesity, reduced independent mobility of children, emotional distress following an involvement in a traffic accident and more. Some programs such as Way to Go, Walking School Bus, and Active and Safe Routes to School have been implemented in many communities and were found to be successful and additional funding to these programs might be more efficient than conventional education programs to alter behaviour toward sustainable transportation. Get the children to influence their parents. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA kwa Vijana Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife M Doyle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability of specific behaviour-change interventions to reduce HIV infection in young people remains questionable. Since January 1999, an adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH intervention has been implemented in ten randomly chosen intervention communities in rural Tanzania, within a community randomised trial (see below; NCT00248469. The intervention consisted of teacher-led, peer-assisted in-school education, youth-friendly health services, community activities, and youth condom promotion and distribution. Process evaluation in 1999-2002 showed high intervention quality and coverage. A 2001/2 intervention impact evaluation showed no impact on the primary outcomes of HIV seroincidence and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seroprevalence but found substantial improvements in SRH knowledge, reported attitudes, and some reported sexual behaviours. It was postulated that the impact on "upstream" knowledge, attitude, and reported behaviour outcomes seen at the 3-year follow-up would, in the longer term, lead to a reduction in HIV and HSV-2 infection rates and other biological outcomes. A further impact evaluation survey in 2007/8 ( approximately 9 years post-intervention tested this hypothesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional survey (June 2007 through July 2008 of 13,814 young people aged 15-30 y who had attended trial schools during the first phase of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention trial (1999-2002. Prevalences of the primary outcomes HIV and HSV-2 were 1.8% and 25.9% in males and 4.0% and 41.4% in females, respectively. The intervention did not significantly reduce risk of HIV (males adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.91, 95%CI 0.50-1.65; females aPR 1.07, 95%CI 0.68-1.67 or HSV-2 (males aPR 0.94, 95%CI 0.77-1.15; females aPR 0.96, 95%CI 0.87-1.06. The intervention was associated with a reduction in the proportion of males reporting more than four sexual partners in their lifetime (aPR 0.87, 95%CI 0

  15. What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention? Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heléne Zetterström Dahlqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce. Objective: To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention. Design: Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288 included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15. Results: Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222. Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma. Conclusions: The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

  16. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. PMID:25937344

  17. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS: THE PSYCHOSOCIAL CONTEXT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Allais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, damages the image and credibility of a peacekeeping operation. Victims of sexual exploitation and abuse suffer sever physical and psychological consequences.The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse must take cognisance of the way in which social identities are shaped in response to the life challenges posed by the relevant social and material world in which peacekeepers find themselves.

  18. Interventions to change physician performance: the ChiPP (change in professional performance) statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    to an accumulation of knowledge on how change is best brought about. In this article we argue that the design and testing of interventions intended to change professional performance from their conceptions should include theoretical considerations of the complexities of implementation and we further suggest a staged......Clinicians keep looking for new ways to improve patient treatment and if you are involved in health services delivery and quality development you try to improve the performance of your organisation. However, our experiences are often not communicated to others and don not contribute...... approach in the development of such interventions. In the preclinical stage an intervention model is developed based on theoretical understanding and empirical research. In stage I you experiment with elements of the intervention. In stage II the intervention is tried in selected units of the target group...

  19. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioural change to understand the processes through which climate change films might encourage mitigation action

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent films such as An Inconvenient Truth and The Age of Stupid aim not merely to inform their audience about climate change, but to engage them in taking mitigation action. This paper outlines the transtheoretical model of behavioural change, which incorporates six stages of change that individuals progress through as they change their behaviour, and ten associated processes of change. Using four climate change films as illustrations, I show how the model can be applied to ident...

  20. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions in the primary prevention of Hepatitis C amongst injecting drug users: a randomised controlled trial and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbs Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC and simple educational counselling (SEC in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV infection in sero-negative injecting drug users (IDU. Design Randomised controlled trial (RCT of EPC intervention in comparison with simple educational counselling (SEC. Setting Specialised Drug services in London and Surrey, United Kingdom. Participants and Measurements Ninety five IDUs were recruited and randomised to receive EPC (n = 43 or SEC (n = 52. Subjects were assessed at baseline using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, the Injecting Risk Questionnaire (IRQ, and Drug Injecting Confidence Questionnaire (DICQ. The primary outcome was measured by the rate of sero-conversion at 6 months and 12 months from baseline and by the ASI, IRQ and DICQ at 6 months from baseline. Hepatitis C testing was undertaken by the innovative test of the dried blood spot (DBS test which increased the rate of testing by 4 fold compared to routine blood testing. Findings Seventy Eighty two subjects (82% out of the 95 recruited were followed up at 6 months and 62 (65% were followed up at 12 months. On the primary outcome measure of the rate of seroconversion, 8 out of 62 patients followed-up at twelve months seroconverted, three in the EPC group and five in the SEC group, indicating incidence rates of 9.1 per 100 person years for the EPC group, 17.2 per 100 person years for the SEC group, and 12.9 per 100 person years for the cohort as a whole. Analysis of the secondary outcome measures on alcohol use, risk behaviour, psychological measures, quality of life, showed no significant differences between the EPC and the SEC groups. However, there were significant changes on a number of measures from baseline values indicating positive change for both groups. Conclusion We were not able to prove the efficacy of EPC in comparison with SEC in the prevention of

  1. Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Carrie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB model has been shown to provide a good basis for understanding and predicting HIV-relevant health behaviour and health behaviour change, however the IMB has yet to be applied to PEP after risky sexual exposure. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the impact of MI augmented with information provision and behavioural skills building (informed by the IMB Model, over and above usual care, on risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEP after potential sexual exposure. A secondary aim of this research is to examine the impact of the intervention on adherence to PEP. This study will also provide estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A manualised parallel group randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary outcome is the proportion of risky sexual practices. Secondary outcomes include: i Levels of adherence to PEP treatment; ii Number of subsequent courses of PEP; iii Levels of motivation to avoid risky sexual behaviours; iv Levels of HIV risk-reduction information/knowledge; v Levels of risk reduction behavioural skills; vi Diagnosis of anal gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and/or HIV. 250 participants will be asked to self-complete a questionnaire at four time points during the study (at 0,3,6,12 months. The intervention will consist of a two-session, fixed duration, telephone administered augmented MI intervention based on the IMB model. A newly developed treatment manual will guide the selection of

  2. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of ...

  3. Transitioning to low carbon communities-from behaviour change to systemic change: Lessons from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitioning to low carbon communities requires an understanding of community practices and resultant emissions, as well as the technologies, infrastructures and institutions associated with and accessed by communities. Moreover, it requires an understanding of the connections between these integrated system components, its dynamics, a defined transition and potential 'levers' involved in 'transitioning'. This paper accepts the notion that 'levers' include programmes designed to achieve practice or behaviour change in households which result in less carbon intensive lifestyles, and focuses on the factors that shape human behaviour and influence householder energy consumption. Research to date by the authors and others indicates that a comprehensive socio-technical framework that considers both individual psychological factors as well as the systems, standards and norms under which individuals operate is fundamental to the development of successful strategies to shift towards low carbon communities. A database has been compiled of over one hundred local programmes aimed at realising carbon neutral communities across Australia largely through approaches to behaviour change. This paper presents the findings of an analysis of these programmes, particularly with regard to the extent to which they take account of a socio-technical framework or understanding of domestic consumption behaviours and whether they are aware of or aim to influence changing standards and expectations around consumption practices within the home. While a number of exemplary community-based programmes adopt an integrated approach to addressing both technical and behavioural dimensions in the shift to low carbon communities, it was found that most fail to take sufficient account of the systems, standards and norms shaping consumption. Conclusions include directions for policy and programme design based on the study findings.

  4. The Single-Case Reporting Guideline In BEhavioural Interventions (SCRIBE 2016 Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Tate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a reporting guideline to provide authors with guidance about what should be reported when writing a paper for publication in a scientific journal using a particular type of research design: the single-case experimental design. This report describes the methods used to develop the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural interventions (SCRIBE 2016. As a result of 2 online surveys and a 2-day meeting of experts, the SCRIBE 2016 checklist was developed, which is a set of 26 items that authors need to address when writing about single-case research. This article complements the more detailed SCRIBE 2016 Explanation and Elaboration article (Tate et al., 2016 that provides a rationale for each of the items and examples of adequate reporting from the literature. Both these resources will assist authors to prepare reports of single-case research with clarity, completeness, accuracy, and transparency. They will also provide journal reviewers and editors with a practical checklist against which such reports may be critically evaluated. We recommend that the SCRIBE 2016 is used by authors preparing manuscripts describing single-case research for publication, as well as journal reviewers and editors who are evaluating such manuscripts.

  5. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    OpenAIRE

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of behavior change progress. Methods A 30 month intervention was performed in Dutch primary care among high-risk individuals (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) and was compared to usual care. Participant percepti...

  6. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Velasco; Marie K. Harder

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable de...

  7. A simple model for behaviour change in epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Fred

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People change their behaviour during an epidemic. Infectious members of a population may reduce the number of contacts they make with other people because of the physical effects of their illness and possibly because of public health announcements asking them to do so in order to decrease the number of new infections, while susceptible members of the population may reduce the number of contacts they make in order to try to avoid becoming infected. Methods We consider a simple epidemic model in which susceptible and infectious members respond to a disease outbreak by reducing contacts by different fractions and analyze the effect of such contact reductions on the size of the epidemic. We assume constant fractional reductions, without attempting to consider the way in which susceptible members might respond to information about the epidemic. Results We are able to derive upper and lower bounds for the final size of an epidemic, both for simple and staged progression models. Conclusions The responses of uninfected and infected individuals in a disease outbreak are different, and this difference affects estimates of epidemic size.

  8. An exploration of mental health nursing students' experiences and attitudes towards using cigarettes to change client's behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, M J; Romanos, M T

    2010-10-01

    Using cigarettes to change client behaviour is a common, yet little studied, practice in mental health care. A questionnaire survey was used to explore mental health nursing student's experiences and attitudes to this practice. The sample was four cohorts of mental health nursing students (n= 151). Of them, 84% had experienced the practice of using cigarettes to change client behaviour in acute wards (73%), rehabilitation wards (28%) and elderly care (14%). Cigarettes were used to change client behaviour in areas such as attending to personal hygiene (57%) or engaging in the ward routine (39%). However, items such as leave (60%) or drinks (tea and coffee) (38%) were also reportedly used. Of the respondents, 54% inferred that the practice did not work well with 46% stating it was not written up in care plans; 52% felt it was an ad hoc practice, 60% inferred that at times it was used as a punishment while 55% intimated that they felt bad withholding cigarettes. There are ethical and moral dilemmas around using lifestyle risk factors as rewards or using client's nicotine addiction as a means of controlling behaviour. The question of whether this intervention should ever be used, given its associated health risk, requires more critical debate in clinical practice. PMID:21050334

  9. Specifying content and mechanisms of change in interventions to change professionals’ practice: an illustration from the Good Goals study in occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen Niina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely agreed that interventions to change professionals’ practice need to be clearly specified. This involves (1 selecting and defining the intervention techniques, (2 operationalising the techniques and deciding their delivery, and (3 formulating hypotheses about the mechanisms through which the techniques are thought to result in change. Descriptions of methods to achieve these objectives are limited. This paper reports methods and illustrates outputs from a study to meet these objectives, specifically from the Good Goals study to improve occupational therapists’ caseload management practice. Methods (1 Behaviour change techniques were identified and selected from an existing matrix that maps techniques to determinants. An existing coding manual was used to define the techniques. (2 A team of occupational therapists generated context-relevant, acceptable modes of delivery for the techniques; these data were compared and contrasted with previously collected data, literature on caseload management, and the aims of the intervention. (3 Hypotheses about the mechanisms of change were formulated by drawing on the matrix and on theories of behaviour change. Results (1 Eight behaviour change techniques were selected: goal specified; self-monitoring; contract; graded tasks; increasing skills (problem solving, decision making, goal setting; coping skills; rehearsal of relevant skills; social processes of encouragement, support, and pressure; demonstration by others; and feedback. (2 A range of modes of delivery were generated (e.g., graded tasks’ consisting of series of clinical cases and situations that become increasingly difficult. Conditions for acceptable delivery were identified (e.g., ‘self-monitoring’ was acceptable only if delivered at team level. The modes of delivery were specified as face-to-face training, task sheets, group tasks, DVDs, and team-based weekly meetings. (3 The eight techniques were

  10. Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Reidy, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour iswell established, but much less is known about: (a) whether there are causal relationships between key components of the model and (b) how to go about changing the theory of planned behaviour variables. This study tested the ability of outcome and process simulations to change variables specified in the theory of planned behaviour in relation to blood donation. Design. Participants (N ¼ 146) were randomized to one of ...

  11. Perceived behavioural control and the role of information on climate change in increasing sustainable travel

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, C.; Waterson, B.J.; McDonald, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which information on climate change can influence travel behaviour. Travel behaviour on the aggregate level is unsustainable; in light of increasing awareness on climate change, the need to substantially reduce emissions from the transport sector is growing. The status of travel behaviour has grown both in terms of its potential to fill the gaps left by technological and political progress as well as the potential longevity and transferability of its impa...

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  13. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  14. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  15. Developing a Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Based Intervention for British Pakistani Mothers with Persistent Postnatal Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sobia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract of thesisIntroduction. Recent reports indicate inequalities for ethnic minority women in maternal health and a need for tailored maternity services to improve access to care. High rates of postnatal depression among British Pakistani women have been reported. These women tend to suffer from persistent depression and have both, poorer access to and outcomes from evidence based psychosocial interventions, compared to the majority of the population. Trials for Cognitive Behaviour The...

  16. Changing unsafe behaviour on social network sites: the role of school education

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Because of the emerging popularity of social network sites (SNS) among teenagers, adults’ concerns about privacy and security are increasing. School education has been put forth as a possible solution (Livingstone, Haddon, Görzig, & Olafsson, 2011)). However, although safety interventions regularly have an impact on knowledge and awareness, an immediate impact on attitudes and behaviour is often lacking in media education interventions (Martens, 2010). A possible reason for this lack of impac...

  17. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  18. Improving meat cutters' work: changes and effects following an intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, K; Karltun, J; Eklund, J; Engkvist, I-L

    2013-11-01

    Meat cutters face higher risks of injury and musculoskeletal problems than most other occupational groups. The aims of this paper were to describe ergonomics changes implemented in three meat cutting plants and to evaluate effects related to ergonomics on the individual meat cutters and their work. Data was collected by interviews, observations, document studies and a questionnaire (n = 247), as a post intervention study. The changes implemented consisted of reducing knife work to a maximum of 6 h per day and introducing a job rotation scheme with work periods of equal length. Tasks other than traditional meat cutting were added. A competence development plan for each meat cutter and easy adjustment of workplace height were introduced. The questionnaire showed a reduction in perceived physical work load. In general, the changes were perceived positively. Figures from the company showed a positive trend for injuries and sick leave. PMID:23647887

  19. Group-based care: does it change problem behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    van Weel, Chris

    1980-01-01

    As a result of disappointing experiences in managing problem behaviour presented by patients in general practice, a system of team or group-based care was developed at the Ommoord Health Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  20. Socially driven changes in neural and behavioural plasticity in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Magda Cristina, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Etologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Social competence, the ability of individuals to regulate the expression of their social behaviour in order to optimize their social relationships in a group, is especially benefic for individuals living in complex social environments, and implies the ability to perceive social cues and produce appropriate behavioural output responses (Social Plasticity). Numerous examples of social competence ca...

  1. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  2. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  3. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles Zoe R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated! intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls, 33 parents (4 male, 29 female and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female. Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a

  4. Beyond good intentions: the role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoolen, B.J.; De Ridder, D.; Bensing, J.; Gorter, K.; Rutten, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and planning in maintaining self-care behaviours. In a randomised controlled trial among recent screen-detected patients, participants who received the intervention were compared with usual-care controls, e...

  5. Dyslexia in a French-Spanish bilingual girl: behavioural and neural modulations following a visual attention span intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Peyrin, Carole; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lallier, Marie; Démonet, Jean-François; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-04-01

    We report the case study of a French-Spanish bilingual dyslexic girl, MP, who exhibited a severe visual attention (VA) span deficit but preserved phonological skills. Behavioural investigation showed a severe reduction of reading speed for both single items (words and pseudo-words) and texts in the two languages. However, performance was more affected in French than in Spanish. MP was administered an intensive VA span intervention programme. Pre-post intervention comparison revealed a positive effect of intervention on her VA span abilities. The intervention further transferred to reading. It primarily resulted in faster identification of the regular and irregular words in French. The effect of intervention was rather modest in Spanish that only showed a tendency for faster word reading. Text reading improved in the two languages with a stronger effect in French but pseudo-word reading did not improve in either French or Spanish. The overall results suggest that VA span intervention may primarily enhance the fast global reading procedure, with stronger effects in French than in Spanish. MP underwent two fMRI sessions to explore her brain activations before and after VA span training. Prior to the intervention, fMRI assessment showed that the striate and extrastriate visual cortices alone were activated but none of the regions typically involved in VA span. Post-training fMRI revealed increased activation of the superior and inferior parietal cortices. Comparison of pre- and post-training activations revealed significant activation increase of the superior parietal lobes (BA 7) bilaterally. Thus, we show that a specific VA span intervention not only modulates reading performance but further results in increased brain activity within the superior parietal lobes known to housing VA span abilities. Furthermore, positive effects of VA span intervention on reading suggest that the ability to process multiple visual elements simultaneously is one cause of successful

  6. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  7. Preventing disease through opportunistic, rapid engagement by primary care teams using behaviour change counselling (PRE-EMPT: protocol for a general practice-based cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of exercise and an unhealthy diet are the key modifiable factors contributing to premature morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Brief interventions in health care consultations can be effective in changing single health behaviours. General Practice holds considerable potential for primary prevention through modifying patients' multiple risk behaviours, but feasible, acceptable and effective interventions are poorly developed, and uptake by practitioners is low. Through a process of theoretical development, modeling and exploratory trials, we have developed an intervention called Behaviour Change Counselling (BCC derived from Motivational Interviewing (MI. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a training intervention (the Talking Lifestyles Programme which will enable practitioners to routinely use BCC during consultations for the above four risk behaviours. Methods/Design This cluster randomised controlled efficacy trial (RCT will evaluate the outcomes and costs of this training intervention for General Practitioners (GPs and nurses. Training methods will include: a practice-based seminar, online self-directed learning, and reflecting on video recorded and simulated consultations. The intervention will be evaluated in 29 practices in Wales, UK; two clinicians will take part (one GP and one nurse from each practice. In intervention practices both clinicians will receive training. The aim is to recruit 2000 patients into the study with an expected 30% drop out. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients making changes in one or more of the four behaviours at three months. Results will be compared for patients seeing clinicians trained in BCC with patients seeing non-BCC trained clinicians. Economic and process evaluations will also be conducted. Discussion Opportunistic engagement by health professionals potentially represents a cost effective

  8. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    OpenAIRE

    Schene Aart; van Meijel Berno; Koekkoek Bauke; Hutschemaekers Giel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementatio...

  9. Ombuds’ corner: Code of Conduct and change of behaviour

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Is our Code of Conduct actually effective in influencing behaviour? Research studies suggest that codes, while necessary, are insufficient as a means of encouraging respectful behaviour among employees. Codes are only a potential means of influencing employee behaviour. For a Code of Conduct to be effective, several elements must be in place. Firstly, there needs to be communication and effective training using relevant examples to make the code real. It should be embraced by the leaders and accepted by the personnel. Finally, it should be embedded in the CERN culture and not seen as a separate entity, which requires serious discussions to raise awareness. In addition, every c...

  10. Eligibility for interventions, co-occurrence and risk factors for unhealthy behaviours in patients consulting for routine primary care: results from the Pre-Empt study

    OpenAIRE

    Randell, Elizabeth; Pickles, Timothy; Simpson, Sharon; Spanou, Clio; McCambridge, Jim; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking, excessive drinking, lack of exercise and a poor diet remain key causes of premature morbidity and mortality globally, yet it is not clear what proportion of patients attending for routine primary care are eligible for interventions about these behaviours, the extent to which they co-occur within individuals, and which individuals are at greatest risk for multiple unhealthy behaviours. The aim of the trial was to examine ‘intervention eligibility’ and co-occurrence of the ‘...

  11. School-based intervention on healthy behaviour among Ecuadorian adolescents: effect of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on screen-time

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Tenesaca, Dolores Susana; Verloigne, Maïté; Cardon, Greet; Kolsteren, Patrick; Ochoa Avilés, Angélica María; Verstraeten, Roos; Donoso, Silvana; Lachat, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective interventions on screen-time behaviours (television, video games and computer time) are needed to prevent non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. The present manuscript investigates the effect of a school-based health promotion intervention on screen-time behaviour among 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. We report the effect of the trial on screen-time after two stages of implementation. Methods We performed a cluster-randomised pair matched trial in ...

  12. A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni:LifeGuide): results from a repeat randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, David; Epton, Tracy; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Webb, Thomas L.; Julious, Steven A.; Brennan, Alan; Thomas, Chloe; Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan; Shah, Iltaf

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper reports the results of a repeat trial assessing the effectiveness of an online theory-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours in new university students. The original trial found that the intervention reduced the number of smokers at 6-month follow-up compared with the control condition, but had non-significant effects on the other targeted health behaviours. However, the original trial suffered from low levels of engagement, which the repeat trial sou...

  13. An intervention to promote walking amongst the general population based on an 'extended' theory of planned behaviour: A waiting list randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    DARKER, CATHERINE

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) studies have identified perceived behavioural control (PBC) as the key determinant of walking intentions. The present study investigated whether an intervention designed to alter PBC and create walking plans increased TPB measures concerning walking more, planning and objectively measured walking. One hundred and thirty UK adults participated in a waiting-list randomised controlled trial. The intervention consisted of strategies to boost PBC, plu...

  14. Competences Required for the Delivery of High and Low-Intensity Cognitive Behavioural Interventions for Chronic Fatigue, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ME and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rimes, Katharine A.; Wingrove, Janet; Moss-Morris, Rona; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cognitive behavioural interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome (sometimes known as ME or CFS/ME) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Such interventions are increasingly being provided not only in specialist settings but in primary care settings such as Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services. There are no existing competences for the delivery of "low-intensity" or "high-intensity" cognitive behavioural interventi...

  15. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  16. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull Fiona C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher

  17. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    2014-01-01

    sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...

  18. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Loyd Beal III; Jacqueline M. Stavros; Matthew L. Cole

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB ser...

  19. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the sun: the barriers to behavioural change in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Tracy; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Dolan, O.; Gavin, Anna

    2004-01-01

    To inform future health promotion programmes, we studied the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the Northern Ireland population to sun care. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied to one adult per household from a random sample of 1242 addresses. Lower levels of knowledge were found among respondents who were male, aged under 25 years or over 65 years, in a manual occupation or living in the west where health promotion activity on this topic was less active than in the east....

  1. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bélanger-Gravel; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of c...

  2. Human Interventions versus Climate Change: Impacts on Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2009-12-01

    Water availability and occurrence of water induced disasters are impacted by both natural and human centric drivers. Climate change is considered to be one of the noted drivers in this regard. Human interventions through land use/land cover change, stream and floodplain regulations via dams, weirs, and embankments could be other equally important group of drivers. Unlike developed countries that have both resources and capabilities to adapt and mitigate the impact of such drivers, developing countries are increasingly at more risk. Identifying roles of such drivers are fundamental to the formulation of any adaptation and mitigation plans for their impacts for developing countries. In this study, we present a few examples from three regions of Nepal- a developing country in South Asia generally considered as a water rich country. Through results of modeling and statistical analyses, we show which driver is in control in different watersheds. Preliminary results show that climate change impact appears to be more prominent in large snow-fed river basins. In the smaller non-snow-fed watersheds originating from the middle hill, the impacts are not explicit despite perception of local people about changes in the water availability. In the southern belt bordering India, the impacts of river regulation on downstream areas are found to be the principal cause of flooding/inundation.

  3. Changing Environments by Changing Individuals: The Emergent Effects of Psychological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joseph T; Cook, Jonathan E; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Garcia, Julio; Apfel, Nancy; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2016-02-01

    The two studies reported here tested whether a classroom-based psychological intervention that benefited a few African American 7th graders could trigger emergent ecological effects that benefited their entire classrooms. Multilevel analyses were conducted on data that previously documented the benefits of values affirmations on African American students' grades. The density of African American students who received the intervention in each classroom (i.e., treatment density) was used as an independent predictor of grades. Within a classroom, the greater the density of African American students who participated in the intervention exercise, the higher the grades of all classmates on average, regardless of their race or whether they participated in the intervention exercise. Benefits of treatment density were most pronounced among students with a history of poor performance. Results suggest that the benefits of psychological intervention do not end with the individual. Changed individuals can improve their social environments, and such improvements can benefit others regardless of whether they participated in the intervention. These findings have implications for understanding the emergence of ecological consequences from psychological processes. PMID:26671909

  4. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Boshtam; Karim Zare; Shahriar Sadeghi; Firozeh Sajadi; Shahnaz Shahrokhi; Mansoreh Boshtam; Abdoreza Parsa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas), and Arak (reference area) carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consump...

  5. Behavioural intervention trials for HIV/STD prevention in schools: are they feasible?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J M; Oakley, A; Charleston, S.; Brodala, A.; Fenton, K; Petruckevitch, A; Johnson, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of peer led intervention in schools to reduce the risk of HIV/STD and promote sexual health. METHODS: Four secondary schools in Greater London were randomly assigned to receive peer led intervention (two experimental schools) or to act as control schools. In the experimental schools, trained volunteers aged 16-17 years (year 12) delivered the peer led intervention to 13-14 year old pupils (year ...

  6. Combination of interventions can change students' epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui

    2015-12-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ) we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing) with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students' epistemological beliefs.

  7. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  8. Three-Dimensions vs. Two-Dimensions Intervention Programs: The Effect on the Mediation Level and Behavioural Aspects of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, S.; Bezer, M.

    2011-01-01

    The research examined the effect of an intervention program employing 3D immersive virtual reality (IVR), which focused on the perception of sequential time, on the mediation level and behavioural aspects of children with intellectual disability (ID). The intervention is based on the mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which refers the…

  9. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, G.; Lo, S.H.; Peters, G-JY; Ruiter, R. A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field...

  10. Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: Tactics in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, DO; Sivalinghem, S; Mason, AC; Andrade, MCB; Kasumovic, MM

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Mate guarding is one of the most common tactics in sperm competition. Males are expected to guard their mates when costs of guarding (accrued from physical confrontations with rivals and/or reduced foraging) are low relative to the benefits of ensuring mating opportunities and paternity. We investigated mate guarding in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus, a species where males defend immature subadult females against rival males and a...

  11. Changes in pilot control behaviour across Stewart platform motion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flight simulators provide an effective, efficient, and safe environment for practising flight-critical manoeuvres without requiring a real aircraft. Most simulators are equipped with a Stewart-type motion system, which consists of six linear actuators in a hexapod configuration. The argument for use of motion systems in simulators is derived from the presence of motion cues during flight. It is hypothesised that if pilots would train in a fixed-base simulator, they would adapt their behaviour...

  12. Behavioural Changes in Rats Internally Contaminated with Caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of low doses of 137Cs on the exercise performances, behavioural and learning processes in rats is analysed. The experiments were performed on albino male and female Wistar rats. The animals were divided as follows: two groups, M1 and F1 (males and females) internally contaminated with 490 Bq 137Cs by milk ingestion during 34 days, groups M2 and F2, internally contaminated with 283 Bq by ingestion of milk during 38 days and two control groups. The duration of forced swimming, the active avoidance reaction and the total latency time in the shuttle-box and the score of aggressive behaviour were analysed. The following results were obtained: (1) the duration of forced swimming decreased significantly in the contaminated groups as compared with controls. (2) The active avoidance reaction in the shuttle-box increased in female groups and decrease in male groups. (3) The total latency time of the same reaction was lower in animals internally contaminated with 137Cs in the first day of learning. (4) The score of aggressive behavioural rise significantly, especially in female groups. The results can be explained by neurotoxic action of the caesium on several central neural areas including monoaminergic and endocrine mechanisms and sex dependence of caesium accumulation in the organism. (author)

  13. Effectiveness of a multidimensional web-based intervention program to change Brazilian health practitioners' attitudes toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Pase, Paola Fagundes; de Camargo, Eric Seger; Guaranha, Camila; Caetano, Adriano Henrique; Kveller, Daniel; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Thomé; Catelan, Ramiro Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multidimensional (educational, affective and behavioural) web-based intervention to change healthcare practitioners' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population. It aimed to measure gender and sexual (GenSex) prejudice pre- and post-intervention in relation to sociodemographic characteristics. A total of 307 health practitioners from southern Brazil enrolled and completed the follow-up assessment. The intervention had significant effects, varying across traditionally high prejudiced groups. State- and street-level continuous prejudice reduction policies are suggested. PMID:26987830

  14. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  15. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  16. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, W.L.J.M.; Santosham, M.; Barlow, A.; Tingey, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), and considerable barriers to prevention and treatment. In Native communities, adolescents are the subgroup most affected by these behavioural health disparities. Suicide is sometimes an outcome of c...

  17. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with social…

  18. Building low carbon communities in China: The role of individual’s behaviour change and engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon sustainability has been addressed in China’s national development strategies. This research explores individual behaviour change and engagement in building low carbon communities in China through a case study looking at the building of a low carbon campus at Fudan University, Shanghai. Individual behaviour directly influences the overall energy consumption and carbon emissions on Fudan University’s campus. Even though relevant polices have been issued for energy conservation, the energy consumption increased by 5% every year, which suggests that the “top-down” approach telling students and staff “what to do” does not work effectively. Based on a comprehensive method which includes the individual and social aspects related to the energy behaviour, the research analyses the promotion of individual engagement in building a low carbon campus through behaviour change based on four main aspects: (1) awareness raising and behaviour forming; (2) approaches to encourage behaviour change; (3) beyond the barriers and the constraints; and (4) systems and mechanisms for the long-term engagement. A low carbon management system is proposed for not only addressing management and technical solutions at the university level, but also based on the contributions from behaviour changes in establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University at the individual level. - Highlights: • The “top-down” approach is not an effective way to building low carbon communities in China. • Individuals’ behaviour change and engagement play a key role in low carbon sustainability. • Awareness raising, proper approaches and sound mechanisms are necessary to encourage long-term behaviour changes. • An integrated management system is developed for comprehensibly establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University

  19. Effect of a school-based peer education intervention on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Chinese adolescents: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhaohui; Shah, Smita; Yan, Lijing; Pan, Yongping; Gao, Aiyu; SHI, XIAOYAN; Wu, Yangfeng; Dibley, Michael John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect on physical activity and sedentary behaviour of a pilot school-based peer education programme in urban Beijing, China. Design 4 junior high schools were matched by school size and randomised to intervention (n=346) and control group (n=336). Intervention Trained peer leaders from grade 7 by research staff delivered weekly 40-min lessons to their classmates over four consecutive weeks. Students in control schools received no intervention. Outcome measures A val...

  20. Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle: Effectiveness of an intervention on physical behaviour and physical fitness among adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slaman, Jorrit

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis, the effectiveness of the Active Lifestyle and Sports participation intervention was evaluated among youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP). This intervention consisted of ADL counselling, fitness training and sports counselling. It was hypothesised that this lifestyle intervention would have added value for improving physical behaviour and physical fitness compared to regular therapy. We found that persons with CP had significantly lower levels of physical...

  1. The food choice at work study: effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions on dietary behaviours and diet-related disease risk - study protocol for a clustered controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geaney, Fiona; Scotto Di Marrazzo, Jessica; Kelly, Clare; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Harrington, Janas M.; Kirby, Ann; McKenzie, Ken; Greiner, Birgit; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. Methods/design A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufac...

  2. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Nicola J; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly) southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south-south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south. PMID:23364096

  3. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. PMID:26194743

  4. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Christofides

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC, combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south–south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.

  5. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  6. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative...... preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of...

  7. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  8. The value of psychological flexibility: Examining psychological mechanisms underpinning a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, J.; Bond, F. W.; Flaxman, P.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of the mechanisms by which interventions for burnout work. Employees of a UK government department were randomly assigned to either a worksite group-based CBT intervention called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; n=43), which aimed to increase participants' psychological flexibility, or a waiting list control group (n=57). The ACT group received three half-day sessions of training spread over two and a half months. Data were collected at baseline (T1), at the beginning o...

  9. Comparative studies of offices pre and post — how changing spatial configurations affect organisational behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, K.; Budgen, A.; Lonsdale, N; Turner, A; Penn, A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before and after an office move from the point of view of design practice. This paper thus aims at understanding how a newly designed office is seen, used...

  10. Behavioural change in an urban smart-grid community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Achieving long term behavioral change is a challenging task, especially when it comes to changing energy use habits. In our research we explore the social route to behavioral change, and examine how people influence each other in urban communities. We explore the conditions under which individuals a

  11. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  12. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  13. A community-based mixed methods approach to developing behavioural health interventions among indigenous adolescent populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. Tingey

    2016-01-01

    Native American and indigenous populations experience the greatest behavioural health disparities in the world. A constellation of factors impacting Native American Tribes contributes to high rates and co-morbidity of mental health disorders, substance use and sexually transmitted infection (STI), a

  14. Behaviour Intervention for a Student with Tourette's Syndrome: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Amina; Rayner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    In an increasingly inclusive and complex setting, professionals in the school workforce working with children presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are managing difficulties that frequently reflect co-morbidity and multiple-disorder. This article reports practitioner-led research taking place in a mainstream school in the USA…

  15. Interventions for Challenging Behaviours of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities: A Synthesis Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Janine; Martin, Toby; Shooshtari, Shahin; Stoesz, Brenda M.; Heinrichs, Dustin J.; North, Sebastian; Dodson, Lindsay; Senkow, Quinn; Douglas, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    This synthesis paper summarizes research literature addressing challenging behaviours in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities in school settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published between the years 2000 and 2011. The methodological…

  16. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats in women who have had breast cancer treatment. Hot flushes and night sweats are highly prevalent but challenging to treat in this population. Cognitive behaviour therapy has been found to reduce these symptoms in well women and results of an exploratory trial suggest that it might be effective for breast cancer patients. Two hypotheses are tested: Compared to usual care, group cognitive behavioural therapy will: 1. Significantly reduce the problem rating and frequency of hot flushes and nights sweats after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. 2. Improve mood and quality of life after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. Methods/Design Ninety-six women who have completed their main treatment for breast cancer and who have been experiencing problematic hot flushes and night sweats for over two months are recruited into the trial from oncology and breast clinics in South East London. They are randomised to either six weekly group cognitive behavioural therapy (Group CBT sessions or to usual care. Group CBT includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of breast cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats and maintaining changes. Prior to randomisation women attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete questionnaire measures of hot flushes and night sweats, mood, quality of life, hot flush beliefs and behaviours, optimism and somatic amplification. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and questionnaires are collected six to eight weeks later and follow-up measures (questionnaires and a use

  17. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of a school based cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT intervention to prevent depression in high risk adolescents (PROMISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal Kapil

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Relatively few adolescents with depression are identified and referred for treatment indicating the need to investigate alternative preventive approaches. Study Design A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school based prevention programme on symptoms of depression in "high risk" adolescents (aged 12-16. The unit of allocation is year groups (n = 28 which are assigned to one of three conditions: an active intervention based upon cognitive behaviour therapy, attention control or treatment as usual. Assessments will be undertaken at screening, baseline, 6 months and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is change on the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will assess changes in negative thoughts, self esteem, anxiety, school connectedness, peer attachment, alcohol and substance misuse, bullying and self harm. Discussion As of August 2010, all 28 year groups (n = 5023 had been recruited and the assigned interventions delivered. Final 12 month assessments are scheduled to be completed by March 2011. Trial Registration ISRCTN19083628

  18. Web-Based Interventions for Behavior Change and Self-Management: Potential, Pitfalls, and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The potential advantages of using the Internet to deliver self-care and behavior-change programs are well recognized. An aging population combined with the increasing prevalence of long-term conditions and more effective medical interventions place financial strain on all health care systems. Web-based interventions have the potential to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability of public health interventions that have low marginal costs per additional u...

  19. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    , which explained the intervention itself, how and when children receive it and safety issues. Implementation of IPTi started in January 2005 and evaluation is ongoing. Conclusion Behaviour Change Communication (BCC strategies for health interventions must be both culturally appropriate and technically sound. A mixed methods approach can facilitate an interactive process among relevant actors to develop a BCC strategy.

  20. Perceived stress as a risk factor for changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of stress on changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: The analyses were based on 7066 women and men...... health behaviour (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, overweight) and cardiac risk profile (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes). RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of stress compared to those with low levels of stress were less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.58; 95% CI...... in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile....

  1. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  2. Interventions to reduce college student drinking: State of the evidence for mechanisms of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Kate B

    2015-08-01

    Interventions to reduce college student drinking, although efficacious, generally yield only small effects on behavior change. Examining mechanisms of change may help to improve the magnitude of intervention effects by identifying effective and ineffective active ingredients. Informed by guidelines for establishing mechanisms of change, we conducted a systematic review of alcohol interventions for college students to identify (a) which constructs have been examined and received support as mediators, (b) circumstances that enhance the likelihood of detecting mediation, and (c) the extent of evidence for mechanisms of change. We identified 61 trials that examined 22 potential mediators of intervention efficacy. Descriptive norms consistently mediated normative feedback interventions. Motivation to change consistently failed to mediate motivational interviewing interventions. Multiple active ingredient interventions were not substantially more likely to find evidence of mediation than single ingredient interventions. Delivering intervention content remotely reduced likelihood of finding support for mediation. With the exception of descriptive norms, there is inadequate evidence for the psychosocial constructs purported as mechanisms of change in the college drinking literature. Evidence for mechanisms will be yielded by future studies that map all active ingredients to targeted psychosocial outcomes and that assess potential mediators early, inclusively, and at appropriate intervals following interventions. PMID:26164065

  3. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact reduction, Behaviour Change has not traditionally been regarded as an easy route to achieving substantial results. Arguably this is driven by perceptions that it is (i) difficult to influence large numbers of people, and (ii) difficult to quantify the potentially nebulous results generated. This paper proposes that by use of innovative and engaging IT systems and good programme design, both of these challenges can be addressed. By so doing, Behaviour C...

  4. Coastal observatories for monitoring of fish behaviour and their responses to environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Doya, Carol; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of behavioural components in the analysis of a community is of key relevance in marine ecology. Diel and seasonal activity rhythms or more longlasting changes in behavioural responses determine shifts in population, which in turn affect measurable abundances. Here, we review the value of cabled videoobservatories as a new and reliable technology for the remote, long-term, and highfrequency monitoring of fishes and their environment in coastal temperate areas. We provide detai...

  5. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  6. An mHealth intervention: Associations between Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs for physical activity and longitudinal smoking related behavioural data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hassandra

    2015-10-01

    The results support previous literature suggesting that a possible mechanism behind the beneficial effects of exercise on decreasing smoking behaviour might be the increased perceived behavioural control over exercise that has an effect on the control to smoking behaviour. Moreover, using exercise to manage after quit smoking cravings can delay further smoking behaviour relapses.

  7. A qualitative study of a food intervention in a primary school: Pupils as agents of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, H; Canavon, C; Crawford, R; Barker, M E

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the impact of a school-based kitchen project at a large inner London school. Timetabled kitchen classroom sessions (90 min every fortnight) were held with all 7-9 year old pupils. Semi-structured focus group discussions (with 76 pupils, 16 parents) and interviews (with headteachers, catering managers and specialist staff) were conducted at the intervention school and a matched control school. Categories and concepts were derived using a grounded theory approach. Data analysis provided three main categories each with their related concepts: Pupil factors (enthusiasm and enjoyment of cooking, trying new foods, food knowledge and awareness, producing something tangible); School factors (learning and curriculum links, resource implications and external pressures) and Home factors (take home effects, confidence in cooking and self-esteem, parents' difficulties cooking at home with children). Children's engagement and the opportunity to cook supported increased food awareness, skills and food confidence. In the grounded theory that emerged, take home effects beyond the school gate dominate, as children act as agents of change and influence cooking and food choice at home. These short term outcomes have the potential to lead to longer term outcomes including changing eating behaviour and diet. PMID:26254277

  8. Modifying Adult Interactional Style as Positive Behavioural Intervention for a Child with Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian M.; Meyer, Luanna H.

    1999-01-01

    A naturalistic behavioral assessment and intervention program over a 3-year period for a New Zealand girl (age 5) with Rett syndrome is described. The most significant reduction in hand mannerisms and other excess behaviors was related to positive social interactions and play that allowed for communication at the affective level. (Author/CR)

  9. Secondary Schools Demonstration Project: Program Effects of School-Based Interventions on Antisocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Offord, David; John, Lindsay; Duku, Eric; DeWit, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the methodology and program effects of the Secondary Schools Demonstration Project (SSDP) conducted in four Ontario schools. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which a universal program model of three interventions--cooperative learning; classroom management; and peer-helping approaches that included…

  10. Thermal Mass Behaviour of Concrete Panels Incorporating Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Niall, Dervilla; West, Roger; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Kinnane, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) have been incorporated into a range of building envelope materials with varied success. This study investigates two different methods of combining concrete and phase change materials to form PCM/concrete composite panels. The first method involves adding microencapsulated paraffin to fresh concrete during the mixing process. The second method involves vacuum impregnating butyl stearate into lightweight aggregate which is then included in the concrete mix design. T...

  11. Electroconvulsive stimulations normalizes stress-induced changes in the glucocorticoid receptor and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, Ida; Nielsen, Marianne; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of chronic stress, such as 21 days of 6h/daily restraint stress cause changes in neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and alter behaviour. These changes are partly mediated by the glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to study how this particular chronic ...

  12. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  13. The feasibility of a home-based sedentary behaviour intervention for hospitalised chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients: Sitting and ExacerbAtions Trial (COPD-SEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Orme

    2015-10-01

    COPD-SEAT will be one of the first trials aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour at home in patients hospitalised for an acute exacerbation of COPD. This trial will provide valuable insight into the feasibility of implementing an at-home technology-based feedback intervention for reducing sedentary behaviour into patients existing care. Findings will inform a future large-scale trial acting as an adjuvant to pulmonary rehabilitation.

  14. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Gilliland; Richard Sadler; Andrew Clark; Colleen O’Connor; Malgorzata Milczarek; Sean Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into health...

  15. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    that if these corrections are implemented in routine outcome measurement of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), the estimate of change in total HoNOSCA score after adjustment is clearly smaller in absolute value than the absolute difference estimate. If RTM and the ceiling/floor effect...

  16. Soil transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil transmitted helminthiases (STH) collectively cause the highest global burden of parasitic disease after malaria and are most prevalent in the poorest communities, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change is predicted to alter the physical environment through cumulative impacts of warmin...

  17. How will climate change affect vine behaviour in different soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Morales, Fermin; Pascual, Inmaculada; Unamunzaga, Olatz

    2014-05-01

    Various agricultural sectors are sensitive to projected climate change. In this sense, the strong link between climate and grapevine phenology and berry quality suggests a relevant impact. Within the concept of terroir, climate is a factor that influences ripening of a specific variety and resulting wine style. Furthermore, the effect of soil on grape potential is complex, because the soil acts on grapevine water and nutrient supply, and influences root zone temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of climate change (increased CO2, higher temperature and lower relative humidity), soil texture and irrigation on the physiology, yield and berry quality of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with potted, own-rooted fruit-bearing cuttings. Three factors were studied: a) climate change (700 μmol CO2 mol-1 air, 28/18°C and 45/65% day/night relative humidity) vs. current conditions (375 μmol CO2 mol-1 air, 24/14ºC and 33/53% day/night relative humidity), b) soil texture (9, 18 and 36% soil clay content) and c) irrigation; well-irrigated (20-35% of soil water content) vs. water deficit (60% of the water applied to the irrigated plants). Berries were harvested at ripeness (21-23 ºBrix). Climate change shortened the time between veraison and full maturity up to 9 days and reduced the number of berries per bunch. Grapes grown under climate change conditions had higher pH and lower acidity (due to malic and tartaric acids), anthocyanins content and colour intensity. Water-deficit delayed ripening up to 10 days and reduced final leaf area and root weight. Berries from water stressed plants had an increased skin/pulp ratio and pH, and lower acidity (malic acid) and polyphenol content. Regarding soil texture, plants grown in the soil with lower clay content increased root fresh weight and had higher total anthocyanins content. There were no interactions between factors. In conclusion, both climate change

  18. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  19. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Kobel; Tamara Wirt; Anja Schreiber; Dorothea Kesztyüs; Sarah Kettner; Nanette Erkelenz; Olivia Wartha; Jürgen M. Steinacker

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA), a decrease in screen media use (SMU), more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC) were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 year...

  20. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: A modi fied Zelen prospective cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, C A M; Hogan, A.; Ricketts, E.; Wallace, L.; Oliver, I; Campbell, R.; Kalwij, S.; O'Connell, E; Charlett, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. Methods: A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to incre...

  1. QT Dispersion: Does It Change after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Asadi Moghaddam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial ischemia is one of several causes of prolonged QT dispersion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that percutaneous coronary intervention has on the depolarization and repolarization parameters of surface electrocardiography in patients with chronic stable angina.Methods: We assessed the effects of full revascularization in patients with chronic stable angina and single-vessel disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before intervention and 24 hours subsequently. We measured parameters including QRS duration, QT and corrected QT durations, and JT and corrected JT duration in both electrocardiograms and compared the values.Results: There were significant differences between the mean QRS interval (0.086 ± 0.01sec vs. 0.082 ± 0.01 second; p value = 0.01, mean corrected QT dispersion (0.080 ± 0.04 sec vs. 0.068 ± 0.04 sec; p value = 0.001, and mean corrected JT dispersion (0.074 ± 0.04 sec vs. 0.063 ± 0.04 sec; p value = 0.001 before and after percutaneous coronary intervention. No significant differences were found between the other ECG parameters.Conclusion: Our data indicate that the shortening of corrected QT dispersion and corrected JT dispersion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is prominent.

  2. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. PMID:26831153

  3. Onset of impaired sleep as a predictor of change in health-related behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2015-01-01

    used data from 37 508 adults from the longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study. In analysis of 59 152 person-observations on duration and quality of sleep and health-related behaviours (alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and weight control), data were treated as a series of non......BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: We......-randomized pseudo-trials with strict predefined criteria for data inclusion and temporality. RESULTS: Smokers who experienced onset of short sleep were less likely to quit smoking than those with persistent normal sleep [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.97]. Onset of short sleep also...

  4. After Early Autism Diagnosis: Changes in Intervention and Parent-Child Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L; Abrams, Danielle N

    2016-08-01

    This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD risk during a well-baby checkup. Children diagnosed with ASD (n = 44) were 2.69 times more likely to increase intervention hours. After ASD diagnosis, the relation between intervention and interaction quality was complex: although increases in intervention and interaction quality were only modestly related, the overall amount of intervention after diagnosis was associated with higher quality interactions. Moreover, lower quality interactions before diagnosis significantly increased the likelihood that intervention would increase post-diagnosis. PMID:27193183

  5. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  6. The impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention, on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights, and it is a serious public health concern associated with increased HIV risk. SASA!, a phased community mobilization intervention, engages communities to prevent IPV and promote gender equity. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA! on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics. Methods: Data were collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between 2007 and 2012 in eight communities in Kampala. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The qualitative evaluation explored participants’ subjective experience of SASA!. A total of 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Men in intervention communities were significantly more likely than controls to report a broad range of HIV-protective behaviours, including higher levels of condom use (aRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.22–3.39, HIV testing (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13–2.00 and fewer concurrent partners (aRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.97. They were also more likely to report increased joint decision-making (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27–2.91, greater male participation in household tasks (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01, more open communication and greater appreciation of their partner's work inside (aRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.66 and outside (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.06 the home. For women, all outcomes were in the hypothesized direction, but effect sizes were smaller. Only some achieved statistical significance. Women in intervention communities were significantly more likely to report being able to refuse sex with their partners (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.35, joint decision-making (aRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06–1.78 and more open communication on a number of indicators. Qualitative interviews suggest that shifts

  7. School-Based Intervention for Nutrition Promotion in Mi Yun County, Beijing, China: Does a Health-Promoting School Approach Improve Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether the school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) framework was effective to improve parents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour (KAB) in relation to nutrition in rural Mi Yun County, Beijing. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial…

  8. A Journey of Self-Discovery: An Intervention Involving Massage, Yoga and Relaxation for Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Attending Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lesley; Gilchrist, Mollie; Stapley, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on an intervention involving massage, yoga and relaxation delivered to young children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Children (n = 126) were invited to participate in the Self-discovery Programme (SDP) with parental consent. A total of 107 children aged 8-11 years completed the SDP and all measures. Children were…

  9. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  10. Structural and behavioural changes in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabiová, K.; Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Kořínek, Radim; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Šulcová, A.; Micale, V.

    Vol. 24 S2. Berlin : Elsevier, 2014, S486. ISSN 0924-977X. [ECNP Congress /27./. Berlin (DE), 18.10.2014-21.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : schizophrenia * structural and behavioural changes Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  11. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  12. Do changes of pen and penmate affect the behaviour of heifers?

    OpenAIRE

    Raussi, S.; Boissy, A; Delval, E; Andanson, S.; Veissier, I.

    2003-01-01

    We wanted to investigate if relocation affects behaviour of dairy heifers. In the study 32 Holstein heifers were housed in pairs until they were 13 months old. 16 heifers stayed in the same pen with the same penmate (control). The pen and penmates of 16 heifers were changed 16 times between 11 and 13 months of age.

  13. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas, and Arak (reference area carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consumption pattern by food frequency questionnaire and demographic information of this group were collected before, after and annually during the intervention. Data were analyzed by Genera Linear Models (GLM, descriptive and trend analysis. Results: Beverage and hydrogenated oil consumption decreased and fruits and vegetables increased in workers and staff of intervention area more than reference area (p0.27. Compare to reference society fast food consumption in office staff of intervention society was increased (p<0.001.Conclusion: We conclude that nutritional interventions have favorite effects on practice of workers and staff of this Iranian population and interventions used in this study can use as applicable interventions for similar societies

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie

    2011-08-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  16. Understanding eating behaviours in Spanish women enrolled in a weight-loss treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barberia, Ana Maria; Attree, Moira; Todd, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To identify the beliefs and attitudes of a sample of obese and overweight Spanish women undertaking a weight-loss treatment. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic. Weight-loss treatments focus on changing eating behaviours; however, many patients fail to adhere to the diet. This suggests that more effective behaviour-change interventions are required to help people change their eating behaviours. According to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) human behaviour is influenced by belie...

  17. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  18. Perspectives on randomization and readiness for change in a workplace intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Persson, Roger; Nielsen, Karina;

    2015-01-01

    , it is important to investigate differences between study groups in readiness for change. To meet this aim, we used data from an intervention study of the effects of work-time control. The study design entailed both self-selection (i.e. non-random) and random allocation into intervention and control...

  19. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Voráčová; Erik Sigmund; Dagmar Sigmundová; Michal Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2...

  20. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S.; Viner, Russell M.; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objective Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. Methods We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010–2011. Parents o...

  1. Improving the management of behaviour that challenges associated with dementia in care homes: protocol for pharmacy–health psychology intervention feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; Killick, Kirsty; Damery, Sarah; Hilton, Andrea; Wilcock, Jane; Barnes, Nigel; Brown, Graeme; Gillespie, Sarah; Fox, Chris; Barton, Garry; Iliffe, Steve; Seare, Nichola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inappropriate use of antipsychotics in people with dementia for behaviour that challenges is associated with an estimated 1800 deaths annually. However, solely focusing on antipsychotics may transfer prescribing to other equally dangerous psychotropics. Little is known about the role of pharmacists in the management of psychotropics used to treat behaviours that challenge. This research aims to determine whether it is feasible to implement and measure the effectiveness of a combined pharmacy–health psychology intervention incorporating a medication review and staff training package to limit the prescription of psychotropics to manage behaviour that challenges in care home residents with dementia. Methods/analysis 6 care homes within the West Midlands will be recruited. People with dementia receiving medication for behaviour that challenges, or their personal consultee, will be approached regarding participation. Medication used to treat behaviour that challenges will be reviewed by the pharmacist, in collaboration with the general practitioner (GP), person with dementia and carer. The behavioural intervention consists of a training package for care home staff and GPs promoting person-centred care and treating behaviours that challenge as an expression of unmet need. The primary outcome measure is the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). Other outcomes include quality of life (EQ-5D and DEMQoL), cognition (sMMSE), health economic (CSRI) and prescribed medication including whether recommendations were implemented. Outcome data will be collected at 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Pretraining and post-training interviews will explore stakeholders’ expectations and experiences of the intervention. Data will be used to estimate the sample size for a definitive study. Ethics/dissemination The project has received a favourable opinion from the East Midlands REC (15/EM/3014). If potential participants lack capacity, a personal

  2. Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek

    2005-01-01

    Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs. PMID:15576497

  3. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  4. A Comparative Evaluation to Determine the Effectiveness of the Behaviour Support Classrooms and other Positive Behaviour Management Interventions in Designated Disadvantaged Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Twelve designated disadvantaged secondary schools were involved in the research, which looked at the different approaches for dealing with inappropriate student behaviour. Six of the schools are currently involved with the National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) in the piloting of the Behaviour Support Classrooms (BSCs) for seriously disruptive students. For comparative purposes six other schools who did not have this additional resource were studied, to determine how they go...

  5. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  6. Web-based interventions for behavior change and self-management: potential, pitfalls, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The potential advantages of using the Internet to deliver self-care and behavior-change programs are well recognized. An aging population combined with the increasing prevalence of long-term conditions and more effective medical interventions place financial strain on all health care systems. Web-based interventions have the potential to combine the tailored approach of face-to-face interventions with the scalability of public health interventions that have low marginal costs per additional user. From a patient perspective, Web-based interventions can be highly attractive because they are convenient, easily accessible, and can maintain anonymity/privacy. Recognition of this potential has led to research in developing and evaluating Web-based interventions for self-management of long-term conditions and behavior change. Numerous systematic reviews have confirmed the effectiveness of some Web-based interventions, but a number of unanswered questions still remain. This paper reviews the progress made in developing and evaluating Web-based interventions and considers three challenging areas: equity, effectiveness, and implementation. The impact of Web-based interventions on health inequalities remains unclear. Although some have argued that such interventions can increase access to underserved communities, there is evidence to suggest that reliance on Web-based interventions may exacerbate health inequalities by excluding those on the "wrong" side of the digital divide. Although most systematic reviews have found a positive effect on outcomes of interest, effect sizes tend to be small and not all interventions are successful. Further work is needed to determine why some interventions work and others do not. This includes considering the "active ingredients" or mechanism of action of these complex interventions and the context in which they are used. Are there certain demographic, psychological, or clinical factors that promote or inhibit success? Are some behaviors or

  7. Effects of a Foster Parent Training Intervention on Placement Changes of Children in Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Joseph M.; Chamberlain, Patricia; LANDSVERK, JOHN; Reid, John; Leve, Leslie; Laurent, Heidemarie

    2008-01-01

    Placement disruptions undermine efforts of child welfare agencies to promote safety, permanency, and child well-being. Child behavior problems significantly contribute to placement changes. The aims of this investigation were to examine the impact of a foster parent training and support intervention (KEEP) on placement changes and to determine whether the intervention mitigates placement disruption risks associated with children's placement histories. The sample consisted of 700 families with...

  8. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  9. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  10. Behavioural and biochemical changes in maternally separated Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, P J; Dimatelis, J J; Russell, V A

    2016-02-01

    Early life adversity has been associated with the development of various neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood such as depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine if stress during adulthood can exaggerate the depression-/anxiety-like behaviour observed in the widely accepted maternally separated (MS) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of depression. A further aim was to determine whether the behavioural changes were accompanied by changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the protein profile of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Depression-/anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the elevated plus maze, open field and forced swim test (FST) in the MS SD rats exposed to chronic restraint stress in adulthood. As expected, MS increased immobility of SD rats in the FST but restraint stress did not enhance this effect of MS on SD rats. A proteomic analysis of the PFC revealed a decrease in actin-related proteins in MS and non-separated rats subjected to restraint stress as well as a decrease in mitochondrial energy-related proteins in the stressed rat groups. Since MS during early development causes a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and long-term changes in the response to subsequent stress, it may have prevented restraint stress from exerting its effects on behaviour. Moreover, the decrease in proteins related to mitochondrial energy metabolism in MS rats with or without subsequent restraint stress may be related to stress per se and not depression-like behaviour, because rats subjected to restraint stress displayed similar decreases in energy-related proteins and spent less time immobile in the FST than control rats. PMID:26555398

  11. Can microgeneration catalyse behaviour change in the domestic energy sector in the UK?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Noam (Univ. of Oxford, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions in the UK. Traditional approaches to energy reduction look at direct emissions savings, and recommend insulation and efficiency as more cost-effective than microgeneration. However, microgeneration has indirect, 'soft' benefits and could play a significant role in emissions reduction. Current uptake of microgeneration in the UK is low, with various barriers economic, technical, cultural, behavioural and institutional both to uptake and to maximising energy and emissions savings once installed. Subsidies and spreading information alone do not guarantee maximising uptake, and even if successful, this is not enough to maximise savings. The industry focuses on maximising sales, with no incentives to ensure best installations and use; householders do not have access to the best information and user behaviour does not maximise energy and emission savings. This is related to a broader state of socio-technical 'lock-in' in domestic energy use there's a lack of connection between personal behaviour and energy consumption, let alone global climate change; energy use in the home is rising faster than energy saving measures are implemented. This suggests that a major cultural-behavioural shift is needed to reduce energy/emissions in the home. Transition theory and strategic niche management provide insights into possible systemic change, and a suitable framework for future policies, such as supporting a variety of radically innovative niches, both technological and social. Microgeneration, properly employed, has the potential to play a part in such a transition, by increasing awareness and energy literacy and empowering people to seriously engage in energy debates as producers, as well as consumers, of energy. This deeper understanding and heightened responsibility are crucial in a shift toward bottom-up emissions-reducing behaviour change and better acceptance of top

  12. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Coninck, H.C. de; Puig, D.

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systema...

  13. Readiness for Change: Case Studies of Young People with Challenging and Risky Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Annemaree; Ashman, Adrian; Bower, Julie; Hemingway, Francene

    2013-01-01

    Readiness for change (or treatment readiness) is a core concept of many rehabilitation programs for adult and juvenile offenders. The present study examined the experiences of six young people aged 13 to 17 years who participated in Mindfields[R], a 6-week self-regulatory intervention aimed at enhancing life skills and goal setting among youths…

  14. Motivational Interviewing and the Transtheoretical Model of Change: Under-Explored Resources for Suicide Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Janet; Natarajan, Aravindhan; Petra, Megan M

    2016-07-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a robust evidence-based intervention that has been used to evoke intrinsic motivation to change behaviors. MI as an intervention focuses on facilitating movement through the stages of the transtheoretical model of change. A study by Coombs et al. (Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change: Selecting and planning interventions, Guilford Press, New York, 2001) demonstrated that suicidal individuals move through such stages toward suicidal behavior, yet research and applications of MI for suicide have been minimal. In hopes of generating increased exploration of MI for suicidality, this article reviews the theoretical rationale and existing empirical research on applications of MI with suicidal individuals. Potential uses of MI in suicide risk assessment/crisis intervention, as well as an adjunct to longer-term treatment, are discussed. PMID:26886871

  15. A cluster randomized-controlled trial of a community mobilization intervention to change gender norms and reduce HIV risk in rural South Africa: study design and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Pettifor, Audrey; Lippman, Sheri A.; Selin, Amanda M; Peacock, Dean; Gottert, Ann; Maman, Suzanne; Rebombo, Dumisani; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Twine, Rhian; Lancaster, Kathryn; Daniel, Tamu; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; MacPhail, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Community mobilization (CM) interventions show promise in changing gender norms and preventing HIV, but few have been based on a defined mobilization model or rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to describe the intervention design and implementation and present baseline findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of a two-year, theory-based CM intervention that aimed to change gender norms and reduce HIV risk in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Me...

  16. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva; Schröder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    . Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... (primary analysis), and (2) whether changes in illness perceptions during the whole trial period were associated with improved outcome (secondary analysis). Results Improvements in illness perceptions during treatment partially mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on physical health one...... year after treatment (sum of indirect effects 1.556, BCa 95% CI (0.006; 3.620)). Improving perceived control was particularly important. Changes in illness perceptions from baseline to 16 months after randomisation were associated with clinically meaningful improvements in physical health, somatic...

  17. iFlit: an ambient display to induce cognitive dissonance and behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maimone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how persuasive ambient displays could induce cognitive dissonance to promote positive behaviour change among graduate students. We developed iFlit –an interactive and collective ambient display that enables a group of students to reflect on their burnout level, and sleeping and activity habits. iFlit shows a garden with birds representing students monitored behaviour. Birds move according to users’ activity level, and the garden’s background changes according to each user’s sleeping habits. Users match peers perceived burnout, and sleep and activity habits to induce cognitive dissonance. We argue such displays are more efficient than personal devices to empower individuals’ self-reflection due their capabilities for enabling a playful interaction with their personal data.

  18. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  19. Values and Environmental Ethics – Pillars of Changing Human Behaviour Toward Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Bran; Carmen Valentina Radulescu; Ildiko Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development necessitates the harmonisation of human’s and nature’s needs under the siege of continuous demographic growth and the quest for wellbeing based on material things. This outcome implies important changes to occur at individual, collective and corporate behaviour. How they could be accomplished is a question that animates debates for several decades and revealed that solutions should be related to the process of valuation. Better understanding of value and how it relates...

  20. Estimating the environmental impact of home energy visits and extent of behaviour change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental impact of a home energy visit programme, known as RE:NEW, that was delivered in London, in the United Kingdom. These home energy visits intended to encourage reductions in household carbon emissions and water consumption through the installation of small energy saving measures (such as radiator panels, in-home energy displays and low-flow shower heads), further significant energy saving measures (loft and cavity wall insulation) and behaviour change advice. The environmental impact of the programme was estimated in terms of carbon emissions abated and on average, for each household in the study, a visit led to an average carbon abatement of 146 kgCO2. The majority of this was achieved through the installation of small energy saving measures. The impact of the visits on the installation of significant measures was negligible, as was the impact on behaviour change. Therefore, these visits did not overcome the barriers required to generate behaviour change or the barriers to the installation of more significant energy saving measures. Given this, a number of recommendations are proposed in this paper, which could increase the efficacy of these home energy visits. - Highlights: • The environmental impact of the RE:NEW home energy visit programme is estimated. • Visits do not generate significant pro-environmental behaviour change. • Visits do not overcome the barriers to the installation loft and wall insulation. • Small energy saving measures yield carbon savings of 145 kgCO2/year. • The average carbon abatement per household was estimated to be 146 kgCO2/year

  1. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary developmen...

  2. A smarter choice? Exploring the behaviour change agenda for environmentally sustainable mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Barr; Jan Prillwitz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores some of the limitations of individualistic approaches towards the study and promotion of environmentally sustainable practices within the context of efforts by states to tackle global climate change. Using the example of government attempts to promote sustainable mobility through behavioural shifts amongst citizens in the UK, the paper argues that an overreliance on individualistic approaches poses three major challenges through the ways in which: (1) mobility is intricate...

  3. Social networking sites as platforms to persuade behaviour change in domestic energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This MSc project addresses the following research question – “Can online social networks such as Facebook facilitate the motivation and behaviour change to reduce energy consumption in the home?” An investigation into the role of social interaction in social networks provides evidence to support the research question. The project undertook an extensive literature review and identified a gap in current knowledge regarding energy monitoring systems that are socially enabled. A participatory des...

  4. Has the export pricing behaviour of German enterprises changed? Empirical evidence from German sectoral prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stahn, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The question as to whether the globalisation-related increase in competitive pressure may have caused the importance of exchange rate pass-through and pricing-to-market for export pricing in Germany to shift since the 1990s is addressed by testing the long-run export pricing behaviour of German enterprises for changes in the impact of its determinants. As globalisation may have affected competitive pressure in individual product markets differently, export pricing is analysed for 11 product c...

  5. Are incremental changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours associated with improved employee health?: A 12-month prospective study in five organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Cath; Lewis, Kiara; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The workplace offers an ideal setting for facilitating physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviours. Understanding employees’ current health behaviours is required to inform appropriate, tailored, health promotion interventions. The purpose of this paper is to compare the physical activity and sedentary behaviours over 12 months of employees within and across five UK organisations. The paper also explores the association of these health behaviours with objective and self-repo...

  6. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk;

    2016-01-01

    trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions). Occupational lifting, fear avoidance, physical exertion, muscle strength, support....... Results: Significant reduction in occupational lifting (-0.35 (95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.08)), and improvement in two measures of fear avoidance ((-0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.45) and -0.45 (95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.11)) were found for the intervention group compared...

  7. Within-intervention change: mediators of intervention effects during multisystemic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Deković; J.J. Asscher; W.A. Manders; P.J.M. Prins; P. van der Laan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that improvements in parental sense of competence during multisystemic therapy (MST) lead to positive changes in parenting, which in turn lead to a decrease of adolescent externalizing problems. Mediational models were tested separately for 3 dimens

  8. Low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous attempts to change energy-related behaviour were targeted at individuals as consumers of energy. Recent literature has suggested that more focus should be placed on the community level and that energy users should be engaged in the role of citizens, and not only that of consumers. This article analyses different types of emerging low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change. The focus is on how these communities offer solutions to problems in previous attempts to change individual behaviour. These problems include social dilemmas, social conventions, socio-technical infrastructures and the helplessness of individuals. Different community types are examined, including geographical communities as well as sector-based, interest-based and smart mob communities. Through four case studies representing each of these community types, we examine how different communities reframe problems on the individual level to reduce carbon emissions. On the basis of an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of various community solutions, implications are drawn for further research and for the design and support of low-carbon communities.

  9. Evaluation of Using Behavioural Changes to Assess Post-Operative Pain in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Yvette; Flecknell, Paul; Leach, Matt

    2016-01-01

    To manage pain effectively in people and animals, it is essential to recognise when pain is present and to assess its intensity. Currently there is very little information regarding the signs of post-surgical pain or its management in guinea pigs. Studies from other rodent species indicate that behaviour-based scoring systems can be used successfully to detect pain and evaluate analgesic efficacy. This preliminary study aimed to establish whether behaviour-based scoring systems could be developed to assess post-surgical pain in guinea pigs. This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study used 16 guinea pigs, and evaluated changes in behaviour following either anaesthesia alone or anaesthesia and orchiectomy. Behaviour was assessed using a combination of manual and automated scoring of remotely obtained video footage. A small number of behaviours were identified that appeared to have high specificity for pain caused by orchiectomy. However, the behaviours were displayed infrequently. The most common was a change in posture from standing to recumbency, sometimes with one hind leg extended either to the side or behind the body. A composite behaviour score incorporating these abnormal behaviours differentiated between the effects of surgery and anaesthesia alone (p<0.0001), and between animals that received analgesia post-operatively compared to an untreated group (p<0.0001). Although behavioural changes occurred in these guinea pigs after orchiectomy, the changes were relatively subtle and the individual specific pain-related behaviours occurred infrequently. However, it may prove possible to develop a behaviour-based scoring system for routine use in this species using a combination of pain-related behaviours. PMID:27583446

  10. Preliminary Study on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC: Hemispheric Lateralization with Behavioural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azuin Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed inspired by the fact that there is an interhemisphere asymmetry of the brain region. A lot of researches studied in demonstrating the differences between right and left hemispheres of the brain. The objective of this preliminary study is to observe scientifically the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC on the hemispheric lateralization with behavioural changes. Two regions of brain are selected, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Behavioural tests, namely heat stress test and novel-object discrimination test (NOD, were done on day seven. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions of the brain were preceded to Western Blot technique in detecting c-fos. As for behavioural tests, heat stress and NOD and c-fos on hippocampus did not show significant differences. Meanwhile, the prefrontal cortex shows significant difference with p < 0.01. With these findings, reasonable dosages of ∆9-THC should be used to have statistically significant differences effects on behavioural tests. 

  11. Changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours following school based oral health education and atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.

  12. Integrating Biopsychosocial Intervention Research in a Changing Health Care Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Oh, Hyunsung; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Safety net care systems are experiencing unprecedented change from the "Affordable Care Act," Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) uptake, health information technology application, and growing of mental health care integration within primary care. This article provides a review of previous and current efforts in which social…

  13. Managing Loss and Change: Grief Interventions for Dementia Caregivers in a CBT-Based Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichsner, Franziska; Schinköthe, Denise; Wilz, Gabriele

    2016-05-01

    Dementia caregivers often experience loss and grief related to general caregiver burden, physical, and mental health problems. Through qualitative content analysis, this study analyzed intervention strategies applied by therapists in a randomized-controlled trial in Germany to assist caregivers in managing losses and associated emotions. Sequences from 61 therapy sessions that included interventions targeting grief, loss, and change were transcribed and analyzed. A category system was developed deductively, and the intercoder reliability was satisfactory. The identified grief intervention strategies wererecognition and acceptance of loss and change,addressing future losses,normalization of grief, andredefinition of the relationship Therapists focused on identifying experienced losses, managing associated feelings, and fostering acceptance of these losses. A variety of cognitive-behavioral therapy-based techniques was applied with each strategy. The findings contribute to understanding how dementia caregivers can be supported in their experience of grief and facilitate the development of a manualized grief intervention. PMID:26311735

  14. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  15. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens. PMID:26347960

  16. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  17. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... further developed include knowledge development, legitimation and marketformation. These could be focal areas for the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We recommendthat, in future programmes, part of the funding is dedicated to programmes doingresearch and development as well as capability development....

  18. A proposed leadership competency model for effective organizational change intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Rein; Visagie, Jan; Ukpere, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    There are still several myths around leadership in spite of the fact that it is one of the most topical issues in modern organisations. The importance thereof and contributions of leadership in high performing organisations can never be underestimated. Leaders play an important role in an organisation as social architects by creating vision and strategic direction, building relationships, establishing culture and values and leading change. This article attempts to address specific...

  19. Changing Morning Report: An Educational Intervention to Address Curricular Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay John Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morning report is a case-based teaching session common to many residency programs with varying purposes and focuses. At our institution, physicians and residents felt our Internal Medicine morning report had lost its educational focus. The purpose of this project was to improve morning report using a well-known curriculum development framework for medical education. We conducted a focus group of residents to develop and implement changes to morning report. Themes from our focus group led us to split morning report with the first 30 minutes for postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3 residents to give handover, to receive feedback on diagnosis and management, and to either discuss an interesting case or receive teaching aimed at their final certification examination. The second 30 minutes involved PGY-3 residents leading PGY-1 residents in case-based discussions with an attending physician providing feedback on the content and process of teaching. We measured success based on a follow-up survey and comments from resident evaluations before and after the change. Overall, the changes were well received by both faculty and residents; however comments revealed that the success of morning report is preceptor dependent. In summary, we have successfully implemented a split morning report model to enhance resident education with positive feedback.

  20. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials.......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory...

  1. Predictors of Response and Mechanisms of Change in an Organizational Skills Intervention for Students with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Becker, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Girio-Herrera, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictors of response and mechanisms of change for the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Twenty-three middle school students with ADHD (grades 6–8) received the HOPS intervention implemented by school mental health providers and made significant improvements in parent-rated materials organization and planning skills, impairment due to organiz...

  2. URBAN DEVELOPMENT TOOLKIT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE: CRITICAL REVIEW OF STATE INTERVENTION IN PRAXIS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to review the various forms of state intervention in urban planning, and its purpose is to reconsider guidelines for solving problems in cities, caused by climate change. After World War II, urban planning was guided by centralized state management, in the scope of progress and social justice. State intervention was recognized as an instrument for creating new models of the city spatial organization. However, because of the new market conditions arising, the policies about ...

  3. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  4. How Therapeutic Intervention Does Create the Prerequisites of Change in Human Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caille, Philippe

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that therapeutic intervention doesn't have the power to create durable, predetermined changes in human systems. Suggests the family's basic rules prohibit it from changing. Discusses a preferable goal of validating the family's present functioning through an understanding of different levels of its self-perception (phenomenological model,…

  5. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours over a School-Year: Differences between 6-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Annie; Hagekull, Berit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms.…

  6. Effect of Health Education Intervention on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Risky Sexual Behaviours amongst Prison Inmates in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audu Onyemocho,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prison population worldwide accommodates a higher proportion of individuals at high risk of HIV infection compared to the general population, and there is recognition of risky sexual activities among the inmates. But for complex political, legal, social, cultural and religious reasons, preventive measures like use of condom in prison are often not permitted and access to community based intervention in prison is limited. In order to make meaningful decisions about their reproductive health, inmates need reliable information. This study assessed the effect of health education on HIV/AIDS related knowledge and risky sexual behaviours amongst prison inmates in Kaduna State, Nigerian. The study employed a quasi- experimental study design among 366 inmates in two prisons between 1st November 2010 and April 2011 using multistage sampling technique. Educational intervention with an integrated peer education was instituted in the study prison after baseline data was collected from both intervention and control prisons and the outcome of the intervention in the intervention prison was carried out immediately, and three months post intervention. The data were analysed using SPSS (version 17 with statistical significant set at p-value of 0.05. Majority of the inmates in the study (84.7% and control (87.4% prisons were aware of HIV/AIDS but there were misconceptions on sharing of toilets (23.5% and 20.7%, mosquito bites (20.6% and 18.2%, witchcraft (17.3% and 16.0% and sharing eating utensils (16.5% and 11.8% in both intervention and control prisons respectively. Thirty (16.4% of inmates in intervention prison and 26.2% in control prison engaged in high risk sexual practices. The immediate and three months post intervention knowledge score of HIV/AIDS among the inmates in the intervention prison statistically improved by 34.5% and 44.7% respectively and misconceptions concerning the modes of transmission reduced by 27.8%, while homosexuality reduced by

  7. EFFECT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COMMUNICATION ON BREASTFEEDING PRACTICES IN PERIURBAN AREA OF ALIGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Haroon Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To assess the behavior of pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. 2. Assessing impact of Behavior Change Communication Package among pregnant women regarding breastfeeding practices. Study design: A community based intervention study Setting: Field practice areas of Urban Health Training Center, Department of Community Medicine, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh. Participants: 200 pregnant women (100 pregnant women from each intervention and non-intervention group Sampling: Purposive sampling method. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with Epi Info version 3.5.1. Percentages, Relative Risk and Chi Square Test used. Results: Due to implementation of BCC Package in intervention, good practices like giving colostrum were increased two times. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour was increased 4.7 times, exclusive breastfeeding was gone up 3.8 times for first seven days of delivery. There was significant difference (P–value <0.05 between the two groups regarding breastfeeding on 7th day of delivery. The differences were significant (P–value-<0.05 on 7th and 28th days of delivery. Conclusion: Good practices of breastfeeding within one hour, using colostrum, exclusive breastfeeding were improved significantly after implementation of behavior change communication package.

  8. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  9. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  10. Expanding the scope and relevance of health interventions: Moving beyond clinical trials and behavior change models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khary K. Rigg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.

  11. The Change Laboratory in Higher Education:research-intervention using activity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bligh, Brett; Flood, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the Change Laboratory as an intervention-research methodology in higher education. We trace its theoretical origins in dialectical-materialism and activity theory, consider the recommendations made by its main proponents, and discuss its use in a range of higher education settings. We suggest that the Change Laboratory offers considerable potential for higher education research, though tensions between Change Laboratory design recommendations and typical higher educ...

  12. A meta-analysis of the effects of measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs on behaviour within prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankarious, Evon; Kothe, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Measurement reactivity effects, such as the mere measurement effect, have been proposed as a reason for behavioural changes in a number of theory of planned behaviour intervention studies. However, it is unclear whether such changes are the result of the mere measurement effect or of other artefacts of intervention study design. The aim of this study is to determine the size and direction of changes in health behaviours from baseline to follow-up in prospective studies using the theory of planned behaviour. Electronic databases were searched for the theory of planned behaviour studies which measured health behaviours at two or more time points. Change in behaviour was calculated for all studies. Sixty-six studies were included. Mean effect sizes across all studies were small and negative (d = -.03). Effect size was moderated by behaviour, behaviour type and follow-up length. Subgroup analyses showed significant decreases in socially undesirable behaviour (d = -.28), binge drinking (d = -.17), risk driving (d = -.20), sugar snack consumption (d = -.43) and sun-protective behaviour (d = -.18). Measurement of intention at baseline resulted in significant decreases in undesirable behaviour. Changes in undesirable behaviours reported in other studies may be the result of the mere measurement effect. PMID:26209208

  13. l-Scoulerine attenuates behavioural changes induced by methamphetamine in zebrafish and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guiyun; Gao, Yunyun; Yan, Hui; Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Liu, Shuai; Gong, Zehui; Yang, Hongju; Yang, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a substance with a high potential for abuse and addiction, is a serious worldwide public health problem. METH addicts often show extreme paranoia, anxiety, and depression. Thus, there is no effective medication for the treatment of METH-induced abnormalities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of l-Scoulerine (l-SLR), a tetrahydroprotoberberine (THPBS) alkaloid, on METH-induced anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish and METH-induced addictive behavior in mice. In the novel tank test, acute administration of METH (2 mg/L) induced a significant decrease in the number of total vertical transitions and time spent in the upper zone. Moreover, METH produced significant avoidance behaviour showing increased swimming time in the central area and high speed movement in the mirror area in the mirror stimulation test; these anxiety-like changes were attenuated by l-SLR. Chronic administration of METH (2 mg/kg) produced a steady increase in locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in mice. l-SLR (5 mg/kg) failed to reduce acute METH-induced hyperlocomotion, but attenuated chronic METH-induced behavioural sensitization and significantly blocked the expression of conditioned place preference induced by METH in mice. The present study suggests that l-SLR may be a promising agent for the treatment of addiction and anxiety induced by METH. PMID:26433144

  14. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  15. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. F.; Cui, Y. J.; Tang, A. M.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Van Geet, M.

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific oedometer cells were used allowing “flushing” the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96.

  16. Associations between sexual behaviour change in young people and decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that HIV prevalence amongst young Zambians has declined recently, especially in higher-education groups. We studied trends in key sexual behaviour indicators among 15–24 year-olds from 1995 to 2003, including the associations between sexual behaviour change and education. Methods The data stem from a series of three population-based surveys conducted in 1995 (n = 1720, 1999 (n = 1946 and 2003 (n = 2637. Logistic regression and Extended Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trends were used to compare the three surveys. Results Men and lower-education groups reported more than one sexual partner in the year immediately prior to the survey more frequently than did women and higher-education groups (p Conclusion High risk behaviours clearly decreased, especially in higher-educated and urban groups, and there is a probable association here with the decline in HIV prevalence in the study population. Fewer sexual partners and condom use were among the core factors involved for both sexes; and for women a further factor was delayed child-bearing.

  17. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  18. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A; Vosbergen Sandra; Peek Niels; Niessen Maurice AJ; Colkesen Ersen B; van Kalken Coenraad K; Tijssen Jan GP; Peters Ron JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a q...

  19. Behavioural Changes of Students By Peer Pressure in the Higher Educational Institution in context to Popularity in North East, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Human behaviour, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Change in human behaviour is the only static trait characterised by physical, mental and physiological features. It occurs in different phases of life from play age to old age. The outcome of these changes is due to education, advising, commanding, and appealing to values and peer pressure. Out of all the possible mentioned factors peer pressure is one of the most ...

  20. Changes in Attitudes toward Guns and Shootings following Implementation of the Baltimore Safe Streets Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Adam J; Buggs, Shani A; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Leaf, Philip J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Webster, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Among youth 15 to 24 years of age, homicide and nonfatal shootings are the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Urban youth's attitudes and perceptions about the use of gun violence to resolve conflict present a major barrier to efforts to reduce gun homicides and nonfatal shootings. The current investigation extends the existing literature on attitudes toward guns and shootings among high-risk youth ages 18 to 24 by measuring perceived norms and viewpoints regarding gun violence in two analogous Baltimore City neighborhoods pre-implementation and 1-year post-implementation of the Safe Streets intervention (adapted from the CeaseFire/Cure Violence intervention). The Safe Streets intervention is designed for communities with high rates of gun violence and utilizes outreach workers to identify and build trusting relationships with youth ages 15 to 24 who are at greatest risk of being involved in gun violence. The outreach workers also position themselves in the community so that they can rapidly intervene in disputes that have the potential to lead to gun violence. Chi-squared tests and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were used to examine changes in attitudes toward gun violence 1 year after the implementation of the Safe Streets intervention. There was a statistically significantly improvement in 43 % of the attitudes assessed in the intervention community post-intervention compared to 13 % of the attitudes in the control community. There was a statistically significant improvement in the violent attitudes toward personal conflict resolution scale after implementation of the intervention in both the intervention (b = -0.522, p violence in the intervention community following the implementation of the Safe Streets program. These findings offer promising insights into future community violence prevention efforts. PMID:27294969

  1. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  2. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  3. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  4. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Focused Manualized Intervention for Parents of Teens at Risk for Aggressive Behaviour: The Connect Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. "Connect" is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment:…

  5. Randomized controlled trial of a self-management intervention in persons with spinal cord injury: design of the HABITS (Healthy Active Behavioural IntervenTion in SCI) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijmans, H.; Post, M.W.M.; van der Woude, L H V; Groot, S.; Stam, H. J.; Bussmann, J.B.J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 16-week self-management intervention on physical activity level and self-management skills (self-efficacy, proactive coping and problem solving skills) in persons with chronic SCI. Method and design: Multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eighty persons with a SCI for at least 10 years and aged 18 to 65 will randomly be assigned to the intervention (self-management) or the control group (information provision). During the 16-week self-manage...

  6. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bélanger-Gravel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children.

  7. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, A.; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of children's physical activity were intention and self-identity. Determinants of intention were self-efficacy, self-identity, and attitude. Parental variables were mediated through cognitions. Among girls, practicing sedentary activities was an additional negative determinant of intention. Key beliefs of boys and girls were related to time management and difficulties associated with physical activity. For girls, social identification as an active girl was another important belief related to positive intention. This study provides theory-based information for the development of more effective interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among children. PMID:20652005

  8. Mathematics Textbook Transformation and Instructional Intervention for Disadvantaged Elementary School Students: Changes in Mathematics Achievements and Goal Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chieh Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine changes in the mathematics achievements and goal orientations among disadvantaged students after instructional intervention in textbook transformation and instructional intervention for disadvantaged students. There were eight disadvantaged students in this instructional intervention. Factor analysis, MANOVA, and covariance analysis were used in data analysis. Several important findings were discovered. First, prior to instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientations of disadvantaged students were no different from those of other students, but their mathematics achievements were lower than those of others. Second, after instructional intervention, the achievement goal orientation of disadvantaged students became higher. Finally, after instructional intervention, the mathematics achievements of disadvantaged students became higher, too

  9. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); S. Mulkens; H.P. Schaalma (Herman)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theo

  10. Sustaining School-Based Asthma Interventions through Policy and Practice Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laurie M.; Lachance, Laurie; Wilkin, Margaret; Clark, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schools are an ideal setting for implementation of asthma interventions for children; however, sustaining school-based programs can be challenging. This study illustrates policy and practice changes brought about through the Childhood Asthma Linkages in Missouri (CALM) program to sustain such programs. Methods: Researchers analyzed…

  11. Influencing Adolescent Social Perceptions of Alcohol Use to Facilitate Change through a School-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T.; Monreal, Teresa K.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Brown, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the effectiveness of a voluntary high school-based alcohol intervention by investigating one proposed mechanism of change in adolescent alcohol involvement: perception of peer use. High school students reporting lifetime drinking (N = 2055) completed fall and spring surveys that assessed demographic information,…

  12. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  13. Innovative Interventions to Promote Behavioral Change in Overweight or Obese Individuals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006

  14. Effect of Intervention to Change Life Style to Increase Marital Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Etemadi, Ahmad; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Shokooh, Navabi-Nejad

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of life style changes on marital adjustment. Eighty couples who had the most determined maladjustment were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. Then an intervention method for life style change was administered to the experimental group. The Enrich was questionnaire for pre and post test. The results show that, the method of life style changing was reducing marital maladjustment. The marital adjustment change score between two groups (Experimental and Control) was significantly different (pmanagement, conflict resolution and sexual relationships. It was recommended that counselors and psychotherapists select their intervention method according to the maladjustment dimensions to help afflicted couples with maladjustment.

  15. Health behavior after a multiprofessional intervention and training for ongoing volunteer-based community health programme intervention in the North-East of Thailand: what changed and what not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Senarak, Wiporn; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Kamsa-Ard, Supot; Wongphuthorn, Prasert; Moore, Malcolm Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research within the project entitled "Multiprofessional Intervention and training for Ongoing Volunteer-based Community Health Programs in the Northeast of Thailand (MITV-NET) " was aimed at explaining changes of health behavior of community people in the Northeast after the intervention. The participants comprised 15 community volunteers and 27 villagers. Data were collected by indepth interview, focus group discussion, participation and non-participation observation, and note taking. Analyses were conducted in parallel with data collection, through content and comparative analysis. It was found that the health behavior fell into 2 categories: easy-to-change and difficult-to-change. The former involved fun activities joined by community people that improved their health or made them recover from illnesses after a short period without becoming addicted. These activities could be done by themselves, for example, exercising and cooking. The difficult-to- change health behavior is habitual, for example, chewing betel nuts or eating uncooked food. The following factors were found affecting behavioral changes: 1) underlying disease; 2) enjoyment in doing activities; 3) habitual behaviour; 4) improved health in a short period; 5) ability of community leaders and volunteers; and 6) community health-supporting resources. It is suggested that improving people's health requires cooperation of community people through fun activities and some initial external support. People who persist in bad habits should be encouraged to stop by showing them health deteriorating effects. PMID:23167423

  16. Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to weight control in an overweight cohort. Results from a pan-European dietary intervention trial (DiOGenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnon, Aine; Raats, Monique; Astrup, Arne; Bajzová, Magda; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Martinez, J Alfredo; Larson, Thomas Meinert; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas; van Baak, Marleen A; Shepherd, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates weight control in overweight and obese participants (27 kg/m(2)≤BMI<45 kg/m(2)) taking part in a dietary intervention trial targeted at weight loss maintenance (n=932). Respondents completed TPB measures investigating "weight gain prevention" at three time points. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between TPB variables and weight regain. The TPB explained up to 27% variance in expectation, 14% in intention and 20% in desire scores. No relationship was established between intention, expectation or desire and behaviour at Time 1 or Time 2. Perceived need and subjective norm were found to be significantly related to weight regain, however, the model explained a maximum of 11% of the variation in weight regain. Better understanding of overweight individuals' trajectories of weight control is needed to help inform studies investigating people's weight regain behaviours. Future research using the TPB model to explain weight control should consider the likely behaviours being sought by individuals. PMID:22079178

  17. Commentary: Prospective trajectory research in adolescent suicidal behaviour - a possible basis for the development of empirically based interventions? A reflection on Adrian et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Suicidal behaviour in adolescence is a heterogeneous set of behaviours comprising a variety of behaviours ranging from suicidal ideation, suicidal threats, suicidal gestures, nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviour through medically nonserious to medically serious suicide attempts. Probably the most productive approach to this problem is a developmental one, taking one key concept and tracking it prospectively over the course of time through the developmental stages of adolescence. A natural starting point for such a study is that of suicidal ideation (SI). Thus, the article published in JCPP (Adrian et al. 2015) represents a major contribution to the field. The authors used the data from an important adolescent development study, the Developmental Pathways Project (DPP) to look at this problem. This editorial looks at this article in the context of other major studies in the field. The notion of discerning trajectories and following them up prospectively is a potentially major contribution to paediatric suicide research. Although obviously challenging, linking these trajectories to interventions and to suicide registers could lead to major breakthroughs in adolescent suicide prevention. PMID:27090382

  18. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  19. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...... to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....

  20. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  1. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Takeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical “control group” in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  2. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Pstress probably induced by the addition of factors such as helicopter transport, disembarking, and the search and rescue exercise. However, changes were moderate and limited over time, progressively decreasing with complete recovery at T3 except for sera cortisol that showed a slightly slower decline. More time walking within the search was related to lower RBT, conversely to walking. Standing still

  3. Effectiveness of an attachment-focused manualized intervention for parents of teens at risk for aggressive behaviour: The Connect Program

    OpenAIRE

    M. Moretti; Obsuth, I.

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive, violent and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents is a growing concern across the globe. Targeting parent-teen relationships is critical in reducing problem behaviour. ‘Connect’ is a manualized ten-week program for parents or alternative caregivers of at-risk teens that focuses on the building blocks of secure attachment: parental sensitivity, cooperation, reflective capacity, and effective dyadic affect regulation. Through didactic and experiential activities, parents ...

  4. Lifestyle interventions in treatment of obese adults:eating behaviour and other factors affecting weight loss and maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Keränen, A.-M. (Anna-Maria)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of working-aged weight losers is high because of high prevalence of obesity. Unfortunately, the loss of weight is often temporary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intensive counselling on maintained weight loss and eating behaviour (cognitive restraint, emotional eating, uncontrolled eating and binge eating). Additionally, the associations of eating behaviour with maintained weight loss, discontinuation, dietary intake and anhedonia we...

  5. A systematic review of community hand washing interventions leading to changes in hygiene behavior in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educational interventions in hygienic practices have shown to be cost effective methods of controlling diarrhea and other diseases spread through poor hygiene. Hand washing is one method of breaking the chain of transmission between household contacts, and especially between mother and child. Effective interventions to promote this behavior should be expanded and encouraged in the developing world. Objectives: To determine the extent and credibility of intervention studies done to promote uptake of improved hand washing behaviors in communities. To assess these interventions on their results in terms of behavior change, and identify factors contributing to their success or failure. Methods: The investigators searched the databases SCOPUS, EMBASE (1980-2010, and Pubmed for English papers written about hygiene promotion interventions in developing countries. Interventions included were community based control trials examining the effectiveness of increased hygiene education through measured behavior change. Only studies measuring behavior change using structured observation or demonstration of hand washing skills were used. Results: The search terms: hand washing, health education, hygiene promotion, behavior change, and diarrhea were used, resulting in a total of 330 titles. The investigators scanned the titles and abstracts to narrow down to 13 hygiene interventions measuring behavior change. Only five control trial interventions met the observation measurement criteria. Behavior change measurements were compiled and compared based on the length of intervention and the degree of change noted with each study. Conclusion: Encouraging uptake of hand washing behavior is possible using educational interventions to promote improved hygiene. The most significant impacts were seen from interventions running for longer periods of time. More robust and long term control trials are necessary to gather conclusive data on the sustainability of

  6. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  7. The Effects of Exercise Education Intervention on the Exercise Behaviour, Depression, and Fatigue Status of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of an exercise education intervention on exercise behavior, depression and fatigue status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Design/methodology/approach: This was a pilot study using an exercise education program as an intervention for CKD patients. The authors used the…

  8. Core structure, internal osmotic pressure and irreversible structural changes of chromaffin granules during osmometer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Südhof, T C

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal medullary cells, catecholamines are stored in and secreted from specialized secretory vesicles, the chromaffin granules. In order to gain some understanding of both functions of chromaffin granules, it is important to characterize their biophysical organization. Using isolated bovine chromaffin granules we have investigated the osmometer behaviour of chromaffin granules by 31P-NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, by turbidity measurements and by electron-microscopic determination of chromaffin granule size distributions. On the basis of the osmometer model we have formulated equations predicting the behaviour of the native catecholamine fluorescence quenching and of the size of chromaffin granules a a function of osmolarity and have shown experimentally that the granules' behaviour conforms to these. It was possible to estimate the osmotic activity of the chromaffin granule core solution and the mean absolute water space in chromaffin granules from the determination of the size distributions as a function of osmotic pressure. With NMR spectroscopy a selective line-broadening of the alpha-resonances was observed with increasing osmolarities, while the gamma-phosphorus resonances remained virtually unchanged. Possibly there is an increase in core viscosity with osmolarity which affects only the alpha- and beta-phosphorus groups. While suspending chromaffin granules from lower to higher osmolarities causes no lysis, moving them back to their original osmolarity at which they were previously stable lyses them, thereby releasing a maximum of 70% of their releasable protein. This 'hyperosmolar' lysis is independent of preincubation times in the higher osmolarities and of the absolute dilution applied but depends on dilution beyond the 405 to 322 mosM sucrose range. Under the experiment conditions no uptake of sucrose from the medium into the granules could be measured, thereby suggesting that hyperosmolar lysis is a phenomenon not due to solute penetration

  9. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  10. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, Charles R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk; Bratby, Mark J., E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk [Oxford University Hospitals, John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies.

  11. The changing face of vascular interventional radiology: the future role of pharmacotherapies and molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapping, Charles R; Bratby, Mark J

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies. PMID:23636247

  12. The Changing Face of Vascular Interventional Radiology: The Future Role of Pharmacotherapies and Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology has had to evolve constantly because there is the ever-present competition and threat from other specialties within medicine, surgery, and research. The development of new technologies, techniques, and therapies is vital to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and to ensure its continued success in the future. In part, this change will be due to improved chronic disease prevention altering what we treat and in whom. The most important of these strategies are the therapeutic use of statins, Beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and substances that interfere with mast cell degeneration. Molecular imaging and therapeutic strategies will move away from conventional techniques and nano and microparticle molecular technology, tissue factor imaging, gene therapy, endothelial progenitor cells, and photodynamic therapy will become an important part of interventional radiology of the future. This review looks at these new and exciting technologies

  13. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Bisung; Susan J. Elliott; Bernard Abudho; Karanja, Diana M.; Corinne J. Schuster-Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR) tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8) women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Ke...

  14. Processes of identity development and behaviour change in later life : exploring self-talk during physical activity uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, E.J.; Hudson, J.; Thomas, L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are well documented, nevertheless, physical activity decreases progressively with age, a trend exacerbated in those who have fallen. An important predictor of exercise behaviour is the extent to which motivation for exercise has been internalised into one's identity, however, we know little about changing health behaviours in older people, with calls for longitudinal studies to aid understanding. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study explored the ro...

  15. Nature of urban interventions in changing the old center of a globalizing Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remah Y. Gharib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Doha, Qatar is continuously positioning itself at the forefront of international urbanism with different qualities of expression in terms of economy, culture, and global outlook, and is characterized by fast-tracked urban development process with large-scale urban interventions in the old center. Although the unprecedented urban growth of this city continues to be a subject of discussion, little attention has been given to investigate the new interventions and the resulting effects they have on the old center. This study aims to examine three important urban interventions, namely, the Museum of Islamic Art, the reconstruction of the traditional market called Souq Waqif, and the Msheireb urban regeneration project. It examines local and global issues, universal standard practices, and traditional knowledge. This study employs a descriptive analysis of these interventions to explore the impact of change in the old center, exemplified by socio-spatial and typo-morphological aspects. Reference is made to a number of empirical studies, including behavioral mapping, GIS population statistics, and analysis of historical maps. Results analytically narrate the reactions of these interventions to the possibility of simultaneously adopting universal practices with local knowledge, and whether prioritizing local influences would represent narrow-mindedness in shaping the city.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Road Safety Education Intervention for Pre-Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Damian R.; McKenna, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Young drivers are overrepresented in road traffic fatalities and collisions. Attempts to address this problem with pre-driver education have not met with unambiguous success. However, there is a lack of research on whether pre-driver education can change psychological antecedents to behaviour. Aims: The framework of the theory of…

  17. Using formative research to develop the healthy eating component of the CHANGE! school-based curriculum intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boddy Lynne M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Many intervention studies have attempted to combat childhood obesity, often in the absence of formative or preparatory work. This study describes the healthy eating component of the formative phase of the Children’s Health Activity and Nutrition: Get Educated! (CHANGE! project. The aim of the present study was to gather qualitative focus group and interview data regarding healthy eating particularly in relation to enabling and influencing factors, barriers and knowledge in children and adults (parents and teachers from schools within the CHANGE! programme to provide population-specific evidence to inform the subsequent intervention design. Methods Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with children, parents and teachers across 11 primary schools in the Wigan borough of North West England. Sixty children (N = 24 boys, 33 parents (N = 4 male and 10 teachers (N = 4 male participated in the study. Interview questions were structured around the PRECEDE phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the pen-profiling technique. Results The pen-profiles revealed that children’s knowledge of healthy eating was generally good, specifically many children were aware that fruit and vegetable consumption was ‘healthy’ (N = 46. Adults’ knowledge was also good, including restricting fatty foods, promoting fruit and vegetable intake, and maintaining a balanced diet. The important role parents play in children’s eating behaviours and food intake was evident. The emerging themes relating to barriers to healthy eating showed that external drivers such as advertising, the preferred sensory experience of “unhealthy” foods, and food being used as a reward may play a role in preventing healthy eating. Conclusions Data suggest that; knowledge related to diet composition was not a barrier per se to

  18. Change of attitude and behaviour of the West-German population after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the West-German population has shown to be much more aware of the hazards emanating from environmental pollution and chemical or radioactive contamination of food. It could be observed that, on the whole, consumption of important basic food has been reduced, so that the population's supply with various, significant nutrients is expected to deteriorate. The nutrients to be mentioned in this context are primarily calcium, riboflavin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid. Investigations over the period May to July 1986 show that the reactor accident's impact on the food consumption behaviour subsides only slowly, and it remains to be seen to what extent changes and fluctuations in the population's nutritional behaviour will have to be taken as 'normal'. Hence some sort of nutritional deficiency can be expected among certain groups of the population, either temporarily or over a prolonged period. A National Survey of Food Consumption currently in preparation will yield more detailed insight into the whole process. (orig./MG)

  19. Olfactory bulb ablation in the rat: behavioural changes and their reversal by antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riezen, H; Schnieden, H; Wren, A F

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, sham-operation and inducement of peripheral anosmia were studied on locomotor activity, passive avoidance acquisition and irritability. 2. Bulbectomized rats were hyperactive, deficient at learning a step-down passive avoidance response and hyperirritable. Peripheral anosmia, induced by intranasal infusion of ZnSO4 solution resulted in no behavioural changes. 3. Chronic pretreatment with amitriptyline (3 and 10 mg/kg) and a tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin (Org GB 94, 5 and 15 mg/kg) reversed the hyperactivity and reduced the learning deficit of bulbectomized rats. These drugs had no significant effects on sham-operated animals. 4. Neither amitriptyline nor mianserin reduced the exaggerated responses of bulbectomized rats to external stimuli. 5. (+)-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) accelerated the acquisition of the passive avoidance response, greatly enhanced the locomotor activity and slightly increased the irritability score of both sham-operated and bulbectomized rats. 6. Chlorpromazine (1 and 3 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acquisition, locomotor activity and irritability of experimental and control rats. 7. Lithium sulphate (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no effect on activity or irritability but produced a small impairment in acquistion of bulbectomized rats. 8. It is concluded that the reversal by antidepressant drugs of the behavioural syndrome seen after olfactory bulb ablation could constitute a new model for the detection of this group of centrally acting compounds. PMID:907867

  20. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  1. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin

  2. The Impact of Self and Peer Perceptual Differences on Student Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: The development of socially appropriate behaviour is increasingly seen as an important part of a student's education. Aim: To examine whether changes in a student's behaviour, as part of an ongoing social empathy intervention, can in part be explained by the difference between the student's self-perception of their behaviour and their…

  3. Long-Term Effects of a Stage-Based Intervention for Changing Exercise Intentions and Behavior in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L.; Riebe, Deborah; Garber, Carol Ewing; Rossi, Joseph S.; Lees, Faith D.; Burbank, Patricia A.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Ferrone, Christine L.; Clark, Phillip G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the efficacy of an intervention tailored to the individual's stage of change for exercise adoption on exercise stage of change, physical activity, and physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: We randomized participants to a print and telephone intervention or a contact comparison group. Through…

  4. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue. PMID:26088184

  5. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  6. Effect of transient change in strain rate on plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ray; P Barat; P Mukherjee; A Sarkar; S K Bandyopadhyay

    2007-02-01

    Plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel has been studied at room temperature during tensile deformation by varying the initial strain rate of 3.3 × 10-4 s-1 to a final strain rate ranging from 1.33 × 10-3 s-1 to 2 × 10-3 s-1 at a fixed engineering strain of 12%. Haasen plot revealed that the mobile dislocation density remained almost invariant at the juncture where there was a sudden increase in stress with a change in strain rate and the plastic flow was solely dependent on the velocity of mobile dislocations. In that critical regime, the variation of stress with time was fitted with a Boltzmann type Sigmoid function. The increase in stress was found to increase with final strain rate and the time elapsed in attaining these stress values showed a decreasing trend. Both of these parameters saturated asymptotically at a higher final strain rate.

  7. From mother to child: orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and changes of drinking behaviour during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Witt, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barbot, Alexis; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Brühl, Rüdiger; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a common time for initiation of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Importantly, the neuro-anatomical foundation for later alcohol-related problems may already manifest pre-natally, particularly due to smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In this context, cortical gyrification is an interesting marker of neuronal development but has not been investigated as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of 595 14-year-old adolescents from the IMAGEN sample, we computed whole-brain mean curvature indices to predict change in alcohol-related problems over the following 2 years. Change of alcohol use-related problems was significantly predicted from mean curvature in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Less gyrification of OFC was associated with an increase in alcohol use-related problems over the next 2 years. Moreover, lower gyrification in left OFC was related to pre-natal alcohol exposure, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect. Current alcohol use-related problems of the biological mother had no effect on offsprings' OFC gyrification or drinking behaviour. The data support the idea that alcohol consumption during pregnancy mediates the development of neuro-anatomical phenotypes, which in turn constitute a risk factor for increasing problems due to alcohol consumption in a vulnerable stage of life. Maternal smoking during pregnancy or current maternal alcohol/nicotine consumption had no significant effect. The OFC mediates behaviours known to be disturbed in addiction, namely impulse control and reward processing. The results stress the importance of pre-natal alcohol exposure for later increases in alcohol use-related problems, mediated by structural brain characteristics. PMID:25913102

  8. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  9. Why don't we change our mobility behaviours ? Acceptance and hindrance to a change: the case study of the Greater Paris Region as compared to Nagoya

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    We all know the harmful effects of car use, on social, environmental and urban aspects. But despite the urgency to reduce car use, in practice it seems difficult to bring about changes in mobility behaviours. My purpose is to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change. I attempt to identify limiting factors to a behavioural change and the acceptability of more sustainable mobility practices. First I will analyse the mo...

  10. The assumption of self_ responsibility for health behaviour change in patients with hypertension from poor socio-economic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stewart

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hypertension need to convert their knowledgeabout the disease and its management into meaningful action to be able to change their health behaviour. By doing this they are able to reduce the risk of the cardiovascular complications that are associated with hypertension If they can change their health behaviour it can be said that they have taken responsibility for their health. In this study a group of patients with hypertension who assumed responsibility for health behaviour change during a health behaviour modification programme was identified and compared to a group who did not. There were significant differences between the group that assumed responsibility for health behaviour change and the group that did not. The group that assumed responsibility:• had the support of a health care practitioner and a family member (p<0,000; • were employed (p=0.03; • were not anxious or depressed (p=0.07; • experienced their usual sex-lives (p=0.03; • did not have symptoms of heart pounding present (p=0.03. The adjusted odds ratio obtained from a logistic regression analysis showed a seven- times more likelihood ofpatients becoming responsible for their health if they were supported by their families and a health-care practitioner

  11. Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A roadmap for future interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Arjan; Muris, Peter; Mulkens, S.; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSelf-esteem is an important construct that is related to academic achievement, social functioning and psychopathology in children and adolescents. Therefore, it is not surprising that many interventions have tried to change levels of self-esteem in this population. In this article a theoretical overview of self-esteem in children and adolescents is presented, in which recent research on different aspects of self-esteem will be discussed. Subsequently, research on treatment and pri...

  12. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    NIELSEN, Karina; Randall, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the...

  13. Organizational Change through Interactive Research or a Consultant’s Intervention : Reflections about pros and cons

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    This abstract is written at the start up of an interactive oriented research project. The author has previous experience as a consultant and is reflecting upon possible differences between being a consultant and being a researcher. In the paper, a reflection is made on possible differences when using an academic or a consultant approach in an organizational intervention.  The consultants are seen as the change agents, fully devoting themselves to the needs of the clients in performing an orga...

  14. Trajectories of change in self-esteem in older adults: exercise intervention effects

    OpenAIRE

    Gothe, Neha P.; Mullen, Sean P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; White, Siobhan M.; Olson, Erin A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Arthur F Kramer; McAuley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This 12-month, 2 arm, single blind randomized controlled exercise trial examined relationships among changes in multidimensional self-esteem as a function of intervention mode (i.e., walking vs. flexibility-toning-balance). Data were collected on three equidistant occasions (baseline, 6 and 12 months). One-hundred seventy-nine older adults (Mage = 66.38) began the study and 145 completed assessments at all time points. Participants completed measures of physical and global self-esteem as well...

  15. Classroom intervention to change peers’ attitudes towards children who stutter: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Kathard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Before interventions are implemented, the potential treatment benefit must be determined.Objectives: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to assess if peers’ attitudes towards children who stutter (CWS change one month after the administration of the Classroom Communication Resource (CCR. The secondary objectives of the study were to determine if differences in peer attitudes were related to gender and to previous exposure to a person who stutters.Method: The study used a cluster randomised control trial design. The study included 211 Grade 7 participants from schools in the Cape Town Metropole. The CCR intervention was administered to 97 participants in the experimental group, whilst 114 participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. The Stuttering Resource Outcome Measure(SROM used as the outcome measure during pre- and post-test period. STATISTICA was used for in-depth data analysis.Results: An overall positive direction of change in scores was observed for the experimental group compared with the control group. However, the magnitude of change in the experimental group was not statistically significant (p = 0.2683. Male and female participants did not differ significantly in their scores on the SROM across pre-test and post-test periods. Participants who had exposure to individuals who stutter had significantly more positive scores on the SROM in the pre-test and post-test periods compared to those who had no direct exposure to stuttering.Conclusion: This result indicated the beginning of positive attitude change which may be attributed to the intervention. Further investigation is warranted.

  16. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  17. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvine, Dorian [University of Montpellier 1, LASER-CREDEN, UFR d' Economie, Montpellier (France); Wuestenhagen, Rolf [University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). IWOe-HSG

    2011-01-15

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  18. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary schools and their 2153 students. The study was designed as an experimental study with three groups of schools and two separate measurements. Durability of changes in beliefs and behaviour of teachers was also included. Groups of schools differed on activities of school self-evaluation; the first group of schools was the control group, the other two were separated according to intensity of promoting school self-evaluation. The data were gathered from teachers and students. Teachers were asked about their beliefs of school self-evaluation and behaviour in the classroom. From students we gathered data about their achievement in mathematics and science at the beginning and end of school year and data about their teachers' behaviour in the classroom. Differences between the groups of schools were expected mainly at the teachers' beliefs about school selfevaluation and as well on teacher behaviour and student achievement. The results showed that teachers' beliefs are fairly stable, and a lot of time is needed to achieve changes. In our research we failed to prove the impact of promoting school selfevaluation on changing teachers' beliefs, which is very likely the result of research limitations. Change in beliefs is the basis for changing behaviour and achievement, but this happens over a longer timeframe.

  19. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S.; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  20. Assessing the efficacy of mobile phone interventions using randomised controlled trials: issues and their solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Beard

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in the use of mobile phone interventions to promote behaviour change and their efficacy has been assessed extensively using exploratory methods (e.g., pilot studies and proof of concept). However, in an era of evidence-based practice, calls have been made for digital interventions to be evaluated with the same rigour as other forms of behaviour change interventions i.e. with randomised controlled trials. Aims: This presentation aims to overview a numb...

  1. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  2. Understanding the relationship of maternal health behavior change and intervention strategies in a Nicaraguan NGO network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Hage, Jerald; Vargas, William

    2005-09-01

    Few studies of community interventions examine independent effects of investments in: (1) capital (i.e., physical, human and social capital), and (2) management systems (e.g., monitoring and evaluation systems (M&E)) on maternal and child health behavior change. This paper does this in the context of an inter-organizational network. In Nicaragua, international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local NGOs formed the NicaSalud Federation. Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS), 14 member organizations took baselines measures of maternal safe motherhood and child health behavior indicators during November 1999 and August 2000, respectively, and final evaluation measures in December 2001. In April 2002, retrospective interviews were conducted with supervisors and managers in the 14 organizations to explore changes made to community health strategies, factors associated with the changes, and impacts they attributed to participating in NicaSalud. Physical capital (density of health huts), human capital (density and variety of paramedical personnel) and social capital (density of health committees) were associated with pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) 3+ times, and/or retaining ANC cards. The variety of paramedic personnel was also associated with women making post-partum visits to clinics. Physical capital (density of health huts) and social capital (density of health committees and mothers' clubs) were associated with child diarrhea case management indicators. One safe motherhood indicator (delivery of babies by a clinician) was not associated with intervention strategies. At the management level, NicaSalud's training of members to use LQAS for M&E was associated with the number of strategic and tactical changes they subsequently made to interventions (organizational learning). Organizational learning was related to changes in maternal and child health behaviors of the women (including changes in the proportion using post-partum care). As the

  3. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  4. Exploring the effect of organisational variables on employee environmental behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Gregory-Smith, D.; Manika, D.; Graham, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organisational and individual variables within the context of employees’ environmental behaviour in the workplace. It also explores the changes in employees’ behaviour, and perceptions of organisational support and incentives, after exposure to an environmental intervention (i.e. heating/cooling campaign and recycling campaign in the workplace). The intervention was designed by Global Action Plan, the UK’s leading environmental charity, and finding...

  5. Retail restructuring and consumer choice 1. Long-term local changes in consumer behaviour: Portsmouth, 1980 – 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Clarke; Alan Hallsworth; Peter Jackson; Ronan de Kervenoael; Rossana Perez del Aguila; Malcolm Kirkup

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades fundamental changes have taken place in the global supply and local structure of provision of British food retailing. Consumer lifestyles have also changed markedly. Despite some important studies of local interactions between new retail developments and consumers, we argue in this paper that there is a critical need to gauge the cumulative effects of these changes on consumer behaviour over longer periods. In this, the first of two papers, we present the main findin...

  6. Modelling demographic behaviours in the French microsimulation model Destinie: An analysis of future change in completed fertility

    OpenAIRE

    I. ROBERT-BOBEE

    2001-01-01

    Future change in partnerships and fertility are not easy to forecast. However, the fertility of the youngest cohorts will depend on those behaviours. The way young people start a partnership has changed a lot during the past three decades. Many couples are now unmarried, union disruptions and step-families are more frequent, young people leave school later and the age of motherhood has increased. Microsimulation can provide a measure of the change in future completed fertility, which helps to...

  7. Anthropometric Changes Using a Walking Intervention in African American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kilpatrick, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors. Methods A theory-based eight-week community intervention using pedometers with scheduling, goal setting, and self-assessment was tested in a convenience sample of African American breast cancer survivors (n = 24. Data were collected at three time points to examine changes in steps walked per day, body mass index, and other anthropometric measures, attitudes, and demographic variables. Results Statistically significant increases in steps walked per day and attitude toward exercise as well as significant decreases in body mass index, body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist, hip, and forearm circumferences, as well as blood pressure, were reported from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Positive changes were retained or improved further at three-month follow-up except for attitude toward exercise. Participant retention rate during eight-week intervention was 92%. Conclusion Increasing walking for exercise, without making other changes, can improve body mass index, anthropometric measures, and attitudes, which are associated with improved quality of life and reduced risk of cancer recurrence. The high participant retention rate, along with significant study outcomes, demonstrate that among this sample of African American breast cancer survivors, participants were motivated to improve their exercise habits.

  8. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  9. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  10. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interven...

  11. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243111

  12. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  13. Climate variability and change and human intervention effects on an over-exploited aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Athanasios; Zagoriti, Katerina; Mylopoulos, Nikitas; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Vasiliades, Lampros

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of climate variability, change and human intervention on an over-exploited aquifer, is examined under various operational scenarios for water resources management. The aquifer of Lake Karla watershed in Central Greece is in an over-exploitation status due to the intense agricultural activities. The draining of old lake Karla at 1962 and the uncontrolled use of irrigation wells after 1980s has led to serious environmental problems as water scarcity, water and ground pollution and land subsidence. The partial restoration of Lake Karla and the accompanying projects are under construction in order to reverse this situation. A modeling system, consisting of a statistical downscaling component, a hydrological model, a groundwater model, a reservoir operation model and a module for the estimation of water demands, has been developed and applied on Lake Karla watershed. The outputs of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis Global Circulation Model CGCM3 were applied for three socioeconomic scenarios, namely SRES B1, SRES A1B and SRES A2 for the assessment of climate change impacts on water resources. The statistical downscaling module has been applied to estimate monthly precipitation and temperature time series for present conditions and the future climate period 2009-2058. The hydrological model was applied in a semi-distributed mode to simulate the hydrological cycle components, to simulate the reservoir operation and to produce time series of recharge data, which were imported as input to the groundwater model. The last one was applied for simulation of groundwater resources for different climate scenarios under three operational management scenarios: the first being the natural aquifer without human intervention, the second with the human intervention (reservoir simulation and management) and the third is the second scenario plus the future management plans for the urban water needs of the nearby city of Volos, as they belong

  14. Mobilising social support: insights from the development of a web and app based intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Anne Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Background: The internet and social media can be effective in influencing behaviour, and can reach large numbers of people. Previous research shows that setting goals, making plans and monitoring how well you are doing is important to facilitate behaviour change. The support of family, friends and others is also crucial in helping people to achieve and sustain behaviour change and healthier lifestyles. We aim to develop and test the feasibility of an intervention to promote health behaviour c...

  15. Tail biting in pigs--causes and management intervention strategies to reduce the behavioural disorder. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Lilia Thays; Fels, Michaela; Oczak, Maciej; Vranken, Erik; Ismayilova, Gunel; Guarino, Marcella; Viazzi, Stefano; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    One of the largest animal welfare problems in modern pig production is tail biting. This abnormal behaviour compromises the well-being of the animals, can seriously impair animal health and can cause considerable economic losses. Tail biting has a multifactorial origin and occurs mainly in fattening pigs. High stocking densities, poor environment and bad air quality are seen as important factors. However, it is presumed that a plurality of internal and external motivators in intensive pig production can trigger this behaviour which is not reported in sounders of wild boars. The aim of this review is to summarize the causes and the effects of tail biting in pigs and present management strategies that are likely to reduce its incidence. In particular, management strategies by applying Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies to monitor and control the behaviour of the pigs may be suitable to detect the outbreaks of tail biting at an early stage so that counter measures can be taken in time. PMID:23540192

  16. Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE): A protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Llewellyn Carrie; Abraham Charles; Miners Alec; Smith Helen; Pollard Alex; Benn Paul; Fisher Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI) have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB) mode...

  17. Evaluation of a Web-based tailored intervention (TAVIE en santé) to support people living with HIV in the adoption of health promoting behaviours: an online randomized controlled trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Côté, José; Cossette, Sylvie; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Worthington, Catherine; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Auger, Patricia; Boudreau, François; Miranda, Joyal; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy, normal aging, and presence of certain risk factors are associated with metabolic disorders that predispose persons living with HIV to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The emergence and progression of these disorders can be prevented by adopting healthy behaviours. Based on the theory of planned behaviour, the Web-based tailored intervention TAVIE en santé was developed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of TAVIE en ...

  18. Linking Implementation Process to Intervention Outcomes in a Middle School Obesity Prevention Curriculum, "Choice, Control and Change"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the link between process evaluation components and the outcomes of a school-based nutrition curriculum intervention, "Choice, Control and Change". Ten New York City public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned into intervention or control condition. The curriculum was to improve sixth to seventh…

  19. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice S Forster

    2016-01-01

    Developers of behaviour change apps must balance the demands of users that will make using the app a habit, while retaining the ingredients necessary for the app to achieve its purpose. Mixed methods provide a rich data set with which to base app development and greater confidence that the app will meet the needs of users in terms of social networking and privacy.

  20. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and ho

  1. Spurring climate-friendly behaviour change: a case study of the university of Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is definitely a huge challenge for the 21. century. Models in energy economics show that efficiency gains through energy productivity improvement, technical change and technological innovations towards lower carbon technologies will not be sufficient to achieve the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), i.e. stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Mitigation actions that stem from individual behaviour change towards a lower individual carbon footprint are also part of the response to the climate challenge. Depending on their current behaviour, individuals may focus on many different actions to reduce their carbon footprint, be they at home, at work or any other place: for example, they can use the public transportation system or ride their bike instead of driving their car, video conference instead of flying to a conference or a meeting, turn the heating system off if they open the window when it is cold outside or if they are out of town for some time, turn the lights off when leaving a room, set their computer in sleep mode when not using it for some time, install sockets to shut off the standby modes of their multi-media devices, reduce the amount of waste they generate by purchasing products in bulk or with little packaging, consume local products rather than goods imported from other regions or countries, follow a diet with a low-meat content, and much more. All those actions, as insignificant as they seem to be in terms of individual energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions, do have a real impact at the macro-economic level. Furthermore, they are often 'low-hanging fruit' options, easy to implement at nearly zero cost. Studies that illustrate this point are numerous and cover all GHG emitting sectors. For example, lowering room temperatures by 1 deg. C is estimated to save 7

  2. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  3. Influencing youth's beliefs about their potential to change in residential care by using the on-line intervention Change Your Mindset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberg, F.L.M.; Helmond, P.; Yeager, D.; Vermaes, I.P.R.; Overbeek, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: There is a need for interventions to improve the sense of competence in youth with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID). We will briefly demonstrate the online intervention Change Your Mindset (CYM) that teaches youth an incremental theory in which abilities are conceptualized as

  4. The Empowering Role of Mobile Apps in Behavior Change Interventions: The Gray Matters Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Chris D; McClean, Sally I; Cleland, Ian; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Clark, Christine J; Norton, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Background Health education and behavior change programs targeting specific risk factors have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the development of future diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) shares many of the same risk factors, most of which can be addressed via behavior change. It is therefore theorized that a behavior change intervention targeting these risk factors would likely result in favorable rates of AD prevention. Objective The objective of this study was to reduce the future risk of developing AD, while in the short term promoting vascular health, through behavior change. Methods The study was an interventional randomized controlled trial consisting of subjects who were randomly assigned into either treatment (n=102) or control group (n=42). Outcome measures included various blood-based biomarkers, anthropometric measures, and behaviors related to AD risk. The treatment group was provided with a bespoke “Gray Matters” mobile phone app designed to encourage and facilitate behavior change. The app presented evidence-based educational material relating to AD risk and prevention strategies, facilitated self-reporting of behaviors across 6 behavioral domains, and presented feedback on the user’s performance, calculated from reported behaviors against recommended guidelines. Results This paper explores the rationale for a mobile phone–led intervention and details the app’s effect on behavior change and subsequent clinical outcomes. Via the app, the average participant submitted 7.3 (SD 3.2) behavioral logs/day (n=122,719). Analysis of these logs against primary outcome measures revealed that participants who improved their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during the study duration answered a statistically significant higher number of questions per day (mean 8.30, SD 2.29) than those with no improvement (mean 6.52, SD 3.612), t97.74=−3.051, P=.003. Participants who decreased their body mass index (BMI) performed significantly

  5. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Coren, E; Hossain, R.; Pardo Pardo, J.; Bakker, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Millions of street-connected children and young people worldwide live or work in street environments. They are vulnerable to many risks, whether or not they remain connected to families of origin, and despite many strengths and resiliencies, they are excluded from mainstream social structures and opportunities. Objectives Primary research objectives To evaluate and summarise the effectiveness of interventions for street-connected children and young people that aim to:...

  6. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Coren, E; Hossain, R.; Pardo Pardo, J.; Veras, M; Chakraborty, K.; Harris, H.; Martin, A. (Alan)

    2013-01-01

    Background Numbers of street-connected children and young people run into many millions worldwide and include children and young people who live or work in street environments. Whether or not they remain connected to their families of origin, and despite many strengths and resiliencies, they are vulnerable to a range of risks and are excluded from mainstream social structures and opportunities. Objectives To summarise the effectiveness of interventions for street-connected childr...

  7. Social media interventions for diet and exercise behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gillian; Hamm, Michele P; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Vandermeer, Ben; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of social media to promote healthy diet and exercise in the general population. Data sources MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Alt Health Watch, Health Source, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Web of Knowledge and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis (2000–2013). Study eligibility criteria RCTs of social media interventions promoting healthy diet and exercise be...

  8. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics of HIV/AIDS with Gradual Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baryarama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An HIV/AIDS model that incorporates gradual behaviour change is formulated with a variable force of infection for the adult population. The variability is modelled using a general function of time since introduction of the initial infective and exemplified for three specific functions. Expressions for the time taken for the reproductive number to reduce to unity and expressions for the time taken to attain a stationary steady state are deduced and discussed. Model projections for urban, peri-urban and rural Uganda are compared with corresponding antenatal clinic sites prevalence trends. The analysis shows that the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence in Uganda in the early 1990s was only possible through drastic declines in the force of infection. Since prevalence was high and reductions in frequency of sexual acts was minimal, the huge reduction could be attributed to reductions in probability of transmission per sexual act probably due to increased selective condom use among high risk sexual partnerships since overall condom use was low.

  9. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; PETTIFOR, John M; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...

  10. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tabither M Gitau; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John. M.; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...

  11. The control of deviant sexual behaviour by drugs. I. Behavioural changes following oestrogens and anti-androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, J; Tennent, G; Loucas, K; Cass, J

    1974-09-01

    Using attitudinal, behavorial, and physiological measures, the effects of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol on the sexual behavior of sexual offenders was assessed. The effects of the drugs did not differ significantly on any measure. Compared to no treatment, both drugs lowered sexual interest and sexual activity. Sexual attitudes were not changed. No important side effects were noted. These studies do not indicate what long-term side effects might be expected. Further research will be needed to determine these. Since estrogens carry the risk of serious and irreversible side effects, cyproterone acetate seems to be more desirable for controlling sexual behavior. PMID:4607733

  12. Efectos de una intervención cognitivo-conductual para disminuir el burnout en cuidadores de ancianos institucionalizados (Effects of a Cognitive Behavioural Intervention to reduce burnout in caregivers of institutionalized elderly individuals)

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Reyes Jarquín; Ana Luisa Mónica González-Celis Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is a dysfunctional response to chronic job stress in professionals (e.g., doctors, nurses, and caregivers) who are in constant contact with service users. Burnout has negative affects at the physiological, personal, familial, and work levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) to reduce burnout in professional caregivers. The intervention was implemented and evaluated in 15 professional caregivers of institutionalized elderly...

  13. Predicting intentions and behaviours in populations with or at-risk of diabetes: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Few studies tested predictability of the TPB in populations with or at-risk of diabetes. This review highlighted differences in the predictive utility of the TPB suggesting that the model is behaviour and population specific. Findings on key determinants of specific behaviours contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms of behaviour change and are useful in designing targeted behavioural interventions for different diabetes populations.

  14. Stability and Change in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Well-Being in Response to an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Nelson, S. Katherine; Layous, Kristin; Carter, Kathryn; Jacobs Bao, Katherine; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Plomin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on complex traits can change in response to developmental and environmental contexts. Here we explore the impact of a positive activity intervention on the genetic and environmental influences on well-being and mental health in a sample of 750 adolescent twins. Twins completed a 10-week online well-being intervention, consisting of kindness and gratitude tasks and matched control activities. The results showed significant improvements both in well-being and in internalizing symptoms in response to the intervention activities. We used multivariate twin analyses of repeated measures, tracking stability and change in genetic and environmental influences, to assess the impact of this environmental intervention on these variance components. The heritability of well-being remained high both before and after the intervention, and the same genetic effects were important at each stage, even as well-being increased. The overall magnitude of environmental influences was also stable across the intervention; however, different non-shared environmental influences emerged during the intervention. Our study highlights the value of exploring the innovations in non-shared environmental influences that could provide clues to the mechanisms behind improvements in well-being. The findings also emphasize that even traits strongly influenced by genetics, like well-being, are subject to change in response to environmental interventions. PMID:27227410

  15. Stability and Change in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Well-Being in Response to an Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M A Haworth

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental influences on complex traits can change in response to developmental and environmental contexts. Here we explore the impact of a positive activity intervention on the genetic and environmental influences on well-being and mental health in a sample of 750 adolescent twins. Twins completed a 10-week online well-being intervention, consisting of kindness and gratitude tasks and matched control activities. The results showed significant improvements both in well-being and in internalizing symptoms in response to the intervention activities. We used multivariate twin analyses of repeated measures, tracking stability and change in genetic and environmental influences, to assess the impact of this environmental intervention on these variance components. The heritability of well-being remained high both before and after the intervention, and the same genetic effects were important at each stage, even as well-being increased. The overall magnitude of environmental influences was also stable across the intervention; however, different non-shared environmental influences emerged during the intervention. Our study highlights the value of exploring the innovations in non-shared environmental influences that could provide clues to the mechanisms behind improvements in well-being. The findings also emphasize that even traits strongly influenced by genetics, like well-being, are subject to change in response to environmental interventions.

  16. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  19. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  20. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.