WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviors including alcohol

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  2. Alcohol disinhibition of behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Topper

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a wide variety of effects on physiology and behavior. One of the most well-recognized behavioral effects is disinhibition, where behaviors that are normally suppressed are displayed following intoxication. A large body of evidence has shown that alcohol-induced disinhibition in humans affects attention, verbal, sexual, and locomotor behaviors. Similar behavioral disinhibition is also seen in many animal models of ethanol response, from invertebrates to mammals and primates. Here we describe several examples of disinhibition in the nematode C. elegans. The nematode displays distinct behavioral states associated with locomotion (crawling on land and swimming in water that are mediated by dopamine. On land, animals crawl and feed freely, but these behaviors are inhibited in water. We found that additional behaviors, including a variety of escape responses are also inhibited in water. Whereas alcohol non-specifically impaired locomotion, feeding, and escape responses in worms on land, alcohol specifically disinhibited these behaviors in worms immersed in water. Loss of dopamine signaling relieved disinhibition of feeding behavior, while loss of the D1-like dopamine receptor DOP-4 impaired the ethanol-induced disinhibition of crawling. The powerful genetics and simple nervous system of C. elegans may help uncover conserved molecular mechanisms that underlie alcohol-induced disinhibition of behaviors in higher animals.

  3. Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley Chad; Jobli, Edessa

    2007-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) factor analyze a 13-item adolescent alcohol self-control behavior scale, (2) examine associations between frequency of self-control behavior use and alcohol consumption, and (3) to determine which self-control behaviors best predict alcohol use and consequences. A confidential standardized survey was used to collect data on participant's 30-day frequency, quantity, and heavy use of alcohol; alcohol-related consequences; and alcohol self-control behaviors. A principal component factor analysis produced the following three components: Healthy Alternatives (alpha=.81), Self-regulation (alpha=.72), and Assertive Communication (alpha=.73). MANOVAs indicated strong associations between frequency of use of the three types of self-control behaviors and alcohol consumption (p valuesadolescents, followed by Healthy Alternatives.

  4. Behavioral economic analysis of cue-elicited craving for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; O'Hagen, Sean; Lisman, Stephen A; Murphy, James G; Ray, Lara A; Tidey, Jennifer W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Craving as a motivational determinant of drug use remains controversial because of ambiguous empirical findings. A behavioral economic approach may clarify the nature of craving, theorizing that subjective craving functionally reflects an acute increase in a drug's value. The current study tested this hypothesis via a multidimensional assessment of alcohol demand over the course of an alcohol cue reactivity procedure. One-way within-subjects design. Human laboratory environment. Heavy drinkers (n = 92) underwent exposures to neutral (water) cues followed by personalized alcohol cues. Participants were assessed for craving, alcohol demand, affect, and salivation following each exposure. Alcohol versus neutral cues significantly increased craving and multiple behavioral economic measures of the relative value of alcohol, including alcohol consumption under conditions of zero cost (intensity), maximum expenditure on alcohol (O(max)), persistence in drinking to higher prices (breakpoint) and proportionate price insensitivity (normalized P(max)). Craving was significantly correlated with demand measures at levels ranging from 0.21-0.43. These findings support the potential utility of a behavioral economic approach to understanding the role of environmental stimuli in alcohol-related decision making. Specifically, they suggest that the behavioral economic indices of demand may provide complementary motivational information that is related to though not entirely redundant with measures of subjective craving.

  5. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  6. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Positive behavioral contrast across food and alcohol reinforcers.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, F K; Melville, C L; Higa, J

    1988-01-01

    The present study examined behavioral contrast during concurrent and multiple schedules that provided food and alcohol reinforcers. Concurrent-schedule contrast occurred in the responding reinforced by food when alcohol reinforcers were removed. It also occurred in the responding reinforced by alcohol when food was removed. Multiple-schedule contrast appeared for food when alcohol reinforcers were removed, but not for alcohol when food was removed. These results show that behavioral contrast ...

  8. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  9. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

  10. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  11. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  12. Behavior change techniques in popular alcohol reduction apps: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-14

    Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms "alcohol" and "drink", and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were "facilitate self-recording" (54%, 33/61), "provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation" (43%, 26/61), "provide feedback on performance" (41%, 25/61), "give options for additional and later support" (25%, 15/61) and "offer/direct towards appropriate written materials" (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change interventions (mean 2.46, SD 2.06). Evidence was mentioned by 16

  13. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  14. Behavioral neuroadaptation to alcohol : from glucocorticoids to histone acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beracochea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit including the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the amygdala. These structures are implicated in learning and memory processes as well as in orchestrating neuroadaptive responses to stress and anxiety responses. Thus, potentiation of anxiety-related neuroadaptation by alcohol is characterized by an abnormally amygdala hyperactivity coupled with a hypofunction of the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. This review describes research on molecular and epigenetic mechanisms by which alcohol causes distinct region-specific adaptive changes in gene expression patterns and ultimately, leads to a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments on prefrontal- and hippocampal-based tasks. Alcohol-induced neuroadaptations involve the dysregulation of numerous signaling cascades, leading to long-term changes in transcriptional profiles of genes, through the actions of transcription factors such as CREB (cAMP response element binding protein and chromatin remodeling due to post-translational modifications of histone proteins. We describe the role of prefrontal-hippocampus-amygdala circuit in mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on learning and memory, and region-specific molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in this process. This review first discusses the importance of brain region-specific dysregulation of glucocorticoid concentration in the development of alcohol dependence and describes on how persistently increased glucocorticoid levels in prefrontal cortex may be involved in

  15. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  16. Alcohol drinking behaviors and alcohol management policies under outsourcing work conditions: A qualitative study of construction workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-02-01

    Workplace alcohol policies are crucial for workers' health and safety. The practice of outsourcing is gaining popularity around the world and was found to be associated with poorer health in the working population. This study aimed to examine how outsourcing complicates the implementation of workplace alcohol policies and affects workers' drinking behaviors. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 outsource workers, 3 subcontractors and 3 worksite supervisors. Information regarding workers' drinking behaviors, their knowledge, and attitudes toward workplace alcohol policy were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis. Factors associated with poor workplace alcohol management included smaller size and private ownership of outsourcers, subcontractors' own drinking behavior and positive attitude to alcohol, and precarious employment conditions of outsourcing workers. The multilateral relationship between outsourcers, subcontractors, and workers complicated and impaired the implementation of workplace alcohol policies. The implementation of workplace alcohol management policies was hampered in outsourcing work conditions due to poor coordination of supervisors in the subcontract chain. The enforcement of alcohol policies in the workplace should be strengthened by consolidating management responsibilities of outsourcers and subcontractors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed ag...

  20. Nontargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to detect hazardous substances including methanol in unrecorded alcohol from Novosibirsk, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hausler, Thomas; Okaru,  Alex O.; Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen; Kuballa, Thomas; Luy, Burkhard; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of alcoholic products in the context of health and safety control. A total of 86 samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in Novosibirsk and nearby cities in Russia. Sampling was based on interviews with alcohol dependent patients, and unrecorded alcohol thus defined included illegally or informally produced alcoholic products (e.g., counterfeit or home-made alcoholic beverages) or surrogate alcohol in the form of c...

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  2. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K

    2016-08-31

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Using crowdsourcing to examine behavioral economic measures of alcohol value and proportionate alcohol reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James

    2017-08-01

    Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Andsager Smorawski, Gitte; Lund Krabak, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . The aim of this study is to explore students’ perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. Methods We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed...... topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Results Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make...... major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines...

  5. Alcohol use behaviors among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-03-12

    To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.

  6. The impact of sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies and risky behavior on alcohol-involved rape among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie; DeNardi, Kathleen A

    2013-04-01

    A structural equation model examined sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies, heavy episodic drinking (HED), and risky sexual behavior as correlates of alcohol-involved rape in a sample of 353 college women. Prevalence of alcohol-involved rape was 15.6%. Sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were indirectly associated with alcohol-involved rape via increased levels of HED, greater likelihood of sex while intoxicated, and number of sex partners. All forms of risky behavior were associated with alcohol-involved rape although HED had the strongest relationship. Findings suggest continued focus on women's positive alcohol expectancies and HED as risk factors for alcohol-involved rape. Implications for intervention will be discussed.

  7. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  8. Predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment for problem drinkers including cognitive-behavioral therapy and the opioid antagonist naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoristo-Myllys, Salla; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Julkunen, Juhani

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment program for problem drinking that included individual cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with naltrexone. Specifically, we investigated whether sociodemographic factors, severity of alcohol dependence, history of problem drinking, or intensity of alcohol craving assessed at the beginning of the treatment predicted dropout from an outpatient program among a sample of 372 patients (65% male). We also investigated whether the effectiveness of the treatment (the change in alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol craving) or adherence to naltrexone was related to dropout. Predictors of dropout were investigated using an analysis of covariance with the number of attended treatment sessions as an independent variable. Our results demonstrated that the treatment entry factors predictive of dropout were younger age, lower severity of alcohol dependence, better ability to resist and control alcohol use, and lower obsession with alcohol. In addition, those who dropped out were more likely to begin the program by abstaining from alcohol and had lower adherence to naltrexone use than those who completed the program. The length of stay for treatment was not related to change in alcohol consumption. Patients with less severe alcohol-related problems may lack motivation for treatment, specifically cognitive-behavioral therapy and naltrexone. These patients may benefit more from less intensive treatments.

  9. The relationship of sex-related alcohol expectancies to alcohol consumption and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, B C

    1990-07-01

    Recent psychosocial research on alcohol expectancies--beliefs about the effects of alcohol on behavior, moods and emotions--has suggested that these expectancies mediate not only decisions about drinking but the alcohol effects displayed by those who have been drinking. Results of a study of drinking and sexual behavior showed that individuals of different gender and sexual orientation differed in their beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual responding. In addition, expectations of sexual enhancement and disinhibition were related to the initiation of sexual activity and to the proportion of sexual encounters that took place while drinking, and interacted with sex guilt to predict the amount drunk in the most recent sexual encounter. These results suggest that beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sex may affect the characteristics of sexual encounters that involve drinking.

  10. Alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilman, P W

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of alcohol-related sexual activity on campus. Since coming to college, 35% of the students had engaged in some form of sexual activity that was influenced by drinking. Because they had been drinking, 18% had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 15% had abandoned safe-sex techniques. For the categories any form of sexual activity and abandonment of safe-sex techniques, a significantly greater percentage of women were affected by alcohol use, but this was not true for sexual intercourse. The survey showed no significant differences between undergraduate and graduate students. All three variables showed a relationship with heavier alcohol use and with binge drinking. Academic excellence was negatively correlated with alcohol-induced sexual intercourse.

  11. Receptivity to and recall of alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music and alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2014-06-01

    The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. In 2010 to 2011, we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 and 23 years of age, of whom 3,422 (53%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2,541 opted to participate in a subsequent web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Among the 2,541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least 1 alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing, but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and having ever binged on alcohol

  12. Underage college students' alcohol displays on Facebook and real-time alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Cox, Elizabeth D; Young, Henry N; Haaland, Wren

    2015-06-01

    College is often a time of alcohol use initiation and displayed Facebook alcohol references. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine associations between initial references to alcohol on social media and college students' self-reported recent drinking, binge drinking, and excessive drinking. First-year students from two U.S. public universities were randomly selected from registrar lists for recruitment. Data collection included 2 years of monthly Facebook evaluation. When an initial displayed Facebook alcohol reference was identified, these "New Alcohol Displayers" were contacted for phone interviews. Phone interviews used the validated timeline followback method to evaluate recent alcohol use, binge episodes, and excessive drinking. Analyses included calculation of positive predictive value and Poisson regression. A total of 338 participants were enrolled; 56.1% participants were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from the Midwestern University. A total of 167 (49.4%) participants became new alcohol displayers during the first 2 years of college. Among new alcohol displayers, 78.5% reported past 28-day alcohol use. Among new alcohol displayers who reported recent alcohol use, 84.9% reported at least one binge episode. Posting an initial Facebook alcohol reference as a profile picture or cover photo was positively associated with excessive drinking (risk ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.58). Findings suggest positive associations between references to alcohol on social media and self-reported recent alcohol use. Location of initial reference as a profile picture or cover photo was associated with problematic drinking and may suggest that a student would benefit from clinical investigation or resources. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  14. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  15. Cabergoline decreases alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors via glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit

    2009-07-15

    Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.

  16. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among people who use illicit drugs: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Of 1757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parenting Style and Behavior as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaie, Matin Ghayour; Hui, Ka Kit; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; King, Ross M

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is a serious problem in Australia and other nations. Longitudinal data on family predictors are valuable to guide parental education efforts. The present study tested Baumrind's proposal that parenting styles are direct predictors of adolescent alcohol use. Latent class modeling was used to investigate adolescent perceptions of parenting styles and multivariate regression to examine their predictive effect on the development of adolescent alcohol use. The data set comprised 2,081 secondary school students (55.9% female) from metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, who completed three waves of annual longitudinal data starting in 2004. Baumrind's parenting styles were significant predictors in unadjusted analyses, but these effects were not maintained in multivariate models that also included parenting behavior dimensions. Family influences on the development of adolescent alcohol use appear to operate more directly through specific family management behaviors rather than through more global parenting styles.

  19. Exploring college students' use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.

  20. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity

  1. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol and drug use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangé, Bernard P; Marlatt, G Alan

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapies have been successfully used to treat addiction. This article is in part a review on addiction models such as relapse prevention by Marlatt & Gordon, stages of change by Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, deriving from motivational interview, developed by Miller & Rollnick, as well as the cognitive models by Beck et al. Based on literature evidence for the development of effective treatment programs, we report on a group treatment model used in a group of alcoholics referred by the Department of Worker's Health Surveillance at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro to the Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Research Center. Results are presented indicating that this type of treatment could be one alternative to others treatments in use. New research is needed to better validate cognitive-behavioral approach to alcohol and drug problems.

  2. Alcohol Behaviors and Deviant Behaviors among Adolescents in a Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Stephen; Dunn, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    Study provides a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents in a southern state from four time periods over the past decade. Also examines the relationship between alcohol initiation and binge drinking behaviors and sexual initiation, pregnancy, multiple sex partners, and violence. Regression analyses showed very modest…

  3. Alcohol Use and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Characteristics of a Sample Attending a GED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Meredith Reesman; Bergman, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This study examined peer deviance, disinhibition, and ADHD symptoms as differential predictors of alcohol use, alcohol use disorder symptoms, and antisocial behavior. It was hypothesized that peer deviance would most strongly predict alcohol use while disinhibition and ADHD would predict alcohol use disorder symptoms and antisocial behavior.…

  4. Critical behavior in the system cyclopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, U. Santhi; Unni, P. K. Madhavan

    2018-05-01

    We report detailed measurements of coexistence surface in the ternary system cylcopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol. The coexistence surface is seen to have an unusual tunnel like feature and is a potential system in which special critical points such as the Quadruple Critical Point (QCP) could be studied. Analysis of coexistence curves indicates that the system shows 3D-Ising like critical behavior.

  5. Behavioral Analysis of Chronic Alcoholism in Four Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Nathan, Peter E.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of four female alcoholics was observed over a 22-day period. A 12-day drinking period was preceded by a 6-day predrinking baseline assessment period and followed by a 4-day postdrinking withdrawal phase. Points were earned for operant responding at a button-pressing task. No changes in psychopathology were noted during drinking.…

  6. Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: a negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Knittel, Julian; Nerincx, Aurore; Campanella, Salvatore; Noel, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa

    2011-05-01

    To study the 'social brain' in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind and emotional intelligence. A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Twenty-five recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and eight women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and eight women) matched for sex, age and education level. Wason selection task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary and descriptive), revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version) and additional control measures. Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conditional reasoning, including reasoning about social contracts and emotional intelligence appear to be impaired in alcoholics. Impairment seems to be particularly severe on descriptive rules. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Behavioral Actions of Alcohol: Phenotypic Relations from Multivariate Analysis of Mutant Mouse Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Belknap, John; Harris, R. Adron

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies of genetically diverse mice have proven powerful for determining relationships between phenotypes and have been widely used in alcohol research. Most of these studies rely on naturally occurring genetic polymorphisms among inbred strains and selected lines. Another approach is to introduce variation by engineering single gene mutations in mice. We have tested 37 different mutant mice and their wild type controls for a variety (31) of behaviors and have mined this dataset by K-means clustering and analysis of correlations. We found a correlation between a stress-related response (activity in a novel environment) and alcohol consumption and preference for saccharin. We confirmed several relationships detected in earlier genetic studies including positive correlation of alcohol consumption with saccharin consumption, and negative correlations with conditioned taste aversion and alcohol withdrawal severity. Introduction of single gene mutations either eliminated or greatly diminished these correlations. The three tests of alcohol consumption used (continuous two bottle choice, and two limited access tests: Drinking In the Dark and Sustained High Alcohol Consumption) share a relationship with saccharin consumption, but differ from each other in their correlation networks. We suggest that alcohol consumption is controlled by multiple physiological systems where single gene mutations can disrupt the networks of such systems. PMID:22405477

  8. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  9. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  10. A BEHAVIORAL ECONOMIC MODEL OF ALCOHOL ADVERTISING AND PRICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAFFER, HENRY; DAVE, DHAVAL; GROSSMAN, MICHAEL

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. PMID:25919364

  11. A Behavioral Economic Model of Alcohol Advertising and Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval; Grossman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new empirical study of the effects of televised alcohol advertising and alcohol price on alcohol consumption. A novel feature of this study is that the empirical work is guided by insights from behavioral economic theory. Unlike the theory used in most prior studies, this theory predicts that restriction on alcohol advertising on TV would be more effective in reducing consumption for individuals with high consumption levels but less effective for individuals with low consumption levels. The estimation work employs data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and the empirical model is estimated with quantile regressions. The results show that advertising has a small positive effect on consumption and that this effect is relatively larger at high consumption levels. The continuing importance of alcohol taxes is also supported. Education is employed as a proxy for self-regulation, and the results are consistent with this assumption. The key conclusion is that restrictions on alcohol advertising on TV would have a small negative effect on drinking, and this effect would be larger for heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Students' drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladekjær Larsen, Eva; Smorawski, Gitte Andsager; Kragbak, Katrine Lund; Stock, Christiane

    2016-04-29

    High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies. The aim of this study is to explore students' perceptions of alcohol policies on campus in relation to attitudes and practices of alcohol consumption. We conducted six focus group interviews with students from the University of Southern Denmark at two different campuses. The interviews discussed topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make major restrictions. Instead, regulations were socially controlled by students themselves and related to what was considered to be appropriate behavior. However students were open minded towards smaller limitations of alcohol availability. These included banning the sale of alcohol in vending machines and limiting consumption during the introduction week primarily due to avoiding social exclusion of students who do not drink. Some international students perceived the level of consumption as too high and distinguished between situations where they perceived drinking as unusual. The study showed that alcohol is a central part of students' lives. When developing and implementing alcohol policies on campus, seeking student input in the process and addressing alcohol policies in the larger community will likely improve the success of the policies.

  13. Is it time for baclofen to be included in the official recommendations concerning the treatment of alcoholism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masternak Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence and its treatment is not an exactly resolved problem. Based on the EZOP [Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Accessibility of Mental Health Care] survey, which included a regular analysis of the incidence of mental disorders in the population of adult Polish citizens, we were able to estimate that the problem of alcohol abuse in any period of life affects even 10.9% of the population aged 18-64 years, and those addicted represent 2.2% of the country’s population. The typical symptoms of alcohol dependence according to ICD-10, include alcohol craving, impaired ability to control alcohol consumption, withdrawal symptoms which appear when a heavy drinker stops drinking, alternating alcohol tolerance, growing neglect of other areas of life, and persistent alcohol intake despite clear evidence of its destructive effect on life. At the moment, the primary method of alcoholism treatment is psychotherapy. It aims to change the patient’s habits, behaviours, relationships, or the way of thinking. It seems that psychotherapy is irreplaceable in the treatment of alcoholism, but for many years now attempts have been made to increase the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment with pharmacological agents. In this article we will try to provide a description of medications which help patients sustain abstinence in alcoholism therapy with particular emphasis on baclofen.

  14. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  15. The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc A; Lucht, Michael; John, Ulrich; Freyberger, Harald J

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothetical model of alcohol problems in German adolescents. Among 180 offspring, family history of alcoholism, parenting styles, behavioral and emotional problems, peer-group characteristics, feelings of self-esteem, behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity of the parents were examined. Data were generated from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), in which families were randomly selected if 12-18 year old biological offspring were members of the household; a smaller group of subjects was selected from local outpatient treatment centers. Members of 133 families, including 180 (50.6% male) offspring who were appropriate for the current analyses, received personal semistructured diagnostic interviews and several self-rating questionnaires. Analyses compared offspring with alcohol problems (AP; n = 40) and with no alcohol problems (NAP; n = 140), and used structural equation modeling to test a hypothetical model. The comparisons revealed that the AP group had significantly more behavioral problems (e.g., aggression/delinquency), more perceived parental rejection and less emotional warmth, a higher amount of alcohol consumption, were more likely to associate with substance-using peers and more often received a diagnosis of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Whereas the family history of alcoholism did not differ significantly between groups, parents of offspring with an alcohol use disorder had significantly more additional diagnoses on DSM-IV Axis I. The evaluation of the model supported the importance of aggression/delinquency and association with substance-using peers for alcohol problems in people. An additional diagnosis in the parents was directly and indirectly (through aggression/delinquency) related to alcohol problems of the adolescents. The data indicate that alcohol problems in the offspring are associated with several domains of influence in their environment. Prospective studies

  16. Parental alcohol dependence and the transmission of adolescent behavioral disinhibition: a study of adoptive and non-adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Serena M; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2009-04-01

    To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the life-time of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2004. Adolescents adopted in infancy were ascertained systematically from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were related biologically to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the life-time of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is attributable largely to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families.

  17. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Rezayof A, Hosseini SS, Zarrindast MR (2009) Effects of Morphine on Rat Behaviour in the Elevated Plus Maze: The Role of Central Amygdala Dopamine...The current research takes a multi-level approach to study the psychological , behavioral, cognitive and neural relationships between PTSD and alcohol...presented with combat-associated stimuli, an effect mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex. PTSD was associated with heightened anterior cingulate

  18. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative?motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...

  19. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  20. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  1. Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Ott, Miles; Meisel, Matthew K; Barnett, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Personalized normative feedback is a recommended component of alcohol interventions targeting college students. However, normative data are commonly collected through campus-based surveys, not through actual participant-referent relationships. In the present investigation, we examined how misperceptions of residence hall peers, both overall using a global question and those designated as important peers using person-specific questions, were related to students' personal drinking behaviors. Participants were 108 students (88% freshman, 54% White, 51% female) residing in a single campus residence hall. Participants completed an online baseline survey in which they reported their own alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use using both an individual peer network measure and a global peer perception measure of their residential peers. We employed network autocorrelation models, which account for the inherent correlation between observations, to test hypotheses. Overall, participants accurately perceived the drinking of nominated friends but overestimated the drinking of residential peers. Consistent with hypotheses, overestimating nominated friend and global residential peer drinking predicted higher personal drinking, although perception of nominated peers was a stronger predictor. Interaction analyses showed that the relationship between global misperception and participant self-reported drinking was significant for heavy drinkers, but not non-heavy drinkers. The current findings explicate how student perceptions of peer drinking within an established social network influence drinking behaviors, which may be used to enhance the effectiveness of normative feedback interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  3. The association between exposure to social media alcohol marketing and youth alcohol use behaviors in India and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J

    2018-06-13

    Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.

  4. A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri D Weiser

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers.Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks for HIV transmission among both men

  5. Cocaine influences alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Wilden, Jessica A; Deehan, Gerald A; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2014-10-01

    The results of several studies suggest that there may be common neurocircuits regulating drug-seeking behaviors. Common biological pathways regulating drug-seeking would explain the phenomenon that seeking for 1 drug can be enhanced by exposure to another drug of abuse. The objective of this study was to assess the time course effects of acute cocaine administration on ethanol (EtOH) seeking and relapse. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to self-administer 15% EtOH and water. EtOH-seeking was assessed through the use of the Pavlovian spontaneous recovery (PSR) model, while EtOH-relapse drinking was assessed through the use of the alcohol-deprivation effect. Cocaine (0, 1, or 10 mg/kg), injected immediately, 30 minutes, or 4 hours prior to the first PSR testing session, dose-dependently increased responding on the EtOH lever compared to extinction responses and responding by saline controls. Under relapse conditions, cocaine given immediately prior to the relapse session had no effect (1 mg/kg) or reduced responding (10 mg/kg). In contrast, cocaine given 4 hours prior to the relapse session markedly enhanced EtOH responding compared to saline. The enhanced expression of EtOH-seeking and EtOH-relapse behaviors may be a result of a priming effect of cocaine on neuronal circuits mediating these behaviors. The effect of cocaine on EtOH-relapse drinking is indicative of the complex interactions that can occur between drugs of abuse; production of conflicting behaviors (immediate), and priming of relapse/seeking (4-hour delay). Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Genetic influences on alcohol use behaviors have diverging developmental trajectories: a prospective study among male and female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Salvatore, Jessica E; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-11-01

    Both alcohol-specific genetic factors and genetic factors related to externalizing behavior influence problematic alcohol use. Little is known, however, about the etiologic role of these 2 components of genetic risk on alcohol-related behaviors across development. Prior studies conducted in a male cohort of twins suggest that externalizing genetic factors are important for predicting heavy alcohol use in adolescence, whereas alcohol-specific genetic factors increase in importance during the transition to adulthood. In this report, we studied twin brothers and sisters and brother-sister twin pairs to examine such developmental trajectories and investigate whether sex and cotwin sex effects modify these genetic influences. We used prospective, longitudinal twin data collected between ages 12 and 22 within the population-based FinnTwin12 cohort study (analytic n = 1,864). Our dependent measures of alcohol use behaviors included alcohol initiation (age 12), intoxication frequency (ages 14 and 17), and alcohol dependence criteria (age 22). Each individual's genetic risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD-GR) was indexed by his/her parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence (AD) criterion counts. Likewise, each individual's genetic risk of externalizing disorders (EXT-GR) was indexed with a composite measure of parents' and cotwin's DSM-IV Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder criterion counts. EXT-GR was most strongly related to alcohol use behaviors during adolescence, while AUD-GR was most strongly related to alcohol problems in young adulthood. Further, sex of the twin and sex of the cotwin significantly moderated the associations between genetic risk and alcohol use behaviors across development: AUD-GR influenced early adolescent alcohol use behaviors in females more than in males, and EXT-GR influenced age 22 AD more in males than in females. In addition, the associations of AUD-GR and EXT-GR with intoxication frequency were greater among 14- and

  8. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  10. Sobering stories: narratives of self-redemption predict behavioral change and improved health among recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, William L; Tracy, Jessica L

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether the production of a narrative containing self-redemption (wherein the narrator describes a positive personality change following a negative experience) predicts positive behavioral change. In Study 1, we compared the narratives of alcoholics who had maintained their sobriety for over 4 years with those of alcoholics who had been sober 6 months or less. When describing their last drink, the former were significantly more likely to produce a narrative containing self-redemption than the latter. In Study 2, we examined the relation between the profession of self-redemption and behavioral change using a longitudinal design, by following the newly sober alcoholics from Study 1 over time. Although indistinguishable at initial assessment, newly sober alcoholics whose narratives included self-redemption were substantially more likely to maintain sobriety in the following months, compared to newly sober alcoholics who produced nonredemptive narratives; 83% of the redemptive group maintained sobriety between assessments, compared to 44% of nonredemptive participants. Redemptive participants in Study 2 also demonstrated improved health relative to the nonredemptive group. In both studies, the effects of self-redemption on sobriety and health held after controlling for relevant personality traits, alcohol dependence, recovery program involvement, initial physical and mental health, and additional narrative themes. Collectively, these results suggest that the production of a self-redemptive narrative may stimulate prolonged behavioral change and thus indicate a potentially modifiable psychological process that exhibits a major influence on recovery from addiction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Should DSM-V include dimensional diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzer, John E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura Jean; Regier, Darrel A; Schuckit, Marc A; Guth, Sarah E

    2006-02-01

    This program calls attention to the upcoming timetable for the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV and the publication of DSM-V. It is vitally important for Research Society of Alcoholism members to be aware of the current discussions of the important scientific questions related to the next DSM revision and to use the opportunity for input. The title of the symposium highlights 1 key question, i.e., whether the DSM definitions should remain strictly categorical as in the past or whether a dimensional component should be included in this revision. Two substantive and 1 conceptual paper are included in this portion of the symposium. The fourth and final presentation detailing the revision timetable and the opportunities for input is by Dr. Darrel Regier. Dr. Regier is the director of American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education the research and education branch of the American Psychiatric Association and the organization within the APA that will oversee the DSM revision. The discussion is by Marc Schuckit, who was chair of the Substance Use disorders (SUD) Committee for DSM-IV and cochair of the international group of experts reviewing the SUD definitions for DSM-V.

  12. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Alcohol Use, Eating Patterns, and Weight Behaviors in a University Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore associations between alcohol, alcohol-related eating, and weight-related health indicators. Methods: Cross-sectional, multivariate regression of weight behaviors, binge drinking, and alcohol-related eating, using self-reported student survey data (n = 3206 undergraduates/graduates). Results: Binge drinking was associated with…

  15. Effects of alcohol and weapon cues on aggressive thoughts and behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subra, B.; Muller, D.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.; Delmas, F.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that alcohol increases aggression. In this article it is proposed that the link between alcohol and aggression is so strong that mere exposure to alcohol-related cues will automatically activate aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Two experiments tested this automaticity

  16. Behavioral effects of the combined use of alcohol and energy drinks on alcohol hangover in an experimental mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2018-03-23

    In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  18. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  19. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms.

  20. Effects of MAOA-genotype, alcohol consumption, and aging on violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-03-01

    Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype.

  1. Determinants of Prosocial Behavior in Included Versus Excluded Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Esther; Tabernero, Carmen; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Prosocial behavior (PSB) is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of PSB. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity) and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation) on PSB under neutral contexts (Study 1), and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2). Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of PSB. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of PSB. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted PSB. We showed that the investigated variables predicted PSB; this suggests that to promote PSB one could (1) foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2) try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on PSB. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  2. Drinking Games: Simulating Alcoholic Behavior Patterns in the ”Pubcrawler” Video Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, J.; Tolentino, C.

    2017-01-01

    Pubcrawler is an interactive video game that presents con-cepts of alcoholic behavior within actionable gameplay. By implementing simulations of impairment in gameplay controls and player tasks based on denial, rationalization and concealments behaviors, this game is intended to use traditional gameplay elements to immerse the non-alcoholic user in the alcoholic’s experience and promote understanding and empathy, and also elicit reflection in the alcoholic user to aid therapy.

  3. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  4. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  5. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and

  6. Magnetic behavior of cobalt bromide hydrates including a deuterated form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu; Hampton, A.S.; Van Dongen, M.J.; Komatsu, C.H.; DeSanto, C.L.; Davis, C.M.

    2017-04-15

    The magnetic properties of little examined CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O and new CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O are studied. Curie-Weiss fits, χ{sub M}=C/(T-θ), yield θ of −9.9, 9.4 and 10.0 K, respectively, over a 30–80 K linear range for each. Higher temperature data are fit assuming two moderately separated low lying Kramers doublets, with exchange accounted for in a mean-field approximation. Susceptibility maxima appear at 9.5, 15.4 and 15.5 K, with χ{sub max} of 0.163, 0.375 and 0.435 emu/mol, respectively. Antiferromagnetic ordering is estimated to occur at 9.0, 13.7 and 13.8 K, in the same order. The ratio T{sub c}/T{sub max} is 0.95, 0.89 and 0.89, respectively, suggesting little low dimensional magnetic character in singly hydrated systems. Data at lower temperatures for the dihydrate are fit with an antiferromagnetic 3D-Ising model. For singly hydrated systems the large size of χ{sub max} prevents this; weakened interchain antiferromagnetic interactions yield enhanced susceptibility maxima. Magnetization data exhibit field induced transitions near 13.5 kG for the dihydrate, and near 6.5 kG for singly hydrated systems with enhanced hysteresis. These transitions are interpreted as metamagnetic in nature. - Highlights: • CoBr{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O has a larger susceptibility maximum at lower temperature than CoCl{sub 2}• 2H{sub 2}O. • Enhanced antiferromagnetic susceptibility maxima occur in CoBr{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O and CoBr{sub 2}• D{sub 2}O. • Metamagnetic transitions occur at much lower fields in monohydrates than dehydrate. • Interchain antiferromagnetic exchange is weaker in monohydrates than dehydrate. • CoBr{sub 2}• H{sub 2}O exhibit spin glass behavior similar to that seen previously in CoCl{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O.

  7. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  8. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  10. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  11. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Josephson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI, is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT.

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. [Association of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use with suicidal behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo G, Lilian; Castro S, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Suicide and suicide attempts are public health problems. Their prevention requives the detection of predictor factors. To determine the predictive valué of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use on suicidal behavior in adolescents. Suicidal behavior, Loneliness (UCLA), Impulsivity (Barratt) scales and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were applied to 763 high school students aged 14 to 19 years (49% males), living in Chillan, Chile. Nineteen percent of participants had attempted suicide and 34.3% had suicidal ideation. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use were directly related to suicidal behavior. These predictors explained 31 % of the suicidal behavior. The most important risk factor was loneliness, followed by femóle gender, impulsivity and alcohol use. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use are risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Women are at higher risk than men.

  15. Behavioral predictors of alcohol drinking in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia and co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Todd, Travis P

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and contributes greatly to its morbidity. Unfortunately, the neural and behavioral underpinnings of alcohol drinking in these patients are not well understood. In order to begin to understand the cognitive and reward-related changes that may contribute to alcohol drinking, this study was designed to address: 1) latent inhibition; 2) conditioning; and 3) extinction of autoshaping in a neurodevelopmental rat model with relevance to co-occurring schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders, the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesioned (NVHL) rat. NVHL lesions (or sham surgeries) were performed on post-natal day 7 (PND7) and animals were given brief exposure to alcohol during adolescent (PND 28-42). Latent inhibition of autoshaping, conditioning and extinction were assessed between PND 72-90. On PND90 animals were given alcohol again and allowed to establish stable drinking. Latent inhibition of autoshaping was found to be prolonged in the NVHL rats; the NVHL rats pre-exposed to the lever stimulus were slower to acquire autoshaping than sham pre-exposed rats. NVHL rats that were not pre-exposed to the lever stimulus did not differ during conditioning, but were slower to extinguish conditioned responding compared to sham controls. Finally, the NVHL rats from both groups drank significantly more alcohol than sham rats, and the extent of latent inhibition predicted future alcohol intake in the pre-exposed animals. These findings suggest that the latent inhibition of autoshaping procedure can be used to model cognitive- and reward-related dysfunctions in schizophrenia, and these dysfunctions may contribute to the development of co-occurring alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of alcohol on social anxiety: an investigation of attentional, physiological and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stephan; Cludius, Barbara; Bantin, Trisha; Hermann, Christiane; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-02-01

    Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. It remains unclear, however, if and how alcohol influences attentional processes and physical symptoms in social anxiety. In a balanced-placebo-design, high and normally socially anxious participants gave a speech while performing a task, which simultaneously measures internal and external attention. Only high anxious participants showed a preferential processing of external probes, which was eliminated by alcohol or the mere expectation of drinking alcohol. Furthermore, alcohol reduced facial blushing as well as self-reported social anxiety during public speaking. Decreases in anxiety were significantly associated with a reduction of the external focus in the high anxious group. Understanding alcohol as a substance influencing cognitive processes as well as physiological symptoms of anxiety further contributes to our understanding of alcohol use as a safety behavior in social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical and structural behaviors of crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subhankar; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) has excellent properties like uniaxial tensile stress, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, etc. The properties of PVA further can be tuned by crosslinking process. In this work, a simple heat treatment method is used to find out the optimum crosslinking of PVA and the corresponding structural and optical responses are explored. The PVA crosslinking is done by exposing the films at different temperatures and time intervals. The optical property of pure and heat treated PVA films are investigated by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and structural modifications are studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The absorption peaks of pure PVA are observed at ≈ 280 and 335 nm and the corresponding emission is observed at ≈ 424 nm. The pure PVA showed modified optical behaviors after the heat treatment. In addition, dipping the PVA films in hot water (85°C) for nearly 20 minutes also show impact on both structural and optical properties. From FTIR spectroscopy, the changes in vibrational band positions confirm the structural modifications of PVA films.

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  19. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  20. The effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Leino, Tony; Molde, Helge; Haga, Sondre; Gjernes, Mikjel Fredericson; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Although alcohol intake and gambling often co-occur in related venues, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on gambling behavior. We therefore conducted an experimental investigation of the effects of alcohol expectancy and intake on slot machine gambling behavior. Methods Participants were 184 (females = 94) individuals [age range: 18-40 (mean = 21.9) years] randomized to four independent conditions differing in information/expectancy about beverage (told they received either alcohol or placebo) and beverage intake [actually ingesting low (target blood alcohol concentration [BAC]  0.40 mg/L; ≈0.80 mg/L) amounts of alcohol]. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic variables, subjective intoxication, alcohol effects (stimulant and sedative), and gambling factors (behavior and problems, evaluation, and beliefs). Participants also gambled on a simulated slot machine. Results A significant main effect of beverage intake on subjective intoxication and alcohol effects was detected as expected. No significant main or interaction effects were detected for number of gambling sessions, bet size and variation, remaining credits at termination, reaction time, and game evaluation. Conclusion Alcohol expectancy and intake do not affect gambling persistence, dissipation of funds, reaction time, or gambling enjoyment.

  1. [Alcohol consumption--risk behavior in institutionalized teenagers of a Lugoj investment center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Stoian, Iasmina Rodica; Suciu, Oana; Bredicean, Cristina; Olariu, T R

    2010-01-01

    In the performed study we investigated alcohol consumption--a frequent risk behavior that occurs in teenagers. The institutionalization of children from disturbed family could be a facilitator factor for alcohol consumption. A new group with different habits of the members is created and the information exchange could be useful or noxious. A transversal inquiry, with CORT (Comportamente cu Risc la Tineri--Risk Behaviors in Young People) questionnaire applying in a sample with 64 teenagers, which live in an Investment Center from Lugoj. We selected 16 items referring to alcohol consumption and the social environment. Obtained results showed frequent alcohol consumption in the social environment (group of friends--85% and disorganized family--debut of alcohol consumption under 8 years in boys group). The places of alcohol consumption are bars, restaurants (73% boys), in the Investment Center (59% boys and 29% girls), in the friends' houses, on the street. They consume alcohol in group and alone. The boys became drunk frequent (20% affirmed that became drunk more than 40 times in the last month). Discontent about relation inside the group increases the alcohol consumption outside the group. The alcohol consumption as a learned behavior in the origin disorganized family could be disseminated in the Centers for Children Protection.

  2. A cultural and social cognitive model of differences in acculturation orientations, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Huang, Shi

    2013-04-01

    The present study used a cultural and social cognitive conceptual framework to investigate whether alcohol expectancies and valuations would mediate the associations between specific acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1,527 Hispanic students attending colleges and universities in diverse regions of the United States. Respondents completed self-report measures of Hispanic and American cultural practices; alcohol expectancies and valuations; and self-reported frequency of hazardous alcohol use, binge drinking, sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, and riding with a drunk driver. Latent class analysis was used to classify participants into acculturation orientations. Results indicated that acculturation orientations were differentially associated with alcohol-related risk outcomes, with separated bicultural and low bicultural orientations inversely related to all of the alcohol-related risk behaviors except for riding with a drunk driver. Negative expectancy valuations were positively associated with endorsement of binge drinking and drunk driving and negative expectancies were negatively associated with binge drinking, drunk driving, and riding with a drunk driver. With the exception of sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, the associations between acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors were partially mediated by positive alcohol expectancies. Our findings provided relevant data that are informative for preventing alcohol and related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.

  4. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  5. Influence of Sports' Programs and Club Activities on Alcohol Use Intentions and Behaviors among Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver-Dunn, Deidre; Turner, Lori; Newman, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, more than 70 percent of all deaths among youth and young adults each year are related to four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Alcohol misuse and abuse contribute to each of these behaviors. Alcohol is the most frequently consumed mind-altering substance among…

  6. The Impact of Reality Television on the Alcohol-Related Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Valerie; Cantu, Vanessa C.; Graf, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the effects of reality television and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors of Hispanic college students (N = 285). Reality television is a new form of media that is gaining popularity and provides increased exposure to glamorized alcohol use. There is a lack of research studies focused on the impact that reality…

  7. Wetting behavior of mixtures of water and nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Li-Jen

    2005-07-19

    Five binary water + C4Ej mixtures, water + n-C4E0, water + 2-C4E0, water + iso-C4E0, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, were chosen to perform the surface/interfacial tension measurements over the experimental temperature range from 10 to 85 degrees C at the normal pressure by using a homemade pendent drop/bubble tensiometer. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH(2i+1)(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase is systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient resulting from the experimental data of surface/interfacial tensions measurements. For those systems with a lower critical solution temperature, for example, water + n-C6E2, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, a wetting transition from partial wetting to nonwetting is always observed when the system is brought to close to its lower critical solution temperature. On the other hand, to start with a partial wetting CiEj-rich phase, a wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting is always observed when the system is driven to approach its upper critical solution temperature. The effect of hydrophobicity of CiEj on the wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase was carefully investigated by using five sets of mixtures: (1) water + n-C4E0, water + n-C5E0, and water + n-C6E0; (2) water + 2-C4E0 and water + 2-C5E0; (3) water + 2-C4E0 and water + n-C4E0; (4) water + n-C4E1, water + n-C5E1, and water + n-C6E1; (5) water + n-C4E0 and water + n-C4E1. The CiEj-rich phase would tend to drive away from complete wetting (or nonwetting) to partial wetting with an increase in the hydrophobicity of CiEj in the binary water + CiEj system. All the wetting behavior observed in the water + CiEj mixtures is consistent with the prediction of the critical point wetting theory of Cahn.

  8. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  9. Associations between Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol Norms and Alcohol Behaviors: Incorporating Within-School Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Amir; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Parker, Elizabeth M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social norm interventions have been implemented in schools to address concerns of alcohol use among high school students; however, research in this area has not incorporated measures of variability that may better reflect the complexity of social influences. Purpose: To examine the association between perceived alcohol norms, the…

  10. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  12. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  13. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzer, Siara K.; Cole, Jesse M.; Johnson, Julia M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Diaz, Marvin R.

    2017-01-01

    Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12) heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model modera...

  14. Acute disinhibiting effects of alcohol as a factor in risky driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Blackburn, Jaime S.; Harrison, Emily L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Automobile crash reports show that up to 40% of fatal crashes in the United States involve alcohol and that younger drivers are over-represented. Alcohol use among young drivers is associated with impulsive and risky driving behaviors, such as speeding, which could contribute to their over-representation in alcohol-related crash statistics. Recent laboratory studies show that alcohol increases impulsive behaviors by impairing the drinker’s ability to inhibit inappropriate actions and that this effect can be exacerbated in conflict situations where the expression and inhibition of behavior are equally motivating. The present study tested the hypothesis that this response conflict might also intensify the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. Fourteen subjects performed a simulated driving and a cued go/no-go task that measured their inhibitory control. Conflict was motivated in these tasks by providing equal monetary incentives for slow, careful behavior (e.g., slow driving, inhibiting impulses) and for quick, abrupt behavior (fast driving, disinhibition). Subjects were tested under two alcohol doses (0.65 g/kg and a placebo) that were administered twice: when conflict was present and when conflict was absent. Alcohol interacted with conflict to impair inhibitory control and to increase risky and impaired driving behavior on the drive task. Also, individuals whose inhibitory control was most impaired by alcohol displayed the poorest driving performance under the drug. The study demonstrates potentially serious disruptions to driving performance as a function of alcohol intoxication and response conflict, and points to inhibitory control as an important underlying mechanism. PMID:18325693

  15. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  16. Relationships between drinking onset, alcohol use intensity, and nighttime risk behaviors in a college bar district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan; Tobler, Amy L; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Clapp, John D

    2009-01-01

    To identify antecedents of risk behavior events in college bar patrons. In this nighttime field study, self-report data and alcohol intoxication readings were collected from patrons immediately upon exiting bars (n = 618). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed positive associations between age of drinking onset and both alcohol use intensity in the past year and recent bar-going frequency. In turn, alcohol use intensity in the past year was positively associated with bar-going frequency and intoxication at bar exit. An association between drinking onset and bar-going frequency was mediated by alcohol use intensity in the past year. Discernable paths from age of drinking onset to monthly bar-going frequency and intoxication level after leaving a bar can be identified. The results highlight the critical role of drinking onset in development of college student alcohol abuse. Research is needed to determine whether college bars are environmental pathogens mediating between genetic risk factors and patron risk behavior.

  17. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...... individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral...

  18. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI, the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+, that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1 negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2 high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3 local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4 healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5 misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6 PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol’s impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI.

  19. Influence of parental alcohol-related attitudes, behavior and parenting styles on alcohol use in late and very late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafström, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parents influence adolescent drinking behavior, but to what extent does this association diminish with age, however? The cross-sectional data was drawn from the Scania drug use survey 2007, consisting of 4,828 secondary education students in the 9th and 11th grade. The age- and gender-adjusted findings indicate that having parents who are consenting to alcohol use (OR 1.4), having been provided with alcohol by one's parents (OR 1.8), having parents with an authoritarian (OR 1.5) or neglectful (OR 2.1) parenting style, and having parents who both have a university degree (OR 1.3) were factors significantly associated with monthly heavy episodic drinking. These findings lead to the conclusion that parenting styles as well as parental attitudes and behaviors are important throughout the high school years. Thus, prevention targeting parents should emphasize both these domains. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  1. New Implications for the Melanocortin System in Alcohol Drinking Behavior in Adolescents: The Glial Dysfunction Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Cerpa, Waldo; Carvajal, Maria F.; Lerma-Cabrera, José M.; Karahanian, Eduardo; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing. Accumulating evidence indicates that alcohol impairs the function of different components of the melanocortin system, a major player involved in the consolidation of addictive behaviors during adolescence and adulthood. Here, we hypothesize the possible implications of melanocortins and glial cells in the onset and progression of alcohol addiction. In particular, we propose that alcohol-induced decrease in α-MSH levels may trigger a cascade of glial inflammatory pathways that culminate in altered gliotransmission in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The latter might potentiate dopaminergic drive in the NAc, contributing to increase the vulnerability to alcohol dependence and addiction in the adolescence and adulthood. PMID:28424592

  2. Interaction between ADH1B*3 and alcohol-facilitating social environments in alcohol behaviors among college students of african descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Jessica M; Zaso, Michelle J; Kim, Jueun; Belote, John M; Park, Aesoon

    2017-06-01

    Although alcohol-facilitating social environmental factors, such as alcohol offers and high perceived peer drinking norms, have been extensively studied as determinants of college drinking, their role among college students of African descent remains understudied. Furthermore, gene-environment interaction research suggests that the effects of alcohol-facilitating environments may differ as a function of genetic factors. Specifically, the alcohol dehydrogenase gene's ADH1B*3 allele, found almost exclusively in persons of African descent, may modulate the association of risky social environments with alcohol behaviors. The current study examined whether the ADH1B*3 allele attenuated the relationship between alcohol-facilitating environments (ie, alcohol offers and perceived peer drinking norms) and alcohol behaviors. Participants were 241 undergraduate students who self-identified as being of African descent (mean age = 20 years [SD = 4.11]; 66% female). Significant interaction effects of ADH1B*3 with alcohol offers were found on alcohol use frequency (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.14) and on drinking consequences (IRR = 1.21). ADH1B*3 also interacted with perceived peer norms on drinking consequences (IRR = 1.41). Carriers of the ADH1B*3 allele drank less frequently and experienced fewer negative consequences than non-carriers when exposed to lower levels of alcohol offers and perceived peer drinking. In contrast, in high alcohol-facilitating environments, no protective genetic effect was observed. This study demonstrates that ADH1B*3 may protect college students of African descent against alcohol outcomes, although only in low alcohol-facilitating environments. Findings add to the growing body of knowledge regarding genetic and social determinants of alcohol behaviors among college students of African descent. (Am J Addict 2017;26:349-356). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Genetic variations in taste perception modify alcohol drinking behavior in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-06-01

    The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017

  4. Association of Alcohol Misuse With Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior in Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-01-28

    Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.

  5. Motivation to change drinking behavior: the differences between alcohol users from an outpatient gastroenterology clinic and a specialist alcohol treatment service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neliana Buzi Figlie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: For some patients who have developed significant alcohol-related physical disease, total abstinence from alcohol may offer the best chance of survival. The aim of this study was to investigate motivation for treatment in two groups of alcohol users: outpatients from the gastroenterology clinic and outpatients from the specialist alcohol treatment service. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at a federally funded public teaching hospital. METHODS: The sample studied was 151 outpatients from the gastroenterology clinic and 175 from the specialist alcohol treatment service. The interview was conducted in the outpatient clinics at the first appointment, and consisted of demographic questions and scales for measuring quality of life, alcohol dependence, pattern of alcohol, motivation for treatment and consequences of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The results suggested that outpatients from the gastroenterology clinic were less dependent on alcohol, had suffered fewer consequences from alcohol and had fewer emotional and mental health problems than did the outpatients from the alcohol treatment service. In relation to their stages of change, the gastroenterology outpatients presented high precontemplation scores at the beginning of treatment while outpatients of alcohol treatment service showed higher scores in contemplation, action and maintenance. CONCLUSION: The medical treatment may be a reason for the temporary alcohol abstinence behavior among the gastroenterology outpatients.

  6. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macinko

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986 to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD; as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society.

  7. The association between low alcohol use and traffic risk behaviors among Brazilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2012-11-01

    Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-07

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors.

  9. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  10. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  11. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2011-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers)…

  12. An Association between Bullying Behaviors and Alcohol Use among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Comerford, Mary; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Although a high prevalence of bullying behaviors among adolescents has been documented, little is known about the association between bullying behaviors and alcohol use among perpetrators or victims. This study used data from a representative two-stage cluster random sample of 44, 532 middle school adolescents in Florida. We found a high…

  13. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  14. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  15. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  16. Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Beliefs and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed high school students on alcohol-related issues. Found that, compared to females, males drank beer, wine, and liquor more frequently and in greater quantities; reported more frequent instances of drunkenness and drunk driving; believed risks associated with drunk driving were less serious; reported own experiences as best sources of…

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Macinko, James; Mullachery, Pricila; Silver, Diana; Jimenez, Geronimo; Libanio Morais Neto, Otaliba

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Macinko et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986) to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and...

  18. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  19. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  20. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Control over the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene vesicles using different alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2013-02-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles upon exposure to different chemical stimuli. A series of linear and branched alcohols are used as model additives, allowing systematic control of their molecular shape and polarity. The PDA vesicles are fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), 10,12-tricosadyinoic acid (TCDA), and N-(2-amino ethyl)pentacosa-10,12-dyinamide (AEPCDA). When a series of linear alcohols is used, the longer alcohol length causes color transition of all PDA vesicles. In this system, the penetration of linear alcohols into the inner layer of PDA vesicles is dictated by their polarity. The change of -OH position within the alcohol molecule also affects the degree of penetration. It requires a higher amount of the 2-propanol to induce color transitions of the PDAs compared to that of the 1-propanol. The addition of methyl branches into the hydrophobic tail of alcohols causes an increase in steric effect, which hinders the penetration as well. When the 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol is used as a stimulus, the color transition of PDAs occurs at much higher alcohol concentration compared to 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The variation of PDA structures also affects their ability to interact with the alcohols. The modified head group of poly(AEPCDA) promotes the ability to distinguish between 1-propanol and 2-propanol or 1-propanol and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco and alcohol use behaviors portrayed in music videos: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rome, E S; Rich, M; Allred, E; Emans, S J; Woods, E R

    1997-07-01

    Music videos from five genres of music were analyzed for portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use and for portrayals of such behaviors in conjunction with sexuality. Music videos (n = 518) were recorded during randomly selected days and times from four television networks. Four female and four male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. All videos were observed by rotating two-person, male-female teams who were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi-squared tests. A higher percentage (25.7%) of MTV videos than other network videos portrayed tobacco use. The percentage of videos showing alcohol use was similar on all four networks. In videos that portrayed tobacco and alcohol use, the lead performer was most often the one smoking or drinking and the use of alcohol was associated with a high degree of sexuality on all the videos. These data indicate that even modest levels of viewing may result in substantial exposure to glamorized depictions of alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol use coupled with sexuality.

  3. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  4. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Use Outcomes among College Women Drinkers: Does Disordered Eating and Race Moderate This Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Alicia S.; Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the degree to which associations that protective behavioral strategy use had with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences were moderated by disordered eating and race. Participants were 382 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol at least once within the previous month.…

  5. Models of alcohol use by young adults: an examination of various attitude-behavior theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, F V; Chang, D C; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various attitude-behavior theories in explaining alcohol use among young adults. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior and an extension of the TRA that incorporates past behavior were compared by the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12. Respondents consisted of 122 university students (82 female) who were questioned about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior and intentions relating to drinking behavior. Students received course credit for their participation in the research. Overall, the results suggest that the extension of the theory of reasoned action which incorporates past behavior provides the best fit to the data. For these young adults, their intentions to drink alcohol were predicted by their past behavior as well as their perceptions of what important others think they should do (subjective norm). The main conclusions drawn from the research concern the importance of focusing on normative influences and past behavior in explaining young adult alcohol use. Issues regarding the relative merit of various alternative models and the need for greater clarity in the measure of attitudes are also discussed.

  6. The impact of truant and alcohol-related behavior on educational aspirations: a study of US high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, J Don

    2011-08-01

    Truancy and alcohol use are quality indicators of academic achievement and success. However, there remains a paucity of substantive research articulating the impact these deviant behaviors have on an adolescent's educational aspirations. The purpose of this study is to assess whether recent alcohol use and truancy impact students' educational aspirations among a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors. This study conducted a secondary data analysis of the Monitoring the Future project data, 2006. Logistic regression was conducted to assess how alcohol use and truancy affected educational aspirations. Subsequent interaction effects were assessed in the final multivariable model. Demographic variables such as age, sex, race, and father and mother's educational level were included as covariates in the regression model. Results indicate that as students engage in increased alcohol use and/or truancy, educational aspirations decrease. Thus, students who indicated a desire to attend a 4-year college/university were less likely to engage in high-risk drinking behavior and/or truancy. Moreover, in testing the interaction between truancy and alcohol use, as it relates to educational aspirations, the logistic regression model found both of these independent variables to be statistically significant predictors of the likelihood students would attend a 4-year college/university. To ensure that adolescents further their education and maximize their potential life opportunities, school and public health officials should initiate efforts to reduce alcohol consumption and truancy among students. Furthermore, future research should examine the risk and protective factors that may influence one's educational aspirations. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  7. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  8. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: A comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  9. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Furtado

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  10. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  12. Sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents in treatment for substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Saavedra, Lissette M; Csizmadia, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated relations between sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behaviors (eg, unprotected intercourse and multiple sex partners) among adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse problems. The ethnically diverse sample included 394 adolescents recruited from outpatient treatment (280 males; Mage  = 16.33 years, SDage  = 1.15). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect paths between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk behaviors via the frequency of co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Conditional indirect effects by gender were also tested. Analyses identified significant effects of sexual sensation seeking on co-occurring sex and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. The path from co-occurring sex and alcohol use to unprotected intercourse was significantly stronger among adolescent girls, suggesting a mediation effect moderated by gender. No gender difference was found for the indirect path from sexual sensation seeking and number of past year sexual partners via co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Selected prevention efforts are needed to promote HIV risk reduction among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The documented conditional indirect effect for unprotected intercourse suggests that HIV prevention programs should pay special attention to gender-specific patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior when tailoring program content. (Am J Addict 2013; 22:197-205). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Maternal factors predicting cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Adnams, Colleen M

    2013-06-01

    To provide an analysis of multiple predictors of cognitive and behavioral traits for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Multivariate correlation techniques were used with maternal and child data from epidemiologic studies in a community in South Africa. Data on 561 first-grade children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (PFAS), and not FASD and their mothers were analyzed by grouping 19 maternal variables into categories (physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking) and used in structural equation models (SEMs) to assess correlates of child intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and behavior. A first SEM using only 7 maternal alcohol use variables to predict cognitive/behavioral traits was statistically significant (B = 3.10, p < .05) but explained only 17.3% of the variance. The second model incorporated multiple maternal variables and was statistically significant explaining 55.3% of the variance. Significantly correlated with low intelligence and problem behavior were demographic (B = 3.83, p < .05) (low maternal education, low socioeconomic status [SES], and rural residence) and maternal physical characteristics (B = 2.70, p < .05) (short stature, small head circumference, and low weight). Childbearing history and alcohol use composites were not statistically significant in the final complex model and were overpowered by SES and maternal physical traits. Although other analytic techniques have amply demonstrated the negative effects of maternal drinking on intelligence and behavior, this highly controlled analysis of multiple maternal influences reveals that maternal demographics and physical traits make a significant enabling or disabling contribution to child functioning in FASD.

  14. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  15. Glutamate Receptors within the Mesolimbic Dopamine System Mediate Alcohol Relapse Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Luján, Rafael; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-25

    Glutamatergic input within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway plays a critical role in the development of addictive behavior. Although this is well established for some drugs of abuse, it is not known whether glutamate receptors within the mesolimbic system are involved in mediating the addictive properties of chronic alcohol use. Here we evaluated the contribution of mesolimbic NMDARs and AMPARs in mediating alcohol-seeking responses induced by environmental stimuli and relapse behavior using four inducible mutant mouse lines lacking the glutamate receptor genes Grin1 or Gria1 in either DA transporter (DAT) or D1R-expressing neurons. We first demonstrate the lack of GluN1 or GluA1 in either DAT- or D1R-expressing neurons in our mutant mouse lines by colocalization studies. We then show that GluN1 and GluA1 receptor subunits within these neuronal subpopulations mediate the alcohol deprivation effect, while having no impact on context- plus cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. We further validated these results pharmacologically by demonstrating similar reductions in the alcohol deprivation effect after infusion of the NMDAR antagonist memantine into the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of control mice, and a rescue of the mutant phenotype via pharmacological potentiation of AMPAR activity using aniracetam. In conclusion, dopamine neurons as well as D1R-expressing medium spiny neurons and their glutamatergic inputs via NMDARs and AMPARs act in concert to influence relapse responses. These results provide a neuroanatomical and molecular substrate for relapse behavior and emphasize the importance of glutamatergic drugs in modulating relapse behavior. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that glutamate receptors within the mesolimbic dopamine system play an essential role in alcohol relapse. Using various inducible and site-specific transgenic mouse models and pharmacological validation experiments, we show that critical

  16. Impaired conditional reasoning in alcoholics: A negative impact on social interactions and risky behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, C; Delle-Vigne, D; Knittel, J; Nerincx, A; Campanella, S; Noel, X; Hanak, C; Verbanck, P; Ermer, E

    2011-01-01

    Aims To study the “social brain” in alcoholics by investigating social contract reasoning, theory of mind, and emotional intelligence. Design A behavioral study comparing recently detoxified alcoholics with normal, healthy controls. Setting Emotional intelligence and decoding of emotional non-verbal cues have been shown to be impaired in alcoholics. This study explores whether these deficits extend to conditional reasoning about social contracts. Participants 25 recently detoxified alcoholics (17 men and 8 women) were compared with 25 normal controls (17 men and 8 women) matched for sex, age, and education level. Measurements Wason Selection Task investigating conditional reasoning on three different rule types (social contract, precautionary, and descriptive), Revised Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (modified version), and additional control measures. Findings Conditional reasoning was impaired in alcoholics. Performance on descriptive rules was not above chance. Reasoning performance was markedly better on social contract and precautionary rules, but this performance was still significantly lower than in controls. Several emotional intelligence measures were lower in alcoholics compared to controls, but these were not correlated with reasoning performance. Conclusions Conditional reasoning and emotional intelligence appear impaired in alcoholics. Impairment was particularly severe on descriptive rules. Though alcoholics' performance was better on social contract and precautionary rules, overall reasoning performance was still low. Differential performance is consistent with distinct neurocognitive reasoning mechanisms and partial resilience of evolutionarily-relevant functions. Impairment in social contract reasoning might lead to misunderstandings and frustration in social interactions, and reasoning difficulties about precautionary rules might contribute to risky behaviors in this population. PMID:21205056

  17. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  18. Beer for "brohood": A laboratory simulation of masculinity confirmation through alcohol use behaviors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugitt, Jessica L; Ham, Lindsay S

    2018-05-01

    Though alcohol use is a widespread behavior, men tend to drink more and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences than do women. Research suggests that individuals are motivated to maintain ingroup status by engaging in behaviors prototypical of the ingroup when group status has been threatened, and that men are particularly likely to do this when masculine ingroup status is threatened. The present study investigated masculine drinking behaviors through a social lens, examining the impact of masculinity threat on alcohol consumption in a simulated bar laboratory. Sixty-five male students ages 21-29 years (Mage = 22.66; 74% White) consumed beer in a taste-test paradigm after being exposed to randomly assigned personality feedback relative to gender standards. This feedback suggested that they were either low in masculinity (threat condition, n = 22) or high in masculinity (control condition, n = 22). A third condition received the low-masculinity feedback and then were exposed to information to undermine masculine alcohol use norms (undermine condition, n = 21) to account for negative affect reduction motives for use. As hypothesized, individuals in the threat condition consumed significantly more alcohol than those in the control and undermine conditions, even though the threat and undermine conditions reported similar levels of negative affect following masculinity threat. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by men in social contexts may be strongly motivated by the desire to confirm masculine status. This understanding may be used to enhance the effectiveness of alcohol use intervention protocols. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Media alcohol advertising with drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Hsueh-Yu; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Chen, Wei J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate potential effects of alcohol ads in six major marketing channels on drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan. The data were derived from the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children study. The baseline sample was comprised of 1926 seventh-eighth graders from 11 public middle schools in Taipei in 2010; follow-up was conducted one year later (follow-up rate=97%). Information concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, exposure to media portrayals of drinking and alcohol ads on major marketing channels, and drinking experience was collected through web-based self-administered questionnaires. Complex survey analyses were used to evaluate the association estimates, with stratification by prior drinking experiences in childhood. Television, in-store displays, and websites are the three most common marketing channels for young adolescents to report past-month alcohol advertising exposure. With statistical adjustment for potential confounders and six market channels, exposure to alcohol ads on television was associated with subsequent increased drinking initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02). For those who have initiated alcohol use in childhood, the exposure to ads on the web (aOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.04-2.15) and radio (aOR=2.58; 95% CI=1.60-4.15) may elevate subsequent risk of occasional drinking. Exposure to media drinking portrayals was not related to subsequent drinking behaviors in this sample. Our results demonstrated that the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking behaviors in early adolescence may differ by marketing channels. Preventive strategies targeting underage drinking should consider restraining marketing channels (e.g., websites and radio) from certain advertising content and placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is invigorated by the interaction between discrete and contextual alcohol cues: implications for relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Jessica; Woods, Catherine; Tardif, Catherine; Janak, Patricia H; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug craving can be independently stimulated by cues that are directly associated with drug intake (discrete drug cues), as well as by environmental contexts in which drug use occurs (contextual drug cues). We tested the hypothesis that the context in which a discrete alcohol-predictive cue is experienced can influence how robustly that cue stimulates alcohol-seeking behavior. Methods Male, Long-Evans rats received Pavlovian discrimination training (PDT) sessions in which one conditioned stimulus (CS+; 16 trials/session) was paired with ethanol (0.2 mL/CS+) and a second stimulus (CS−; 16 trials/session) was not. PDT occurred in a specific context, and entries into a fluid port where ethanol was delivered were measured during each CS. Next, rats were acclimated to an alternate (nonalcohol) context where cues and ethanol were withheld. Responses to the nonextinguished CS+ and CS− were then tested without ethanol in the alcohol-associated PDT context, the nonalcohol context or a third, novel context. Results Across PDT the CS+ elicited more port entries than the CS−, indicative of Pavlovian discrimination learning. At test, the CS+ elicited more port entries than the CS− in all three contexts: however, alcohol seeking driven by the CS+ was more robust in the alcohol-associated context. In a separate experiment, extinguishing the context-alcohol association did not influence subsequent CS+ responding but reduced alcohol seeking during non-CS+ intervals during a spontaneous recovery test. Conclusion These results indicate that alcohol-seeking behavior driven by a discrete Pavlovian alcohol cue is strongly invigorated by an alcohol context, and suggest that contexts may function as excitatory Pavlovian conditioned stimuli that directly trigger alcohol-seeking behavior. PMID:24683519

  1. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  2. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, L.K.; Nur Syazani Harun; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil; Rahimi Mohd Yusop

    2013-01-01

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  3. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Mulder, Joost; Postel, Marloes Gerda; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Korte, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of ‘gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)’, with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were

  4. Biaxial stress-strain behavior of chemical and physical gels of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meissner, Bohumil; Matějka, Libor

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2008), s. 2560-2567 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(vinyl alcohol) gels * pure shear behavior * constitutive equation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  5. An Exploration of Adlerian Lifestyle Themes and Alcohol-Related Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate college student drinking through the lens of Adlerian theory. In a sample of 273 participants, multiple regression analyses confirmed that certain lifestyle themes were associated with alcohol-related behaviors and that men and women who engage in drinking differ in their convictions and goals as defined by…

  6. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  7. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  8. Parenting Behavior, Adolescent Depression, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Academic Performance: A Path Model

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Mary Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of role parenting behaviors and adolescent depression in adolescent outcomes. Parenting behaviors considered were authoritative parenting, parental monitoring, and parental care. Adolescent outcomes considered were depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, and grades. A path model was employed to examine these variables together. A sample of (n=3,174) of 9th -12th grade high school students from seven contiguous counties in rural Virginia were examined on ...

  9. Latent Class Analysis of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Russian Women at Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Som; Chaffin, Mark; Shaboltas, Alla; Bonner, Barbara; Isurina, Galina; Batluk, Julia; Bard, David; Tsvetkova, Larissa; Skitnevskaya, Larissa; Volkova, Elena; Balachova, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern. A total of 708 non-pregnant women, aged between 18 and 44 years, who were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy were enrolled in two regions in Russia. Participants completed a structured interview focused on HIV risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior and alcohol and drug use. Latent class analysis was utilized to examine associations between HIV risk and other demographic and alcohol use characteristics and to identify patterns of risk among women. Three classes were identified. 34.93% of participants were at high risk, combining their risk behaviors, e.g., having multiple sexual partners, with high partner's risk associated with partner's drug use (class I). Despite reporting self-perceived risk for HIV/STI, this class of participants was unlikely to utilize adequate protection (i.e., condom use). The second high risk class included 13.19% of participants who combined their risky sexual behaviors, i.e., multiple sexual partners and having STDs, with partner's risk that included partner's imprisonment and partner's sex with other women (class II). Participants in this class were likely to utilize protection/condoms. Finally, 51.88% of participants were at lower risk, which was associated primarily with their partners' risk, and these participants utilized protection (class III). The odds

  10. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  11. Neuroimmune Pathways in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Behavioral and Genetic Studies in Rodents and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gizelle; Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Immune or brain proinflammatory signaling has been linked to some of the behavioral effects of alcohol. Immune signaling appears to regulate voluntary ethanol intake in rodent models, and ethanol intake activates the immune system in multiple models. This bidirectional link raises the possibility that consumption increases immune signaling, which in turn further increases consumption in a feed-forward cycle. Data from animal and human studies provide overlapping support for the involvement of immune-related genes and proteins in alcohol action, and combining animal and human data is a promising approach to systematically evaluate and nominate relevant pathways. Based on rodent models, neuroimmune pathways may represent unexplored, nontraditional targets for medication development to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent relapse. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are one class of anti-inflammatory medications that demonstrate antiaddictive properties for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Expression of immune-related genes is altered in animals and humans following chronic alcohol exposure, and the regulatory influences of specific mRNAs, microRNAs, and activated cell types are areas of intense study. Ultimately, the use of multiple datasets combined with behavioral validation will be needed to link specific neuroimmune pathways to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25175860

  12. Effects of alcohol intoxication on parenting behavior in interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal or deviant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Atkeson, B M; Murphy, D A

    1999-06-01

    Experimental analogue methods were used to study how acute alcohol intoxication in parents influences their perceptions of and reactions to child behaviors, as well as their strategies for management of those behaviors. All participating parents had a grade school-aged son, but in half the cases this target child had a diagnosed externalizing disorder, whereas for the remaining half neither the target son nor any other offspring of the parents evidenced any psychopathology. Equal numbers of married fathers, married mothers, and single mothers from each of these groups received either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to videotaped interactions with male child confederates who, depending on condition, enacted behaviors characteristic of either normal boys or boys with attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct/oppositional defiant disorders (ADHD/CD/ODD). Results indicated that intoxicated parents rated their ADHD/CD/ODD child partners as less deviant than did sober parents. Alcohol intoxication caused all participant groups to exhibit less attention and productive work and more commands, indulgences, and off-task talk in the interactions. Implications for better understanding of the role of psychosocial factors in the correlation between adult drinking problems and childhood behavior disorders are discussed.

  13. Impact of TLR4 on behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions associated with alcohol-induced neuroinflammatory damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Baliño, Pablo; Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Aragón, Carlos M G; Guerri, Consuelo

    2011-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the innate immune response, and emerging evidence indicates their role in brain injury and neurodegeneration. Our recent results have demonstrated that ethanol is capable of activating glial TLR4 receptors and that the elimination of these receptors in mice protects against ethanol-induced glial activation, induction of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. This study was designed to assess whether ethanol-induced inflammatory damage causes behavioral and cognitive consequences, and if behavioral alterations are dependent of TLR4 functions. Here we show in mice drinking alcohol for 5months, followed by a 15-day withdrawal period, that activation of the astroglial and microglial cells in frontal cortex and striatum is maintained and that these events are associated with cognitive and anxiety-related behavioral impairments in wild-type (WT) mice, as demonstrated by testing the animals with object memory recognition, conditioned taste aversion and dark and light box anxiety tasks. Mice lacking TLR4 receptors are protected against ethanol-induced inflammatory damage, and behavioral associated effects. We further assess the possibility of the epigenetic modifications participating in short- or long-term behavioral effects associated with neuroinflammatory damage. We show that chronic alcohol treatment decreases H4 histone acetylation and histone acetyltransferases activity in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of WT mice. Alterations in chromatin structure were not observed in TLR4(-/-) mice. These results provide the first evidence of the role that TLR4 functions play in the behavioral consequences of alcohol-induced inflammatory damage and suggest that the epigenetic modifications mediated by TLR4 could contribute to short- or long-term alcohol-induced behavioral or cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  15. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Regulator of G protein signaling 6 is a critical mediator of both reward-related behavioral and pathological responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Adele; Maity, Biswanath; Anderegg, Simon P; Allamargot, Chantal; Yang, Jianqi; Fisher, Rory A

    2015-02-17

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug worldwide, and chronic alcohol consumption is a major etiological factor in the development of multiple pathological sequelae, including alcoholic cardiomyopathy and hepatic cirrhosis. Here, we identify regulator of G protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a critical regulator of both alcohol-seeking behaviors and the associated cardiac and hepatic morbidities through two mechanistically divergent signaling actions. RGS6(-/-) mice consume less alcohol when given free access and are less susceptible to alcohol-induced reward and withdrawal. Antagonism of GABA(B) receptors or dopamine D2 receptors partially reversed the reduction in alcohol consumption in RGS6(-/-) animals. Strikingly, dopamine transporter inhibition completely restored alcohol seeking in mice lacking RGS6. RGS6 deficiency was associated with alterations in the expression of genes controlling dopamine (DA) homeostasis and a reduction in DA levels in the striatum. Taken together, these data implicate RGS6 as an essential regulator of DA bioavailability. RGS6 deficiency also provided dramatic protection against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, hepatic steatosis, and gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia when mice were forced to consume alcohol. Although RGS proteins canonically function as G-protein regulators, RGS6-dependent, alcohol-mediated toxicity in the heart, liver, and gastrointestinal tract involves the ability of RGS6 to promote reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis, an action independent of its G-protein regulatory capacity. We propose that inhibition of RGS6 might represent a viable means to reduce alcohol cravings and withdrawal in human patients, while simultaneously protecting the heart and liver from further damage upon relapse.

  17. Correlations between phase behaviors and ionic conductivities of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam Ku; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-01-01

    To understand the basic properties of ionic liquids (ILs), we examined the phase behavior and ionic conductivity characteristics using various compositions of different ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [emim] [PF6] and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bzmim] [PF6]) in several different alcohols (ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and hexanol). We conducted a systematic study of the impact of different factors on the phase behavior of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in alcohols. Using a new experimental method with a liquid electrolyte system, we observed that the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid/alcohol was sensitive to the surrounding temperature. We employed Chang et al.'s thermodynamic model [Chang et al. (1997, 1998) ] based on the lattice model. The obtained co-ordinated unit parameter from this model was used to describe the phase behavior and ionic conductivities of the given system. Good agreement with experimental data of various alcohol and ILs systems was obtained in the range of interest.

  18. Associations between alcohol, heroin, and cocaine use and high risk sexual behaviors among detoxification patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.

  19. Social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college drinkers: do protective behavioral strategies mediate the association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  1. Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée

    2008-05-01

    In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.

  2. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  3. Teacher Attitudes on Including Students with Behavior Intervention Plans in a High-School Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thurman D.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined attitudes to determine factors influencing teachers' attitudes toward including students with behavior intervention plans in inclusive high-school classrooms. For Research Question 1 one-way ANOVAs analyzed quantitative data with no significant differences found and qualitative data discovered common patterns that BIPs are…

  4. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  5. Fitting in and standing out: increasing the use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies with a deviance regulation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Martens, Matthew P

    2015-06-01

    Heavy alcohol use remains a consistent public health concern on college campuses. The current pilot study used deviance regulation theory (DRT) to modify protective behavioral strategies (PBS) among college student drinkers to reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. The sample was comprised of current college student drinkers (n = 76; 53.95% female) ranging in age from 18-24 (M = 19.29, SD = 1.42). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positively or negatively framed message. They then reported on use of alcohol PBS (via the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale), alcohol consumption (via the Modified Daily Drinking Questionnaire), and alcohol-related consequences (via the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire) each week for 6 weeks. Among drinkers with low PBS use norms, a positively, versus a negatively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. Among drinkers with high PBS use norms, a negatively, versus positively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently lower alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. However, these effects were only relevant among those who strongly believed the DRT frame. Findings suggest assigning drinkers to frames based on perceived PBS use norms and increasing belief in the frame may be 1 approach to increasing responsible drinking patterns among college students. Furthermore, the current data suggests important boundary conditions for norm-based interventions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Carreño, Víctor; Espelt, Albert; Villalbí, Joan R; Pearce, Jamie; Franco, Manuel

    Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Violent film characters' portrayal of alcohol, sex, and tobacco-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E

    2014-01-01

    To determine the extent to which movies popular with adolescents feature characters who jointly engage in violence and other risk behaviors. We hypothesized that violent characters engage in other risk behaviors equally often in films rated appropriate for children over 12 (PG-13) and Restricted (R)-rated films. Content analysis of a sample of top-grossing movies from 1985 to 2010 (n = 390). We coded movies for the presence of at least 1 main character who was involved in violence and either sex, tobacco, or alcohol use within a 5-minute movie segment and throughout a film. Approximately 90% of the movies contained a segment with a main character involved in violence, and ~77% of the films had the same character engaging in at least 1 other risk behavior. A violent character was portrayed most often partaking in alcohol-related and sexual behaviors. G and PG movies had less co-occurrence than PG-13 or R-rated movies, but there was no statistical difference between PG-13 and R-rated movies with regards to violence co-occurring with other risk behaviors. These trends did not vary over time. Popular films that contain violent characters also show those characters engaging in other risk behaviors. Similar rates of co-occurrence between PG-13 and R-rated films suggest that the Motion Picture Association of America ratings system is not sensitive to the joint portrayal of violence and alcohol, sex, and tobacco-related risk behaviors. The on-screen clustering of violence with other risk behaviors is cause for concern and worthy of additional research.

  8. Intranasal Oxytocin Selectively Modulates Social Perception, Craving, and Approach Behavior in Subjects With Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M; Arcuni, Peter A; Weinstein, Dawn; Woolley, Josh D

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacotherapy that both improves social abilities and promotes abstinence may be particularly helpful for the treatment of alcohol use disorder. Recent clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that oxytocin has prosocial and antiaddiction effects. We performed a pilot, laboratory-based, preclinical trial of oxytocin in subjects with alcohol abuse (as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 Edition criteria) to evaluate therapeutic potential and assess tolerability. Social perceptual ability, cue-induced craving, and approach bias for alcohol and appetitive imagery were quantified after intranasal oxytocin and placebo administration to 32 nontreatment-seeking individuals with alcohol abuse in a double-blind, crossover study. Because attachment style can moderate the effects of oxytocin, we also explored whether attachment style moderated oxytocin's effects on our behavioral measures. Oxytocin significantly improved recognition of easier items on a social perception task, but had no significant group-level effect on cue-induced craving. However, oxytocin effects on craving were moderated by attachment anxiety, with oxytocin reducing craving in more anxiously attached individuals and increasing craving in less anxiously attached individuals. Subjects did not display an approach bias to alcohol images on the placebo day, preventing meaningful analysis of this measure. Subjects did display an approach bias to appetitive images on the placebo day, which was significantly reduced by oxytocin administration. No adverse reactions were observed. Intranasal oxytocin has potential to improve social perception, reduce cue-induced alcohol cravings, and reduce appetitive approach bias in subjects with alcohol abuse, and can be safely tolerated in this population. The effects of oxytocin are complex, however, and require further investigation.

  9. Changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance with different breath alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Fu, Shing-Mei

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance of drivers with different breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels. Eight licensed drivers, aged between 20 and 30 years, with BrAC levels of 0.00, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 mg/l performed simulated driving tests under high- and low-load conditions. Subjects were asked to assess their subjective psychological load at specified intervals and perform various tasks. The outcome was measured in terms of reaction times for task completion, accuracy rates, and driver's driving behavior. The effects of BrAC vary depending on the task. Performance of tasks involving attention shift, information processing, and short-term memory showed significant deterioration with increasing BrAC, while dangerous external vehicle driving behavior occurred only when the BrAC reached 0.4 mg/l and the deterioration was marked. We can conclude that the cognitive faculty is the first to be impaired by drinking resulting in deteriorated performance in tasks related to divided attention, short-term memory, logical reasoning, followed by visual perception. On the other hand, increasing alcohol dose may not pose an immediate impact on the external vehicle driving behavior but may negatively affect the driver's motor behavior even at low BrAC levels. Experience and will power could compensate for the negative influence of alcohol enabling the drivers to remain in full steering control. This lag between alcohol consumption and impaired driving performance may mislead the drivers in thinking that they are still capable of safe steering and cause them to ignore the potential dangers of drunk driving.

  10. Alcohol Drinking and Low Nutritional Value Food Eating Behavior of Sports Bettors in Gambling Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Estévez, Ana; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of sports betting advertising has become a major concern for gambling regulators, particularly since the legalization of online gambling in many European jurisdictions. Although the composition of gambling advertisement narratives has received some limited attention, nothing is known regarding how betting advertisements (often referred to as "adverts" or "commercials") might be associating gambling with other potentially risky behaviors. The present paper examines the representation of alcohol drinking and low nutritional value food eating in sports betting advertising. By means of a mixed-methods approach to content analysis, a sample of British and Spanish soccer betting adverts was analyzed ( N  = 135). The results suggest that betting advertising aligns drinking alcohol with sports culture and significantly associates emotionally charged sporting situations such as watching live games or celebrating goals with alcohol. Additionally, alcohol drinking is more frequent in betting adverts with a higher number of characters, linking friendship bonding and alcohol drinking (especially beer) in the context of sports gambling.

  11. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Jennifer J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N = 900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. MPAA ratings, however, did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable with 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable with 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children's exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies.

  12. The relationship between addiction to internet and adolescence’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri Mowlaie; Setareh Jani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597) junior and senior high school students (boys and girls) in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 38...

  13. Economic behavior under the influence of alcohol: an experiment on time preferences, risk-taking, and altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Corazzini

    Full Text Available We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects' risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic.

  14. Randomized pilot trial of a cognitive-behavioral alcohol, self-harm, and HIV prevention program for teens in mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hadley, Wendy; Curby, Timothy W; Brown, Larry K

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents with mental health conditions represent a high-risk group for substance use, deliberate self-harm (DSH), and risky sexual behavior. Mental health treatment does not uniformly decrease these risks. Effective prevention efforts are needed to offset the developmental trajectory from mental health problems to these behaviors. This study tested an adjunctive cognitive-behavioral family-based alcohol, DSH, and HIV prevention program (ASH-P) for adolescents in mental healthcare. A two group randomized design was used to compare ASH-P to an assessment only control (AO-C). Participants included 81 adolescents and a parent. Assessments were completed at pre-intervention as well as 1, 6, and 12-months post-enrollment, and included measures of family-based mechanisms and high-risk behaviors. ASH-P relative to AO-C was associated with greater improvements in most family process variables (perceptions of communication and parental disapproval of alcohol use and sexual behavior) as well as less DSH and greater refusal of sex to avoid a sexually transmitted infection. It also had a moderate (but non-significant) effect on odds of binge drinking. No differences were found in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, or sexual intercourse. ASH-P showed initial promise in preventing multiple high-risk behaviors. Further testing of prevention protocols that target multiple high-risk behaviors in clinical samples is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceived vulnerability moderates the relations between the use of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol use and consequences among high-risk young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tracey A; Fairlie, Anne M; Litt, Dana M; Waldron, Katja A; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-06-01

    Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N = 400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Identification of a cys-ser substitution in the 5-HT{sub 2C} (HTR2C) receptor gene and allelic association to violent behavior and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, J.; Ozaki, N.; Goldman, D. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic functions, including behavioral and neurochemical responses to 5-HT{sub 2C} agonist, are abnormal in some individuals with alcoholism and aggressive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify coding sequence variants in the human 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor gene which may cause abnormal or variant function of this receptor. Using SSCP analysis, a non-conservative cys-ser substitution was found in the 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (designated 5-HT{sub 2Ccys} and 5-HT{sub 2Cser}). The polymorphism was typed in CEPH families to genetically map the gene. To test for association of the variant to alcoholism, violent behavior and serotonin function, the 5-HT{sub 2C} genotypes of 151 non-related Finnish male alcoholic violent offenders and impulsive fire setters and 127 Finnish psychiatrically interviewed healthy male volunteers were determined. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were available for 74 alcoholic violent offenders and 25 healthy volunteers. Linkage analysis placed the 5-HT{sub 2C} gene on Xq21, a region that has been previously shown to contain genes for several mental retardation syndromes. The 5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} genotype frequencies in alcoholic violent offenders and controls differed significantly (0.90/0.10 and 0.82/0.18, respectively, P=0.048). The association was found to be strongest in the violent offenders who did not fulfill the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} 0.93/0.07, p=0.021). No association was found between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and 5-HT{sub 2C} genotype. These results implicate a 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor amino acid substitution in predisposition to alcohol abuse and violent behavior in a subgroup of alcoholics.

  17. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Benjamin O; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled avoider, validator, hostile, and ambivalent-detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  18. Impact of alcohol use on sexual behavior among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M C; Konda, K A; Leon, S R; Deiss, R; Brown, B; Calvo, G M; Salvatierra, H J; Caceres, C F; Klausner, J D

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) may enhance the likelihood of risky sexual behaviors and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Associations between AUDs with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and STI/HIV prevalence were assessed among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. MSM and TW were eligible to participate based on a set of inclusion criteria which characterized them as high-risk. Participants completed a bio-behavioral survey. An AUDIT score ≥8 determined AUD presence. Recent STI diagnosis included rectal gonorrhea/chlamydia, syphilis, and/or new HIV infection within 6 months. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Among 312 MSM and 89 TW, 45% (181/401) had an AUD. Among those with an AUD, 164 (91%) were hazardous/harmful drinkers, and 17 (9%) had alcohol dependence. Higher CAI was reported by participants with an AUD vs. without, (82% vs. 72% albeit not significant). Reporting anal sex in two or more risky venues was associated with screening AUD positive vs. not (24% vs. 15%, p=0.001). There was no difference in recent STI/HIV prevalence by AUD status (32% overall). In multivariable analysis, screening AUD positive was not associated with CAI or recent STI/HIV infection. In our sample AUDs were not associated with CAI or new HIV infection/recent STI. However higher prevalence of CAI, alcohol use at last sex, and anal sex in risky venues among those with AUDs suggests that interventions to reduce the harms of alcohol should be aimed toward specific contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiles of African American College Students’ Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within–ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intraperso-nal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk—above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers—below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk—average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk—above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk—above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed. PMID:27215314

  20. Profiles of African American College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W; Cooper, Shauna M; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within-ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk-above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers-below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk-above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk-above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed.

  1. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  2. Effect of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of alcohols in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Carmen M. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)], E-mail: cmromeroi@unal.edu.co; Jimenez, Eulogio [Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruna (Spain); Suarez, Felipe [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-04-15

    The influence of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of aqueous solutions has often been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on water. In this work, we present experimental results for surface tension of aqueous solutions of n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and n-octanol at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K at several concentrations. The results were used to evaluate the limiting experimental slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction and the hydrophobicity constant of the Connors model at each temperature. The thermodynamic behavior of aqueous alcohol solutions is discussed in terms of the effect of the hydrocarbon chain on water structure. The temperature dependence of the limiting slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction, as well as the hydrophobicity constant derived from surface measurements, is interpreted in terms of alcohol hydration.

  3. Effect of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of alcohols in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Carmen M.; Jimenez, Eulogio; Suarez, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the behavior of surface properties of aqueous solutions has often been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on water. In this work, we present experimental results for surface tension of aqueous solutions of n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and n-octanol at T = (283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K at several concentrations. The results were used to evaluate the limiting experimental slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction and the hydrophobicity constant of the Connors model at each temperature. The thermodynamic behavior of aqueous alcohol solutions is discussed in terms of the effect of the hydrocarbon chain on water structure. The temperature dependence of the limiting slopes of surface tension with respect to mole fraction, as well as the hydrophobicity constant derived from surface measurements, is interpreted in terms of alcohol hydration

  4. Moderate Maternal Alcohol Exposure on Gestational Day 12 Impacts Anxiety-Like Behavior in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siara K. Rouzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12 heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model moderate PAE (mPAE, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either room air or vaporized ethanol for 6 h on G12. Adolescent offspring were then tested on postnatal days (P 41–47 in one of the following four anxiety assays: novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH, elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and open-field (OF. Our findings revealed significant increases in measures of anxiety-like behavior in male PAE offspring in the NIH, LDB and OF, with no differences observed in females on any test. Additionally, male offspring who demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior as adolescents demonstrated decreased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, as measured by a marble-burying test (MBT, while females continued to be unaffected in adulthood. These results suggest that mPAE leads to dynamic changes in anxiety-like behavior exclusively in male offspring.

  5. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  6. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  7. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  8. Do Smooth Waters Run Deep? Alcohol Intoxication and the Effects of Water Consumption on Driving-Related Cognitions and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanjaars, N.L.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the effect of the combined use of alcohol and water on driving-related cognitions and behavior. Seventy-four female students performed a driving simulator task after having consumed alcohol or a placebo. Additionally, half of the participants consumed 0.5 liter of water. It

  9. HTR3B is associated with alcoholism with antisocial behavior and alpha EEG power--an intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and co-morbid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; White, Kenneth V; Hodgkinson, Colin; Albaugh, Bernard; Virkkunen, Matti; Goldman, David

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) with co-morbid antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) have been associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction. 5-HT3 receptors are potentiated by ethanol and appear to modulate reward. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of early-onset alcoholics with co-morbid ASPD. Low-voltage alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) power, a highly heritable trait, has been associated with both AUD and ASPD. A recent whole genome linkage scan in one of our samples, Plains American Indians (PI), has shown a suggestive linkage peak for alpha power at the 5-HT3R locus. We tested whether genetic variation within the HTR3A and HTR3B genes influences vulnerability to AUD with comorbid ASPD (AUD+ASPD) and moderates alpha power. Our study included three samples: 284 criminal alcoholic Finnish Caucasians and 234 controls; two independent community-ascertained samples with resting EEG recordings: a predominantly Caucasian sample of 191 individuals (Bethesda) and 306 PI. In the Finns, an intronic HTR3B SNP rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD (P=.004). In the Bethesda sample, the same allele predicted lower alpha power (P=7.37e(-5)). Associations between alpha power and two other HTR3B SNPs were also observed among PI (P=.03). One haplotype in the haplotype block at the 3' region of the gene that included rs3782025 was associated with AUD+ASPD in the Finns (P=.02) and with reduced alpha power in the Bethesda population (P=.00009). Another haplotype in this block was associated with alpha power among PI (P=.03). No associations were found for HTR3A. Genetic variation within HTR3B may influence vulnerability to develop AUD with comorbid ASPD. 5-HT3R might contribute to the imbalance between excitation and inhibition that characterize the brain of alcoholics.

  10. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  11. HIV-Risk Behaviors and Social Support Among Men and Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.

  12. Reversal of alcohol dependence-induced deficits in cue-guided behavior via mGluR2/3 signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Lench, Daniel H; Chandler, L Judson

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are associated with deficits in adaptive behavior. While some behavioral impairments that are associated with alcohol use disorders may predate exposure to drugs of abuse, others may result directly from exposure to drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Identifying a causal role for how alcohol exposure leads to these impairments will enable further investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms by which it acts to dysregulate adaptive behavior. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure (CIE) on the use of reward-paired cues to guide consummatory behaviors in a mouse model, and further, how manipulations of mGluR2/3 signaling-known to be dysregulated after chronic alcohol exposure-may alter the expression of this behavior. Adult male C57B/6J mice were trained to self-administer 10 % ethanol and exposed to CIE via vapor inhalation. After CIE exposure, mice were trained in a Pavlovian task wherein a cue (tone) was paired with the delivery of a 10 % sucrose unconditioned stimulus. The use of the reward-paired cue to guide licking behavior was determined across training. The effect of systemic mGluR2/3 manipulation on discrimination between cue-on and cue-off intervals was assessed by administration of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 or the antagonist LY341495 prior to a testing session. Exposure to CIE resulted in reductions in discrimination between cue-on and cue-off intervals, with CIE-exposed mice exhibiting significantly lower consummatory behavior during reward-paired cues than air controls. In addition, systemic administration of an mGluR2/3 agonist restored the use of reward-paired cues in CIE-exposed animals without impacting behavior in air controls. Conversely, administration of an mGluR2/3 antagonist mimicked the effects of CIE on cue-guided licking behavior, indicating that mGluR2/3 signaling can bidirectionally regulate the ability to use reward-paired cues to guide behavior. Together

  13. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  14. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  15. Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: the role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Wiers, Reinout W; Monshouwer, Karin; van de Schoot, Rens; Janssen, Tim; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between automatic processes and drinking behavior in relation to individual differences in response inhibition in young adolescents who had just started drinking. It was hypothesized that strong automatic behavioral tendencies toward alcohol-related stimuli (alcohol-approach bias) were associated with higher levels of alcohol use, especially amongst adolescents with relatively weak inhibition skills. To test this hypothesis structural equation analyses (standard error of mean) were performed using a zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) model. A well-known problem in studying risk behavior is the low incidence rate resulting in a zero dominated distribution. A ZIP-model accounts for non-normality of the data. Adolescents were selected from secondary Special Education schools (a risk group for the development of substance use problems). Participants were 374 adolescents (mean age of M = 13.6 years). Adolescents completed the alcohol approach avoidance task (a-AAT), the Stroop colour naming task (Stroop) and a questionnaire that assessed alcohol use. The ZIP-model established stronger alcohol-approach tendencies for adolescent drinkers (P processes are associated with the drinking behavior of young, at-risk adolescents. It appears that alcohol-approach tendencies are formed shortly after the initiation of drinking and particularly affect the drinking behavior of adolescents with relatively weak inhibition skills. Implications for the prevention of problem drinking in adolescents are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. A simulator study of the combined effects of alcohol and marihuana on driving behavior--phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Author's abstract: The study described in this report investigated the effects of alcohol and marihuana, alone and in combination, on driver performance and behavior in a fully interactive driving simulator. The simulator provided the driver a comple...

  17. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of shared decision-making to promote alcohol behavior change among women Veterans: Results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Traci H; Wright, Patricia; White, Penny; Booth, Brenda M; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Although rates of unhealthy drinking are high among women Veterans with mental health comorbidities, most women Veterans with mental comorbidities who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking do not receive alcohol-related care. Barriers to alcohol-related treatment could be reduced through patient-centered approaches to care, such as shared decision-making. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a telephone-delivered shared decision-making intervention for promoting alcohol behavior change in women Veterans with unhealthy drinking and co-morbid depression and/or probable post-traumatic stress disorder. We used 3, 2-hour focus group discussions with 19 women Veterans to identify barriers and solicit recommendations for using the intervention with women Veterans who present to primary care with unhealthy drinking and mental health comorbidities. Transcripts from the focus groups were qualitatively analyzed using template analysis. Although participants perceived that the intervention was feasible and acceptable for the targeted patient population, they identified the treatment delivery modality, length of telephone sessions, and some of the option grid content as potential barriers. Facilitators included strategies for enhancing the telephone-delivered shared decision-making sessions and diversifying the treatment options contained in the option grids. Focus group feedback resulted in preliminary adaptations to the intervention that are mindful of women Veterans' individual preferences for care and realistic in the everyday context of their busy lives.

  19. Biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel for knee meniscus applications, including comparison with human donor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer C; Curley, Colin; Tierney, Paul; Kennedy, James E

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was the biomechanical analysis of a salt-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel, in order to assess its potential for use as an artificial meniscal implant. Aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was treated with a sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution to precipitate out the polyvinyl alcohol resulting in a pliable hydrogel. The freeze-thaw process, a strictly physical method of crosslinking, was employed to crosslink the hydrogel. Development of a meniscal shaped mould and sample housing unit allowed the production of meniscal shaped hydrogels for direct comparison to human meniscal tissue. Results obtained show that compressive responses were slightly higher in PVA/Na2SO4 menisci, displaying maximum compressive loads of 2472N, 2482N and 2476N for samples having undergone 1, 3 and 5 freeze-thaw cycles respectively. When compared to the human meniscal tissue tested under the same conditions, an average maximum load of 2467.5N was observed. This suggests that the PVA/Na2SO4 menisci are mechanically comparable to the human meniscus. Biocompatibility analysis of PVA/Na2SO4 hydrogels revealed no acute cytotoxicity. The work described herein has innovative potential in load bearing applications, specifically as an alternative to meniscectomy as replacement of critically damaged meniscal tissue in the knee joint where repair is not viable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Social Media-Based Acute Alcohol Consumption Behavior (NekNomination): Case Series in Italian Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Stefania; Feltracco, Paolo; Lucchetta, Vittorio; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Tredese, Alberto; Bergamini, Mauro; Vettore, Gianna; Pietrantonio, Vincenzo; Avato, Francesco Maria; Donato, Daniele; Boemo, Deris Gianni; Nesoti, Maria Vittoria; Snenghi, Rossella

    2018-01-31

    NekNomination, also known as NekNominate, Neck and Nominate, or Neck Nomination, is a social network-based drinking game which is thought to have originated in Australia and spread all over the world between 2013 and 2014. Individuals record videos of themselves while rapidly drinking excessive quantities of alcoholic drinks (necking) and then nominate friends to outdo them within 24 hours; the videos are then posted on social media such as Facebook or YouTube. The consequences of this drinking game have been very dangerous; at least 5 people under age 30 years have died after drinking deadly cocktails, and many others have suffered from alcohol intoxication. The goal of the research is to evaluate data about clinically important acute alcohol intoxication among teenagers and young adults and inform and educate the general public, especially parents, teachers, and health workers, about the spreading craze of dangerous Internet-related behavior among today's teenagers and young people up to the age of 23 years. Patients aged 15 to 23 years with acute alcohol intoxication who came to the emergency department (ED) of 2 major hospitals in Italy from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2014, were included in this study. Data were retrieved from prehospital and intrahospital medical records and included personal information, methods of intoxication, triage color code, date and time of access to the ED, any relevant signs and symptoms, blood alcohol concentration, and diagnosis at discharge. A total of 450 young patients (male 277/450, 61.5%, female 173/450, 38.5%; age 15 to 16 years 15/450, 3.3%, age 17 to 18 years 184/450, 40.9%, age 19 to 23 years 251/450, 55.8%) were recruited. The causes of intoxication were happy hour, binge drinking, NekNominate, eyeballing, other alcoholic games, or a mix of them. Happy hour was found to be more common among the older patients, whereas NekNominate accounted for almost half of the youngest group of hospitalizations. Eyeballing occurred in

  1. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  2. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian; Wang, Minghao; Bilberg, Arne; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    High relapse rate is one of the most prominent problems in addiction treatment. Alcohol Resilience Treatment (ART), an alcohol addiction therapy, is based on Cue Exposure Treatment, which has shown promising results in preliminary studies. ART aims at optimizing the core area of relapse prevention, and intends to improve patients' capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper.

  3. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Associations of Drug Use, Violence, and Depressive Symptoms with Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Women with Alcohol Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen; Hutton, Heidi E; Lesko, Catherine R; Monroe, Anne K; Alvanzo, Anika; McCaul, Mary E; Chander, Geetanjali

    2018-05-18

    Alcohol misuse is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk behaviors by women. Drug use, intimate partner violence (IPV), and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur, are well-recognized alcohol misuse comorbidities, and may interact to increase risk behaviors. Using a syndemic framework we examined associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behaviors by 400 women with alcohol misuse attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. Participants completed computer-assisted interviews querying drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior outcomes-unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol, sex for drugs/money, and number of lifetime sexual partners. We used multivariable analysis to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for independent and joint associations between drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms and our outcomes. To investigate synergy between risk factors we calculated the relative excess prevalence owing to interaction for all variable combinations. In multivariable analysis, drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms alone and in combination were associated with higher prevalence/count of risk behaviors compared with women with alcohol misuse alone. The greatest prevalence/count occurred when all three were present (unprotected sex under the influence of alcohol [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9]), sex for money or drugs [PR, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2], and number of lifetime partners [PR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-5.2]). Drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms did not interact synergistically to increase sexual risk behavior prevalence. A higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors by women with alcohol misuse combined with drug use, IPV, and depressive symptoms supports the need for alcohol interventions addressing these additional comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D 2 O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps

  7. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. RESULTS: Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. CONCLUSION: Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  8. Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Nappo, Solange A; Cruz, Joselaine I; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Carlini, Claudia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol and other drug use appears to reduce decision-making ability and increase the risk of unsafe sex, leading to possible unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus/HIV transmission, and multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that risky sexual behaviors among adolescents are associated with legal and illegal drug use. A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students was conducted in 2010. Students were selected from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals by a multistage probabilistic sampling method and answered a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through basic contingency tables and logistic regressions testing for differences in condom use among adolescents who were sexually active during the past month. Approximately one third of the high school students had engaged in sexual intercourse in the month prior to the survey, and nearly half of these respondents had not used a condom. While overall sexual intercourse was more prevalent among boys, unsafe sexual intercourse was more prevalent among girls. Furthermore, a lower socioeconomic status was directly associated with non-condom use, while binge drinking and illegal drug use were independently associated with unsafe sexual intercourse. Adolescent alcohol and drug use were associated with unsafe sexual practices. School prevention programs must include drug use and sexuality topics simultaneously because both risk-taking behaviors occur simultaneously.

  9. Mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified cement mortar with silica fume used as matrix including radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakroury, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discussed the mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol - modified cement mortar with silica fume to assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste. The modified cement mortars containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the presence of 10 % silica fume (SF) .The chemical reaction between polymer and cement - hydrated product were investigated by the Infrared Spectral Technology, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction. The leaching of 137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied .The results shown that PVA increases the strength and decreases the porosity. The increase in strength duo to the interaction of PVA with cement , may be forming some new compound that fill the pores or improve the bond between the cement . The pozzolanic reaction of the SF increases the calcium silicate hydrates in the hardening matrix composites. There is distinct change in the refinement of the pore structure in cement composites giving fewer capillary pores and more of the finer gel pores

  10. Functional interactions between endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems: focus on alcohol, genetics and drug-addicted behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J A; López-Jiménez, A; Gorriti, M A; de Fonseca, F Rodríguez

    2010-04-01

    Although the first studies regarding the endogenous opioid system and addiction were published during the 1940s, addiction and cannabinoids were not addressed until the 1970s. Currently, the number of opioid addiction studies indexed in PubMed-Medline is 16 times greater than the number of cannabinoid addiction reports. More recently, functional interactions have been demonstrated between the endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems. For example, the cannabinoid brain receptor type 1 (CB1) and mu opioid receptor type 1 (MOR1) co-localize in the same presynaptic nerve terminals and signal through a common receptor-mediated G-protein pathway. Here, we review a great variety of behavioral models of drug addiction and alcohol-related behaviors. We also include data providing clear evidence that activation of the cannabinoid and opioid endogenous systems via WIN 55,512-2 (0.4-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.0-10 mg/kg), respectively, produces similar levels of relapse to alcohol in operant alcohol self-administration tasks. Finally, we discuss genetic studies that reveal significant associations between polymorphisms in MOR1 and CB1 receptors and drug addiction. For example, the SNP A118G, which changes the amino acid aspartate to asparagine in the MOR1 gene, is highly associated with altered opioid system function. The presence of a microsatellite polymorphism of an (AAT)n triplet near the CB1 gene is associated with drug addiction phenotypes. But, studies exploring haplotypes with regard to both systems, however, are lacking.

  11. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  12. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  13. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behavior among patrons of alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Meade, Christina S; Ranby, Krista W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa provide a location for HIV prevention interventions due to risk factors of patrons in these establishments. Understanding the association between mental health and risk behaviors in these settings may inform interventions that address alcohol use and HIV prevention. Participants (n = 738) were surveyed in 6 alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, traumatic experiences, sexual behavior, and substance use. Logistic regression models examined whether traumatic experiences predicted PTSD and depression. Generalized linear models examined whether substance use, PTSD, and depressive symptoms predicted unprotected sexual intercourse. Men and women were analyzed separately. Participants exhibited high rates of traumatic experiences, PTSD, depression, alcohol consumption, and HIV risk behaviors. For men, PTSD was associated with being hit by a sex partner, physical child abuse, sexual child abuse and HIV diagnosis; depression was associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex and physical child abuse. For women, both PTSD and depression were associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex, and physical child abuse. Unprotected sexual intercourse was associated with age, frequency and quantity of alcohol use, drug use, and PTSD for men and frequency and quantity of alcohol use, depression, and PTSD for women. Mental health in this setting was poor and was associated with sexual risk behavior. Treating mental health and substance-use problems may aid in reducing HIV infection. Sexual assault prevention and treatment after sexual assault may strengthen HIV prevention efforts.

  14. Patterns of alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Vikas; Agardh, Anette; Stafström, Martin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2014-02-06

    As reflected in elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections, there is a high prevalence of risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. It has been assumed that alcohol contributes to risky sexual behavior. However, perhaps owing to methodological issues, this relationship has found only mixed support in empirical research. The present study analyzes the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior at the global, situational, and event level among Uganda university students with sexual experience. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 among 1954 students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda, using a self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol use was measured as consumption over the previous 12 months, during situations related to sexual activity and on the most recent occasion of sexual intercourse. Risky sexual behavior was defined as having two or more sexual partners in the previous 12 months or inconsistent condom use with new partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior separately for males and females. Even after adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of having two or more sexual partners in the past year indicated a statistically significant association with alcohol use on all levels (global, situational, and event) for both males and females. The ORs of inconsistent condom use with a new partner were significant for males who often consumed alcohol in relation to sexual activity--even after adjusting for potential confounders (OR, 1.75; confidence interval, 1.01-3.08). The risk of inconsistent condom use with a new partner was twice as high for females who often consumed alcohol in relation to sexual activity, although this association was not statistically significant. The study supports previous research that alcohol consumption is associated with having multiple sexual partners. Inconsistent

  15. Effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behavior using a video poker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Cronce, Jessica M

    2017-06-01

    Drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, and concurrent gambling and drinking may lead to greater negative consequences than either behavior alone. Building on prior research on the effects of alcohol, initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions on gambling behaviors using a chance-based (nonstrategic) slot-machine task, the current study explored the impact of these factors on a skill-based (strategic) video poker task. We anticipated larger average bets and greater gambling persistence under alcohol relative to placebo, and expected alcohol effects to be moderated by initial gambling outcomes, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions. Participants (N = 162; 25.9% female) were randomly assigned to alcohol (target BrAC = .08g%) or placebo and were given $10 to wager on a simulated video poker task, which was programmed to produce 1 of 3 initial outcomes (win, breakeven, or lose) before beginning a progressive loss schedule. Despite evidence for validity of the video poker task and alcohol administration paradigm, primary hypotheses were not supported. Individuals who received alcohol placed smaller wagers than participants in the placebo condition, though this effect was not statistically significant, and the direction of effects was reversed in at-risk gamblers (n = 41). These findings contradict prior research and suggest that alcohol effects on gambling behavior may differ by gambling type (nonstrategic vs. strategic games). Interventions that suggest alcohol is universally disinhibiting may be at odds with young adults' lived experience and thus be less effective than those that recognize the greater complexity of alcohol effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Alcohol Use and Popularity: Social Payoffs from Conforming to Peers' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; French, Michael T.; Norton, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    Although many economic analyses of adolescents have examined the costs of risky behaviors, few have investigated the gains that young people derive from such actions, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. This paper studies the relationship between adolescents' use of alcohol (relative to that of their peers) and popularity at school. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich and nationally-representative survey with detailed information on social networks. Our findings suggest that adolescents are socially rewarded for conforming to their peers' alcohol use and penalized (to a lesser degree) for increasing their consumption above that of their peers. Male adolescents are rewarded for keeping up with their peers' drinking and for getting drunk. Female adolescents are rewarded for drinking per se, but not necessarily for keeping up with their peers. The results offer new information on peer influence and have implications for substance abuse interventions at school and in the community. PMID:21860582

  17. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  18. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons’ Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954

  19. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  20. A Syndemic Analysis of Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Tourism Employees in Sosúa, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals. PMID:21859907

  1. A syndemic analysis of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior among tourism employees in Sosúa, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals.

  2. How adolescents learn about risk perception and behavior in regards to alcohol use in light of social learning theory: a qualitative study in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Elena María; Suárez, Daniel Enrique; Lema, Mariana; Londoño, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    In Colombia, the use of alcohol is one of the main risky behaviors carried out by adolescents, given that alcohol is the principal drug of abuse in this age group. Understanding how adolescents learn about risk and behavior is important in developing effective prevention programs. The Theory of Social learning underlines the importance of social interaction in the learning process. It suggests that learning can occur in three ways: a live model in which a person is enacting the desired behavior, verbal instruction when the desired behavior is described, and symbolic learning in which modeling occurs by influence of the media. This study explores these three forms of learning in the perception of risk and behavior related to the use of alcohol in a group of students between 12 and 14 years of age in Bogotá, Colombia. This is a qualitative research study, which is part of a larger study exploring the social representations of risk and alcohol use in adolescents and their communities. The sample group included 160 students from two middle schools (7th and 8th graders) in Bogotá, Colombia. Six sessions of participant observation, 12 semi-structured interviews, and 12 focus group discussions were conducted for data collection. Data were analyzed using the Atlas ti software (V7.0) (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, London, UK), and categories of analysis were developed using a framework analysis approach. Adolescents can identify several risks related to the use of alcohol, which for the most part, appear to have been learned through verbal instruction. However, this risk recognition does not appear to correlate with their behavior. Parental modeling and messages conveyed by the media represent two other significant sources of learning that are constantly contradicting the messages relayed through verbal instruction and correlate to a greater extent with adolescent behavior. The three different forms of learning described by Social Learning Theory play a

  3. A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Lacroix, Franca; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contexts in which drugs of abuse are consumed can trigger craving, a subjective Pavlovian-conditioned response that can facilitate drug-seeking behavior and prompt relapse in abstinent drug users. We have developed a procedure to study the behavioral and neural processes that mediate the impact of context on alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. Following acclimation to the taste and pharmacological effects of 15% ethanol in the home cage, male Long-Evans rats receive Pavlovian disc...

  4. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  5. The natural history of class I primate alcohol dehydrogenases includes gene duplication, gene loss, and gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Carrigan

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates

  6. First Impressions on the Scene: The Influence of the Immediate Reference Group on Incoming First-Year Students' Alcohol Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined incoming first-year students' normative perceptions of alcohol use and alcohol-related attitudes of other students of the same gender living on their residence hall floor. Male and female residents overestimated the alcohol use behavior and related attitudes among their floormates. Results also showed that perceived norms were…

  7. The use of cognitive-behavioral treatment including hypnosis for claustrophobia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggles, S

    1999-04-01

    Two case studies are reported to illustrate the use of a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral approach to treat claustrophobia in cancer patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy. Hypnosis was an essential component of the cognitive-behavioral approach. Both patients responded favorably to the psychological intervention and completed the required external beam radiation therapy.

  8. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  9. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  10. Complex interactions between the subject factors of biological sex and prior histories of binge-drinking and unpredictable stress influence behavioral sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Sema G; Guzelian, Eugenie; Palmer, Mason A; Martin, Douglas L; Kim, Jennifer; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol use disorders, affective disorders and their comorbidity are sexually dimorphic in humans. However, it is difficult to disentangle the interactions between subject factors influencing alcohol sensitivity in studies of humans. Herein, we combined murine models of unpredictable, chronic, mild stress (UCMS) and voluntary binge-drinking to examine for sex differences in the interactions between prior histories of excessive ethanol-drinking and stress upon ethanol-induced changes in motor behavior and subsequent drinking. In Experiment 1, female mice were insensitive to the UCMS-induced increase in ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake under continuous alcohol-access. Experiment 2 revealed interactions between ethanol dose and sex (females>males), binge-drinking history (water>ethanol), and UCMS history (UCMS>controls), with no additive effect of a sequential prior history of both binge drinking and UCMS observed. We also observed an interaction between UCMS history and sex for righting recovery. UCMS history potentiated subsequent binge-drinking in water controls of both sexes and in male binge-drinking mice. Conversely, a prior binge-drinking history increased subsequent ethanol intake in females only, irrespective of prior UCMS history. In Experiment 3, a concurrent history of binge-drinking and UCMS did not alter ethanol intake, nor did it influence the ethanol dose-locomotor response function, but it did augment alcohol-induced sedation and reduced subsequent alcohol intake over that produced by binge-drinking alone. Thus, the subject factors of biological sex, prior stressor history and prior binge-drinking history interact in complex ways in mice to impact sensitivity to alcohol's motor-stimulating, -incoordinating and intoxicating effects, as well as to influence subsequent heavy drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Victimization as a mediator of alcohol use disparities between sexual minority subgroups and sexual majority youth using the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Turner, Blair; Salamanca, Paul; Birkett, Michelle; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Newcomb, Michael E; Marro, Rachel; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students. Data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to assess the association between sexual minority status (identity and behavior) and alcohol use with weighted logistic regression. Due to well-documented differences between males and females, we stratified models by gender. Physical and cyberbullying were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual minority status and alcohol use. We detected associations between certain subgroups of sexual minority youth and alcohol use across all four drinking variables (ever drank alcohol, age at first drink, current alcohol use, and binge drinking). Most of these associations were found among bisexual-identified youth and students with both male and female sexual partners; these individuals had up to twice the odds of engaging in alcohol use behaviors when compared with sexual majority students. Associations were strongest among females. Bullying mediated sexual minority status and alcohol use only among bisexual females. As disparities in alcohol use differ by gender, sexual identity, and sexual behavior, interventions should be targeted accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jung Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conlcusions: The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population.

  13. The effect of bacterial cellulose on the shape memory behavior of polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirahmadi, Pegah; Kokabi, Mehrdad

    2018-01-01

    Most research on shape memory polymers has been confined to neat polymers in their dry state, while, some hydrogel networks are known for their shape memory properties. Hydrogels have low glass transition temperatures which are below 100°C depend on the content of water. But they are usually weak and brittle, and not suitable for structural applications due to their low mechanical strengths because of these materials have large amount of water (>50%), so they could not remember original shape perfectly. Bacterial cellulose nanofibers with perfect properties such as high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, high tensile strength and good biocompatibility can dismiss all the drawbacks. In the present study, polyvinyl alcohol/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite hydrogel prepared by repetitive freezing-thawing method. The bacterial cellulose was used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties and stimuli response. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to obtain the glass transition temperature. Nanocomposite morphology was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties were investigated by standard tensile test. Finally, the effect of bacterial cellulose nanofiber on shape memory behavior of polyvinyl alcohol/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite hydrogel was investigated. It is found that switching temperature of this system is the glass transition temperature of the nano domains formed within the system. The results also show increase of shape recovery, and shape recovery speed due to presence of bacterial cellulose.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms mediate the relationship between traumatic experiences and drinking behavior among women attending alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Ranby, Krista W; Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C

    2012-07-01

    South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0-7) and drinking behavior. The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0-34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT > 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17-85, SD = 16.3),with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ≥ 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the "other" category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be

  15. Does the response to alcohol taxes differ across racial/ethnic groups? Some evidence from 1984-2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Sturm, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Excessive alcohol use remains an important lifestyle-related contributor to morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. It is well documented that drinking patterns differ across racial/ethnic groups, but not how those different consumption patterns would respond to tax changes. Therefore, policy makers are not informed on whether the effects of tax increases on alcohol abuse are shared equally by the whole population, or policies in addition to taxation should be pursued to reach certain sociodemographic groups. To estimate differential demand responses to alcohol excise taxes across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Individual data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 1984-2009 waves (N= 3,921,943, 39.3% male; 81.3% White, 7.8% African American, 5.8% Hispanic, 1.9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.4% Native American, and 1.8% other race/multi-race) are merged with tax data by residential state and interview month. Dependent variables include consumption of any alcohol and number of drinks consumed per month. Demand responses to alcohol taxes are estimated for each race/ethnicity in separate regressions conditional on individual characteristics, state and time fixed effects, and state-specific secular trends. The null hypothesis on the identical tax effects among all races/ethnicities is strongly rejected (P ethnicities, the estimated tax effects on consumption are large and significant among light drinkers (1-40 drinks per month), but shrink substantially for moderate (41-99) and heavy drinkers (≥ 100). Extensive research has been conducted on overall demand responses to alcohol excise taxes, but not on heterogeneity across various racial/ethnic groups. Only one similar prior study exists, but used a much smaller dataset. The authors did not identify differential effects. With this much larger dataset, we found some evidence for different responses across races/ethnicities to alcohol taxes, although we lack precision for individual group

  16. Cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol and drug use disorders: Through the stage model and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M; Kiluk, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have among the highest level of empirical support for the treatment of drug and alcohol use disorders. As Psychology of Addictive Behaviors marks its 30th anniversary, we review the evolution of CBT for the addictions through the lens of the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development. The large evidence base from Stage II randomized clinical trials indicates a modest effect size with evidence of relatively durable effects, but limited diffusion in clinical practice, as is the case for most empirically validated approaches for mental health and addictive disorders. Technology may provide a means for CBT interventions to circumvent the "implementation cliff" in Stages III-V by offering a flexible, low-cost, standardized means of disseminating CBT in a range of novel settings and populations. Moreover, returning to Stage I to reconnect clinical applications of CBT to recent developments in cognitive science and neuroscience holds great promise for accelerating understanding of mechanisms of action. It is critical that CBT not be considered as a static intervention, but rather 1 that constantly evolves and is refined through the stage model until the field achieves a maximally powerful intervention that addresses core features of the addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A randomized trial of female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    This study compared Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) to evidence-based, gender-neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein & McCrady, 2009) for women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Women (N = 99) with AUD, mean age 48, were randomly assigned to 12 outpatient manual-guided sessions of FS-CBT (n = 44) or GN-CBT (n = 55). Women were assessed at baseline and 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline for drinking and for specific issues common among women with AUD. A FS-CBT protocol was developed that was discriminable on treatment integrity ratings from GN-CBT. No treatment condition differences were found in treatment engagement, changes in drinking, alcohol-related coping, abstinence self-efficacy, motivation to change, or constructs directly targeted in FS-CBT (sociotropy, autonomy, depression, anxiety). Women in both conditions were highly engaged and satisfied with treatment, and reported significant reductions in drinking and changes in desired directions for all other variables except social support for abstinence. In the year following treatment, women in the FS-CBT but not in the CBT condition reported an increase in percentage of abstainers in their social networks (0.69% per month, SE = 0.21, p = .002). The value and appeal of female-specific programming in AUD treatment has been established in the wider literature (Epstein & Menges, 2013), and the current study provides support for the use of the Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) manual as an option that may yield outcomes similar to standard gender-neutral CBT for women with AUD. Future research should examine whether FS-CBT enhances treatment utilization for women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  19. Behavioral analysis of preterm neonates included in a tactile and kinesthetic stimulation program during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Andréia M; Bergamasco, Niélsy H P

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tactile and kinesthetic stimulation on behavioral and clinical development in preterm neonates while still in the hospital. Thirty-two clinically stable preterm infants weighing kinesthetic stimulation (n=16). Data on the infants' clinical progress were collected from medical charts and behavioral evaluations by means of a series of weekly, eight-minute films recorded from the time of inclusion into the study until hospital discharge. There was a trend towards a shorter duration of hospital stay, increased daily weight gain and a predominance of self-regulated behavior (regular breathing, state of alertness, balanced tonus, a range of postures, coordinated movements, hand-to-face movement control, suction, grip, support) in infants in the SG. With respect to motor control, comparative analysis of postconceptional ages according to age-bracket (I - 31-33 weeks 6/7; II - 34-36 weeks 6/7; and III - 37-39 weeks 6/7) revealed balanced tonus and coordinated voluntary movements in all three periods, a longer time spent in a range of postures (age bracket I) or in flexion (age bracket II) and more regular breathing in age bracket I in the SG. In the hospital, tactile and kinesthetic stimulation was shown to have a positive effect, contributing towards adjustment and self-regulation of behavior in the preterm newborn infant. Article registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) under the number ACTRN12610000133033.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  1. Theory of Planned Behavior including self-stigma and perceived barriers explain help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in Iranian women suffering from epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Oveisi, Sonia; Burri, Andrea; Pakpour, Amir H

    2017-03-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the two additional concepts self-stigma and perceived barriers to the help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. In this 18-month follow-up study, TPB elements, including attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention along with self-stigma and perceived barriers in seeking help for sexual problems were assessed in n=818 women with epilepsy (94.0% aged ≤40years). The basic TPB model (model 1) and the TPB model additionally including self-stigma and perceived barriers (Model 2) were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Both SEM models showed satisfactory model fits. According to model, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention explained 63.1% of the variance in help-seeking behavior. Variance was slightly higher (64.5%) when including self-stigma and perceived barriers (model 2). In addition, the fit indices of the models were better highlighting the importance of self-stigma and perceived barriers in help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Theory of Planned Behavior is useful in explaining help-seeking behavior for sexual problems in women with epilepsy. Self-stigma and perceived barriers are additional factors that should be considered in future interventions aiming to adopt TPB to improve help-seeking behavior for sexual problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Memorandum Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes...Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes by Charles R. Fisher...Welding- Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c

  3. Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345

  4. Experimental Determination and Modeling of the Phase Behavior for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol in Supercritical CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    In this study the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the selective catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by molecular oxygen in supercritical CO2 is investigated. Initially, the solubility of N2 in benzaldehyde as well as the dew points of CO2–benzyl alcohol–O2 and CO2...

  5. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  6. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  7. The relation between risk-taking behavior and alcohol use in young adults is different for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, L.; Egberts, A. C. G.; Heerdink, E. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the relationship of risk-taking behavior and alcohol use and the role of sex herein, while adjusting for age, depression, anxiety, stress and lifestyle. Methods: Participants were 6002 university students. They were classified as either abstinent, drinker but

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...

  10. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Understanding and Confronting Alcohol-Induced Risky Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornier, Lucien J.; Fauquier, Katharine J.; Field, April R.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Confronting alcohol abuse is a challenge for most higher education institutions. Each year, students are admitted to hospitals for issues arising from the misuse of alcohol. The deaths of some engaged in alcohol related activities is especially worrisome. Factors such as age and financial standing could impact the likelihood of abuse. So-called…

  12. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  13. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions.

  14. Co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and behavioral addictions: relevance of impulsivity and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (paddictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activity behavior of a HPLC column including α-chymotrypsin immobilized monosized-porous particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Z.; Camli, S.T.; Unsal, E.; Tuncel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a polymer-based, α-chymotrypsin (CT) immobilized HPLC column was prepared as a potential material for affinity-HPLC and chiral separation applications. Monosized-macroporous particles were synthesized as the support material by a relatively new polymerization protocol, the so-called, 'modified seeded polymerization'. The particles were obtained in the form of styrene-glycidyl methacrylate- divinylbenzene terpolymer approximately 11 μm in size. The particles were treated with aqueous ammonia to have primary amine groups on the porous surface. The amine functionalized particles were reacted by glutaraldehyde and the enzyme, CT, was covalently attached. CT carrying monosized-porous particles were slurry packed into the HPLC column 50 mmx4.6 mm in size. Since the activity behavior of immobilized CT played an important role in the enantiomeric separations performed by similar columns, the enzymatic activity behavior of the column produced by our protocol was determined. For this purpose, HPLC column was used as a packed bed reactor and the enzymatic reaction was continuously followed by measuring the absorbance of the output flow by the UV-detector of HPLC. S-shaped absorbance-time curves were obtained by monitoring the reactor output both in dynamic and steady-state periods. The columns with relatively lower immobilized enzyme content were more sensitive to the changes in the operating conditions and responded with more appreciable substrate conversion changes. The maximum reaction rate of the immobilized enzyme was estimated as approximately 25% of the free one by the mathematical model describing the activity behavior of the column. No significant loss was observed in the activity of the immobilized enzyme during the course of the experiments

  16. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  17. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Schippers, Gerard M

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption and enhancing marital functioning, but no study has directly tested the comparative effectiveness of stand-alone BCT versus an individually focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical community sample. The present study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of stand-alone BCT (n = 30) compared to individual CBT (n = 34) in the treatment of alcohol use disorders in community treatment centers in Dutch male and female alcoholics and their partners. Results show both BCT and CBT to be effective in changing drinking behavior after treatment. BCT was not found to be superior to CBT. Marital satisfaction of the spouse increased significantly in the BCT condition but not in the CBT condition, the differences being significant at the post-test. Patients' self-efficacy to withstand alcohol-related high-risk situations increased significantly in both treatment conditions, but more so in CBT than in BCT after treatment. Treatment involvement of the spouse did not increase retention. Regular practitioners in community treatment centers can effectively deliver both treatments. Stand-alone BCT is as effective as CBT in terms of reduced drinking and to some extent more effective in terms of enhancing relationship satisfaction. However, BCT is a more costly intervention, given that treatment sessions lasted almost twice as long as individual CBT sessions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Injuries, negative consequences, and risk behaviors among both injured and uninjured emergency department patients who report using alcohol and marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolard Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brief intervention (BI to reduce hazardous drinking and negative consequences such as injury has been effective when given in the emergency department (ED. The effectiveness and effect of BI has varied between injured and uninjured ED patients. This study compares injured and uninjured ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use to determine their need and their readiness for BI. Patients and Methods: Participants volunteered to enter a randomized controlled trial of BI to reduce hazardous alcohol and marijuana use. Adult ED patients who had had alcohol in the last month and smoked marijuana in the last year were recruited. Those patients who were admitted to hospital, were under police custody, or were seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorder were excluded. Research assistants interviewed participants using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.1. Binominal tests of proportions, t-test analyses, and transformations were conducted as appropriate. Results: Injured (n = 249 and uninjured (n = 266 study participants reported very high, statistically equivalent (P > 0.05, rates of binge drinking (4-5 days/month, marijuana use (13 days/month, driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol (>49% in the last 3 months, injury (>83% in the last year, and other negative consequences (>64% in the last 3 months prior to their ED visit. These behaviors and the consequences demonstrate a need for change. Both injured and uninjured subjects were ready to change (>56% and confident they could change (>91% alcohol and marijuana use. Discussion: ED patients who admit to alcohol and marijuana use also use other hazardous substances and participate in high-risk behaviors. In both injured and uninjured patients who admit using alcohol and marijuana, the ED visit is an opportunity to deliver BI to reduce alcohol and marijuana use and associated risk behaviors and the subsequent injury and

  19. Synaptic Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Ramifications for Reinstatement of Drug- and Alcohol-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas A; Winder, Danny G

    2018-06-13

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a component of the extended amygdala that shows significant changes in activity and plasticity through chronic exposure to drugs and stress. The region is critical for stress- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors and is thus a candidate region for the plastic changes that occur in abstinence that prime addicted patients for reinstatement behaviors. Here, we discuss the various forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the rodent BNST and highlight the way that these changes in excitatory transmission interact with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, as well as other stressors. In addition, we highlight potential areas for future research in this area, including investigating input- and cell-specific bidirectional changes in activity. As we continue to accrue foundational knowledge in the mechanisms and effects of plasticity in the BNST, molecular targets and treatment strategies that are relevant to reinstatement behaviors will also begin to emerge. Here, we briefly discuss the effects of catecholamine receptor modulators on synaptic plasticity in the BNST due to the role of norepinephrine in LTD and dopamine on the short-term component of LTP as well as the role that signaling at these receptors plays in reinstatement of drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. We hope that insights gained on the specific changes in plasticity that occur within the BNST during abstinence from alcohol and other drugs of abuse will provide insight into the biological underpinnings of relapse behavior in human addicts and inform future treatment modalities for addiction that tackle this complex biological problem.

  20. Explaining Counterfeit Alcohol Purchases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Zoya

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers

  1. Self-injury and suicide behavior among young people with perceived parental alcohol problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Hawton, Keith; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-01-01

    parental alcohol problems and self-injury, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt among young people differed depending on the gender of the child and the parent. Data came from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. A total of 75,853 high school and vocational school students......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that young people who perceive their parents to have alcohol problems are more likely to self-injure, have suicide ideation, and to attempt suicide than young people without parental alcohol problems. We also tested whether the association between...... participated. Self-injury, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were outcomes and the main exposure variables were perceived parental alcohol problems, gender of the parent with alcohol problems, cohabitation with a parent with alcohol problems, and severity of the parents' alcohol problems. Young people...

  2. A procedure to observe context-induced renewal of pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Jean-Marie; Lacroix, Franca; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2014-09-19

    Environmental contexts in which drugs of abuse are consumed can trigger craving, a subjective Pavlovian-conditioned response that can facilitate drug-seeking behavior and prompt relapse in abstinent drug users. We have developed a procedure to study the behavioral and neural processes that mediate the impact of context on alcohol-seeking behavior in rats. Following acclimation to the taste and pharmacological effects of 15% ethanol in the home cage, male Long-Evans rats receive Pavlovian discrimination training (PDT) in conditioning chambers. In each daily (Mon-Fri) PDT session, 16 trials each of two different 10 sec auditory conditioned stimuli occur. During one stimulus, the CS+, 0.2 ml of 15% ethanol is delivered into a fluid port for oral consumption. The second stimulus, the CS-, is not paired with ethanol. Across sessions, entries into the fluid port during the CS+ increase, whereas entries during the CS- stabilize at a lower level, indicating that a predictive association between the CS+ and ethanol is acquired. During PDT each chamber is equipped with a specific configuration of visual, olfactory and tactile contextual stimuli. Following PDT, extinction training is conducted in the same chamber that is now equipped with a different configuration of contextual stimuli. The CS+ and CS- are presented as before, but ethanol is withheld, which causes a gradual decline in port entries during the CS+. At test, rats are placed back into the PDT context and presented with the CS+ and CS- as before, but without ethanol. This manipulation triggers a robust and selective increase in the number of port entries made during the alcohol predictive CS+, with no change in responding during the CS-. This effect, referred to as context-induced renewal, illustrates the powerful capacity of contexts associated with alcohol consumption to stimulate alcohol-seeking behavior in response to Pavlovian alcohol cues.

  3. Fatigue Behavior under Multiaxial Stress States Including Notch Effects and Variable Amplitude Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicholas R.

    The central objective of the research performed in this study was to be able to better understand and predict fatigue crack initiation and growth from stress concentrations subjected to complex service loading histories. As such, major areas of focus were related to the understanding and modeling of material deformation behavior, fatigue damage quantification, notch effects, cycle counting, damage accumulation, and crack growth behavior under multiaxial nominal loading conditions. To support the analytical work, a wide variety of deformation and fatigue tests were also performed using tubular and plate specimens made from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, with and without the inclusion of a circular through-thickness hole. However, the analysis procedures implemented were meant to be general in nature, and applicable to a wide variety of materials and component geometries. As a result, experimental data from literature were also used, when appropriate, to supplement the findings of various analyses. Popular approaches currently used for multiaxial fatigue life analysis are based on the idea of computing an equivalent stress/strain quantity through the extension of static yield criteria. This equivalent stress/strain is then considered to be equal, in terms of fatigue damage, to a uniaxial loading of the same magnitude. However, it has often been shown, and was shown again in this study, that although equivalent stress- and strain-based analysis approaches may work well in certain situations, they lack a general robustness and offer little room for improvement. More advanced analysis techniques, on the other hand, provide an opportunity to more accurately account for various aspects of the fatigue failure process under both constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. As a result, such techniques were of primary interest in the investigations performed. By implementing more advanced life prediction methodologies, both the overall accuracy and the correlation of fatigue

  4. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  5. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates alcohol-related behavior and Ntf3-TrkC expression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Qiao

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test. We found that 5-Aza-dc injection into the mPFC significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol preference in alcohol-exposure rats, corresponding to the reduced blood alcohol levels. Although 5-Aza-dc potentiated the anxiety-like behavior of alcohol-exposure rats, it had no effect on the locomotor activity. Moreover, both of the mRNA and protein levels of DNA Methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A and DNMT3B in the mPFC were upregulated after 35 days of alcohol exposure and this upregulation could be reversed by 5-Aza-dc treatment. Additionally, 5-Aza-dc reversed the alcohol-induced downregulation of neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3, correspondingly the expression of its receptor-TrkC was reduced. These findings identified a functional role of 5-Aza-dc in alcohol-related behavioral phenotypes and one of the potential target genes, Ntf3. We also provide novel evidence for DNA methyltransferases as potential therapeutic targets in alcohol abuse.

  6. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  7. The relationship between addiction to internet and adolescence’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mowlaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597 junior and senior high school students (boys and girls in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 380 subjects were selected as the study sample by multistage cluster sampling. The instruments for data collection in this research were addiction to internet questionnaire, Iranian adolescent's risk-taking scale and the researcher-made tendency to chat and hacking questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software using correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significantly positive correlation between addiction to internet and sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking (P<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between addiction to internet and alcohol. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that addiction to internet was able to significantly predict sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking.

  8. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  9. Perceptions of Family Alcohol Use in a Young Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly A; Stewart, David G

    2015-09-01

    Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants' self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings' quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants' quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants' alcohol use patterns.

  10. High-intensity therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Christopher; Kraepelien, Martin; Eék, Niels; Fahlke, Claudia; Kaldo, Viktor; Berman, Anne H

    2017-05-26

    A large proportion of individuals with alcohol problems do not seek psychological treatment, but access to such treatment could potentially be increased by delivering it over the Internet. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is widely recognized as one of the psychological treatments for alcohol problems for which evidence is most robust. This study evaluated a new, therapist-guided internet-based CBT program (entitled ePlus) for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Participants in the study (n = 13) were recruited through an alcohol self-help web site ( www.alkoholhjalpen.se ) and, after initial internet screening, were diagnostically assessed by telephone. Eligible participants were offered access to the therapist-guided 12-week program. The main outcomes were treatment usage data (module completion, treatment satisfaction) as well as glasses of alcohol consumed the preceding week, measured with the self-rated Timeline Followback (TLFB). Participant data were collected at screening (T0), immediately pre-treatment (T1), post-treatment (T2) and 3 months post-treatment (T3). Most participants were active throughout the treatment and found it highly acceptable. Significant reductions in alcohol consumption with a large within-group effect size were found at the three-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures of craving and self-efficacy, as well as depression and quality of life, also showed significant improvements with moderate to large within-group effect sizes. Therapist-guided internet-based CBT may be a feasible and effective alternative for people with alcohol use disorders. In view of the high acceptability and the large within-group effect sizes found in this small pilot, a randomized controlled trial investigating treatment efficacy is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02384278 , February 26, 2015).

  11. Intertemporal choice behavior in emerging adults and adults: effects of age interact with alcohol use and family history status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs show marked immediate reward selection (or Now bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18-25, regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1 whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, 2 whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and 3 whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n=237 healthy participants (ages 18-40; 50% female, and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26-40 year olds.

  12. Chronic treatment with prazosin or duloxetine lessens concurrent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake: evidence of disrupted noradrenergic signaling in anxiety-related alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Mary J; Weiner, Jeff L

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol use disorders have been linked to increased anxiety, and enhanced central noradrenergic signaling may partly explain this relationship. Pharmacological interventions believed to reduce the excitatory effects of norepinephrine have proven effective in attenuating ethanol intake in alcoholics as well as in rodent models of ethanol dependence. However, most preclinical investigations into the effectiveness of these drugs in decreasing ethanol intake have been limited to acute observations, and none have concurrently assessed their anxiolytic effects. The purpose of these studies was to examine the long-term effectiveness of pharmacological interventions presumed to decrease norepinephrine signaling on concomitant ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats with relatively high levels of antecedent anxiety-like behavior. Adult male Long-Evans rats self-administered ethanol on an intermittent access schedule for eight to ten weeks prior to being implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either an a1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (prazosin, 1.5 mg/kg/day), a β1/2-adrenoreceptor antagonist (propranolol, 2.5 mg/kg/day), a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (duloxetine, 1.5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (10% dimethyl sulfoxide). These drugs were continuously delivered across four weeks, during which animals continued to have intermittent access to ethanol. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze before treatment and again near the end of the drug delivery period. Our results indicate that chronic treatment with a low dose of prazosin or duloxetine significantly decreases ethanol self-administration (P chronic treatment with putative inhibitors of central noradrenergic signaling may attenuate ethanol intake via a reduction in anxiety-like behavior.

  13. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2017-06-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English from 2000 to April 2015 and evaluating eHealth interventions aiming to change one or multiple SNAPO outcomes, and including young adult (18-35years) participants. Of 2,159 articles identified, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most interventions targeted alcohol (n=26), followed by smoking (n=7), physical activity (n=4), obesity (n=4) and nutrition (n=1). Three interventions targeted multiple behaviors. The eHealth interventions were most often delivered via websites (79.5%). Most studies (n=32) compared eHealth interventions to a control group (e.g. waiting list control, minimal intervention), with the majority (n=23) showing a positive effect on a SNAPO outcome at follow-up. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significantly lower mean number of drinks consumed/week in brief web or computer-based interventions compared to controls (Mean Difference -2.43 [-3.54, -1.32], PeHealth delivery modes, with inconsistent results across target behaviors and technology types. Nine studies compared eHealth to other modes of delivery (e.g. in person) with all finding no difference in SNAPO outcomes between groups at follow-up. This review provides some evidence for the efficacy of eHealth SNAPO interventions for young adults, particularly in the short-term and for alcohol interventions. But there is insufficient evidence for their efficacy in the longer-term, as well as which mode of delivery is most effective. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    alleviating problems related to alcohol and substance abuse, intimate partner violence, problem gambling , body image and eating disorders, and aggressive... alcohol over the past month. Typi- cal drinking was assessed by asking participants the average number of drinks consumed during a typical occasion in...Lewis,M.A., Lee, C.M., Desai, S., . . . Larimer, M. E. (2010). Group identification as a moderator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol

  15. Alcohol, Drugs, and Links to Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Virginia College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.; Wessel, Maria T.

    2011-01-01

    This project was significant in that it administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS), a health risk assessment, to a sample of students at three public universities in Virginia. Virginia was never included in the original or subsequent nationwide assessments using this instrument. This health risk assessment is…

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  17. Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Lee, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Although alcohol abstinence is the crucial therapeutic goal for patients with alcoholic liver disease, these patients have less access to psychosocial, behavioral and/or pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder. Psychosocial and behavioral therapies include 12-step facilitation, brief interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy. In addition to medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alcohol use disorder (disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate), recent efforts to identify potential new treatments have yielded promising candidate pharmacotherapies. Finally, more efforts are needed to integrate treatments across disciplines toward patient-centered approaches in the management of patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease. PMID:27984008

  18. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally To and Fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Lamis, Dorian A; Pearson, Matthew R; Stevenson, Brittany L

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th editionAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD). In Study 1, college drinkers (n = 621) completed alcohol involvement and behavioral/emotional functioning assessments. There was an indirect association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms via both coping and enhancement drinking motives which was potentiated by trait urgency. In Study 2, college drinkers (n = 510) completed alcohol involvement, behavioral/emotional functioning, and AUD criteria assessments. A significant indirect effect from emotional instability to the likelihood of meeting AUD criteria, via drinking to cope was found, again potentiated by urgency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Alcohol-Aversion Therapy: Relation Between Strength of Aversion and Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed degree of alcohol aversion in 60 alcoholics who received emetic alcohol-aversion therapy. Results revealed changes in response to alcoholic, but not to nonalcoholic, flavors, including decreased consumption in taste tests, more negative flavor ratings, overt behavioral indicants of aversion and increased tachycardiac response. (Author/NB)

  20. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  1. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...... of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind...

  2. Tobacco-Smoking, Alcohol-Drinking, and Betel-Quid-Chewing Behaviors: Development and Use of a Web-Based Survey System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Chu-Ching; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Ching-Yen; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2018-06-11

    Smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid are health-risk behaviors for several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, with severe impacts on health. However, health care providers often have limited time to assess clients' behaviors regarding smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and chewing betel quid and intervene, if needed. The objective of this study was to develop a Web-based survey system; determine the rates of tobacco-smoking, alcohol-drinking, and betel-quid-chewing behaviors; and estimate the efficiency of the system (time to complete the survey). Patients and their family members or friends were recruited from gastrointestinal medical-surgical, otolaryngology, orthopedics, and rehabilitation clinics or wards at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data for this descriptive, cross-sectional study were extracted from a large series of research studies. A Web-based survey system was developed using a Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack solution. The Web survey was set up to include four questionnaires: the Chinese-version Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the Chinese-version Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Betel Nut Dependency Scale, and a sociodemographic form with several chronic diseases. After the participants completed the survey, the system automatically calculated their score, categorized their risk level for each behavior, and immediately presented and explained their results. The system also recorded the time each participant took to complete the survey. Of 782 patient participants, 29.6% were addicted to nicotine, 13.3% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 1.5% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Of 425 family or friend participants, 19.8% were addicted to nicotine, 5.6% were hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol drinkers, and 0.9% were dependent on chewing betel quid. Regarding the mean time to complete the survey, patients took 7.9 minutes (SD 3.0; range 3-20) and

  3. A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-03-15

    Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.

  4. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  5. Military experience helps setting reasonable personality characteristics but does not alter the criminal behavior-related impression of negative parental experience and alcoholism in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Ye, Yuqin; Zhang, Xuesi; Hao, Yelu; Shi, Fei; Yuan, Guohao; Wu, Yan; Fei, Zhou; He, Xiaosheng

    2016-10-30

    Personalities are determined by convergent factors, including physical environment, culture, special experience, and heredity. It has been shown that abuse of substance and alcohol among individuals with personality disorders predict criminality (Glenn and Raine, 2014; Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000). Thus, it is important to clarify the relationship between psychological characteristics and valence of criminal practice, even in the population without substance abuse. Here, we focused on a population with military experience in Shaanxi province of China to screen the psychological characteristics and correlate these characteristics to criminal behaviors. The study population included incarcerated veterans, incarcerated civilians, and three groups of military troops with different lengths of active duty history (criminal behavior of incarcerated veterans seem to be unrelated to their military service per se as evidenced by the control groups. Conversely, military service may benefit the personnel characteristics even in the incarcerated veteran population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotionally Up and Down, Behaviorally to and fro: Drinking Motives Mediate the Synergistic Effects of Urgency and Emotional Instability on Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…

  7. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others

  9. Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV/STDs in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, Diane M.; Choi, Y. Joon; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Svikis, Dace S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) examined effectiveness of HIV/STD Safer Sex Skills Building + Alcohol (SSB+A) intervention for women with Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) in a residential treatment setting. Method: After randomizing thirty-six women with AUDs and reporting having intercourse with a male partner in the past 180 days…

  10. Mindfulness decouples the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the

  11. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  12. Development of an Instrument to Assess Parent-College Child Communication Regarding Alcohol Use Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…

  13. The Role of Self-Efficacy for Bystander Helping Behaviors in Risky Alcohol Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Heather; Serrano, Surizaday; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-01-01

    We examined the role of self-efficacy in preventing bystander inaction in dangerous alcohol situations. Participants (N = 504) completed an online survey that assessed whether they had previously witnessed or intervened in alcohol-related emergencies, their self-efficacy for intervening, and their likelihood of intervening in the future.…

  14. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  15. Combined effort of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; A, van der D.L.; Verschuren, W.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers’ healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined

  16. Combined effect of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers' healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined

  17. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  18. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  20. Problematic Internet use and problematic alcohol use from the cognitive-behavioral model: a longitudinal study among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Las Hayas, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic alcohol use are two pervasive problems during adolescence that share similar characteristics and predictors. The first objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relationships among the main components of PIU from the cognitive-behavioral model (preference for online social interaction, mood regulation through the Internet, deficient self-regulation, and negative consequences). The second objective was to examine the temporal and reciprocal relationships between PIU components and problematic alcohol use. We also examined whether these relationships differ between males and females. The sample comprised 801 Spanish adolescents (mean age=14.92, SD=1.01) who completed the measures both at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) six months apart. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship among the variables. Results showed that deficient self-regulation at T1 predicted an increase in preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences of the Internet at T2. In turn, the emergence of negative consequences of PIU at T1 predicted a rise in problematic alcohol use at T2. Longitudinal relationships between different components of PIU and between the components of PIU and problematic alcohol use were invariant across genders. Deficient self-regulation, consisting of diminished self-control over cognition and behaviors related to the Internet, plays a central role in the maintenance of PIU, increasing the preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences from Internet use over time. In turn, adolescents who present negative consequences of PIU are vulnerable targets for problematic alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  2. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria termin...

  3. Motivating Treatment Seeking and Behavior Change by Untreated Military Personnel Abusing Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    53(2), 189-200. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985a). The general causality orientations scale : Self -determination in personality. Journal of...counseling style designed to promote self -reflection and self - appraisal of beliefs and problematic behaviors in order to overcome ambivalence about...militaryonesource.com except for plans to harm self or others or plans to break law (may include illicit substance use). Free Work and life

  4. Systematic cultural adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Adina, Japheth O; Nafula, Tobista; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Goulet, Joseph L; Justice, Amy C; Maisto, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article reports on a systematic cultural adaptation and pilot feasibility study of group paraprofessional-delivered CBT to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Following adaptation and counselor training, five pilot groups were run (n = 27). Overall attendance was 77%. Percent days abstinent from alcohol (PDA) before session 1 was 52-100% (women) and 21-36% (men), and by session 6 was 96-100% (women) and 89-100% (men). PDA effect sizes (Cohen's d) between first and last CBT session were 2.32 (women) and 2.64 (men). Participants reported treatment satisfaction. Results indicate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for CBT in Kenya.

  5. Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist attenuates pain related behavior in rats with chronic alcohol/high fat diet induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Kline, Robert H; McNearney, Terry A; Johnson, Michael P; Westlund, Karin N

    2014-11-17

    Chronic Pancreatitis (CP) is a complex and multifactorial syndrome. Many contributing factors result in development of dysfunctional pain in a significant number of patients. Drugs developed to treat a variety of pain states fall short of providing effective analgesia for patients with chronic pancreatitis, often providing minimal to partial pain relief over time with significant side effects. Recently, availability of selective pharmacological tools has enabled great advances in our knowledge of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in pathophysiology. In particular, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as an attractive target for management of chronic pain, as demonstrated in several studies with inflammatory and neuropathic preclinical pain models. In this study, the analgesic efficacy of a novel, highly selective CB2 receptor agonist, LY3038404 HCl, is investigated in a chronic pancreatitis pain model, induced with an alcohol/high fat (AHF) diet. Rats fed the AHF diet developed visceral pain-like behaviors detectable by week 3 and reached a maximum at week 5 that persists as long as the diet is maintained. Rats with AHF induced chronic pancreatitis were treated with LY3038404 HCl (10 mg/kg, orally, twice a day for 9 days). The treated animals demonstrated significantly alleviated pain related behaviors after 3 days of dosing, including increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT), prolonged abdominal withdrawal latencies (ABWL), and decreased nocifensive responses to noxious 44°C hotplate stimuli. Terminal histological analysis of pancreatic tissue sections from the AHF chronic pancreatitis animals demonstrated extensive injury, including a global pancreatic gland degeneration (cellular atrophy), vacuolization (fat deposition), and fibrosis. After the LY3038404 HCl treatment, pancreatic tissue was significantly protected from severe damage and fibrosis. LY3038404 HCl affected neither open field exploratory behaviors nor dark/light box preferences as measures

  6. Individual versus group female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Litt, Mark D

    2018-05-01

    To test group-based Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (G-FS-CBT) for women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) against an individual Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-FS-CBT). This aims of this paper are to describe G-FS-CBT development, content, feasibility, acceptability, group process, engagement in treatment, and within- and post-treatment outcomes. Women with AUD (n=155) were randomly assigned to 12 manual-guided sessions of G-FS-CBT or I-FS-CBT; 138 women attended at least one treatment session. Women in G-FS-CBT attended fewer sessions (M=7.6) than women in I-FS-CBT (M=9.7; p<.001). Women in both conditions reported high satisfaction with the treatments. Independent coders rated high fidelity of delivery of both G-FS-CBT and I-FS-CBT. Therapeutic alliance with the therapist was high in both conditions, with I-FS-CBT being slightly but significantly higher than G-FS-CBT. In the first six weeks of treatment, women in both treatment conditions significantly reduced their percent drinking days (PDD) and percent heavy days drinking (PHD) by equivalent amounts, maintained through the rest of treatment and the 12month follow up with no treatment condition effects. Women reported significant improvement in all but one of the secondary outcomes during treatment; gains made during treatment in depression, anxiety, autonomy, and interpersonal problems were maintained during the follow-up period, while gains made during treatment in use of coping skills, self-efficacy for abstinence, self-care, and sociotropy deteriorated over follow up but remained improved compared to baseline. Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a group format for female-specific CBT for AUD, a new 12-session, single gender, community friendly, group therapy with programming specifically for women. Similar, positive outcomes for individual and group treatment formats were found for drinking, mood, coping skills, self-confidence, interpersonal

  7. Integration of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) into a College Orientation Program: Depression and Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Baruch, David E.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    College freshmen face a variety of academic and social challenges as they adjust to college life that can place them at risk for a number of negative outcomes, including depression and alcohol-related problems. Orientation classes that focus on teaching incoming students how to better cope with college-oriented stress may provide an opportunity to…

  8. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-08-03

    Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  9. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  10. Elution behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) through poly(vinyl alcohol) gel column using several solvents as eluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Chuichi; Motozato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Kazuaki.

    1983-01-01

    γ-Irradiated poly(vinyl alcohol) beads, which were sufficiently allowed to swell in water, were washed with methanol, and then were packed into column. Gel chromatography was performed using methanol, benzene, esters and ketones as eluents and poly(ethylene glycol) as a sample. When the elution was carried out using methanol and benzene as eluents, elution behavior of samples was ordinary. When ethyl formate, methyl acetate and ethyl propionate were used as eluents, samples were slightly adsorbed and the elution was delayed. In the case the elution was carried out using ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, butyl acetate and ethyl methyl ketone as eluents, samples were adsorbed strongly on the bed material, and the adsorption curve was analogous to the calibration curve using methanol as an eluent. Dried poly(vinyl alcohol) gel as a packing material, showed ordinary elution behaviors for the samples. The adsorption of poly(ethylene glycol) on the present bed material was attributed to the existence of hydrated water on poly(vinyl alcohol) gel matrix. (author)

  11. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  12. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  13. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  14. Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey--Budapest, Hungary, 1999. Findings on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P

    2004-06-01

    In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  15. Traumatic stress and the mediating role of alcohol use on HIV-related sexual risk behavior: results from a longitudinal cohort of South African women who attend alcohol-serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-03-01

    In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. Data were collected in 4 waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined (1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex and (2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b = 0.28, SE = 0.06, t = 4.82, P traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b = 0.27, SE = 0.02, t = 14.25, P traumatic stress on unprotected sex. These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use.

  16. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  17. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Calle, E E; Heath, C W; Coates, R J; Liff, J M; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Morabia, A; Schuman, L; Stewart, W; Szklo, M; Bain, C; Schofield, F; Siskind, V; Band, P; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Hislop, T G; Yang, P; Kolonel, L M; Nomura, A M Y; Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; De Sanjosé, S; Lee, N; Marchbanks, P; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Wilson, H G; Wingo, P A; Ebeling, K; Kunde, D; Nishan, P; Hopper, J L; Colditz, G; Gajalanski, V; Martin, N; Pardthaisong, T; Silpisornkosol, S; Theetranont, C; Boosiri, B; Chutivongse, S; Jimakorn, P; Virutamasen, P; Wongsrichanalai, C; Ewertz, M; Adami, H O; Bergkvist, L; Magnusson, C; Persson, I; Chang-Claude, J; Paul, C; Skegg, D C G; Spears, G F S; Boyle, P; Evstifeeva, T; Daling, J R; Hutchinson, W B; Malone, K; Noonan, E A; Stanford, J L; Thomas, D B; Weiss, N S; White, E; Andrieu, N; Brêmond, A; Clavel, F; Gairard, B; Lansac, J; Piana, L; Renaud, R; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P; Cuevas, H R; Ontiveros, P; Palet, A; Salazar, S B; Aristizabel, N; Cuadros, A; Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Bachelot, A; Lê, M G; Peto, J; Franceschi, S; Lubin, F; Modan, B; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Friedman, G D; Hiatt, R A; Levi, F; Bishop, T; Kosmelj, K; Primic-Zakelj, M; Ravnihar, B; Stare, J; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G; Bullbrook, R D; Cuzick, J; Duffy, S W; Fentiman, I S; Hayward, J L; Wang, D Y; McMichael, A J; McPherson, K; Hanson, R L; Leske, M C; Mahoney, M C; Nasca, P C; Varma, A O; Weinstein, A L; Moller, T R; Olsson, H; Ranstam, J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Apelo, R A; Baens, J; de la Cruz, J R; Javier, B; Lacaya, L B; Ngelangel, C A; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Marubini, E; Ferraroni, M; Gerber, M; Richardson, S; Segala, C; Gatei, D; Kenya, P; Kungu, A; Mati, J G; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Schairer, C; Spirtas, R; Lee, H P; Rookus, M A; van Leeuwen, F E; Schoenberg, J A; McCredie, M; Gammon, M D; Clarke, E A; Jones, L; Neil, A; Vessey, M; Yeates, D; Appleby, P; Banks, E; Beral, V; Bull, D; Crossley, B; Goodill, A; Green, J; Hermon, C; Key, T; Langston, N; Lewis, C; Reeves, G; Collins, R; Doll, R; Peto, R; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D; Hannaford, P; Kay, C; Rosero-Bixby, L; Gao, Y T; Jin, F; Yuan, J-M; Wei, H Y; Yun, T; Zhiheng, C; Berry, G; Cooper Booth, J; Jelihovsky, T; MacLennan, R; Shearman, R; Wang, Q-S; Baines, C-J; Miller, A B; Wall, C; Lund, E; Stalsberg, H; Shu, X O; Zheng, W; Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Dabancens, A; Martinez, L; Molina, R; Salas, O; Alexander, F E; Anderson, K; Folsom, A R; Hulka, B S; Bernstein, L; Enger, S; Haile, R W; Paganini-Hill, A; Pike, M C; Ross, R K; Ursin, G; Yu, M C; Longnecker, M P; Newcomb, P; Bergkvist, L; Kalache, A; Farley, T M M; Holck, S; Meirik, O

    2002-11-18

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58,515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95,067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19-1.45, P/=45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1% per 10 g per day, P<0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers=1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92-1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship

  19. Cued recall of alcohol advertising on television and underage drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, Susanne E; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010-2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15-17, 18-20, and 21-23 years of age; P < .005). The transition to binge and hazardous drinking occurred for 29% and 18% of youth 15 to 17 years of age and for 29% and 19% of youth 18 to 20 years years of age, respectively

  20. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment over Three-Year Follow-Up: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2010-07-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, but more help seeking, for alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, associations of ASPD with AUD treatment in the general population have not been studied prospectively. To examine prediction of treatment over 3-year follow-up among adults with AUDs by baseline ASPD and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 respondents to the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, of whom 3875 had prevalent AUDs between Waves 1 and 2 and ASPD, AABS, or no antisocial syndrome at Wave 1. In unadjusted analyses, baseline ASPD predicted AUD treatment but AABS did not. After adjustment for additional need, predisposing, and enabling factors, antisocial syndromes did not predict treatment. Baseline predictors of treatment included more past-year AUD symptoms, and past-year nicotine dependence and AUD treatment. That baseline antisocial syndrome did not predict AUD treatment may reflect strong associations of antisociality with previously identified predictors of help seeking.

  1. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    To present current, nationally representative US findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and adulthood antisocial behavioral syndrome without conduct disorder before 15 years of age (AABS). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents (N = 36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, and specific drug use disorders and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, respectively, and were highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress, and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (ORs = 1.3-1.6); AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.2-1.3). Both were associated with significant disability (P antisocial survey respondents were untreated. One in 4 US adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before 15 years of age, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of

  2. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present current, nationally representative U.S. findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with respondents (n=36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, specific drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Results Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (ORs=1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder; AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders. Both were associated with significant disability (pantisocial respondents were untreated. Conclusions One in 4 U.S. adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before age 15, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of whether treatment for comorbidity hastens symptomatic remission and improves

  3. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

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    Moore Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696

  4. Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Johnson, K K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third-grade children's perceptions of alcohol advertising, alcohol norms, expectancies for drinking, and behaviors toward alcohol. A Solomon four-group style experiment (N = 225) with two levels of the treatment factor assessed the effectiveness of in-school media literacy training for alcohol. The experiment compared a treatment that included the viewing of a videotape about television advertising along with the viewing of video clips of alcohol ads and discussion pertaining to alcohol advertising specifically versus one that included the viewing of the same general purpose media literacy videotape along with video clips of non-alcohol advertising and then discussion of advertising in general. The treatment had both immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effects included the children's increased understanding of persuasive intent, viewing of characters as less similar to people they knew in real life and less desirable, decreased desire to be like the characters, decreased expectation of positive consequences from drinking alcohol, and decreased likelihood to choose an alcohol-related product. Indirect effects also were found on their perceptions of television's realism and their views of social norms related to alcohol. Delayed effects were examined and confirmed on expectancies and behavior. The treatment was more effective when alcohol-specific, and it also was more effective among girls than boys.

  5. Antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption by school adolescents Conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolares Conduta anti-social e consumo de álcool em adolescentes escolares

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    Karla Selene López García

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a vulnerable period and facilitates the start of risk behaviors, for instance the use of drugs. This study aims to describe the differences between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption according to gender, age and education; as well as to discover the relation between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption in 1,221 school adolescents from Monterrey - Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The findings reveal differences in antisocial behavior according to gender. Evidences showed that 41.3% of the students had consumed alcohol at sometime in their lives, and that differences exist in alcohol consumption according to age and education. Finally, the study found positive and significant relations between antisocial behavior and alcohol consumption (r s = .272, p La adolescencia se convierte en una etapa de vulnerabilidad y facilitador para el inicio de conductas de riesgo como es el consumo de drogas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: describir las diferencias de la conducta antisocial y consumo de alcohol según sexo, edad y escolaridad; conocer la relación existente de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol en 1221 adolescentes escolares de Monterrey, Nuevo Léon, México, en relación a los hallazgos encontrados se presentan diferencias de la conducta antisocial por sexo; se destaca que 41.3% de los estudiantes consumieron alcohol alguna vez en su vida, y existen diferencias de consumo de alcohol por edad y escolaridad. Finalmente se encontró relación positiva y significativa de la conducta antisocial con el consumo de alcohol (r s=.272, pA adolescência se apresenta como uma etapa de vulnerabilidade e facilitadora para o início de condutas de risco como o consumo de drogas. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: descrever as diferenças entre sexo, idade e escolaridade na conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool e conhecer a relação existente entre a conduta anti-social e o consumo de álcool em 1221

  6. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

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    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  7. Impact of Pretreatment Change on Mechanism of Behavior Change Research: An Applied Example Using Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy.

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    Noyes, Emily T; Levine, Jacob A; Schlauch, Robert C; Crane, Cory A; Connors, Gerard J; Maisto, Stephen A; Dearing, Ronda L

    2018-03-01

    With the growing recognition that, for some, significant changes in drinking occur before the first treatment session (i.e., pretreatment change), researchers have called for the careful assessment of when change occurs and its potential impact on mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) research. Using a commonly hypothesized MOBC variable, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment change on the study of MOBCs. Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment. Participants completed weekly assessments of self-efficacy and drinking behaviors. Multilevel time-lagged regression models indicated that pretreatment change significantly moderated the effect of self-efficacy on the number of drinking days, such that among those higher on pretreatment change, higher self-efficacy ratings predicted lower rates of drinking days in the week until the next treatment session. In contrast, pretreatment change did not moderate the effect of self-efficacy on the rate of heavy drinking days. Results from the current study add to a small but growing body of research highlighting the importance of pretreatment change when studying MOBCs. Further, these results provide important insights into the conditions in which self-efficacy may play an important role in treatment outcomes.

  8. The relationship between risk networks' patterns of crack cocaine and alcohol consumption and HIV-related sexual behaviors among adult injection drug users: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, C A; Mandell, W; Vlahov, D

    1996-11-01

    Social context may be an important determinant of drug and alcohol consumption and HIV-related behaviors. To assess the influence of peers on drug users' risk behaviors this study examined the association between individual level and group level behaviors. This analysis reports on the prospective association between baseline self-reported drug and alcohol use of the network members of injection drug users, and self-reported sexual behaviors and alcohol use at 5-month follow-up. Participants were a nontreatment sample of inner-city injection drug users who volunteered for a network-oriented HIV preventive intervention. They were predominantly unemployed, African American males. Of the 71 index participants who completed both the baseline and follow-up interviews, 227 of their drug network members were enrolled in the study. At baseline indexes' sexual risk behaviors were significantly associated with their drug network members' level of crack cocaine use. At follow-up higher levels of alcohol and crack use among drug network members were associated with indexes' reports of multiple sex partners and increased alcohol consumption. Higher levels of crack use among the drug network members were associated with the indexes' reporting casual sex partners at follow-up. These results highlight the importance of studying the role of peer group influence and the social context of risk behaviors.

  9. Externalizing behavior and impulsivity in the children of alcoholics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanar Sugaparaneetharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduced behavioural inhibition, characterized by impulsivity and disruptive behaviour disorders, has been identified as a developmental precursor of alcoholism with a considerable genetic component. Aims: The present study aimed to assess whether children of fathers with alcohol dependence have high impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. Setting and Design: Observational case-control study, done in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Southern India. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study recruited 50 children aged 7 to 14 years of fathers with alcohol dependence and 50 age- and gender-matched children of fathers without alcohol dependence. The two groups were compared using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics used to summarise the study findings. Cases and controls were compared on BIS and CBCL scores using a general linear model (GLM. All analyses were two tailed and test P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The children of fathers with alcohol dependence were more likely to meet criteria for ADHD (30% versus 10%, χ2 = 6.250, P = 0.012. After controlling for age and gender, impulsivity scores on the BIS tended to be higher in the cases (F = 2.410, P = 0.055 than controls, mainly in the non-planning domains (F = 3.650, P = 0.008. Similarly, externalizing behaviours on CBCL were more common in the cases than controls (F = 2.817, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Children of fathers with alcohol dependence had greater impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. This may represent a behavioural phenotype as well as a potential target for early intervention.

  10. Paternal preconception alcohol exposure imparts intergenerational alcohol-related behaviors to male offspring on a pure C57BL/6J background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Slater, Michelle; Homanics, Gregg E

    2017-05-01

    While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can affect inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol-drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that these intergenerational effects of paternal CIE are reproducible in male offspring on an inbred B6 background. To this end, B6 males were exposed to 6 weeks of CIE (or room air as a control) before mating with ethanol-naïve B6 females to produce ethanol (E)-sired and control (C)-sired male and female offspring. We observed a sex-specific effect, as E-sired males exhibited decreased two-bottle free-choice ethanol-drinking preference, increased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, and increased VTA BDNF expression; no differences were observed in female offspring. These findings confirm and extend our previous results by demonstrating that the effects of paternal preconception ethanol are reproducible using genetically identical, inbred B6 animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  12. Cued Recall of Alcohol Advertising on Television and Underage Drinking Behavior

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    Tanski, Susanne E.; McClure, Auden C.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alcohol is the most common drug among youth and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Billions of dollars are spent annually marketing alcohol. OBJECTIVE To examine the reach of television alcohol advertising and its effect on drinking among underage youth. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013 involving 2541 US adolescents 15 to 23 years of age at baseline, with 1596 of these adolescents completing the follow-up survey. Cued recall of television advertising images for top beer and distilled spirits brands that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 351). Images were digitally edited to remove branding, and the respondents were queried about 20 randomly selected images. An alcohol advertising receptivity score was derived (1 point each for having seen the ad and for liking it, and 2 points for correct brand identification). Fast-food ads that aired nationally in 2010–2011 (n = 535) were similarly queried to evaluate message specificity. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among the underage youth at baseline, we determined (1) the onset of drinking among those who never drank, (2) the onset of binge drinking among those who were never binge drinkers, and (3) the onset of hazardous drinking among those with an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption subscore of less than 4. Multivariate regressions were used to predict each outcome, controlling for covariates (demographics, drinking among friends and parents, and sensation seeking), weighting to the US population, and using multiple imputation to address loss to follow-up. RESULTS Underage participants were only slightly less likely than participants of legal drinking age to have seen alcohol ads (the mean percentage of ads seen were 23.4%, 22.7%, and 25.6%, respectively, for youth 15–17, 18–20, and 21–23 years of age; P advertising receptivity score independently predicted the onset of drinking (adjusted

  13. The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials

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    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  14. A social network analysis approach to alcohol use and co-occurring addictive behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; MacKillop, James; Goodie, Adam S

    2015-12-01

    The current study applied egocentric social network analysis (SNA) to investigate the prevalence of addictive behavior and co-occurring substance use in college students' networks. Specifically, we examined individuals' perceptions of the frequency of network members' co-occurring addictive behavior and investigated whether co-occurring addictive behavior is spread evenly throughout networks or is more localized in clusters. We also examined differences in network composition between individuals with varying levels of alcohol use. The study utilized an egocentric SNA approach in which respondents ("egos") enumerated 30 of their closest friends, family members, co-workers, and significant others ("alters") and the relations among alters listed. Participants were 281 undergraduates at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Robust associations were observed among the frequencies of gambling, smoking, drinking, and using marijuana by network members. We also found that alters tended to cluster together into two distinct groups: one cluster moderate-to-high on co-occurring addictive behavior and the other low on co-occurring addictive behavior. Lastly, significant differences were present when examining egos' perceptions of alters' substance use between the networks of at-risk, light, and nondrinkers. These findings provide empirical evidence of distinct clustering of addictive behavior among young adults and suggest the promise of social network-based interventions for this cohort. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Ethical issues in a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral therapy feasibility study and trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J; Meslin, Eric M; Sidle, John E

    2012-07-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them.

  16. A road paved with safe intentions: Increasing intentions to use alcohol protective behavioral strategies via Deviance Regulation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Martens, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Kuvaas, Nicholas J

    2016-06-01

    Drinking remains a problem across college campuses. Changing this behavior requires interventions that can be easily and widely dispersed. Several theories place intentions as a proximal predictor of behavior change. The current study examines the effects of a Web-based Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) intervention on (1) intentions to use alcohol protective behavior strategies (PBS) and (2) associations between these intentions and actual behavior. Participants (n = 76) completed a 6-week, Web-based study examining drinking behaviors. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive frame about individuals who use PBS or a negative frame about individuals who do not. They also reported normative perceptions of PBS use among college students. They subsequently logged onto a secure server each week to report on alcohol involvement, use of 3 types of PBS (Manner of Drinking, Stopping/Limiting, and Serious Harm Reduction), and intentions to use these PBS the following week. Consistent with DRT, negative frames resulted in higher PBS use intentions if individuals held high normative beliefs about PBS use. Positive frames resulted in higher Manner of Drinking PBS use intentions if individuals held low normative beliefs about PBS use, but only if individuals endorsed a high belief in the frame. In addition, there was a DRT consistent increase in intention-action associations, but only for Stopping/Limiting PBS. A brief Web-based DRT intervention was effective at increasing PBS intentions and increasing PBS intention-action associations. DRT may provide a mechanism to additively or synergistically improve other Web-based interventions for college drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases

  18. One molecule of ionic liquid and tert-alcohol on a polystyrene-support as catalysts for efficient nucleophilic substitution including fluorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Sandip S; Patil, Sunil N

    2014-12-07

    The tert-alcohol and ionic liquid solvents in one molecule [mim-(t)OH][OMs] was immobilized on polystyrene and reported to be a highly efficient catalyst in aliphatic nucleophilic substitution using alkali metal salts. Herein, we investigated the catalytic activity of a new structurally modified polymer-supported tert-alcohol functionalized imidazolium salt catalyst in nucleophilic substitution of 2-(3-methanesulfonyloxypropyoxy)naphthalene as a model substrate with various metal nucleophiles. The tert-alcohol moiety of the ionic liquid with a hexyl chain distance from polystyrene had a better catalytic activity compared to the other resin which lacked an alkyl linker and tert-alcohol moiety. We found that the maximum [mim-(t)OH][OMs] loading had the best catalytic efficacy among the tested polystyrene-based ionic liquids (PSILs) in nucleophilic fluorination. The catalytic efficiency of the PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] as a phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was determined by carrying out various nucleophilic substitutions using the corresponding alkali metal salts from the third to sixth periodic in CH3CN or tert-BuOH media. The scope of this protocol with primary and secondary polar substrates containing many heteroatoms is also reported. This PS[him-(t)OH][OMs] catalyst not only enhances the reactivity of alkali metal salts and reduces the formation of by-products but also affords high yield with easy isolation.

  19. Exploiting Redundant Measurement of Dose and Developmental Outcome: New Methods from the Behavioral Teratology of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of new statistical procedures in a study of the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure upon the neurobehavioral development of some 500 children born in 1975-76. Explains how the Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology can summarize the data powerfully while avoiding familiar inferential pitfalls. (MDM)

  20. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol-use behaviors among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S; Cloutier, Renee M; Bacon, Amy K; Douglas, Megan E

    2016-07-01

    Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity toward disengagement coping (e.g. avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally sensitive models of alcohol use are needed.

  1. Gelation Behavior of 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an Antituberculosis Agent in Aqueous Alcohol Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Korpela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an antituberculosis agent, gels aqueous alcohol solutions efficiently. Thermal stability and gel-to-sol transition temperature of 1% gel in CD3OD/D2O (2:1 was studied by 1H-NMR. Fibrous structures of four xerogels have been characterized by scanning electron microscope.

  2. Broad-Spectrum Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Alcoholics: Effects of Training Controlled Drinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, David W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed unique treatment effects of training controlled drinking skills in a chronic alcoholic population of veterans (N=62). Results of a six-month posttreatment follow-up revealed that subjects in the drinking skills condition had significantly fewer abstinent days and more abusive drinking days than subjects in the untrained condition. (LLL)

  3. The impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behavior outcome of children in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Sidhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a pivotal role in upbringing a child and shaping their future. However, children of alcoholics (COAs suffer due to their parent′s dependence pattern. The various domains affected encompass cognitive, behavioural, psychological, emotional and social spheres. This study was designed to assess the impact of alcohol dependence in the parent on the development and behavior of their children, so that further steps could be taken to minimize the negative influences. Aims: To study the impact of parental alcohol dependence on the development and behaviour outcome of children in various domains, alongwith the effect of the family environment. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 25 children between 6 and 18 years of age, whose atleast one parent was diagnosed as alcohol dependant. The other parent was assessed using a general health questionnaire-28. Child behaviour checklist and family evaluation scale (FES were then applied. Statistical Analysis Used: The analysis was done according the manuals provided with the respective scales to calculate the score. Results: Both male and female COAs had high externalizing and internalizing scores. The girls have higher internalizing scores while the boys of such parents have higher externalizing scores. The FES showed dysfunction in all the three dimensions, namely the relationship, personal growth and the system maintenance. Conclusions: Our study corroborates the findings of the studies done in the past on COAs. The COAs face various affective, anxiety, somatic, attention deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional defiant conduct problems.

  4. Ethnic Drinking Culture, Acculturation, and Enculturation in Relation to Alcohol Drinking Behavior Among Marriage-Based Male Immigrants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Chien, Li-Yin

    2018-04-01

    Drinking behavior among immigrants could be influenced by drinking-related cultural norms in their country of origin and host country. This study examined the association of ethnic drinking culture, acculturation, and enculturation with alcohol drinking among male immigrants in Taiwan. This cross-sectional survey recruited 188 male immigrants. Ethnic drinking culture was divided into dry and wet according to per capita alcohol consumption and abstinent rate in the countries of origin in reference to that in Taiwan. A scale, Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Marriage-Based Immigrants, was developed to measure acculturation (adaptation to the host culture) and enculturation (maintenance of the original culture). Drinking patterns (abstinent, low-risk drinking, and hazardous drinking) were determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. There was a significant interaction between ethnic drinking culture and enculturation/acculturation on drinking patterns. Multinomial logistic regression models identified that for those from dry ethnic drinking cultures, a high level of acculturation was associated with increased low-risk drinking, while a high level of enculturation was associated with decreased low-risk drinking. For those from wet ethnic drinking cultures, a low level of acculturation and high level of enculturation were associated with increased hazardous drinking. High family socioeconomic status was associated with increased drinking, while perceived insufficient family income was positively associated with hazardous use. To prevent hazardous use of alcohol, health education should be targeted at immigrant men who drink, especially among those who have economic problems, are from wet ethnic drinking cultures, and demonstrate low adaptation to the host culture.

  5. HIV and alcohol knowledge, self-perceived risk for HIV, and risky sexual behavior among young HIV-negative men identified as harmful or hazardous drinkers in Katutura, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitters, Amee; Sabatier, Jennifer; Seth, Puja; Glenshaw, Mary; Remmert, Dietrich; Pathak, Sonal; Bock, Naomi

    2015-11-26

    Namibia's HIV prevalence is 13.3%. Alcohol is associated with sexual risk-taking, leading to increased HIV risk. Baseline sexual behaviors, HIV and alcohol knowledge, and self-perceived HIV risk were examined among men reporting high-risk drinking in Katutura, Namibia. HIV negative men, ≥ 18 years, were screened for harmful or hazardous levels of drinking and >1 recent sex partner prior to randomization into control or intervention arm. SAS 9.3 and R 3.01 were used for descriptive baseline cohort analyses. A total of 501 participants who met criteria were included in analysis (mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] =12.4). HIV and alcohol knowledge were high with the majority (>85 and 89.8-98%, respectively) of respondents correctly answering assessment questions. Despite high knowledge levels, 66.7% of men felt they were at some or high risk of HIV acquisition. Among those respondents, 56.5% stated often wanting to have sex after drinking and 40.3% stated sex was better when drunk. Among respondents with non-steady partners [n = 188], 44.1% of last sexual encounters occurred while the participant was drunk and condoms were not used 32.5% of those times. Among persons who were not drunk condoms were not used 13.3% of those times. Sex with casual partners was high. Inconsistent condom use and alcohol use before sex were frequently reported. Increased emphasis on alcohol risk-reduction strategies, including drinking due to peer pressure and unsafe sexual behaviors, is needed.

  6. Social networks and their influence on drinking behaviors: differences related to cognitive impairment in clients receiving alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Jennifer F; Bates, Marsha E; Cisler, Ron A

    2007-09-01

    Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N = 1,726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network.

  7. The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John

    2012-10-01

    Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey; Egan, Sarah; Nordgren, Lise Bergman; Carlbring, Per; Landström, Andreas; Roos, Stina; Skoglund, Malin; Thelander, Elisabet; Trosell, Linnéa; Örtenholm, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide in Patients with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with a high risk for suicidal behavior. Up to 40% of persons with alcoholism attempt suicide at some time and 7% end their lives by committing suicide. Risk factors include being male, older than 50 years of age, living alone, being unemployed, poor social support, interpersonal losses, continued drinking, consumption of a greater amount of alcohol when drinking, a recent alcohol binge, previous alcohol treatment, a family history of alcoholism, a history of comorbid substance abuse (especially cocaine, a major depressive episode, serious medical illness, suicidal communication, and prior suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is especially frequent in patients with comorbid alcoholism and major depression. However, all patients with alcoholism should be evaluated for suicide risk. Understanding of risk and vulnerability to suicidal behavior in alcoholism still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. Knowledge of protective factors for suicide may help to prevent and/or predict suicidal behavior. Protective factors for suicide in alcoholism are quite varied and include an individual's biological and behavioral characteristics, as well as attributes of the environment and culture. Protective factors include effective clinical care for psychiatric (including alcoholism and drug abuse and physical disorders, easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help, restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide, strong connections to family and community support, skills in problem solving and conflict resolution, cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation. Future studies are necessary to determine which interventions may reduce suicidal behavior in alcoholism.

  10. The Influence of Time Attitudes on Alcohol-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Subjective Life Expectancy in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Examination Using Mover-Stayer Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin Eugene; Morgan, Grant; Worrell, Frank C.; Sumnall, Harry; McKay, Michael Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine the stability of time attitudes profiles across a one-year period as well as the association between time attitudes profiles and several variables. These variables include attitudes towards alcohol, context of alcohol use, consumption of a full drink, and subjective life expectancy. We assessed the…

  11. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  12. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  13. Degradation behavior of carbon nanotubes/phenol-furfuryl alcohol multifunctional composites with aerospace application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, L. S.; Costa, M. L.; Oishi, S. S.; Botelho, E. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight and highly conductive composite associated with good impact and tribological properties could be used in the aerospace industry to replace metal for an aircraft skin and still provide effective shielding against electromagnetic interference (EMI). Also, phenol-furfuryl alcohol resins (PFA) are excellent candidates to replace existing thermoset matrices used for obtaining glassy carbon, both in its pure form and reinforced with nanoscale structures. The synthesis of PFA allow obtaining a resin with better properties than that showed by conventional phenolic resins and with synthesis and cure processes more controlled than observed for the furfuryl alcohol resin. This work has as main purpose the synthesis and thermal characterization of PFA resin and its nanostructured composites with different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt%). PFA resin was synthesized with 1:2:1 molar ratio of phenol/formaldehyde/furfuryl alcohol, according to the more appropriate condition obtained previously. The specimens were evaluated by thermogravimetry (TGA) to knowledge of the temperature of thermal degradation, either by actual analyses as simulated by simulation heating rate conversion software (known as Highway Simulation). The introduction of CNT in PFA sample does not affect its thermal stability. The values of residual weight found for samples with CNT additions are close to the values of the phenolic resin in the literature (about 60% residual weight).

  14. Gender and Social Pressure to Change Drinking Behavior: Results from the National Alcohol Surveys from 1984-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L; Korcha, Rachael A; Kerr, William C; Greenfield, Thomas K; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Research shows social and institutional pressure influences drinking, yet determinants of who receives pressure are understudied. This paper examines age, time period, and birth cohort (APC) effects on pressure to stop or reduce drinking among U.S. men and women. Data were drawn from six National Alcohol Surveys (NAS) conducted from 1984 to 2010 (N=32,534). Receipt of pressure during the past year to quit or change drinking from formal (police, doctor, work) and informal (spouse, family, friends) sources was assessed. Determinants of pressure were similar for men and women but varied in strength. They included younger age, less education, and younger cohort groups. Cohort effects were stronger for women than men. Cohort effects among women may be due to increased alcohol marketing to younger women and the changing social contexts of their drinking. Future studies should assess associations between drinking contexts, pressures, and outcomes.

  15. Effects of a combined parent-student alcohol prevention program on intermediate factors and adolescents' drinking behavior: A sequential mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Maric, Marija; MacKinnon, David; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-08-01

    Previous work revealed that the combined parent-student alcohol prevention program (PAS) effectively postponed alcohol initiation through its hypothesized intermediate factors: increase in strict parental rule setting and adolescents' self-control (Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen, Engels, & Vollebergh, 2011). This study examines whether the parental strictness precedes an increase in adolescents' self-control by testing a sequential mediation model. A cluster randomized trial including 3,245 Dutch early adolescents (M age = 12.68, SD = 0.50) and their parents randomized over 4 conditions: (1) parent intervention, (2) student intervention, (3) combined intervention, and (4) control group. Outcome measure was amount of weekly drinking measured at age 12 to 15; baseline assessment (T0) and 3 follow-up assessments (T1-T3). Main effects of the combined and parent intervention on weekly drinking at T3 were found. The effect of the combined intervention on weekly drinking (T3) was mediated via an increase in strict rule setting (T1) and adolescents' subsequent self-control (T2). In addition, the indirect effect of the combined intervention via rule setting (T1) was significant. No reciprocal sequential mediation (self-control at T1 prior to rules at T2) was found. The current study is 1 of the few studies reporting sequential mediation effects of youth intervention outcomes. It underscores the need of involving parents in youth alcohol prevention programs, and the need to target both parents and adolescents, so that change in parents' behavior enables change in their offspring. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Behavioral Impulsivity and Risk-Taking Trajectories Across Early Adolescence in Youths With and Without Family Histories of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Lake, Sarah L; Mathias, Charles W; Ryan, Stacy R; Bray, Bethany C; Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Youths with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased susceptibility for developing substance use disorders relative to those without such histories (FH-). This vulnerability may be related to impaired adolescent development of impulse control and elevated risk-taking. However, no previous studies have prospectively examined impulse control and risk-taking in FH+ youth across adolescence. A total of 386 pre-adolescents (305 FH+, 81 FH-; aged 10 to 12) with no histories of regular alcohol or other drug use were compared on behavioral measures of impulsivity including delay discounting, response initiation (Immediate Memory Task), response inhibition impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm), and risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth). Youths completed these laboratory tasks every 6 months, allowing for the examination of 10- to 15-year-olds. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to characterize the development of impulse control and risk-taking as shown in performance of these tasks throughout adolescence. We found that (i) FH+ youths had increased levels of delay discounting and response inhibition impulsivity at study entry; (ii) regardless of FH status, all youths had relatively stable delay discounting across time, improvements in response inhibition and response initiation impulsivity, and increased risk-taking; and (iii) although FH+ youths had increased response inhibition impulsivity at pre-adolescence, these differences were negligible by mid-adolescence. Heightened delay discounting in FH+ pre-adolescents coupled with normal adolescent increases in risk-taking may contribute to their increased susceptibility toward problem substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Electromechanical behavior of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under static, dynamic and time-dependent strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhilesan, S; Lakshmana Rao, C; Varughese, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the experimentally observed electrical conductivity enhancement in polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend films under uniaxial tensile loading. Polyaniline (PANI) is an intrinsically conducting polymer, which does not form stretchable free-standing films easily and hence its electromechanical characterization is a challenge. Blending of PANI with other insulating polymers is a good choice to overcome the processability problem. We report the electromechanical response of solution blended and HCl doped PANI/PVA blends subjected to uniaxial, static, dynamic and time-dependent tensile loading. The demonstrated viscoelastic and morphological contributions of the component polymers to the electrical conductivity behavior in these blends could lead to interesting applications in strain sensors and flexible electronics. The reversibility of the electromechanical response under dynamic strain is found to increase in blends with higher PANI content. Time-dependent conductivity studies during mechanical stress relaxation reveal that variations in the micro-domain ordering and the relative relaxation rate of the individual polymer phases can give rise to interesting electrical conductivity changes in PANI blends. From morphological and electrical conductivity studies, we show that PANI undergoes primary and secondary agglomeration behavior in these blends that contributes to the changes in conductivity behavior during the deformation. A 3D variable range hopping (VRH) process, which uses a deformable core and shell concept based on blend morphology analysis, is used to explain the experimentally observed electromechanical behavior. (papers)

  18. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Junjun; Liu, Zengrong

    2012-01-01

    MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008) and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  19. Dynamical behaviors of Rb-E2F pathway including negative feedback loops involving miR449.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available MiRNAs, which are a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulate a broad array of physiological and developmental processes. However, their regulatory roles have remained largely mysterious. E2F is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression and also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Positive feedback loops in the regulation of Rb-E2F pathway are predicted and shown experimentally. Recently, it has been discovered that E2F induce a cluster of miRNAs called miR449. In turn, E2F is inhibited by miR449 through regulating different transcripts, thus forming negative feedback loops in the interaction network. Here, based on the integration of experimental evidence and quantitative data, we studied Rb-E2F pathway coupling the positive feedback loops and negative feedback loops mediated by miR449. Therefore, a mathematical model is constructed based in part on the model proposed in Yao-Lee et al. (2008 and nonlinear dynamical behaviors including the stability and bifurcations of the model are discussed. A comparison is given to reveal the implication of the fundamental differences of Rb-E2F pathway between regulation and deregulation of miR449. Coherent with the experiments it predicts that miR449 plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle progression and provides a twofold safety mechanism to avoid excessive E2F-induced proliferation by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis shows that the mechanisms of the negative regulation of miR449 to three different transcripts are quite distinctive which needs to be verified experimentally. This study may help us to analyze the whole cell cycle process mediated by other miRNAs more easily. A better knowledge of the dynamical behaviors of miRNAs mediated networks is also of interest for bio-engineering and artificial control.

  20. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Chronic moderate alcohol drinking alters insulin release without affecting cognitive and emotion-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nnamdi G; Suhaidi, Faten A; Law, Wen Xuan; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2017-12-16

    Because the consumption of alcoholic beverages prevails in society, its effects on diabetes risk is a subject of interest. Extant literature on this issue often disagrees. Here, we probed the effects of chronic moderate ethanol consumption on glucose metabolism in rats. The effect of chronic moderate alcohol drinking on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and memory was also explored. Adolescent male and female Long-Evans rats consumed saccharin-sweetened 5% (1 week) and 10% ethanol (7 weeks) under a 7.5-h/day (Monday-Friday) access schedule. This exposure was followed by sucrose preference and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests during an intervening week, before a 6-week intermittent-access (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) to 20% unsweetened ethanol in a 2-bottle choice drinking paradigm was implemented (EtOH). A free-feeding control group received water (Water). Our prior work revealed that voluntary ethanol consumption decreases food intake in rats. Hence, a second control group that received water was mildly food-restricted (FR), and their average body weight was matched to that of the EtOH group. During the week following week 6 of intermittent-access to 20% ethanol, rats were submitted to sucrose preference, EPM, and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Insulin response to a glucose load was subsequently assessed via an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Rats attained and maintained blood ethanol concentrations of ∼55 mg/dL that correlated with the dose of sweetened 10% ethanol ingested. Relative to intake by Water controls, EtOH rats consumed less chow. There was no body weight difference between both groups. Neither sex of EtOH rats showed increased depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, as respectively measured by sucrose preference and EPM, nor did they show deficit in object recognition memory during abstinence. Male EtOH rats, however, showed signs of reduced general activity on the EPM. During OGTT, male EtOH rats showed a time-dependent potentiation

  2. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health.

  3. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Use Among Active Duty Women: Analysis AUDIT Scores From the 2011 Health-Related Behavior Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Diana D; Mattiko, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies document higher substance use among military men after deployment; similar studies focused on military women are limited. This study examines alcohol use of active duty women and deployment factors, social/environmental/attitudinal factors, and psychological/intrapersonal factors. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 Survey of Health-Related Behavior of active duty military personnel was conducted using bivariate statistics and multiple regression analyses with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores as the dependent variable. Nearly 94% had low risk for alcohol use disorders. Length of combat experience and extent of combat exposure were unrelated to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores; noncombat deployment was unrelated after controlling for marital status, age of first drink, pay grade, and branch of service. Significant motivators (p risk propensity, lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, and depressed mood were significant predictors in the regression model after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that some active duty women use alcohol to cope with adverse emotional states, whereas others use alcohol consistent with propensity for high-risk behaviors. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. The Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol Use on Condom Use Behavior: Findings from a Sample of Young Adult Female Bar Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (level 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex. PMID:22612253

  6. Intercalation of alcohols in Ag sulfonates: topotactic behavior despite flexible layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Adrien P; Ferguson, Michael J; Khan, Kashif A; Enright, Gary D; Kulynych, Angela D; Dalrymple, Sean A; Shimizu, George K H

    2002-01-28

    This article presents the inaugural intercalation study of a layered metal sulfonate network. Silver triflate forms intercalation complexes with straight chain primary alcohols from ethanol (C(2)H(5)OH) to eicosanol (C(20)H(41)OH). Single-crystal data for the EtOH adduct, 1, are presented which show that the intercalation is coordinative to Ag. In contrast to many other layered hosts, no preheating of Ag triflate is required to liberate a coordination site for intercalation to take place, owing to the ability of the triflate ion to reorient. Crystal structure parameters for 1: C(4)H(6)F(6)S(2)O(7)Ag(2), a = 5.345(7) A, b = 11.310(2) A, c = 12.004(2) A, alpha = 116.87(1) degrees, beta = 90.46(1) degrees, gamma = 99.59(1) degrees, triclinic, space group P, Z = 2. Intercalate 1 presents the triflate ion in an unprecedented mu(5)-coordination mode. PXRD data on the family of complexes show that the intercalation is topotactic, as verified by the linear increase in d-spacing and calculated c-axis lengths for the intercalates, with increasing chain length. The data also show that the alcohol intercalates adopt an interdigitated rather than bilayer arrangement.

  7. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Corey R; Maisto, Stephen A; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-09-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that alcohol-specific coping is a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Our primary aim was to test whether baseline dependence severity moderates the mediational effect of CBT on drinking outcomes via coping. Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH , a multi-site alcohol treatment trial in which participants, recruited in out-patient and aftercare arms, were randomized to three treatments: CBT, motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and Twelve-Step facilitation (TSF). Nine research sites in the United States. A total of 1063 adults with AUD. The primary outcomes were percentage days abstinent and percentage heavy drinking days at the 1-year follow-up. Coping was assessed with the Processes of Change Questionnaire . Dependence severity was measured with the Alcohol Dependence Scale . Among the full available sample (across treatment arms), there were no significant moderated mediation effects. Double moderated mediation analyses indicated that several moderated mediation effects were moderated by treatment arm (all P cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder was conditional on dependence severity. End-of-treatment coping mediated the positive treatment effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on 1-year drinking outcomes among out-patient clients when dependence severity was high, but not when dependence severity was low or moderate. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  10. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  11. The impact of husband physical aggression and alcohol use on marital functioning: does alcohol "excuse" the violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, M; Leonard, K E

    2001-10-01

    Alcohol has been posited to serve as an "excuse" for deviant behavior, including domestic violence. A recent study suggested that wives hold husbands less responsible for their aggressive behavior when husbands are problem drinkers. To replicate and extend this study, the independent and interactive effects of husband physical aggression and husband alcohol use on wives' marital satisfaction and thoughts of divorce were examined among newlywed couples (n = 387). Husband physical aggression had a significant negative effect on marital satisfaction and a significant positive effect on divorce ideation regardless of the measure of husband alcohol use employed. Alcohol dependence had a negative effect on satisfaction; however, in no case was there an interaction between alcohol and aggression. Results fail to replicate an earlier study supporting an excuse function of alcohol and suggest that alcohol does not mitigate the negative effects of domestic violence on marital functioning.

  12. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  13. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Taveras, Elsie M; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resnick, Elissa A; Lee, Grace M; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Goldmann, Donald A

    2005-09-01

    Good hand hygiene may reduce the spread of infections in families with children who are in out-of-home child care. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers rapidly kill viruses that are commonly associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether a multifactorial campaign centered on increasing alcohol-based hand sanitizer use and hand-hygiene education reduces illness transmission in the home. A cluster randomized, controlled trial was conducted of homes of 292 families with children who were enrolled in out-of-home child care in 26 child care centers. Eligible families had > or =1 child who was 6 months to 5 years of age and in child care for > or =10 hours/week. Intervention families received a supply of hand sanitizer and biweekly hand-hygiene educational materials for 5 months; control families received only materials promoting good nutrition. Primary caregivers were phoned biweekly and reported respiratory and GI illnesses in family members. Respiratory and GI-illness-transmission rates (measured as secondary illnesses per susceptible person-month) were compared between groups, adjusting for demographic variables, hand-hygiene practices, and previous experience using hand sanitizers. Baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. A total of 1802 respiratory illnesses occurred during the study; 443 (25%) were secondary illnesses. A total of 252 GI illnesses occurred during the study; 28 (11%) were secondary illnesses. The secondary GI-illness rate was significantly lower in intervention families compared with control families (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.90). The overall rate of secondary respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups (IRR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.72-1.30). However, families with higher sanitizer usage had a marginally lower secondary respiratory illness rate than those with less usage (IRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65-1.09). A

  14. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  15. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico Magnitud del consumo de alcohol y comportamientos problemáticos en jóvenes escolarizados en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Latimer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to: (a categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (b examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law. METHODS: The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. RESULTS: For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use.OBJETIVOS: Se buscó: a categorizar a los jóvenes según su nivel de consumo de alcohol y el número de síntomas de abuso y dependencia del alcohol definidos en el Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales (DSM-IV; y b analizar si esas categorías están asociadas con otros comportamientos problemáticos de los jóvenes (consumo de marihuana, relaciones sexuales y arrestos o problemas con la ley. MÉTODOS: Estudio

  16. College Men and Alcohol Use: Positive Alcohol Expectancies as a Mediator Between Distinct Masculine Norms and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men ( Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of "Playboy" and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men.

  17. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Neamati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50, (Sent - Ext 100 and (Sent - Ext 200 were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01. The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01 while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001. In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V

  18. Dehydration driven changes in the structure and mechanical behavior of electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Ankita; Sinha, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are well known for their possible application in different fields, ranging from packaging to tissue engineering. However, biomedical application of these nanofibers gets limited due to its rapid disintegration in water, causing mechanical instability. Addressing this issue, the present manuscript reports ethanol induced dehydration of electrospun PVA nanofibers, and its effects on the structure and mechanical properties of the electrospun system. A systematic variation in the structure and mechanical stability of nanofibers as a function of PVA concentration has also been established in the both hydrated and dehydrated states. - Highlights: ► Study reports structure-property correlation of dehydrated PVA nanofibers. ► Results confirm symmetrical reversal of properties in two states. ► Experimental results are in confirmation with the fusion model of nanofibers.

  19. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  20. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoerds, Z; de Wit, S; van den Brink, W; Robbins, T W; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H; Veltman, D J

    2013-12-17

    Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not yet been experimentally investigated in human drug abusers. The aim of the present study therefore was to assess the balance between goal-directed and habit-based learning and its neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. A total of 31 AD patients and 19 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during completion of an instrumental learning task designed to study the balance between goal-directed and habit learning. Task performance and task-related blood oxygen level-dependent activations in the brain were compared between AD patients and healthy matched controls. Findings were additionally associated with duration and severity of alcohol dependence. The results of this study provide evidence for an overreliance on stimulus-response habit learning in AD compared with HC, which was accompanied by decreased engagement of brain areas implicated in goal-directed action (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior putamen) and increased recruitment of brain areas implicated in habit learning (posterior putamen) in AD patients. In conclusion, this is the first human study to provide experimental evidence for a disturbed balance between goal-directed and habitual control by use of an instrumental learning task, and to directly implicate cortical dysfunction to overreliance on inflexible habits in AD patients.

  1. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  2. Impact of a universal intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  3. Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Crijnen, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  4. I didn’t feel like drinking but I don’t know why: the effects of evaluative conditioning on alcohol-related attitudes, craving and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Schoenmaker, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to test the value of evaluative conditioning (EC) to unobtrusively change alcohol-related attitudes and drinking behavior. In the EC paradigm, participants had to spot an irrelevant target picture in a series of trials in which many different stimuli were

  5. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  6. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian

    2012-01-01

    of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents...... the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper....

  7. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Seizures in Patients With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hamerle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy

  8. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effects of baseline problematic alcohol and drug use on internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Gajecki

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients' problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. METHODS: At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT, depressive symptoms (MADRS-S, panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR. RESULTS: Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥ 8 for men, ≥ 6 for women; DUDIT ≥ 1 occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25-34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35-64 year olds. CONCLUSION: Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use.

  10. Effects of baseline problematic alcohol and drug use on internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Rück, Christian; Lindefors, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Patients' problematic substance use prevalence and effects were explored in relation to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) outcomes for depression, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. At baseline and treatment conclusion, 1601 ICBT patients were assessed with self-rated measures for alcohol and drug use (AUDIT/DUDIT), depressive symptoms (MADRS-S), panic disorder symptoms (PDSS-SR) and social anxiety symptoms (LSAS-SR). Problematic substance use (AUDIT ≥ 8 for men, ≥ 6 for women; DUDIT ≥ 1) occurred among 32.4% of the patients; 24.1% only alcohol, 4.6% only drugs, and 3.7% combined alcohol and drug use. Hazardous alcohol use and probable alcohol dependence negatively affected panic disorder outcomes, and hazardous drug use led to worse social anxiety outcomes. Depression outcomes were not affected by substance use. Treatment adherence was negatively affected by problematic drug use among men and 25-34 year olds; combined substance use negatively affected adherence for women and 35-64 year olds. Problematic substance use does not preclude ICBT treatment but can worsen outcomes, particularly problematic alcohol use for panic disorder patients and hazardous drug use for social anxiety patients. ICBT clinicians should exercise particular caution when treating men and younger patients with problematic drug use, and women or older patients with combined substance use.

  11. Tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and common mental disorders among military students at the Police Academy, São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Arlene de Maria; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2015-01-01

    The lifestyle of military personnel has been little studied in Brazil. This study evaluated the frequencies of tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and mental health among military students. Cross-sectional study at the Police Academy, in São Paulo. Students answered a questionnaire about tobacco use, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior and common mental disorders (CMDs). To analyze associations among the frequencies of smoking and alcohol use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and CMDs during the undergraduate years, we built a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. All 473 students were invited to participate and 430 (90.9%) agreed (10.5% were women). Most were white (76.6%), aged < 30 years, from the upper middle class (78.1%). The frequency of smoking was 6.5%, alcohol consumption 69.3%, STDs 14% and CMDs 15.6%. The use of condoms was low. Fourth-year students presented a lower odds ratio (OR) for STDs than the first-year students: 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90). Third-year students presented a lower OR for CMDs than the first-year students. The frequencies of smoking and CMDs were low, while the frequency of alcohol consumption was similar to that of the Brazilian population. The use of condoms was low, in comparison with previous studies with similar samples. The results suggest that there was a certain degree of protection against CMDs and STDs during the undergraduate years.

  12. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  13. Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Kogan, Steven M; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Juliano, Laura M; Lilly, Christa L; James, Jack E

    2018-04-30

    Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. We hypothesized that caffeine use at baseline would be positively associated with increased alcohol use, drunkenness, smoking, and e-cigarette use. Prospective cohort study with 12 months separating baseline from follow-up. West Virginia, USA. Middle school students (6 th and 7 th grades; N = 3,932) in three West Virginia (WV) counties provided data at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. Youth self-reported their use of caffeine from multiple sources (e.g., soda, energy drinks, coffee and tea), cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness. Cross-lagged path models for individual substance use categories provided good fit to the data. Controlling for demographic variables and other substance use at baseline, caffeine at T1 was positively associated with T2 cigarette smoking (β = .27, p = .001), e-cigarette use (β = .21, p = .001), alcohol use (β = .17, p = .001), and drunkenness (β = .15, p = .001). Conversely, non-significant relations emerged between three of four substances at T1 and caffeine at T2. Positive relations were found between e-cigarette use at T1 and caffeine use at T2 (β = .07, p = .006). These findings were supported by an omnibus model with all substances included. Specifically, significant relations were observed between caffeine at T1 and all substance use outcomes at T2, whereas no significant relations were observed between substance use and caffeine over time. Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J B; Zhang, L; Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H

    1999-01-01

    Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting. PMID:10220927

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Tannic Acid Hydrogels with Excellent Mechanical Properties and Shape Memory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Nan; Peng, Lufang; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Yaxin; Shi, Shengjie; Wang, Huiliang

    2016-10-12

    Shape memory hydrogels have promising applications in a wide variety of fields. Here we report the facile fabrication of a novel type of shape memory hydrogels physically cross-linked with both stronger and weaker hydrogen bonding (H-bonding). Strong multiple H-bonding formed between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and tannic acid (TA) leads to their coagulation when they are physically mixed at an elevated temperature and easy gelation at room temperature. The amorphous structure and strong H-bonding endow the PVA-TA hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties, as indicated by their high tensile strengths (up to 2.88 MPa) and high elongations (up to 1100%). The stronger H-bonding between PVA and TA functions as the "permanent" cross-link and the weaker H-bonding between PVA chains as the "temporary" cross-link. The reversible breakage and formation of the weaker H-bonding imparts the PVA-TA hydrogels with excellent temperature-responsive shape memory. Wet and dried hydrogel samples with a deformed or elongated shape can recover to their original shapes when immersed in 60 °C water in a few seconds or at 125 °C in about 2.5 min, respectively.

  16. A behavioral-genetic investigation of bulimia nervosa and its relationship with alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Sara Elizabeth; Thornton, Laura Marie; Baker, Jessica Helen; Root, Tammy Lynn; Janson, Lauren Elizabeth; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Bulik, Cynthia Marie

    2013-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and may share genetic factors; however, the nature of their association is not fully understood. We assessed the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to BN and AUD. A bivariate structural equation model using a Cholesky decomposition was fit to data from 7,241 women who participated in the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The proportion of variance accounted for by genetic and environmental factors for BN and AUD and the genetic and environmental correlations between these disorders were estimated. In the best-fitting model, the heritability estimates were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.70) for BN and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.70) for AUD. Unique environmental factors accounted for the remainder of variance for BN. The genetic correlation between BN and AUD was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.44), and the correlation between the unique environmental factors for the two disorders was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.61), suggesting moderate overlap in these factors. Findings from this investigation provide additional support that some of the same genetic factors may influence liability to both BN and AUD. PMID:23790978

  17. Thermal behavior of phenol-furfuryl alcohol resin/carbon nanotubes composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, L. S.; Costa, M. L.; Oishi, S. S.; Botelho, E. C.

    2018-04-01

    Phenol-furfuryl alcohol resins (PFA) are excellent candidates to replace existing thermoset matrices used in obtaining insulating systems or carbon materials, both in its pure form and reinforced with nanoscale structures. This work had as main purpose synthesize and investigate thermal characterization of PFA resin and its nanostructured composites with different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt%). The DSC analysis was performed to estimate the specific heat (cp) of the cured samples and thermomechanical analysis to find the linear thermal expansion coefficient (α). From these results, the cp values found for the PFA system was similar to that described in the literature for the phenolic resin. The cp increased with the increase in the CNT concentration in the system up to 0.5%. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion obtained by TMA technique for PFA sample was 33.10‑6/°C which was close to the α value of phenolic resin (40 to 80.10‑6/°C).

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol Nanocomposites Reinforced with Bamboo Charcoal Nanoparticles: Mineralization Behavior and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ming Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA demonstrates chemical stability and biocompatibility and is widely used in biomedical applications. The porous bamboo charcoal has excellent toxin absorptivity and has been used in blood purification. In this study, bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (BCNPs were acquired with nano-grinding technology. The PVA and PVA/BCNP nanocomposite membranes were prepared and characterized by the tensile test, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation of the swollen PVA membranes containing 1% BCNPs (PB1 were significantly greater than those of PVA and other PVA/BCNP composite membranes. In addition, the major absorption band of OH stretching in the IR spectra shifted from 3262 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 1% BCNP to 3244 cm−1 for PVA membrane containing 20% BCNP. This blue shift might be attributed to the interaction between the PVA molecules and BCNPs. Moreover, the intensity of the XRD peaks in PVA was decreased with the increased BCNP content. The bioactivity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF for seven days. The mineral deposition on PB5 was significantly more than that on the other samples. The mineral was identified as hydroxyapatite (HA by XRD. These data suggest that the bioactivity of the composite hydrogel membranes was associated with the surface distribution of hydrophilic/hydrophobic components. The PVA/BCNP composite hydrogels may have potential applications in alveolar bone regeneration.

  19. Unified scaling behavior of physical properties of clays in alcohol solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujala, Ravi Kumar; Pawar, Nisha; Bohidar, H B

    2011-12-15

    This paper reports observation of universal scaling of physical properties of clay particles, Laponite (aspect ratio=30) (L) and Na Montmorillonite (MMT, aspect ratio=200), in aqueous alcohol solutions (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) with solvent polarity, defined through reaction field factor f(OH)(ɛ(0),n)=[(ɛ(0) - 1/ɛ(0) + 2) - (n(2) - 1/n(2) + 2)], at room temperature (20°C). Here, ɛ(0) and n are the static dielectric constant and refractive index of the solvent concerned. Physical properties (Z) such as zeta potential, effective aggregate size, viscosity and surface tension scaled with the relative solvent polarity as Z∼δf(α); δf=(f(w)(ɛ(0),n) - f(OH)(ɛ(0),n)), where f(w)(ɛ(0),n) is the reaction field factor for water, Z is the normalized physical property, and α is its characteristic scaling exponent. The value of this exponent was found to be invariant of aspect ratio of the clay but dependent on the solvent polarity only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment outcomes of a Stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Sidle, John E.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Mwaniki, Michael M.; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E.; Kamanda, Allan M.; Ayuku, David O.; Ojwang, Claris; Owino-Ong’or, Willis D.; Harrington, Magdalena; Bryant, Kendall J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Justice, Amy C.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Dual epidemics of HIV and alcohol use disorders, and a dearth of professional resources for behavioral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, suggest the need for development of culturally relevant and feasible interventions. The purpose of this study was to test the preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted 6-session gender-stratified group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention delivered by paraprofessionals to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Design Randomized clinical trial comparing CBT against a usual care assessment only control Setting A large HIV outpatient clinic in Eldoret, Kenya, part of the Academic Model for Providing Access to Healthcare collaboration Participants 75 HIV-infected outpatients who were antiretroviral (ARV)-initiated or ARV-eligible and who reported hazardous or binge drinking Measurements Percent drinking days (PDD) and mean drinks per drinking days (DDD) measured continuously using the Timeline Followback Findings There were 299 ineligible and 102 eligible outpatients with 12 refusals. Effect sizes of the change in alcohol use since baseline between the two conditions at the 30-day follow-up were large (d=.95, p=.0002, mean difference=24.93 (95% CI: 12.43, 37.43) PDD; d=.76, p=.002, mean difference=2.88 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.70) DDD). Randomized participants attended 93% of the 6 CBT sessions offered. Reported alcohol abstinence at the 90-day follow-up was 69.4% (CBT) and 37.5% (usual care). Paraprofessional counselors achieved independent ratings of adherence and competence equivalent to college-educated therapists in the U.S. Treatment effect sizes were comparable to alcohol intervention studies conducted in the U.S. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be successfully adapted to group paraprofessional delivery in Kenya and may be effective in reducing alcohol use among HIV-infected Kenyan outpatients. PMID:21631622

  1. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Tyng Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Results: Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the

  2. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  3. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-06-01

    Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents' attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD).

  4. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  5. Sex Under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383

  6. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  7. Simulation of Weld Mechanical Behavior to Include Welding Induced Residual Stress and Distortion: Coupling of SYSWELD and Abaqus Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    able to investigate how the welding process modifies the resultant fracture and fatigue behavior for structural components on its vessels. NSWCCD-61...Investigation of the Strain Rate and Temperature Effects on the Plastic Flow Stress and Ductile Failure Strain of Aluminum Alloys 5083- H116, 6082-T6, and a...883-895. 4. Xiaosheng Gao, Tingting Zhang, Matthew Hayden, and Charles Roe, Effects of the Stress State on Plasticity and Ductile Failure of an

  8. Protective behavioral strategies as a mediator and moderator of the relationship between self-regulation and alcohol-related consequences in first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Gabrielle Maria; Pearson, Matthew R; Kelley, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    This study examined protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator and moderator of the relationship between self-regulation and alcohol-related consequences. Participants were 249 first-year undergraduate men and women. The use of PBS partially mediated the relationship between self-regulation and alcohol-related problems (i.e., supporting the "self-control equals drinking control" hypothesis). However, use of PBS appeared more important for those with poorer self-regulation abilities (supporting the "PBS protect the impaired" hypothesis). Because both mediation and moderation were supported, a moderated mediation model was tested. The moderated mediation model demonstrated that the negative relationship between self-regulation and alcohol-related consequences could be explained by use of PBS for individuals with poor-to-average self-regulation but not for individuals with above-average, self-regulation abilities. Implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  9. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  10. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  11. Age-related differences in anxiety-like behavior and amygdalar CCL2 responsiveness to stress following alcohol withdrawal in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathryn M; Knapp, Darin J; Park, Meredith A; Breese, George R

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimmune vulnerability to withdrawal from chronic alcohol varies with age. The relation of anxiety-like behavior to amygdalar CCL2 responses following stress after withdrawal from chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) was investigated in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent and adult Wistar rats were exposed to CIA (three 5-day blocks of dietary alcohol separated by 2 days of withdrawal) at concentrations that created similar blood alcohol levels across age. Twenty-four hours into the final withdrawal, half of the rats were exposed to 1 h of restraint stress. Four hours post-stress, rats were used for behavior or tissue assays. Anxiety-like behavior was increased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 mRNA was increased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA and CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 co-localization with neuronal marker NeuN was decreased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 co-localization with astrocytic marker GFAP was decreased versus controls by CIA and CIA + stress in adolescents, but experimental groups did not differ from controls in adults. CCL2 co-localization with microglial marker Iba1 was decreased versus controls by stress alone in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. Changes in CCL2 protein might control behavior at either age but are particularly associated with CIA alone in adolescents and with CIA + stress in adults. That the number of CeA neurons expressing CCL2 was altered after CIA and stress is consistent with CCL2 involvement in neural function.

  12. The party effect: Prediction of future alcohol use based on exposure to specific alcohol advertising content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140

  13. Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Riley, Elizabeth N; Smith, Gregory T; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart. For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up. Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.

  14. Differences in Tribological Behaviors upon Switching Fixed and Moving Materials of Tribo-pairs including Metal and Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aijie; Tian, Pengyi; Wen, Shizhu; Guo, Fei; Hu, Yueqiang; Jia, Wenpeng; Dong, Conglin; Tian, Yu

    2017-10-12

    The coefficient of friction (COF) between two materials is usually believed to be an intrinsic property of the materials themselves. In this study, metals of stainless steel (304) and brass (H62), and polymers of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were tested on a standard ball-on-three-plates test machine. Significantly different tribological behaviors were observed when fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs (metal/polymer) were switched. As an example, under the same applied load and rotating speed, the COF (0.49) between a rotating PP ball and three fixed H62 plates was approximately 2.3 times higher than that between switched materials of tribo-pairs. Meanwhile, the COF between H62 and PTFE was relatively stable. The unexpected tribological behaviors were ascribed to the thermal and mechanical properties of tribo-pairs. Theoretical analysis revealed that the differences in the maximum local temperature between switching the fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs were consistent with the differences in the tested COF. This result indicated the precise prediction of the COF of two materials is complexcity, and that thermal and mechanical properties should be properly considered in designing tribo-pairs, because these properties may significantly affect tribological performance.

  15. Adequacy of maternal iron status protects against behavioral, neuroanatomical, and growth deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echoleah S Rufer

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are the leading non-genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disability in children. Although alcohol is clearly teratogenic, environmental factors such as gravidity and socioeconomic status significantly modify individual FASD risk despite equivalent alcohol intake. An explanation for this variability could inform FASD prevention. Here we show that the most common nutritional deficiency of pregnancy, iron deficiency without anemia (ID, is a potent and synergistic modifier of FASD risk. Using an established rat model of third trimester-equivalent binge drinking, we show that ID significantly interacts with alcohol to impair postnatal somatic growth, associative learning, and white matter formation, as compared with either insult separately. For the associative learning and myelination deficits, the ID-alcohol interaction was synergistic and the deficits persisted even after the offsprings' iron status had normalized. Importantly, the observed deficits in the ID-alcohol animals comprise key diagnostic criteria of FASD. Other neurobehaviors were normal, showing the ID-alcohol interaction was selective and did not reflect a generalized malnutrition. Importantly ID worsened FASD outcome even though the mothers lacked overt anemia; thus diagnostics that emphasize hematological markers will not identify pregnancies at-risk. This is the first direct demonstration that, as suggested by clinical studies, maternal iron status has a unique influence upon FASD outcome. While alcohol is unquestionably teratogenic, this ID-alcohol interaction likely represents a significant portion of FASD diagnoses because ID is more common in alcohol-abusing pregnancies than generally appreciated. Iron status may also underlie the associations between FASD and parity or socioeconomic status. We propose that increased attention to normalizing maternal iron status will substantially improve FASD outcome, even if maternal alcohol abuse

  16. In-Vitro Release of Ketoprofen Behavior Loaded in Polyvinyl Alcohol / Acrylamide Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Gh.A.; Hegazy, D.E.; Kamal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels based on various ratios of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and acrylamide (AAm) were prepared by gamma radiation. The formed hydrogels were characterized by spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and swelling studied. It was found that the thermal stability of the hydrogel decreases as the AAm content increases in the hydrogel. The higher the AAm content in the hydrogel, the lower the values of Tm and ΔH m . Ketoprofen was adopted as a model drug to study the adsorption and release behavior of (PVA/AAm) hydrogel. The drug adsorption was decreased by increasing AAm ratio in the hydrogel. From the in vitro drug release study in ph progressive media, the basic medium was showed comparatively the highest release and the (PVA/AAm) hydrogel of composition (70/30) was found to be the highest release one. The mechanism of Ketoprofen release from the (PVA/AAm) matrix was found to be non-Fickian mechanism for all investigated hydrogels at ph 7.

  17. Effect of Alcohols on the Phase Behavior and Emulsification of a Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester/Water/Edible Oil System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tsutashi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Ohara, Yukari; Nishina, Shogo; Nakanishi, Maho; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, sucrose) on the phase behavior and emulsification of sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE)/water/edible vegetable oil (EVO) systems was investigated. Adding sucrose, propylene glycol, and glycerin narrowed the oil-separated two-phase region in the phase diagram of the SSE/water/EVO systems, whereas adding ethanol and 1-propanol expanded the oil-separated two-phase region. Changing the course of emulsification in the phase diagram showed that the size of the oil-droplet particle typically decreased in a system with a narrowed oil-separated region. The emulsification properties of the systems varied with respect to changes in the phase diagram. The microstructure of the systems was examined using small-angle X-ray scattering, and the ability to retain the oil in the lamellar structure of the SSEs was suggested as an important role in emulsification, because the mechanism of the systems was the same as that for the liquid crystal emulsification method.

  18. Biodegradation behaviors and water adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch/carboxymethyl cellulose/clay nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad Taghi; Sabouri, Narges

    2013-09-01

    The focus of this work is to study the effect of sodium montmorillonite (MMT-Na) clay content on the rate and extent of enzymatic hydrolysis polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/starch (S)/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blends using enzyme cellulase. The rate of glucose production from each nanocomposite substrates was most rapid for the substrate without MMT-Na and decreased with the addition of MMT-Na for PVA/S/CMC blend (51.5 μg/ml h), PVA/S/CMC/1% MMT (45.4 μg/ml h), PVA/S/CMC/3% MMT (42.8 μg/ml h), and PVA/S/CMC/5% MMT (39.2 μg/ml h). The results of this study have revealed that films with MMT-Na content at 5 wt.% exhibited a significantly reduced rate and extent of hydrolysis. Enzymatic degradation behavior of MMT-Na containing nanocomposites of PVA/S/CMC was based on the determinations of weight loss and the reducing sugars. The degraded residues have been characterized by various analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  19. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The association of measures of the serotonin system, personality, alcohol use, and smoking with risk-taking traffic behavior in adolescents in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luht, Kadi; Eensoo, Diva; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets. The purpose of the present study was to examine how measures of the serotonin system (platelet MAO activity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism), personality variables, alcohol use and smoking are associated with risk-taking traffic behavior in schoolchildren through late adolescence. The younger cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (originally n = 583) filled in questionnaires about personality traits, smoking status, alcohol use and traffic behavior at age 15 and 18 years. From venous blood samples, platelet MAO activity was measured radioenzymatically and 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. During late adolescence, subjects with lower platelet MAO activity were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group. Male 5-HTTLPRs'-allele carriers were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group compared to the l'/l' homozygotes. Other variables predicting risk group were alcohol use, smoking and Maladaptive impulsivity.The results suggest that lower capacity of the serotoninergic system is associated with more risky traffic behavior during late adolescence, but possibly by different mechanisms in boys and girls.

  1. Maturidade emocional e avaliação comportamental de crianças filhas de alcoolistas Emotional maturity and behavioral assessment of children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Filhos de alcoolistas têm sido apontados como mais vulneráveis ao desenvolvimento de problemas emocionais e comportamentais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar comparativamente filhos de alcoolistas e filhos de não-alcoolistas nos aspectos cognitivo e emocional, através do Teste Desenho da Figura Humana, e comportamental, segundo a percepção das mães, utilizando-se a Escala Comportamental de Rutter. Os sujeitos foram 20 filhos de alcoolistas e 20 filhos de não-alcoolistas, com idades entre 9 e 12 anos, matriculados no Ensino Fundamental. Cada grupo foi formado de 10 meninos e 10 meninas. Na análise dos resultados, filhos de alcoolistas apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa nos aspectos emocional e comportamental. Eles revelaram timidez, insegurança e baixa auto-estima. Segundo as mães, mostraram: impaciência, irritação, agitação, desobediência e dependência. As meninas filhas de alcoolistas apresentaram mais problemas emocionais e de comportamento que as meninas filhas de não-alcoolistas. Neste trabalho as meninas se revelaram mais vulneráveis que os meninos nos domínios emocional e comportamental.Children of alcoholics (COAs have been found to be more vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems. This study had the aim to assess comparatively children of alcoholics and children of nonalcoholics. The Human Figure Drawing Test was used to assess their cognitive and emotional aspects. To assess mother's behavioral aspects the Rutter's Scale was used. Subjects: 20 children of alcoholics (COAs and 20 children of nonalcoholics (Non-COAs, 9 to 12 years of age, enrolled at elementary school. Each group was composed of 10 boys and 10 girls. Results: children of alcoholics showed difference statistically significant in emotional and behavioral aspects. They showed: shyness, insecurity and low self-esteem. According their mothers opinion they are: impatient, irritable, agitated, disobedient and

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  3. Alcohol Brand Preferences of Underage Youth: Results from a Pilot Survey among a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the first investigation to explore the alcohol brand preferences of underage youth via a national survey. We conducted a pilot study of a new, internet-based alcohol brand survey with 108 youth ages 16–20 years who were recruited from an existing panel and had consumed alcohol in the past month. We ascertained respondents’ consumption of each of 380 alcohol brands during the past 30 days, including which brands of alcohol were consumed during heavy drinking episodes. Our findings suggest that, despite the wide variety of alcohol brands consumed by older adolescents in this study, alcohol preferences are concentrated among a relatively small number of brands. Accurate measurements of alcohol brand preferences will enable important new research into the factors that influence youth drinking behavior. This study establishes the feasibility and validity of a new methodology to determine patterns of brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage drinkers. PMID:22014249

  4. Typology of Nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil: Alcohol and Illegal Drug Consumption, Sexual Behavior and Violence in the Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Claudia M; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-02-21

    Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions. The present study aim was to construct a typology of nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. This typology was constructed using mixed methods research through the triangulation of several data sources as follows: 307 hours of ethnographic observation at 31 nightclubs, 8 focus group sessions with nightclub patrons (n = 34) and 30 semi-structured interviews with nightclub employees. Content analysis and qualitative typology were used. Four nightclub types were defined based on four analyzed thematic axes (Intoxicating, Violent, Dancing and Highly Sexualized nightclubs). Excessive alcohol use was detected in almost all of the investigated nightclubs, and drug use was observed in approximately one-third of them. Triangulation of the data revealed a relationship among environmental factors (especially alcohol sales strategies and promotion and the availability of areas for sex) and a more considerable presence of high-risk behaviors. The study shows that nightclubs are settings in which high-risk behaviors are potentiated by facilitating environmental factors as well as by the lack of laws restricting excessive alcohol use stimulated by the promotion strategies applied at these venues.

  5. Cross-sectional data on alcohol and marijuana use and sexual behavior among male and female secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Villar, Maria Elena; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Background While The Bahamas have significantly reduced poor reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and emerging adults, data indicate that youth are engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Substance use has been linked to increased risk for HIV and STIs in other contexts. There is limited data on Bahamian youth in relation to consumption of alcohol and use marijuana and engagement in sexual behaviors. Objective To assess potential relationships between alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behavior among government secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas. Subjects Total sample size was 2,572. Fifty-six percent of respondents were female. Mean age was 14.2 (SD 2.7 years). Methods Cross-sectional data are from a baseline survey conducted as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention and reproductive health program in New Providence. Results Overall, 46.5% (519) males and 44.8% (652) females reported alcohol consumption; 7.3% (82) males and 1.7% (25) females reported use of marijuana in the last six months. Forty-three percent (477) male respondents and 16% (231) female respondents reported ever having vaginal sex. Logistic regression analysis indicates increased likelihood of engaging in sex during the past six months is associated with being older, male, and consuming alcohol and marijuana. Conclusion These data provide a ‘global correlation’ between substance use and engagement in sexual behaviors among Bahamian adolescents. Longitudinal research is needed to assess event specific risks and identify mediating and moderating factors. These findings indicate the importance of integrating reproductive health and substance use education. PMID:25781669

  6. Cross-sectional data on alcohol and marijuana use and sexual behavior among male and female secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda; Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Rolle, Glenda; Villar, Maria Elena; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-05-01

    While The Bahamas have significantly reduced poor reproductive health outcomes among adolescents and emerging adults, data indicate that youth are engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Substance use has been linked to increased risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in other contexts. There are limited data on Bahamian youth in relation to consumption of alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behaviors. This study aimed to assess potential relationships between alcohol and marijuana use and engagement in sexual behavior among government secondary school students in New Providence, The Bahamas. Total sample size was 2572, and about 56% of respondents were female. Mean age was 14.2 (SD 2.7 years). Cross-sectional data came from a baseline survey conducted as part of a longitudinal randomized controlled evaluation of a school-based HIV prevention and reproductive health program in New Providence. Overall, 46.5% (519) males and 44.8% (652) females reported alcohol consumption; 7.3% (82) males and 1.7% (25) females reported use of marijuana in the last 6 months. About 43% (477) male respondents and 16% (231) female respondents reported ever having vaginal sex. Logistic regression analysis indicates that increased likelihood of engaging in sex during the past 6 months is associated with being older, male, and consuming alcohol and marijuana. These data provide a 'global correlation' between substance use and engagement in sexual behaviors among Bahamian adolescents. Longitudinal research is needed to assess event specific risks and identify mediating and moderating factors. These findings indicate the importance of integrating reproductive health and substance use education.

  7. Effect of Thermal Distress on Residual Behavior of CFRP-Strengthened Steel Beams Including Periodic Unbonded Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual behavior of wide-flange steel beams strengthened with high-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates subjected to thermal loading. Because the coefficients of thermal expansion of the steel and the CFRP are different, temperature-induced distress may take place along their interface. Periodic unbonded zones are considered to represent local interfacial damage. Five test categories are designed depending on the size of the unbonded zones from 10 to 50 mm, and corresponding beams are loaded until failure occurs after exposing to a cyclic temperature range of ΔT = 25 °C (−10 to 15 °C up to 84 days. The composite action between the CFRP and the steel substrate is preserved until yielding of the beams happens, regardless of the thermal cycling and periodic unbonded zones. The initiation and progression of CFRP debonding become apparent as the beams are further loaded, particularly at geometric discontinuities in the vicinity of the unbonded zones along the interface. A simple analytical model is employed to predict the interfacial stress of the strengthened beams. A threshold temperature difference of ΔT = 30 °C is estimated for the initiation and progression of CFRP debonding. Multiple debonding-progression stages in conjunction with the extent of thermal distress appear to exist. It is recommended that high-modulus CFRP be restrictively used for strengthening steel members potentially exposed to a wide temperature variation range.

  8. The alternatively-included 11a sequence modifies the effects of Mena on actin cytoskeletal organization and cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michele; Mondal, Chandrani; Carmona, Guillaume; McClain, Leslie M; Riquelme, Daisy N; Tadros, Jenny; Ma, Duan; Vasile, Eliza; Condeelis, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2016-10-17

    During tumor progression, alternative splicing gives rise to different Mena protein isoforms. We analyzed how Mena11a, an isoform enriched in epithelia and epithelial-like cells, affects Mena-dependent regulation of actin dynamics and cell behavior. While other Mena isoforms promote actin polymerization and drive membrane protrusion, we find that Mena11a decreases actin polymerization and growth factor-stimulated membrane protrusion at lamellipodia. Ectopic Mena11a expression slows mesenchymal-like cell motility, while isoform-specific depletion of endogenous Mena11a in epithelial-like tumor cells perturbs cell:cell junctions and increases membrane protrusion and overall cell motility. Mena11a can dampen membrane protrusion and reduce actin polymerization in the absence of other Mena isoforms, indicating that it is not simply an inactive Mena isoform. We identify a phosphorylation site within 11a that is required for some Mena11a-specific functions. RNA-seq data analysis from patient cohorts demonstrates that the difference between mRNAs encoding constitutive Mena sequences and those containing the 11a exon correlates with metastasis in colorectal cancer, suggesting that 11a exon exclusion contributes to invasive phenotypes and leads to poor clinical outcomes.

  9. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Relaxation Training for Co-Occurring Anxiety and Alcohol Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Matt G.; Maurer, Eric W.; Thuras, Paul; Donahue, Chris; Frye, Brenda; Menary, Kyle R.; Hobbs, Jennifer; Haeny, Angela M.; Van Demark, Joani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is far less effective for those with a co-occurring anxiety disorder. Surprisingly, adding an independent anxiety treatment to AUD treatment does not substantially improve the poor alcohol outcomes of these patients. This may reflect the lack of attention from independent treatments to the…

  11. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of Depressive Symptoms and Risky Alcohol Use Behaviors Among HIV Primary Care Patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algur, Yasemin; Elliott, Jennifer C; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-05-01

    An association between problem drinking and depression among HIV-infected individuals has been previously demonstrated; however, which specific risky drinking behaviors are associated with higher levels of depression has not yet been investigated. Using an adult sample of HIV-infected primary care patients (78% male, 94% Black or Hispanic), we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with various risky drinking behaviors. Participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV to evaluate alcohol involvement. Participants with depressive symptoms (26%) were at higher risk for alcohol dependence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8; 95% CI 2.0-7.2], regular binge drinking (AOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.8), and regular daytime drinking (AOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.8), in comparison with their non-depressed counterparts. Because both depression and unhealthy drinking negatively affect medication adherence and clinical outcomes, a better understanding of the association between depression and certain risky drinking behaviors among HIV-infected individuals is vital to improving their care and prognoses.

  13. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Male Central Asian Labor Migrants and Non-migrants in Kazakhstan: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-11-01

    This paper examines the association between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behaviors (unprotected sex, multiple sex partners, sex under influence of drugs or alcohol and commercial sex) in a sample of Central Asian migrant and non-migrant laborers in the largest marketplace in Kazakhstan. We used data from The Silk Road Health Project, conducted from 2010 to 2013 with 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers. Participants were selected through respondent driven sampling at the Baraholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. We used regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior. We found that hazardous drinking was associated with an increase in the odds of sex under the influence of drugs (aOR = 6.09, 95% CI 3.48, 10.65; p < .001) and purchasing commercial sex (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.02, 4.02; p < .05). We identified potential targets for HIV interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this key population.

  14. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Tyng; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Crawford, Natalie D; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old) and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old) from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source) compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT) and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the relationship between district-level violent

  15. Tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and common mental disorders among military students at the Police Academy, São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene de Maria Perez

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The lifestyle of military personnel has been little studied in Brazil. This study evaluated the frequencies of tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and mental health among military students.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the Police Academy, in São Paulo.METHODS: Students answered a questionnaire about tobacco use, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior and common mental disorders (CMDs. To analyze associations among the frequencies of smoking and alcohol use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and CMDs during the undergraduate years, we built a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: All 473 students were invited to participate and 430 (90.9% agreed (10.5% were women. Most were white (76.6%, aged < 30 years, from the upper middle class (78.1%. The frequency of smoking was 6.5%, alcohol consumption 69.3%, STDs 14% and CMDs 15.6%. The use of condoms was low. Fourth-year students presented a lower odds ratio (OR for STDs than the first-year students: 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90. Third-year students presented a lower OR for CMDs than the first-year students.CONCLUSION: The frequencies of smoking and CMDs were low, while the frequency of alcohol consumption was similar to that of the Brazilian population. The use of condoms was low, in comparison with previous studies with similar samples. The results suggest that there was a certain degree of protection against CMDs and STDs during the undergraduate years.

  16. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor Interactions Regulate Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Inflammation in Non-alcoholic-Steatohepatitis.

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    Wahlang, Banrida; Prough, Russell A; Falkner, K Cameron; Hardesty, Josiah E; Song, Ming; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Difficult behaviors in the emergency department: a cohort study of housed, homeless and alcohol dependent individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Svoboda

    Full Text Available This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events.Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP (n = 50, men from the general homeless population (GH (n = 61, and men residing in low-income housing (LIH (n = 58 were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817 from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours.Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3-16.5 and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2-17.3 times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43-59.65%, 24% (95% CI 19-29%, and 20% (95% CI 16-24% of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72 and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69, respectively.Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents.

  19. Depression, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence among outpatients in rural Uganda: vulnerabilities for HIV, STIs and high risk sexual behavior.

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    Kiene, Susan M; Lule, Haruna; Sileo, Katelyn M; Silmi, Kazi Priyanka; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors on HIV-risk indicators. In a structured interview we collected data on high-risk sexual behavior, depression symptoms, emotional and physical IPV, and alcohol use, as well as a blood sample for HIV and syphilis tests and a urine sample for chlamydia and gonorrhea tests from 325 male and female outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) at a public hospital outpatient clinic in rural Uganda. We used logistic regression and generalized linear modeling to test independent associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators, as well as the effect of co-occurrence on HIV-risk indicators. Twelve percent of men and 15% of women had two or more of the following conditions: depression, IPV, and alcohol use; another 29% of men and 33% of women had 1 condition. Each condition was independently associated with HIV risk behavior for men and women, and for women, depression was associated with testing positive for HIV or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men with one condition (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.95-2.77) and two or more conditions (AOR 12.77, 95% CI 7.97-20.47) reported more high risk sex acts compared to those with no potential co-occurring conditions. For men, experiencing two or more conditions increased risky sex more than one alone (χ 2 24.68, p risk for risky sex (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.64-2.91). We also found preliminary evidence suggesting synergistic effects between depression and emotional IPV and between alcohol use and depression. This study demonstrates the co-occurrence of depression, IPV, and alcohol use in men and women in an

  20. Epigenetics—Beyond the Genome in Alcoholism

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    Starkman, Bela G.; Sakharkar, Amul J.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of alcoholism. Whole-genome expression profiling has highlighted the importance of several genes that may contribute to alcohol abuse disorders. In addition, more recent findings have added yet another layer of complexity to the overall molecular mechanisms involved in a predisposition to alcoholism and addiction by demonstrating that processes related to genetic factors that do not manifest as DNA sequence changes (i.e., epigenetic processes) play a role. Both acute and chronic ethanol exposure can alter gene expression levels in specific neuronal circuits that govern the behavioral consequences related to tolerance and dependence. The unremitting cycle of alcohol consumption often includes satiation and self-medication with alcohol, followed by excruciating withdrawal symptoms and the resultant relapse, which reflects both the positive and negative affective states of alcohol addiction. Recent studies have indicated that behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic ethanol exposure may involve chromatin remodeling resulting from covalent histone modifications and DNA methylation in the neuronal circuits involving a brain region called the amygdala. These findings have helped identify enzymes involved in epigenetic mechanisms, such as the histone deacetylase, histone acetyltransferase, and DNA methyltransferase enzymes, as novel therapeutic targets for the development of future pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23134045

  1. Treatment outcomes of a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected out-patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Mwaniki, Michael M; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Kamanda, Allan M; Ayuku, David O; Ojwang, Claris; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Harrington, Magdalena; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll,